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NAVEDTRA 12409

Naval Education and April 1995 Training Manual


Training Command 0502-LP-481-1400 (TRAMAN)

Fire Controlman
Supervisor

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

The public may request a copy of this document by following


the purchasing instruction on the inside cover.

0502LP4811400
Although the words “he,” “him,” and “his” are
used sparingly in this manual to enhance
communication, they are not intended to be gender
driven nor to affront or discriminate against
anyone reading this text.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

The public may request copies of this document by writing to Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402-0001 or to the ASO/NPFD, Attention Cash Sales (Code 1013), 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia,
PA 19120-5099.
FIRE CONTROLMAN

SUPERVISOR

NAVEDTRA 12409

1995 Edition Prepared by


FCCS(SW) Rowland C. Dixon
PREFACE

This training manual (TRAMAN), Fire Controlman Supervisor, NAVEDTRA


12409, and its associated nonresident training course (NRTC), NAVEDTRA 82409,
form a self-study package designed to help you gain the knowledge required for
responsibilities as a Fire Controlman Supervisor.

This TRAMAN provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational
standards for Fire Controlman. Its NRTC provides the method to satisfy the require-
ments for completing the TRAMAN and contains supporting questions to lead you
through the manual. You may find it beneficial to browse through the entire training
package before you begin serious study.

Your suggestions and comments on this self-study package are invited. You may
send your recommendations to the Commanding Officer, Naval Education and Train-
ing Program Management Support Activity (Code 311), 6490 Saufley Field Road,
Pensacola, Florida 32509-5000.

This TRAMAN and its NRTC were prepared by the Naval Education and Train-
ing Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola, Florida, for the Chief of
Naval Education and Training.

1995 Edition

Stock Ordering No.


0502-LP-481-1400

Published by
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
PROGRAM MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITY

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D.C. : 1995

i
THE UNITED STATES NAVY

GUARDIAN OF OUR COUNTRY

The United States Navy is responsible for maintaining control of the sea
and is a ready force on watch at home and overseas, capable of strong action
to preserve the peace or of instant offensive action to win in war.

It is upon the maintenance of this control that our country’s glorious future
depends; the United States Navy exists to make it so.

WE SERVE WITH HONOR

Tradition, valor, and victory are the Navy’s heritage from the past. To these
may be added dedication, discipline, and vigilance as the watchwords of
the present and the future.

At home or on distant stations as we serve with pride, confident in the


respect of our country, our shipmates, and our families.

Our responsibilities sober us; our adversities strengthen us.

service to God and Country is our special privilege. We serve with honor.

THE FUTURE OF THE NAVY

The Navy will always employ new weapons, new techniques, and greater
power to protect and defend the United States on the sea, under the sea, and
in the air.

Now and in the future, control of the sea gives the United States her greatest
advantage for the maintenance of peace and for victory in war.

Mobility, surprise, dispersal, and offensive power are the keynotes of the
new Navy. The roots of the Navy lie in a strong belief in the future, in
continued dedication to our tasks, and in reflection on our heritage from
the past.

Never have our opportunities and our responsibilities been greater.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

1 Fire Controlman Supervisor Responsibilities . . . ., . . . . . 1-1

2 Organization, Administration, Inspections, and Maintenance .. 2-1

3 Supervision and Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...3-1

4 Combat Systems, Subsystems, and Maintenance . . . . . . . .4-1

5 Weapons Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...5-1

APPENDIX

I References Used to Develop This TRAMAN . . . . . . . . . AI- 1

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX- 1

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CHAPTER 1

FIRE CONTROLMAN
SUPERVISOR RESPONSIBILITIES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Discuss the responsibilities of an FC supervisor.

2. Describe the basic requirements for effective communications as a


supervisor.

3. Identify the supervisor’s role in enforcing performance and equip-


ment standards.

4. Identify the sources of information available for use by supervisory


personnel.

INTRODUCTION This first chapter includes topics on supervisory


responsibilities, effective communications, professional
This training manual (TRAMAN) is designed to updates, performance and equipment standards, tech-
help you understand your work in the division as a nical materials, and a brief bibliography for informa-
Fire Controlman (FC) supervisor. It will also assist tion and advancement study.
you in meeting the requirements for advancement to
Fire Controlman first class and chief.
SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES
This manual is not the only publication you will
need to prepare for advancement, as you will need By becoming an FC supervisor, you will have
to study other publications to prepare for the advance- taken a big step in your career. Previous advancement
ment-in-rate examination. Since this manual provides brought increased responsibilities, which also brought
only background information on subjects, you will increased rewards. The responsibilities of an FC super-
need to study the indicated references to learn each visor are even greater, as your work will be important
topic in depth. to the successful management of the division and the
department. For general information on the advance-
Although you will be a supervisor in the FC ment system and on the increased responsibilities of
rating, you may also have to supervise personnel from a supervisor, review Military Requirements for Petty
other ratings. The ratings you deal with daily will Officer First Class, NAVEDTRA 12046.
depend on your command’s organization. Most of the
information given in this TRAMAN is based on the By this time in your career, you are valuable as
assumption that you are familiar with volumes 1 a technical specialist. You are also valuable as a su-
through 4 of FC2, NAVEDTRA 10277. pervisor, leader, and trainer of others. You can, there-

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fore, make far-reaching and long-lasting contributions These and similar problems require you to be a
to the Navy. The extent of your contribution to the training specialist who can conduct both formal and
Navy depends on your willingness and ability to ac- informal training programs. You must train individuals
cept increased responsibility for military matters and and groups to work safely, neatly, and accurately, and
for the professional requirements of a Fire Control- in a spirit of cooperation.
man. It also depends on your skill in getting other
people to work for you.
RESPONSIBILITIES
You will find that your responsibilities for military TO SUBORDINATES
leadership are much the same as those of petty officers
in other ratings. Every petty officer is a military per- Any discussion of responsibilities must include
son as well as a technical specialist. the responsibility that you, as a supervisor, have to-
ward your subordinates. You are responsible for de-
Your responsibilities for technical leadership are veloping their professional and general military skills.
directly related to the nature of your work. Operating
and maintaining the ship’s combat systems equipment You must also help them to become mature, com-
is a vital job. It is a teamwork job requiring a special petent technicians who are prepared to assume su-
kind of leadership ability. This leadership ability can pervisory responsibilities. You must teach them and
be developed only by personnel who have a high de- encourage them to use their skills and knowledge to
gree of technical competence and a deep sense of per- make decisions. You must then support those deci-
sonal responsibility. sions when they are correct and fair.

However, you must also advise or counsel your


RESPONSIBILITIES WITHIN THE subordinates when their decisions may cause harm
COMBAT SYSTEM/WEAPONS to themselves, others, or equipment. Use the “learn-
DEPARTMENT CHAIN by-mistakes” theory to teach your subordinates. But
be constantly aware of what is happening to ensure
You will be expected to translate the general or- that the lessons taught are worth the consequences if
ders given by officers into detailed, practical, on- any problems develop.
the-job language that even relatively inexperienced
personnel can understand and follow. In dealing with As a supervisor, you have an overriding responsi-
your juniors, you must see that they perform their bility to take care of your people before caring for
work properly. You must also be able to explain to yourself. This responsibility requires steadfast devotion
officers what your juniors may need or any problems to your subordinates. Gaining the loyalty of subordi-
they may experience. nates requires unselfish actions on the part of seniors.

TAKE CARE OF YOUR PEOPLE


RESPONSIBILITIES FOR TRAINING AND THEY WILL TAKE CARE OF YOU!

Training is essential. Even if you are blessed with


a highly skilled and well-trained electronics force, you RESPONSIBILITIES TO
will still find training necessary. For example, some OTHER RATINGS
of your best workers may be transferred and replaced
by inexperienced or poorly trained personnel. Often, As you advance to FC1 and then to FCC, you will
a job may call for skills that your assigned personnel find that your plans and decisions may affect many
do not have, especially if your division must maintain people. Some of these people may not be in your
new equipment. division or even in the combat systems/weapons.

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Therefore, it becomes more and more important your superiors have. Many times, you will be called
for you to understand the duties and responsibilities on to work for junior officers who have had no prior
of personnel in other ratings. Every petty officer in experience in the electronics or combat systems fields.
the Navy is a technical specialist in a particular field. Therefore, you are responsible for keeping them aware
of all matters concerning the systems and the person-
Learn as much as you can about the work of other nel under your control.
ratings. Plan your own work to fit in with the overall
mission of the organization.
PROFESSIONAL UPDATES

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS Practically everything in the Navy-policies, pro-


cedures, equipment, systems, publications—is always
The basic requirements for effective communica- in various stages of development and revision. As an
tions are knowledge of your own language, knowledge FC supervisor, you must stay informed of all changes
of standard naval terminology, and precise use of tech- and developments that might affect your work.
nical terms.
Some changes will be called directly to your atten-
l Language: Knowledge of your own language tion; others you must look for. Try to develop a spe-
includes using correct English when you speak and cial alertness for new information, especially technical
write. Remember, the basic purpose of all communica- information on electronics and associated equipment
tions is understanding. To lead, supervise, and train and systems. New types of equipment and systems
others, you must be able to speak and write so that are constantly being designed and tested. Existing
they understand exactly what you mean. types of equipment are modified.

l Naval Terminology : Standard naval terminol- If you follow the history of weapons systems since
ogy consists of words that express ideas that are the end of World War II, you will find that several
usually understood or procedures used only by naval important changes have occurred. Designers of new
personnel. When a situation calls for standard Navy electronic equipment have incorporated several func-
terminology, use it. tions into a single piece of equipment as a self-
contained system. This approach replaces combining
l Technical Terms: Use technical terms with several pieces of single-function equipment into one
precision. A command of the technical language of system.
the Fire Controlman rating will help you receive and
pass along information accurately. It will also help The size of weapons systems has decreased as
you exchange ideas with other technicians. If you electron tubes have given way to transistors. Smaller
don’t understand the precise meaning of the terms and more-reliable electronic components have been
used in your rating, you may not be able to under- developed (such as capacitors, resistors, transformers,
stand the content of technical publications. Although and coils). Microcircuits are common. In addition,
the correct use of technical terms is always important, computers have become more prominent. As an FC
it is particularly important when you are dealing with supervisor, you must be aware of all changes that are
lower-rated personnel. If you are sloppy in your use occurring in the electronics field.
of technical terms, you will likely confuse them. This
may cause them to work in an improper or unsafe
manner. PERFORMANCE AND EQUIPMENT
STANDARDS
Just as you ensure accuracy and clarity in com-
municating with your juniors, you must also remember How do performance and equipment standards
to communicate effectively with your superiors. You apply to you as a supervisor? Let’s start with a defi-
must be aware of what technical knowledge, if any, nition. A standard is set up by either custom or au-

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thority to measure quality, quantity, performance, or l basic skills and knowledges concerning the
service. As a supervisor, you must ensure that the well-being of Navy personnel.
standards are met that are set by the Navy, your ship
and division, and you. The standards that you will An example of an E-6 naval standard is:
deal with on a continuing basis are performance stan- “NAVSTD 944601— Write enlisted
dards and equipment standards, as described in the performance evaluations.”
following subsections. Use these standards to develop
a training program for your division to encompass NAVSTDs are also used for curriculum develop-
all aspects of your subordinates’ rating. ment at basic training commands and apprentice train-
ing facilities.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
Occupational Standards
Performance standards include naval standards
(NAVSTDs), occupational standards (OCCSTDs), and Occupational standards (OCCSTDs) are rating-
personnel qualification standards (PQSs). The Manual specific skills and knowledges. They are listed in
of Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Classifica- NAVPERS 18068 for each rating. (Since OCCSTDs
tions and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068 are rating specific, they cannot be performed by all
(commonly called the Occupational Standards Man- Navy personnel advancing to chief petty officer. They
ual lists the minimum skills requirements for each apply only to personnel in a specific rating.)
rate within each rating. You are probably already fa-
miliar with much of this information. These OCCSTDs are only the minimum require-
ments for enlisted occupational skills. The content of
Naval Standards the training manual you are now reading is based on
the OCCSTDs for FC1 and FCC.
Naval standmds (NAVSTDs) are task statements
that are not rating specific. They are the basis on OCCSTDs are used in the development of training
which the military requirements training manuals are manuals and rating advancement exams. They are also
developed. used in the development of class A and class C school
curricula, formal shipboard training, on-the-job train-
Section I of NAVPERS 18068 lists the naval stan- ing (OJT), and general rating training for divisions.
dards (NAVSTDs) for each paygrade. These are the
skills and knowledges essential to the overall effec- NAVPERS 18068 is kept current by numbered
tiveness of the enlisted personnel in the performance changes. However, these changes are issued more fre-
of their duties. quently than most training manuals can be revised.
Therefore, the training manuals may not always reflect
Naval standards encompass the latest OCCSTDs.

l military requirements, Since the advancement examinations are also based


on Navy OCCSTDs, you should always check the
l essential virtues of professionalism, latest changes to ensure that your personnel know the
current requirements for advancement in the rating.
l pride of service in support of the oath of en-
listment. An example of an FCC occupational standard is:
“OCCSTD K464— Modify weapons
l maintenance of good order and discipline, and and target pairing. ”

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Personnel Qualification Standards l Briefing the department head, monthly, on the
status of division personnel and adjusting
Personnel qualification standards (PQSs) are mini- goals accordingly.
mum skills and knowledges necessary to qualify for
a specific watch station, maintain specific equipment, l Integrating PQS status with the routine admin-
or perform as a team member within a unit. They are istration of special requests, early liberty ap-
used to certify that officer and enlisted personnel can provals, etc.
perform certain duties. The PQS program is not de-
signed as a training program, but it does provide many l Ensuring that enlisted evaluations reflect PQS
training goals. Therefore, you should use PQSs as key qualification accomplishments.
elements to ensure that your training program is well-
structured and dynamic. A complete listing of avail-
able PQS manuals is published in the Personnel Qual- EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
ification Standards Catalog, NAVEDTRA 43100-5.
Not all standards pertain to the development of
Depending on your command, you may be re- your personnel. Equipment standards fall into this cat-
sponsible for any or all of the following duties within egory. Equipment standards, or operational parameters,
your division’s PQS program: are standards that are set for individual equipments
to ensure that they operate at maximum performance.
l Supervising divisional PQSs. These standards may be determined by the equip-
ment’s manufacturer, the Navy’s planned maintenance
. Supervising the qualification of petty officers. system (PMS), or another authority.

l Recommending to the department head the as- An equipment standard for a radar
signment of division qualification of petty may be stated as:
officers. “Transmitter Frequency: 9375 ±30MHz.”

l Recommending to the department head the This standard gives the operational parameters
entry level of newly assigned personnel. within which this specific radar transmitter should
operate. If the transmitter were to begin operating out-
l Recommending to the department head any side the prescribed standards, you would need to per-
required tailoring that the division may need. form corrective maintenance.

l Recommending to the department head final


qualification of personnel. TECHNICAL MATERIALS

l Ensuring that PQS documentation is entered As a supervisor, you have three major responsibili-
on page 4 of the individual’s service record. ties concerning technical materials:

l Assigning requirements and PQS goals to 1. Ensure that appropriate technical materials are
individual trainees according to departmental available. Your division cannot operate properly or
guidance. professionally without the necessary technical mate-
rials.
l Checking, weekly, the progress of division
personnel toward PQS goals as shown in the 2. Keep your technical materials current. Out-
progress records. of-date technical materials, in addition to causing in-

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conveniences, may result in harm to equipment or eral information publications. These publications and
personnel. their nonresident training courses are usually required
for advancement.
3. Require your subordinates to use their technical
materials, both on the job and to prepare for advance-
ment. OCCSTD-BASED PUBLICATIONS

Observing your responsibilities toward technical OCCSTD-based publications are rating specific.
materials will not just make you a better professional; There are two types: (1) TRAMANs, and (2) advance-
it will also demonstrate to your subordinates proper ment handbooks.
professional and supervisory attitudes.
OCCSTD-based TRAMANs

INFORMATION SOURCES OCCSTD-based TRAMANs are written for a


AND specific rating. Most TRAMANs have two purposes:
ADVANCEMENT STUDY BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) they are written to help personnel perform the
duties of their rating, and (2) they may be used to
You and your subordinates should know which help personnel study for advancement.
references to consult for detailed, authoritative, current
information on all subjects related to both NAVSTDs The following TRAMANs are based on OCCSTDs
and FC OCCSTDs. Most of the publications men- for the FC rating:
tioned here are subject to change or revision from
time to time-some at regular intervals, others as the l Fire Controlman Third Class,
need arises. When using any publication that is kept NAVEDTRA 10276-1
current by changes, ensure that you have a copy in
which all official changes have been entered. l Fire Controlman Second Class,
NAVEDTRA 10277
Official publications and directives carry abbrevia-
tions and numbers that identify the source and the l Fire Controlman First Class,
subject matter of each document. For instance, the NAVEDTRA 10278
identification number for this training manual is
NAVEDTRA 12409. l Fire Controlman Chief,
NAVEDTRA 10279
The term NAVEDTRA refers to a publication that
is published by the Chief of Naval Education and Advancement Handbooks
Training (CNET). The term NAVPERS refers to a
publication that is published by the Chief of Naval The Advancement Handbook for Petty Officers
Personnel (CHNAVPERS). series is published yearly by the Naval Education and
Training Program Management Support Activity
Some of the NAVEDTRA and NAVPERS publica- (NETPMSA), Pensacola, Florida, and should be avail-
tions described here are essential to personnel learning able from your educational services officer (ESO).
to perform the duties of their rating or seeking ad-
vancement. The others, although not essential, are This is a very useful set of booklets with informa-
very helpful. (For a complete list of NAVEDTRA tion taken from the Manual of Navy Enlisted Man-
TRAMANs, consult the current Catalog of Nonresi- power and Personnel Classifications and Occupational
dent Training Courses, NAVEDTRA 12061.) Standards, NAVPERS 18068; and the Bibliography
for Advancement Study, NAVEDTRA 10052. Each
The following subsections include OCCSTD-based rating has its own booklet that lists requirements
publications, NAVSTD-based publications, and gen- specifically for that rating.

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Besides listing the OCCSTDs and the source mate- lowing publications are recommended for basic infor-
rials related to those standards, the booklets also con- mation and advancement study:
tain general information on advancement. Personnel
studying for advancement should read and study all l Navy Electricity and Electronics Training
sources listed in the bibliography. Series (NEETS) consists of many volumes, including
officer-enlisted correspondence course assignment
Examination questions are based on all sources booklets and modules (texts) that present electrical
listed, whether they are required or are only recom- and electronic subjects on a basic, introductory level.
mended. Ensure that your division personnel receive They may be studied sequentially from the beginning
copies to use as they study for advancement. or as individual units on specific subjects, such as
radar or microelectronics.
NAVSTD-BASED PUBLICATIONS
l Use and Care of Hand Tools and Measuring
NAVSTD-based publications are specifically pre- Tools, NAVPERS 12085, covers general uses and ap-
pared to present information based on NAVSTDs. proved safety procedures for Navy hand tools. It also
Study of the following TRAMANs is required for tak-
includes safety precautions, operating practices, and
ing advancement-in-rate examinations:
care of common power tools; operating principles of
measuring instruments and measuring techniques; and
l Basic Military Requirements,
types of fastening devices and procedures for using
NAVEDTRA 12043
them. It discusses sharpening cutting tools; metal cut-
l Military Requirements for Petty Officer Third ting operations and procedures; and techniques of
Class, NAVEDTRA 12044 miscellaneous tasks, such as flaring metal tubing, re-
moving broken bolts, stripping insulated wire, solder-
l Military Requirements for Petty Officer Second ing, and lubricating.
Class, NAVEDTRA 12045
l Blueprint Reading and Sketching, NAVEDTRA
l Military Requirements for Petty Officer First 12014, discusses blueprint uses, types, and language;
Class, NAVEDTRA 12046 technical sketching procedures; and electrical and elec-
tronic prints. In addition, it discusses piping, machine,
l Military Requirements for Chief Petty Officer,
sheet metal, structural, and architectural prints.
NAVEDTRA 12047

l Electronics Information Maintenance Books


l Military Requirements for Senior and Master
Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 12048 (EIMB) series includes installation standards, elec-
tronic circuits, test methods and practices, reference
data, electromagnetic interference reduction, and gen-
GENERAL PUBLICATIONS eral maintenance. From time to time, you should re-
view this series, especially the general information
Some TRAMANs are general in nature and are handbooks, paying special attention to appendixes and
intended for use by more than one rating. The fol- other portions of the books you may have overlooked.

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RECOMMENDED READING LIST

NOTE: Although the following references were current when this TRAMAN was pub-
lished, their continued currency cannot be assured. Therefore, you need to ensure that you
are studying the latest revision.

PQS Management Guide, NAVEDTRA 43100-1D, Naval Education and Training Support Center, Pacific, San
Diego, CA, 1991.

Requirements for Petty Officer First Class, NAVEDTRA 12046, Naval Education and Training Program Manage-
ment Support Activity, Pensacola, FL, 1991.

Requirements for Senior and Master Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 12048, Naval Education and Training
Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola, FL, 1991.

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CHAPTER 2

ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION,
INSPECTIONS, AND MAINTENANCE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Describe the combat systems/weapons department organization and its basic administrative
requirements.

2. Describe the division watch, quarter, and station bill, including watch assignments.

3. Identify personnel manning requirements.

4. Describe the major reports and records originating in the combat systems/weapons division.

5. Explain the supervisor’s safety responsibilities.

6. Describe the importance of information security.

7. Describe the types of inspections, maintenance periods, overhauls, and alterations.

INTRODUCTION ORGANIZATION

As a Fire Controlman (FC) supervisor, you will To manage your division effectively and effi-
have duties and responsibilities that involve more than ciently, you must have a sound division organization.
just repairing equipment. You will also assume the A sound division organization has a clear organiza-
additional duties of a work-center supervisor. tional structure and definite policies and procedures.
It also has the necessary controls to ensure that the
This chapter discusses command organization, ad- division is capable of completing its mission under
ministration, inspections, and maintenance and mate- all conditions. A functional organization eases the pro-
rial management responsibilities. cess of escalating from peacetime status to wartime
status without major organizational changes.
For additional information on general organization
and administration, refer to Military Requirements for The standard requirements for organization aboard
Petty Officer Second Class, NAVEDTRA 12045; Mili- each ship type and class are defined by the type com-
tary Requirements for Petty Officer First Class, NAV- mander (TYCOM) or higher authority. These require-
EDTRA 12046; and Military Requirements for Chief ments are intended to help commanding officers
Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 12047. manage their units in the best possible manner.

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The organization of the combat systems/weapons should ensure that the inexperienced personnel actually
division is basically the same aboard all ships and receive technical instruction, rather than merely act
shore commands. Variations in the organization within as toolbox carriers.
ships of the same type and class are usually caused
by such factors as the number of experienced per- If the combat systems/weapons (fire-control) or-
sonnel, the differences in the employment or material ganization chart is organized into blocks according
condition of ships, and the methods that different divi- to the various types of equipment the division main-
sion officers or senior petty officers use to organize tains, then the names of the technicians assigned to
and run their divisions. The basic administrative and the different groups of equipment may be written
functional organization in ships is prescribed by the under the appropriate blocks, with the top name being
Standard Organization and Regulations of the U.S. that of the supervisor in charge of that particular
Navy (commonly called the SORM), OPNAVINST group.
3120.32.
In the final breakdown of duties, a certain number
Every level of command should have an organiza- of equipment units may be assigned to one individual.
An advantage of this arrangement is that the responsi-
tion bill. The organization bill for a particular level
bility for the maintenance of certain equipment is
describes the duties and responsibilities of personnel
placed on individual technicians. In smaller vessels,
assigned to that level. It also prescribes policy and
procedures peculiar to that level. of course, the equipment to be maintained and the Fire
Controlmen available are reduced proportionately.

SUPERVISOR RESPONSIBILITIES
ADMINISTRATION
As an FC1 or FCC, you may be either the leading
Your involvement in administrative actions will
FC or an equipment technician, depending on the size
become more of a requirement, directly or indirectly,
of your command. The leading FC assists the combat
as you advance to first class and chief. This section
systems officer (CSO)/weapons officer and is respon-
describes some of the duties and responsibilities asso-
sible for directly supervising the preventive and cor-
ciated with these requirements, including a knowledge
rective maintenance of all electronic equipment.
of general quarters, watches, personnel manning, re-
The leading FC also ensures that all records and ports, safety, information security, and space upkeep
publications are current and are available for refer- and cleanliness.
ence, prepares required reports, and supervises the
cleanliness and upkeep of the divisional spaces.
GENERAL QUARTERS

PERSONNEL RESPONSIBILITIES Combat systems/weapons department personnel


are each assigned a general quarters station by the di-
The proper assignment of available personnel for vision watch, quarter, and station bill. Assignments
the upkeep of equipment and for other necessary du- of personnel should be practical and functional, as
ties is essential. It is particularly critical if the division determined by the CSO/weapons officer.
is short of personnel or if the available personnel are
inexperienced. The leading petty officer must always As an FC1 or FCC, you will be in a position to
be aware of the qualifications of the onboard techni- make recommendations to the CSO/weapons officer,
cians. and your experience and attitude will contribute much
to the success of the department.
If the division is well-staffed, inexperienced people
may be assigned to work with more-experienced crew- Specific instructions for general quarters should
members. In such cases, the leading petty officer be outlined in the division’s organization manual. Pro-

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cedures and applications should be a major part of ment, the manpower authorization, and the enlisted
combat/weapons systems training. distribution and verification report.

WATCHES Ship Manning Document

As an FC supervisor, you maybe in charge of the The main function of the ship manning document
inport and underway watches. These watches are (SMD) and the preliminary ship manning document
briefly discussed in the following paragraphs: (PSMD) is to document manpower requirements. To
effectively manage personnel, the Navy needs an accu-
l Inport Watches: The leading FC of each watch rate identification of ship manning requirements. This
section is designated as the duty Fire Controlman and is documented on the SMD and the PSMD in terms
is directly responsible for the handling of all equip- of the quantity and quality of personnel (skills, expe-
ment casualties that may occur outside normal work- rience, specialized training) that are required to per-
ing hours. All technicians who are aboard, even form mission requirements as specified in the required
though they may rate liberty, are considered to be on operational capability (ROC), submarine required op-
duty and may be called on by the duty Fire Control- erational capability (SUBROC), and projected opera-
man at any time to assist in handling any equipment tional environment (POE) statements.
repair.
An ROC statement lists all required operational
l Underway Watches: The leading FC makes capabilities for a class of ships, a type of aircraft
up the underway watch list, which is then approved squadron, or other unit as assigned by the Chief of
by the CSO/weapons officer and posted in the division Naval Operations (CNO). Examples of ROC and
spaces or combat systems spaces. All watches are SUBROC statements are shown in the following box:
stood according to this watch list and watch-standing
instructions. A Fire Controlman on watch should not
leave his assigned space except to handle a casualty,
ROC: 1. Engage submarines with antisub-
to supervise preventive maintenance, or to make in-
marine armament.
spections or tests. Note that the only reading materials
2. Engage airborne threats using sur-
authorized for use during underway watches are tech-
face-to-air armament,
nical publications, manuals, and instruction books per-
taining to some phase of combat systems.
SUBROC: 1. Attack with torpedoes.
2. Engage airborne threats using in-
stalled antiair (AA) weapons.
PERSONNEL MANNING

Personnel manning is a prime concern of the CSO/


A POE statement lists the most-demanding condi-
weapons officer. However, you will more than likely
tions (wartime or peacetime) of operation for which
be involved with personnel manning within your divi-
a unit must be manned, as shown in the following ex-
sion. A division must have the correct manning levels
ample:
to fiction properly and to fill the needs of equipment
maintenance and other shipboard functions, such as
general quarters watch stations.
At sea in wartime, capable of performing all offen-
Manpower requirements are normally accounted sive and defensive fictions simultaneously while
for by the Navy Manpower Requirements System in Readiness Condition I; capable of performing
(NMRS). The following subsections give a general other functions that are not required to be accom-
background in Navy manning and the personnel tools plished simultaneously.
with which to work, including the ship manning docu-

2-3
The SMD is developed in six phases: (1) data col- Billet reviews are conducted periodically at the
lection, (2) workload standards development or valida- CNO level. In those reviews, decisions are made based
tion, (3) preliminary statement of required billets, (4) on the existing classification of each billet as indicated
fleet review, (5) publication of final billets, and (6) on the MPA. Improperly classified billets become the
implementation. The NMRS provides automated data- lowest priority billets in the category in which they
processing support for each of these phases. are classified. Consequently, if the objective is to de-
lete or redistribute billets, improperly classified billets
If a ship is modernized during its service life (such are prime candidates for deletion or reprogramming,
as updating or adding equipment or systems), the
SMD provides a means for determining manpower The manpower requirements and manpower classi-
requirements for the modified systems or mission. The fications within each Navy activity are specifically
NMRS can generate an SMD to identify billets needed reviewed at the activity level annually to ensure the
to operate and maintain new weapons, equipments, deletion of unnecessary billets or positions and the
and systems far enough in advance of fleet introduc- proper classification of each authorized billet or posi-
tion to provide trained personnel both when and where tion.
they are needed.
If changes are required, a Manpower Authorization
In addition, the shipboard managers–from the Change Request (MACR) (OPNAV 1000/4A) is sub-
commanding officer to the leading petty officers-may mitted. If changes to the designator rating, grade, or
use the SMD as an effective source document. Since number of billets and/or positions are requested, the
it has detailed watch station requirements, the SMD requests must be justified in terms of changes in
can serve as the basis for establishing a battle organ- mission, function, and/or task, as contained in the
ization and a watch bill for specific conditions of ROC or shore required operational capability (SHO-
readiness. The SMD presents the basic manning re- ROC) statements. If a billet is currently classified
quirements summary in seven sections. See table 2-1. improperly, the misclassification must be explained.

MACRs are normally submitted annually. More-


Manpower Authorization frequent requests must be justified on the basis of
changes in mission or functions beyond the control
Even though you will probably not be directly in- of the activity. Valid requirements for billet changes
volved with manpower authorization (MPA) changes, that will require the movement of personnel must be
you should have some knowledge of manpower au- identified and requested as early as feasible to permit
thorization. The SMD is the basis for the Manpower orderly personnel management. Normally, it requires
Authorization (MPA) (OPNAV 1000/2). 5 to 9 months after final billet approval before new
or changed billets can be filled with personnel.
The proper classification of authorized billets is MACRs that involve an activity reorganization are
extremely important in defining the Navy’s overall planned and submitted on the basis of the existing
manpower requirements. The numbers of billets number of billets.
throughout the Navy are summarized by the various
classification categories. These figures provide the
basis for recruiting, training, and promoting Navy per- The Billets Authorized (BA) column on the MPA
sonnel. (block 32) indicates the billets authorized by the CNO.
The quantity assigned to each billet authorized on the
The Navy must produce the maximum combat MPA is normally the same as the corresponding billet
readiness with the dollar resources available. For this in the SMD. SMD billet requirements, which are not
reason, and because of the high cost of manpower, included in the BA column on the MPA, are entered
each billet requirement must be stated at the minimum on the MPA as Mobilization Billets (MBs), the
skill and experience levels necessary for satisfactory majority of which will be reflected in the Selected
performance of billet functions. Reserve (SR) column (block 39).

2-4
Table 2-1.-Ship Manning Document Description

Section Title Description

I Officer Billet Summary Consolidates the officer requirements into a single section.

II Manpower Summary Shows the number of officer, enlisted, and civilian manpower requirements
at the department level.

III Manpower Requirements Displays the ship’s manpower requirements by organizational component.

IV Battle Bill Shows the watch-station requirements for each condition of readiness pre-
scribed in the ROC and POE statements.

V Functional Workload Provides a summary of all workloads, by category, that contributed to the
billet requirements in each organizational component.

Summary of Provides a summary of officer billets by designator and paygrade along with
Part 01 Officer Manpower totals for both. (This summary is shipwide and is not related to organizational
Requirements components.)

Is similar to Part 01, but more detailed. Includes a summary for each rating
Summary of group (i.e., DS, ET, FC, OS, RM) in alphabetical order, showing primary
VI Part 02 Enlisted Manpower and secondary NECs and paygrades. The end of the section gives a summary
Requirements for the entire activity, summarized by paygrade only. (This summary is
shipwide and is not related to the organizational structure.)

Summary of Summarizes the paygrades by each organizational component and shows


Enlisted Manpower the totals for each division/department. There is a single-line entry for each
Part 02A Requirements by skill level (rating, paygrade, primary NEC, and secondary NEC) at the
Division/Department division level. Each department starts at the top of a new page.

Summary of Organizational Summarizes and displays the billet information contained in the previous
Manpower Requirements sections.

Part I Shows the officer, chief petty officer (E-7, E-8, E-9), and other enlisted billets
in the document.
VII
Shows the apportionment of enlisted skills by paygrade, including petty
Part II officers (E-4 and above), designated strikers (i.e., DSSN, ETSN, FCSN),
and nonrated personnel (i.e., SN, FN).

Shows the paygrade summary of all enlisted billet requirements on a shipwide


Part III basis. (This summary is identical to that shown at the end of Section VI [Part
02].)

What does all this mean to you? You, as a super- pertain to your division are current and correct. It is
visor, play a very important part in the process. You especially important to ensure that the NECs required
must continually work with your personnel specialist to support new installations are requested and that old
to ensure that billet and personnel requirements for NECs no longer required are deleted.
your division are accurately reflected in the SMDs.
By keeping your division’s manning requirements cur-
rent, you help to keep your ship’s manning require- When you work with the MPA, refer to the Man-
ments current. ual of Navy Total Force Manpower Policies and Pro-
cedures, OPNAVINST 1000.16. It contains the infor-
Check the MPA to ensure that all the Navy en- mation and procedures necessary to initiate a ship’s
listed classifications (NECs) listed in the MPA that force change request (SFCR).

2-5
Enlisted Distribution and Verification Report l a statement of account for verification by the
activity, and
An enlisted distribution and verification report
(EDVR) is a statement of an activity’s personnel ac- * a permanent historical record at the Navy
count—the number of personnel assigned, their rates, Military Personnel Command (NMPC) of an
their NECs, etc. The Enlisted Personnel Management activity’s personnel account for statistical uses
Center (EPMAC) publishes an up-to-date EDVR and overall Navy manning.
monthly for every command.
The EDVR printout is divided into the following
As a supervisor, you should learn to use the nine sections and as described in table 2-2:
EDVR. It contains valuable information that will assist
you in providing proper manning for your ship. You l Sections 1 through 3 contain personnel in-
will use the EDVR often, more so than the MPA or formation that has been extracted from the
the SMD. As an FC1 or FCC, you will work closely activity account and that requires special atten-
with the division officer to determine NEC manning tion or action by the activity.
and personnel losses and gains, as well as to initiate
any necessary changes to the EDVR. . Section 4 contains the total personnel account
of the activity, including those members re-
The purpose of the EDVR is to provide flected in sections 1 through 3.

l a rate or NEC summary of the current and l Sections 5 through 8 contain only statistical
future manning status of the activity, and authorized billet information.

l a common reference point in any discussion l Section 9 contains information on NEC man-
of manning status between the manning or agement and lists names and up to five NECs
detailing control authorities and the activity, that the service member may hold.

2-6
Table 2-2.-Enlisted Distribution and Verification Report Description

REPORTS scribed in the following subsections, should be listed


in your command’s instruction on recurring reports.
Periodic reports and maintaining personnel and
equipment records will become a daily responsibility
as you advance in rate. Train yourself to be both Eight O’Clock Reports
proficient and efficient. Preparing these reports and
records in a proper and timely manner will allow you Eight o’clock reports are daily equipment status
more time to complete your other duties. In other reports given to the commanding officer by the execu-
words, if you let the paperwork pile up, you will be tive officer each evening at 8:00 p.m. (2000). At sea,
pressured for time and will probably do the reports the CSO/weapons officer usually gives the combat/
hurriedly. Keeping up with the paperwork daily will weapons systems eight o’clock reports to the executive
decrease your stress level and will yield a better man- officer. In port, these reports are given to the com-
agement product for the Navy. mand duty officer (CDO) by the duty department
officers. As the senior FC, you must ensure that the
Even though the CSO/weapons officer is ulti- information is current and accurate for your area of
mately responsible for all division reports and records, responsibility.
he will depend on your knowledge and performance
for inputs to that information. Some of the reports Traditionally, the eight o’clock reports are verbal
and records with which you should be familiar, de- reports of equipment status. However, because of the

2-7
number of equipments on our ships today, there is Equipment Status Reports
usually a master sheet of equipments in multiple-copy
form. Applicable comments are made adjacent to the Equipment status reports vary from command to
listed equipments on a daily basis. One copy of the command. On most ships, the combat systems/weap-
equipments list is kept for the divisional file. The ons department is responsible for turning in an equip-
original is turned in for the eight o’clock reports. ment status report before the ship gets under way.
This report may be due any time from 72 hours to
The following information is provided for each 24 hours before the ship gets under way, depending
piece of equipment on the eight o’clock report: on the requirements set by the TYCOM and the com-
mand.
l Status of the equipment, whether in an up
status or a down status and with a statement of the The equipment status report usually includes major
nature of the problem if the equipment is in a down equipment status, estimated time of repair (ETR),
status. power out/minimum discernible signal (MDS) readings
from radars, and power out/receiver sensitivity read-
l Parts information (parts on board, parts not ings from communications equipment. This report is
on board, and supply requisition number). usually given on a locally generated report form
(checklist type); however, it maybe made on the same
l Estimated time of repair for a down item. form as the eight o’clock report.

l Necessity of a casualty report (CASREP). (If


an equipment or system CASREP has already been SAFETY
made, the report includes the CASREP serial number
for the applicable equipment or system.) Most accidents are preventable. However, through
ignorance or misunderstanding, there is a common
belief that accidents are the inevitable result of un-
Casualty Reports changeable circumstances or fate. This belief fails to
consider the basic law of cause and effect. In other
As a combat systems supervisor, you will often words, accidents do not occur without a cause; most
be in a situation that requires you to draft casualty accidents are the direct result of some deviation from
reports (CASREPs). These are message reports that prescribed safe operating procedures.
support the CNO and the fleet commanders in the
management of assigned forces, The effective use and A preventable accident may be traced to an in-
support of Navy forces require an up-to-date, accurate grained belief or work habit of an individual. This
operational status report for each unit. An important belief or work habit may cause the individual to per-
part of each operational status report is casualty infor- form an unsafe act or permit a hazardous condition
mation. to exist. Then, when an accident occurs, the cause-
and-effect sequence is completed.
The CASREP system contains four types of re-
ports: INITIAL, UPDATE, CORRECT, and CAN- One purpose of safety rules is to remind personnel
CEL. CASREPs are not a substitute for maintenance of the dangers inherent in their work. Training in the
and material management (3-M) data, but they are observance of safety precautions can help prevent ac-
in addition to and complement that information. The cidents and encourage the maintenance of an acci-
reference publication for CASREP information and dent-free work environment. Operating procedures
procedures is Operational Reports, NWP 10-1-10. and work methods should stress hazard prevention

2-8
so that personnel do not expose themselves unneces- l Failure to test and inspect equipment for
sarily to injury or occupational health hazards. Most defects, or failure to remedy all defects found by tests
accidents can be prevented if personnel are alert to and inspections.
causes and take appropriate remedial action.

Electrical Safety Education


Electrical Safety Training
Electrical safety education is a must. You cannot
Any failure to follow electrical safety rules or pro- expect personnel to observe a safety precaution unless
cedures may result in mild to severe shocks. In some they are fully aware of the dangers involved. There-
cases, death may even result. As a leading FC, you fore, one of your first duties is to ensure that all per-
have safety-related responsibilities that may be sonnel in the combat systems/weapons division are
grouped into the following three general areas: aware of the dangers and the safety precautions neces-
sary to combat those dangers.
1. Division Responsibilities: Division responsibili-
ties include ensuring that all personnel in the division Safety precautions depend to some extent on the
are aware of and observe all safety precautions, espe- type of ship involved. Some ships necessarily have
cially those precautions regarding electrical safety. particular precautions that must be strictly observed,
but which are not applicable to other types of ships.
2. Nonelectrical Rating Responsibilities: Nonelec- Therefore, you should ensure that all personnel read
trical rating responsibilities are ever increasing, as and understand all safety precautions pertaining to the
more and more electronic equipment is used in the electrical and electronic equipments on your own ship.
various jobs. As an FC1 or FCC, you will automati-
cally be considered an expert on electrical safety pre- Safety precautions for personnel in nonelectrical
cautions. Therefore, you have a responsibility to ratings should include information concerning elec-
educate the personnel whose primary duties are non- trical shock and precautions they must observe when
electrical about these precautions. using electrical equipment, either aboard ship or
ashore.
3. Petty Officer Responsibilities: As a petty of-
ficer, you have the same responsibilities as all other Facts to be stressed to all personnel, both electrical
petty officers in enforcing all safety precautions. and nonelectrical rating personnel, concerning electric
shock should include the following cautions:
Electrical Shock Causes
l Voltages as low as 30 volts can be fatal.
Nearly all shipboard electrical shocks are caused
in one or more of the following ways (all these . The dangers from electric shock are much
failures may be summarized as neglecting applicable greater aboard ship than ashore.
safety precautions):
l There is little middle ground between a slight
l Unauthorized use of, or unauthorized modifi- tingle and a fatal shock.
cations to, equipment.

l Failure to observe applicable safety precau- Fundamentally, current, rather than voltage, is the
tions in the use of equipment or in working on or near criterion of shock intensity. The passage of even a
energized equipment. very small current through a vital part of the human
body may cause death. The voltage necessary to pro-
l Failure to repair equipment that is known to duce the fatal current depends on such factors as the
be defective and has previously given users a mild body resistance, the contact condition, and the path
shock. the current takes through the body.

2-9
The probable effects of shock are shown in table l NEVER make repairs yourself. All repairs
2-3. must be made by authorized personnel only.

l ALWAYS visually inspect portable electrical


Table 2-3.-Probable Effects of Electric Shock equipment before you use it. Look for dam-
aged plugs, frayed cords, broken or missing
ground connections, etc.

l ALWAYS report any shock you receive from


electrical equipment, regardless of how slight.

General Safety Promotion

Promoting safety within the electronics division


or on the ship in general requires that you, as the FC1
or FCC, become safety conscious to the point that you
automatically consider safety in every job or opera-
tion. Through the use of safety reminders and by your
personal example, you pass safety consciousness on
It is imperative to recognize that the resistance to other personnel.
of the human body cannot be relied on to prevent a
fatal shock from 115 volts or even lower voltages. You must be thoroughly familiar with section D5
Fatalities from as low as 30 volts have been recorded. of Navy Safety Precautions for Forces Afloat, OP-
Tests have shown that body resistance under unfavor- NAVINST 5100.19. This is the primary source of
able conditions may be as low as 300 ohms and pos- general safety rules and regulations. Safety informa-
sibly as low as 100 ohms from temple to temple if tion is also given in the Electronics Installation and
the skin is broken. Maintenance Book, General, NAVSEA SE000-00-
EIM-100.
Volt for volt, dc potentials are normally not as
dangerous as ac potentials. This is shown by the fact
that reasonably safe “let-go currents” for 60-Hz ac INFORMATION SECURITY
are 9.0 mA for men and 6.0 mA for women, whereas
the corresponding values for dc are 62.0 mA for men The security of the United States, in general, and
and 41.0 mA for women. of naval operations, in particular, depends in part on
successfully safeguarding classified information. All
The instruction to personnel in nonelectrical FCs must be security conscious to the point that they
ratings regarding the safety precautions they must automatically exercise proper discretion in performing
observe when using electrical equipment should em- their duties and do not think of security of information
phasize the following points: as something separate from other matters. By doing
so, security of classified information becomes a nat-
l NEVER use any personal portable electrical ural element of every task and not an additional bur-
equipment aboard ship unless it has been in- den.
spected and approved.
You should be thoroughly familiar with the Depar-
l NEVER use portable electrical equipment if tment of the Navy Information and Personnel Security
there is reason to believe it might be defective. Program Regulation, OPNAVINST 5510.1. Following
Have it tested by authorized personnel. its guidance should be second nature to you.

2-10
SPACE UPKEEP AND CLEANLINESS TYPE COMMANDER ADMINISTRATIVE
INSPECTIONS
The upkeep and cleanliness of spaces in the elec-
tronics division is very important. The safety and Type commander (TYCOM) administrative inspec-
operation of equipment depend on correct and routine tions are held at least once during each training cycle
upkeep. The upkeep of spaces should be a daily rou- and are divided into a whole-ship category and a
tine, regardless of priorities. department category. Administrative methods are
examined to determine if they are intelligent and effi-
As a senior petty officer, you should ensure that cient. They are also checked to determine if they are
all workspaces are always in excellent shape, with directed toward keeping the ship prepared for wartime
tools properly stowed and equipment properly mission performance.
mounted and covered when not in use. While equip-
ment repairs or other unforeseen events sometimes
dictate maintenance, space upkeep and cleanliness MATERIAL READINESS INSPECTIONS
should not be forgotten. Dangers of fire, damage con-
trol, personnel safety, and clogged equipment filters, Material readiness inspections (MRIs) determine
as well as many other reasons, dictate that your spaces the material readiness of shipboard equipment and
be kept up and clean at all times. systems installations. They are conducted once during
each ship’s training cycle and are supervised by an
officer who is qualified in the particular equipment
INSPECTIONS or system. When practical, this officer is assisted by
an engineer furnished by the systems command re-
Inspections of electronic equipment and digital sponsible for that equipment. In the interest of re-
data equipment systems are made at least once during ducing costs and conserving manpower, these inspec-
each ship’s training cycle and at other times when tions are normally conducted concurrently with, or
necessary. These inspections determine the state of as part of, the INSURV inspection.
equipment readiness and compare its condition with
a previously established condition to detect any deter- MRIs consist of three specific types of inspections:
ioration. They also help to determine the readiness (1) performance inspections, (2) physical inspections,
of equipment after it has been installed, overhauled, and (3) maintenance administration inspections.
repaired, or altered.
Performance Inspections

INSPECTION AND SURVEY Performance inspections include, but are not


INSPECTIONS limited to, the following actions:

Inspection and survey (INSURV) inspections are l Making the basic measurements listed on the
conducted by the Board of Inspection and Survey to maintenance requirement card (MRC) for the equip-
determine the material readiness of the ship’s equip- ment and systems designated by the inspecting officer
ment and systems. Any discrepancies or deficiencies as essential to the primary mission and task of the ship
discovered by the INSURV inspection team are docu- being inspected.
mented on Ship’s Maintenance Action Form (OPNAV
4790/2K). These work requests are then used in plan- l Conducting system tests on designated systems
ning an availability or an overhaul. at a test and calibration facility. If any of these tests
are not performed at the time or just before the in-
Material Inspection of Ships by the Board of In- spection, they should be completed soon afterwards.
spections and Surveys, OPNAVINST 4730.5, requires In any event, additional measurements, as noted on
an INSURV inspection for active ships at least once system MRCs, should be taken at the time of the
every 3 years. system test.

2-11
. Conducting interference tests to determine if items to be done during the upcoming overhaul. They
operating the equipment causes problems with other provide information that is used to develop the plans
installed electronic equipment or if it is hampered by for the ship’s overhaul.
interference from other electronic or nonelectronic
equipment. The interference tests also identify the Personnel performing these inspections are
source and amplitude of interference emanating from normally from the ship’s home yard. Personnel from
nonelectronic equipment. the Naval Space and Warfare Command (NAVSPA-
WARCOM) or the Naval Sea Systems Command
l Listing all approved modifications required (NAVSEASYSCOM) may also perform part of these
but not made, as well as all unauthorized modifica- inspections.
tions.

POSTOVERHAUL INSPECTIONS
Physical Inspections
Postoverhaul inspections furnish the commanding
Physical inspections include visually inspecting officer of the ship a report on the condition, capabili-
and determining the condition and adequacy of all ties, and limitations of the shipboard equipment and
equipment, cabling, repair parts, and tools. systems. These inspections include new installations
of equipment and systems, as well as the equipment
or systems that were included in the overhaul job
Maintenance Administration Inspections orders.

Maintenance administration inspections determine


if there is an established procedure for submitting a MAINTENANCE AND MATERIAL
Ship’s Maintenance Action Form (OPNAV 4790/2K) MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
and a Ship’s Configuration Change Form (OPNAV
4790/2CK). By this point in your career, you probably have
an extensive knowledge of the maintenance and mate-
Checks are also made to ensure that there is a rial management (3-M) systems. You should follow
procedure for listing field changes on field change those requirements automatically. However, as an FC1
plates and updating electronics publications. or FCC, you should know the full use of the 3-M sys-
tems and must ensure that your personnel comply with
These inspections include, but are not limited to, the requirements.
checking to determine if the quantity and rates of elec-
tronics personnel on board meet the ship’s allowance Maintenance periods and overhauls are scheduled
and if the electronics personnel assigned to the ship at various times according to the needs of the ship,
are capable of supporting the allowed equipment. the fleet, the type of ship, and the available funds.
They are also used to determine if there is an estab- Regular overhauls are normally scheduled approxi-
lished program for on-the-job training (OJT), as well mately every 60 months. Alterations are any changes
as a program for sending personnel to fleet and made to improve the military or technical aspects of
NMPC-controlled electronics schools. a ship.

The required heavy maintenance and overhauls


PREOVERHAUL TESTS that cannot be accomplished while the ship is under
AND INSPECTIONS way usually takes from 2 to 6 months. During this
time, many new electronics installations and equip-
Preoverhaul tests and inspections (POT&Is) are ment or system overhauls may be completed with the
held approximately 10 to 12 months before an over- assistance of yard, tender, or civilian contract per-
haul. These inspections cover work on combat system sonnel.

2-12
To review the mechanics of the 3-M system, refer Intermediate-Level Maintenance
to “The Ships’ 3-M Systems” chapter of the Military Activity Availability
Requirements for Petty Officer Third Class, NAVED-
TRA 12044. Although that chapter provides an excel- An intermediate-level maintenance activity avail-
lent description of the 3-M systems, the official ref- ability (IMAV) involves repairs made by either afloat
erence for the 3-M systems is the Ships’ Maintenance repair activities (tenders and repair ships) or shore
and Material Management (3-M) Manual, OPNAV - intermediate maintenance activities (SIMAs). Its pur-
INST 4790.4. You may also wish to read Introduction pose is to accomplish as much intermediate-level
to 3-M Systems, NAVEDTRA 13092, which gives maintenance and repair work as possible within the
a short but very informative explanation of 3-M sys- workload limitations, the available funds, and the rela-
tems and procedures. tive priority of the required work.

AVAILABILITY TYPES Although the primary emphasis of a SIMA effort


is on repair work, authorized ship alterations and alter-
An availability is an assignment of a ship to a ations equivalent to repair are undertaken as SIMA
repair facility for repairs beyond the capability of the workloads permit.
ship’s force. Besides regular overhaul, several types
of availabilities are assigned, according to the needs
of the individual ship or the fleet. These are restricted, UPKEEP PERIOD
technical, and intermediate-level maintenance activity
availabilities. The upkeep period is time in a port where the
facilities of a yard or a tender are available for routine
maintenance that cannot be completed while the ship
Restricted Availability is under way. Upkeep scheduled with the assistance
of a tender or a repair ship is sometimes referred to
A restricted availability (RAV) is normally as- as tender availability.
signed for emergency repairs of prime systems that
prevent the ship from fulfilling its mission. When
emergency repairs to primary systems cannot be made SHIPYARD OVERHAUL
by the ship’s force, the commanding officer may
request the TYCOM to assign a restricted availability Ships are assigned availabilities at shore-based
for the repair of a specific system. During an RAV, repair activities as directed by the CNO. The first
the ship is incapable of performing its mission. scheduled overhaul is normally granted to a ship after
an initial operating period of approximately 2 years.
Thereafter, scheduled overhauls depend on the ship
Technical Availability type.

A technical availability (TAV) is assigned when The amount of time in the shipyard for these over-
repairs on noncritical systems or equipment must be hauls varies. For example, if the shipyard works on
made by a repair facility or yard. These repairs do a one-shift basis, the overhaul often requires 6 months
not affect the ability of the ship to complete its mis- or longer. The employment schedule, an operating
sion. If necessary, the ship can get under way without directive furnished by the TYCOM, indicates when
the system or equipment being repaired. a ship is scheduled for overhaul.

2-13
Availability Work Package for their equipments, including repairs. This includes
Development and Alteration inspecting the work both during and on completion
of the repairs.
For an availability to be a success, the work to
be done must be clearly defined in sufficient time to Your responsibilities also include signing off jobs
order material and to issue the necessary job orders that are completed. To do this properly as a member
or contract specifications. The definition of work re- of the ship’s QA team, you must understand and apply
quired is obtained from the ship’s database, as re- the requirements of the Quality Assurance Manual,
flected in the current ship’s maintenance project COMNAVSURFLANTINST 9090.1.
(CSMP), and from the results of the POT&Is.
Remember, once you have signed off the work
The work package is developed through a se- as being completed, you have “bought” the equipment,
quence of events that starts with the ship’s CSMP and whether it works or not.
results in an authorized work package control docu-
ment and the ship alteration and repair package
(SARP). The development process of the SARP is Postoverhaul
shown in table 2-4.
Completing an overhaul requires submitting a
report on the completion status of all authorized re-
Preoverhaul pairs, canceling or rescheduling of uncompleted work,
and preparing the ship for its initial voyage after the
For the best use of the time and funds available overhaul.
for an overhaul, planning for the repairs to be made
during the overhaul must be done in advance of the Except in unusual circumstances, job orders for
ship’s arrival at the repair activity. Advanced planning uncompleted repair work are closed or canceled when
is required of both the ship and the repair activity. the ship leaves the repair activity. Job orders for au-
thorized alterations, however, are held open until the
In preparing the combat systems work list for work is either completed later or canceled by the
submission to the CSO/weapons officer, the leading appropriate systems command.
FC must give all the information necessary to assist
the shipyard in locating and rectifying the troubles. If the ship leaves the repair facility with unfinished
Most of this information is obtained from the CSMP. work to be completed by another activity, all
outstanding job orders are transferred to the other
The work list indicates all work that should be activity, together with all pertinent information and
completed during the overhaul, the priority for each whatever material was assembled for the work. If
item, and the name of the ship’s quality assurance work is later desired on job orders that have been
(QA) inspectors. The work list is combined with the closed or canceled, new requests must be made.
work lists submitted by the other divisions. Before
the ship enters the repair yard, a complete ship’s work When readying a ship for sea including its initial
list should be submitted. voyage after an overhaul, the electronics personnel
must see that allowances of equipment, tools, and
Overhaul repair parts are on board and are properly stowed.

During an overhaul, the combat systems/weapons The reason is obvious, as negligence can make
department personnel continue to have responsibility the ship a liability during action.

2-14
Table 2-4.-Ship Alteration and Repair Package Process

Alteration equipment and provides increased reliability, maintain-


ability, and efficiency of installed equipment.
In general, an alteration is any change. It can be
major or minor and can affect almost anything about Table 2-5 lists the alteration categories and their
the ship. It may be any of several types: ship alter- authorization sponsors.
ation (SHIPALT), boat alteration (BOATALT), ma-
chinery alteration (MACHALT), ordnance alteration Table 2-5.-Ship Alteration Categories
(ORDALT), or alteration equivalent to repair (AER).
An alteration, such as equipment calibration, can be
performed during an availability.

Alterations are managed through the fleet modern-


ization program and may be either military or tech-
nical improvements.

l M i l i t ary Alteration: A military alteration results


in a change of a ship’s operational or military char-
acteristics, qualities, or features. It also increases the
ability of the ship to meet its ROC. The decision to
incorporate a military alteration rests solely with the
CNO. Field Change

l Technical Alteration: A technical alteration A field change (FC) is a modification to combat/


is a change that improves the safety of personnel and weapons systems equipment. It should improve per-

2-15
formance, reliability, maintenance, operational char- The four types of field changes are shown in table
acteristics, and/or safety. 2-6.

The type designator indicates the completeness The three classes of field changes are described
of the change package. Some packages contain all in table 2-7. The class designator indicates the activity
necessary instructions, parts, and tools, whereas other responsible for the funding and installation of the field
packages contain only instructions. change.

Table 2-6.-Field Change Descriptions

Table 2-7.-Field Change Classes

2-16
RECOMMENDED READING LIST

NOTE: Although the following references were current when this TRAMAN was pub-
lished, their continued currency cannot be assured. Therefore, you need to ensure that you
are studying the latest revision.

Department of the Navy Directives Issuance Systerm Consolidated Subject Index, DPSINST 5215.1, Washington,
DC. 1994.

Format and Procedures for Validation of Enlisted Distribution and Verification Report (EDVR), NAVMILPERS-
COMINST 1080.1, Naval Military Personnel Command, Washington, DC, 1989.

Guide for User Maintenance of NAVSEA Technical Manuals, NAVSEA S005-AA-GYD-030/TMMP, Naval Sea
Systems Command, Washington, DC, 1988.

Navy Stock List of Publications and Forms, NAVSUP 2002, Navy Publications and Forms Center, Philadelphia,
PA, 1994.

2-17
CHAPTER 3

SUPERVISION AND TRAINING

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Describe the management responsibilities of the combat systems/


weapons division supervisor.

2. Describe the types of training and procedures for training as used by


the shipboard combat systems/weapons division.

INTRODUCTION tion standards (PQS) progress chart or scheduling


maintenance for the next week. As a senior petty
As you advance to FC1 or FCC, you will function officer, you will find more people asking your opinion
as a first-line supervisor. In other words, you will be on technical matters. Your responsibilities for techni-
in immediate control of personnel, You will also act cal leadership are special to your rating and are di-
as the liaison between your superiors and your subor- rectly related to the nature of your work.
dinates. You will be responsible for planning work,
issuing jobs, instructing personnel, checking work, The combat systems/weapons field is growing rap-
and reporting to your superiors on the progress of as- idly, caused in part by the swift pace of development
signed tasks. in modem technology. This requires that you keep up
with the latest developments. As technology advances,
So, as you can see, you will have far greater duties you will find yourself involved with equipment and sys-
and responsibilities than you had at your previous tems much more complex than any you have previously
paygrade. Since you have acquired much valuable encountered.
job-related knowledge, it is now your turn to pass that
knowledge onto others. Sometimes you may need to develop a procedure
to check out the operation of a new piece of equipment
As a combat systems/weapons supervisor, you will because the available technical information or technical
be responsible for maintaining all division combat manual has only limited data for isolating a malfunc-
systems equipment. Maintaining this equipment is a tion. You must then be able to instruct your subordi-
job of vital importance. It requires a leadership ability nates in using these newly developed, interim proce-
that can be developed only by personnel who have a dures. Therefore, you must acquire the technical and
high degree of technical competence combined with leadership skills required to translate these ideas into
a deep sense of personal responsibility. actions.

A combat systems/weapons supervisor spends less This chapter discusses the management (which in-
time working on equipment and more time ensuring cludes supervision and training) of a combat systems/
that the work center is running smoothly. Instead of weapons division and some of the problems that super-
working on a specific equipment, you will spend time visors face in leadership roles, In no way can we cover
on other jobs, such as updating a personnel qualifica- all areas of supervision and training, but we can provide

3-1
you with a solid foundation of knowledge on which to While technological growth has eased the burden
build. Refer to military requirements training manuals and increased the effectiveness of supervisors and
for additional information on supervision and training. managers in many aspects of command operations, it
has sometimes turned the combat systems/weapons
SUPERVISION supervisor’s job into an overwhelming problem. You
may be responsible for maintaining a multimillion-
As a division supervisor, you must be aware of the dollar resource ashore or at sea,
greater scope of your duties and responsibilities. You
must also learn and practice the characteristics of a Your division will have to keep high-cost, highly
good supervisor, continuing this process as you attempt sophisticated electronic systems and equipment in the
to master all phases of supervision and management highest possible state of readiness under a variety of
in the combat systems/weapons division. working conditions. No matter how well designed the
equipment is, its value to the command lies in the abil-
This section discusses many of the elements that ity of the maintenance supervisor to provide the maxi-
you will encounter as a combat systems/weapons super- mum amount of uptime.
visor, including general management, and supervisory
duties and responsibilities. A supervisor may face some of the following prob-
lems every workday:

GENERAL MANAGEMENT l Procedural changes: What improvements could


be realized by minor modifications to existing
As an FC1 or FCC, you will normally be a work- procedures?
center supervisor or a division supervisor. In either
position, you will be confronted with the many respon- l Future requirements: Will future system de-
sibilities of management. Your primary job will be to mands affect present resources?
ensure that the work center functions smoothly.
l System downtime: Is the amount of downtime
The prime objective of a combat systems/weapons the system suffers reasonable, given the per-
supervisor is to maintain control of complex, costly sonnel and material assets available?
electronic systems and equipment through a sound
maintenance management program. The supervisor l Training requirements: Have all technicians
must be aware of the alternatives that are available to acquired the highest level of technical compe-
make a maintenance management program perform tence? If not, can the on-site training program
most effectively and efficiently. bring them up to speed?

You and your maintenance personnel must meet l New personnel: Is the in-house training pro-
both technical and military requirements. The skills gram adequate for new personnel?
required to manage a maintenance shop are not acquired
overnight. You will need to spend time and effort to l Material assets: Will the material assets be ade-
develop the management ability necessary to accom- quate for any upcoming deployment?
plish all your division’s goals.
If the supervisor has reasonable and well-docu-
The problems and responsibilities that a work center mented answers to these questions, it is likely that he
or division supervisor must face are similar to those is effectively managing the work center instead of
encountered in other fictional areas of any command. merely supervising it. Good management and good
For example, increasing productivity while reducing supervision are inseparable for the control, operation,
cost is a goal of all supervisors. and financial budgeting of division assets. The right

3-2
answers to questions such as those mentioned will l Giving orders and directions.
significantly enhance a command’s ability to carry out
its mission. l Maintaining liaison with other units, depart-
ments, and divisions.

SUPERVISORY DUTIES AND In addition to the aforementioned typical duties and


RESPONSIBILITIES responsibilities, the following seven major areas are
common to all supervisory positions:
An exact list of duties and responsibilities can be
made only when the list concerns a specific position. 1. Production: The supervisor is responsible for
However, the following duties and responsibilities are ensuring that all work is done properly and on time.
typical of a combat systems/weapons supervisor: This is true both in the office and in the work center.
To meet these goals, the supervisor must function in
three main ways:
l Keeping maintenance operations running
smoothly and efficiently. a. Organize and plan the workload to ensure
maximum production with minimum effort
l Promoting teamwork. and confusion.

l Maintaining discipline. b. Delegate the authority for completing work


assignments, keeping in mind that the final
l Maintaining high morale product is the responsibility of the super-
visor.
l Getting the right person on the job at the right
time. c. Control the workload and see that all work
is completed correctly.
l Maintaining the quality and quantity of work.
2. Safety, health, and physical welfare of subordi-
l Checking and inspecting jobs and personnel. nates: Safety and production go hand in hand. The safe
way is the efficient way. When work center personnel
l Preventing accidents and controlling hazards are absent because of injury, they are nonproducers.
and hazardous material. A good supervisor stresses safety to the crew; sets an
example by working safely; teaches safety as an integral
l Using and storing materials economically.
part of each job; and, most of all, plans each job with
safety in mind. A good supervisor does not wait until
l Maintaining good housekeeping on the job.
after an accident happens to start a safety program.
Showing concern over the health and physical welfare
l Keeping records and preparing reports.
of your crew will pay off in increased production. It
l Planning and scheduling work. will add to their feelings of trust and confidence in you
as a division supervisor and will increase the amount
l Training personnel. of respect they have for you.

l Procuring supplies and equipment to perform 3. Development of cooperation: Developing co-


the work. operation among the members of your division is
paramount to effective production. Some supervisors,
l Inspecting, caring for, and preserving equip- however, tend to overlook the need for cooperation in
ment. two other directions:

3-3
a. Cooperation with management. with paperwork as it occurs; then, you can maintain
control of your workday and will never need to neglect
b. Cooperation with supervisors on other ships your more-active duties to attack a stack of papers. In
or in other departments, divisions, or work always attempting to place the proper emphasis on each
groups of your ship. of your responsibilities, you will be practicing balanced
supervision.
In the course of a routine equipment overhaul, you
will often have to deal with numerous people in work
centers or units of the repair activity. It is particularly RESPONSIBILITY TO USERS
essential, therefore, that you develop a rapport with the
management and supervisory personnel of the repair Your responsibility to users is twofold. First, you
activity. must ensure that all equipment is ready for maximum
use at all times. Second, you and your division per-
4. Development of morale: The esprit de corps of sonnel should be a source of technical knowledge and
a group and their willingness to work toward common training for all users.
goals depend, to a great extent, on your leadership. A
group with high morale is a producing group. Having the most up-to-date combat systems/weap-
ons equipment is of no value to the Navy unless the
5, Training and development of subordinates: A equipment is operating at peak efficiency at all times.
good division supervisor is invariably a good teacher Many initial equipment casualties turn out to be oper-
and leader and is a developer of personnel. One of the ator errors. An unusually high incidence of operator
greatest contributions you can make as a supervisor is errors may indicate inadequate training.
the development of your people. You should ensure that
at least one trained person is ready to assume responsi- The problems associated with inadequate training
bility as supervisor if the need were to arise. It is a sign usually occur because of one or more of the following
of good leadership when you can take leave and have circumstances:
the division continue to run smoothly. Do not be afraid
to teach every phase of your own work to at least one l A large number of new personnel
or two subordinates. And since much of your time will
involve teaching, you should try to improve your teach- l A new system being operated
ing ability.
l The installation of new equipment
6. Records and reports: Chapter 2 discussed some
of the records and reports with which you will be l Any operations following an extended in-port
associated. Keeping records and preparing reports are period
not tasks that you will always enjoy doing, yet they are
a vital part of your work. Make it a point to keep neat, The effects of the first three of these circumstances
accurate records and get reports out on time. Paperwork may be eliminated with an adequate shipboard training
may seem to be a waste of time, but in the long run, you program to supplement formal off-ship team training.
will realize how much your success as a division super- Since you have the technical expertise, you should as-
visor depends upon your ability to handle paperwork sist in (or provide) the technical training necessary to
properly. operate the combat systems/weapons equipment cor-
rectly. By doing so, you will simplify both your job
7. Balanced supervision: Major duties and re- and the job of your division personnel.
sponsibilities must be balanced. You must pay the
proper amount of attention to each phase of your job. Problems that result from an extended in-port period
Do not emphasize production at the expense of safety are usually caused by forgetfulness. Since this is part
or training. Also, do not become so concerned with the of human nature, you cannot correct it; however, if the
human element that production is neglected. Keep up problem continues, you should make the appropriate

3-4
work centers aware of it so they can ensure that it does Positive Thinking
not happen again.
Good leaders will always be positive thinkers. They
RESPONSIBILITIES TO think in terms of how things can be done, not why they
UPPER MANAGEMENT can not be done. They maintain an open mind to
changes, new ideas, and training opportunities, Positive
As a combat systems/weapons supervisor, you will thinkers look to the future with confidence, and their
find yourself in a middle-management position. You confidence is contagious. They are enthusiastic about
will have more responsibilities and direct input to the their jobs and the part they play in the Navy. If you
upper echelon than you did as a petty officer second want to lead others, start practicing the art of positive
class. thinking today.

One of the supervisor’s responsibilities is to support


the goals and requirements of upper management (the Genuine Interest in People
division officer and the department head). This support
may take many forms, such as providing unscheduled Did you ever meet a really great leader? If so, you
corrective maintenance, technical reports, additional probably found that instead of being cold and aloof,
manpower for important command functions, opera- the person was a warm, friendly human being who
tional training in specialized areas, or any one of a seemed to make you feel important by paying close
dozen other tasks that may be required of your person- attention to what you had to say.
nel.
One of the first steps you, as a supervisor, should
On occasion, you may be called upon to solve a take is to get to know your technicians personally. This
difficult problem. If after much brainstorming, you are not only creates a feeling that you are genuinely in-
unable to solve the problem, you should seek assistance terested in them, but it also helps you place the right
from the next senior person in the chain of command. person in the right job at the right time.
Keeping a problem to yourself when you have run out
of ideas will not solve it. Inform your division leading You will appreciate the importance of knowing your
chief petty officer (LCPO) or your division officer of technicians personally when the need arises for them
your problem; one of them should be able to assist you. to convert from technicians to professional defensive
tacticians and fighters. Here, the wrong person in the
wrong place could prove disastrous.
TRAITS OF A GOOD SUPERVISOR
However, you must avoid falling into the familiarity
Good supervisors usually have certain desirable trap. Many experienced supervisors will tell you of
traits. These traits are loyalty, positive thinking, genuine cases where they were overly friendly with certain per-
interest in people, initiative, decisiveness, tact and cour- sonnel. Then, when the time came for discipline or
tesy, fairness, sincerity and integrity, teaching ability, other adverse action, it was very difficult to deal with
and self-confidence. those personnel.

Loyalty Initiative

One trait that should stand out in every supervisor Personnel with initiative are always needed in the
is loyalty. You must show loyalty to your country, the naval service. Initiative is evidence of an open and alert
Navy, your unit, your superiors, and the personnel who mind. Personnel with initiative continually look for bet-
work for you. To receive and keep the respect and ter ways to do things; they don’t wait for someone else
loyalty of your personnel, you must be loyal yourself. to take action.

3-5
To be a good supervisor, you must show initiative. Courtesy is treating others with respect, as impor-
Don’t put off until tomorrow what you should do today. tant human beings, not as tools to be used for your
If you see an unsafe condition, take action to correct convenience. It means following the accepted rules of
it before an accident occurs. If you see that a new form conduct and being polite. Courtesy is important to the
or procedure would simplify a job, devise the new form supervisor. One discourteous act, even though unin-
or procedure. If you see an inadequacy in yourself, try tentional, can make an enemy—and the supervisor
to overcome it. Weak people lack initiative. Good cannot afford to have enemies. If you have even one
leaders are characterized by strong initiative. enemy, you have one too many. Remember, courtesy
is contagious.

Decisiveness
Fairness
Good leaders are able to make decisions. A common
complaint heard from subordinates is “You can’t get Personnel are extremely sensitive to partiality by
a decision from them.” a supervisor; they may even single out little incidents
where there was absolutely no intent to show favor-
Most of the decisions that must be made by super- itism. To avoid causing any problems of unfairness,
visors in the naval service concern relatively minor you must think ahead on changes or decisions to be
actions. Subordinates usually want the supervisor’s made, work to be assigned, recommendations for pro-
approval to perform some action that they already motion, etc. In each instance, you must try to ensure
know should be done. A prompt go-ahead from the that your actions are both fair and impartial.
supervisor is all that is needed. In many trivial mat-
ters, it makes little difference whether an answer is
yes or no; the important thing is to give an answer. Sincerity and Integrity

The supervisor who stalls, puts off, evades, or re- Sincerity and integrity are extremely important to
fuses to give a decision is a bottleneck. a supervisor. You should deal with your personnel
squarely and honestly at all times to win and hold
Of course, there are times when a decision re- their respect. Talk to your crew on a one-to-one basis.
quires careful consideration of many factors and,
therefore, much deliberation. In such cases, you Don’t be afraid to face the facts and say what you
should tell the person when to return for the decision think. You of-ten hear, “Give me the person who looks
and see to it that you have made the decision. you straight in the eye and tells the truth every time!”
A reputation for being a square shooter is worth every
effort on your part.
Tact and Courtesy
Consistency and dependability are valuable assets
Good leaders are habitually tactful and courteous. of integrity.
Whether in the work center or in the office, super-
visors can be thoughtful of others without being Consistency of thought and action is important if
considered weak. your personnel are going to know where they stand.
Being too strict one day and too lax the next day is
Tact is saying and doing the right thing at the right worse than being consistently strict or consistently
time. It is the lubricating oil in human relationships. lax, Avoid exhibiting inconsistent moods—good one
It is the regard for the feelings of others based on an day, bad the next—to your crew. Your crew tends to
understanding of human nature—the little considera- reflect your attitudes. Exhibit a firm and positive atti-
tions that make the job pleasant and smooth. tude—and be consistent.

3-6
Dependability involves consistently meeting obli- RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPERIORS
gations promptly. A reputation for being “on time,
every time” is worth every effort on your part. Build Your bosses are very important to you. In their
this reputation early, even before you become a first- hands rests much of your success in your job.
line supervisor, and maintain it. Whether or not you like them personally, you must
cooperate with them if you hope to advance.
Any violation of dependability or integrity will
cast serious doubts upon your ability to act as a Many supervisors rate loyalty at the top of the list
responsible supervisor. One violation of integrity may of desirable qualities. A loyal supervisor does not crit-
take months (or forever) to rectify. icize the boss to others, even if there is cause for oc-
casional disagreement.

Teaching Ability Dependability is another desirable quality your


superior looks for in you. He likes to know that when
Teaching ability is a vital trait of a good super- you are given an assignment, you will complete it to
visor. A large part of your job will involve instructing the best of your ability and on time. There are few
personnel in one way or another. Even giving orders things more annoying to a boss than a subordinate
is a form of instruction. who always has an alibi or who cannot be depended
on to do a job.
You should learn and practice the art of public
speaking, the principles of on-the-job instruction, and Do not be a “yes” person; but, on the other hand,
the techniques of conference leadership. People who do not go to the extreme of being a “no” person. Good
cannot stand on their feet before a group and express bosses want subordinate supervisors who are not
their ideas should not be supervisors. To be a success- afraid to tell them tactfully what they think, even if it
ful supervisor, you must be able to train and develop means telling them that they are wrong. But they do
others. not like having a subordinate who is against every-
thing and who stubbornly resists every idea.

Self-Confidence
Tactful Suggestions
Good supervisors have a quiet self-confidence
(not an arrogant or cocky manner) based on thorough Most bosses resent employees who make it a com-
knowledge of the job and belief in their own ability. mon practice to tell them bluntly what should be done
Confidence begets confidence. It is amazing to see or what should not be done. It is easy to get your
how people will follow those who have confidence in ideas across to the boss without incurring resentment;
themselves. Mousy, hesitant supervisors who lack just put them in the form of a question: “What do you
self-confidence cannot inspire confidence in others. think about this idea?” or “Do you think this would
work?”
On the other hand, beware of arrogance. Some su-
pervisors put on such a front of aggressive confidence If the boss gives you an assignment that is ob-
to hide their own inferiority feelings that they ridicule viously a mistake, tactfully ask about handling it from
the opinions of others, dominate conversations, and another angle. However, if the boss insists on carrying
are arrogant toward others. Such people are much less out the order as specified, do not argue.
effective than they think they are.
Work-Center Status
Supervisors who have a quiet inner confidence,
which is expressed in their confident manner, actions, Bosses like to know what is going on in their
and words, are respected and followed. areas of responsibility, but they do not want to be

3-7
bothered with all the petty details. Keep them advised The people we supervise are human beings with
of job status, personnel problems, proposed changes, individual differences. They usually produce only to
and other important matters. the extent that they feel like producing, and their will
to produce is based primarily on the ability of their
If you make a serious mistake, tell your boss supervisors to win their cooperation. Good leadership
about it immediately. Don’t wait until the boss dis- is reflected in this ability to get cooperation; and co-
covers the mistake and then you try to defend your operation, in turn, is a reflection of the respect the
actions. And remember, lengthy explanations of your personnel have for their supervisors. Teamwork or co-
actions are not required. operation, then, is based on good human relations.

When you walk into any division or office, you


RELATIONSHIPS WITH FELLOW can almost feel if the spirit of cooperation is present.
SUPERVISORS If it is there, you can see it in the faces of the people,
in the appearance of the workspace, in the reception
Friction and jealousy are your prime enemies in you receive, and in the way the work is performed.
establishing cooperation with your fellow supervisors.
A good supervisor avoids backstabbing, gossiping, Poor cooperation and poor management are indi-
and criticizing fellow supervisors when the competi- cated whenever bickering, jealousy, and friction are
tion becomes keen. The main thing to remember is present. Low production is the inevitable result. Fre-
that you cannot rise by putting others down. If you try quent accidents, indifference, sloppy work, griping,
to do so, your unkind actions will ultimately cause complaints, grievances, criticism of the unit, buck-
you to fail in your job. passing, loafing, many requests for transfer, poor
planning, and poor training or indifference to training
In addition to being cooperative personally, a are danger signals that indicate a lack of cooperation
good supervisor may sometimes have to encourage and poor management.
cooperation on the part of other supervisors. In the
long run, the person who is able to foster and main- Developing cooperation within your group is
tain harmony in all relationships is the one who will largely a matter of adapting your behavior to meet the
be assigned to the Navy’s key jobs. varying situations you encounter daily—and in going
out of your way to show a willingness to cooperate.
You cannot simply order cooperation.
TEAMWORK WITHIN
THE DIVISION Elements in the development of cooperation in-
clude adapting to change, correcting mistakes,
Even in primitive times, people banded together. delegating authority, training personnel, setting an
To have a working team, you should know and appre- example, giving credit, handling personal problems,
ciate the psychological rewards that a group must pro- and breaking in new personnel. The following subsec-
vide to hold its members are feelings of security, tions briefly describe these factors.
belonging, being somebody, accomplishment, satis-
faction, and pride in the group, as well as receiving
recognition from outside the group. All these ele- Adapting to Change
ments are very important in attaining the goals of the
group. Most people resist change. Even when the change
is clearly for the better, people sometimes persist in
A good leader encourages these feelings, since the clinging to the old ways. Unless ordered by higher
stronger are these psychological rewards, the stronger authority, changes must not be too fast. They should
is the group. Some supervisors achieve such an in- be properly timed and, if possible, explained before
tense feeling of group pride that their personnel ac- they are placed in effect. If the explanations are plaus-
tually feel privileged to work in those groups. ible, personnel will be more willing to adapt to change.

3-8
Correcting Mistakes Giving Credit

When you think you need to correct a mistake a Always give credit where credit is due, and never
worker is making, unless safety is involved, make the forget to pass on any credit given to you. Good super-
correction through those who deal directly with the visors give full credit to the team. Frequent and sin-
individual. The worker takes orders from an immedi- cere praise is a wonderful incentive to individuals and
ate supervisor, and that supervisor may have valid to the group as a whole.
reasons for having the person perform in a certain
way.
Handling Personal Problems

Delegating Authority Personal problems arise almost daily in any group


of people. You must tactfully handle each problem.
Good supervisors soon learn to delegate work. Rumors about any of your personnel, disputes be-
They develop their subordinates to the point where tween personnel, family troubles, and similar situa-
they can delegate to them all the routine work. Then tions can disrupt the efficiency of the group. Usually,
the supervisors have time to handle personnel prob- positive action from you is required.
lems, study, and do the necessary planning and crea-
tive work. Try to solve problems that arise in your work cen-
ter or between crewmembers, if solving those prob-
lems is within your capability. This does not mean
Training Personnel that you should act as a chaplain, a marriage coun-
selor, or a psychiatrist. It does, however, emphasize
Train at least one person to handle your position, the need for you to be able to recognize the problem-
and do not be afraid that the person you train will sur- atic symptoms that require special help so that you
pass you. Supervisors who train and develop subordi- may arrange to have those problems placed in the
nates make possible their own advancement, because proper hands as soon as possible.
higher-level managers want good people in every
billet. In each case, first listen and get all the facts. Then
tactfully bring about a solution so that all personnel
Good supervisors provide for each person in their concerned may work in harmony. The best course of
unit. They encourage their people to take advantage action is usually to face problems squarely and hon-
of educational opportunities. When the group person- estly, bringing them out into the open on a one-to-one
nel feel that a supervisor is interested in their welfare basis and solving them before they become major
and that the job offers more than just pay, they de- situations.
velop a strong sense of cooperation and loyalty.
Breaking in New Personnel

Setting an Example Breaking in new personnel is a vital facet of your


job as a supervisor. Suppose you are in the middle of
An important part of your job is to set an example. a rush job. You are behind in your paperwork. You
Supervisors who are enthusiastic about their jobs, have been called to the phone unceasingly. Nothing
who are friendly and good-humored, and who foster has gone right. Then, right in the middle of it all, a
harmony among their associates, do much to create a new crewmember arrives. The most important thing
cooperative attitude in their group by their own exam- at the moment is to get this person off to the right
ple. start.

3-9
Remember, the impressions made during the first PERSONNEL PROBLEMS
days on the new assignment will carry over for a long
time to come. The member’s future attitude concern- Misunderstandings can arise in almost any work-
ing the outfit is being molded, good or bad, during ing situation, such as a complaint in good faith, a dis-
this period. agreement between crewmembers, or disobedience.
These are problems that you must face and attempt to
The following suggestions should assist you in solve as expeditiously as possible.
properly handling new members of your crew:
Whenever you have a problem to solve, you
l Put new arrivals at ease. Give them a cordial should use a logical, proven method to guide you to a
greeting. Make them feel that you are glad to have solution. Problem solving is primarily a method of
them. Be tactful. Get their names correct and remem- thinking based on scientific procedures. This section
ber them. shows you how to use a scientific approach to solve
a problem.
l Show personal interest. Seek out topics of
mutual interest. Ask about their previous work and One of the most important steps in learning to use
their families, and ask if they have been properly a scientific approach is accepting the need for a logi-
berthed. cal, orderly procedure for evaluating a problem. An
excellent procedure is the six-column approach. Over
l Give them the right point of view. Let them the years, this method has given excellent results.
know you have confidence in them and that you ex-
pect and demand good work. Now is the time to build In the six-column approach, the column titles
proper attitudes and loyalty. represent the phases and sequence of the problem-
solving process: (1) facts, (2) problem, (3) possible
0 Tell them about the work. They are eager to actions, (4) consequences of possible actions, (5) ac-
know what they will be doing. Show them how their cepted courses of action, and (6) cause of the
jobs will fit in with the whole picture and help them problem.
feel that their jobs are important.
A shallow look at the system may lead you to
l Give them essential information. Do not con- think that the process is fine, as long as time is not an
fuse them with endless details. Write down for them important element. You may think you won’t often
some of the essential information, since, at this time, have enough time to use it. A deeper look, however,
they have so much other new information to remem- will show you that this process, properly learned and
ber. properly used, applies to any problem, regardless of
the time element. You must then realize that time is
. Introduce the new personnel. Always intro- relative. Extra time spent at the beginning saves time
duce newcomers to each member of the crew and to later on.
any others whom they need to know.
By using a scientific approach, you will make
l See them again at the end of the day. Ask better use of whatever time you have available to
them how they are doing and give them a few words solve the problem. Some problems require lengthy
of encouragement. consideration. Others, however, may require only a
few seconds to determine the facts, identify the prob-
If you cannot personally carry out these sugges- lem, consider a course of action, and act. After you
tions, put new personnel in the hands of a trusted have used the process several times, it should become
subordinate who is well-qualified to handle the situa- automatic whenever you encounter a problem.
tion. Explain the reason for your unavailability and
tell the new arrivals that you will want to talk with Now place yourself in the hypothetical situation
them later in the day—and be sure to do it. of being the leader of a group of problem solvers as

3-10
you study the six basic steps in problem solving, that there are many alternative solutions. In this
using the six-column approach. phase, you are not evaluating the course of action;
you are merely listing the alternatives. Enter the pos-
sible courses of action under column 3.
Step 1—Facts
(Step 4 determines, to a large degree, which of the
Determine the facts. All good objective reasoning courses of action from column 3 you may effectively
is based on facts, things, or events that have actually use in solving the problem.)
occurred. People often interject assumptions that are
subjective and have not occurred. Insist that your
group deal only with the facts as outlined in each Step 4—Consequences of Possible Actions
problem; or, if an assumption is accepted, ensure that
it is identified as an assumption, not as a fact. Determine the consequences, if any, of possible
actions. No leader worthy of the name leaps to the
Delay discussion of any facet of the problem until solution of a problem without considering the conse-
you are sure you have obtained all pertinent facts. quences of all proposed courses of action. “What will
After the group has discussed the problem and agreed occur if I do this instead of that?” You, as a military
on the facts, list the facts under column 1. leader, are responsible for the action you take. There-
fore, you must be completely aware of the conse-
quences of each decision you make. Consider the
Step 2—Problem relative importance of each course of action. Enter the
result in column 4.
Define the problem. In any human relations
incident or any other problem, there are usually two (Since step 5 involves the use of manpower and/or
elements or problems—the apparent and the underly- materials, you must consider this step carefully to ob-
ing. You will notice this when your group tries to tain the most economical result. This phase of the
define the problem. Most people can easily see the problem requires much discussion and thought.)
immediate problem: the equipment does not work,
someone is in trouble, relationships are poor between
people, etc. Step 5—Accepted Courses of Action

The person must face all these problems. A person Determine the accepted courses of action. One (or
can often define the immediate (apparent) problem, a combination) of the possible actions will be chosen
but usually he must be trained to define the underly- as the solution to the problem. Do not think that you
ing difficulty. A statement defining the problem need unanimous agreement to achieve a solution.
should be written out; an oral statement is not enough.
The group should analyze the written definition criti- Usually, you should give serious consideration to
cally and come to an agreement concerning it. Only the opinion of the majority; however, the final deci-
then is the group equipped to explore the best possible sion is your responsibility as leader, based on your
course of action. Enter the result in column 2. personal evaluation of the facts and recommendations
submitted. Enter the result in column 5.

Step 3—Possible Actions


Step 6—Cause of the Problem
Determine possible solutions. Most problems have
many possible courses of action to achieve solutions. Identify the cause of the problem. Hypothetically,
Before you decide on any single course of action, try you have now solved the immediate problem; it no
to determine all the courses of action. In handling longer exists. What is left for you to do? You should
technical or human-relations problems, you may find ask, “What caused this problem to occur?” By asking

3-11
this question, you have begun to think in terms of pre- never making issues of minor infractions or
venting the problem from reoccurring, if possible. personal issues of disciplinary matters;

You should give considerable time and discussion l displaying confidence in the group, rather
to this phase. To be a good leader, you must develop than suspicion of it (workers are reluctant to
insight to determine the basic causes of problems. betray expressed confidence);
Good thinking in this area can help the organization
to function smoothly. The goal is to prevent problems l training the group technically;
from occurring, rather that solving them after they
occur. Remember, if you don’t make a concerted ef- l looking after the mental and physical welfare
fort to prevent problems, you will have to make a con- of the group;
certed effort to solve them.
l trying to avoid errors, but showing willing-
ness to admit errors when they are made;
DISCIPLINE
l developing loyalty in the group and of the
Good human relations between supervisors and group; and
their work force are easy to spot. The upbeat, enthusi-
astic atmosphere in the work center indicates that su- l knowing that because of individual differ-
pervisors appreciate and understand the workers; they ences, discipline cannot be a completely rou-
have their workers’ interests and welfare at heart, and tine matter.
they respect their workers’ opinions, knowledge, and
skills. Some of the principal causes of misconduct are
discontent, idleness, lack of interest in the job, misun-
Human relations factors that lead to positive dis- derstanding of regulations, resentment, and emotional
cipline include strain. The wise supervisor avoids the necessity for
formal discipline by removing as many of these
l understanding and practicing the principles, causes as possible.
standards, rules, and regulations necessary to
good conduct; One of the major problems you may encounter as
a supervisor is maintaining discipline in your crew.
l knowing their personnel as individuals and Discipline can be both positive and negative, and in-
treating them fairly and impartially; cludes giving orders and reprimanding subordinates
for misconduct.
l developing the feeling of belonging and secu-
rity within the group;
Determining Positive and Negative Discipline
l getting information to the group through
proper channels and promptly eliminating ru- Discipline can be both positive and negative. It is
mors; much more than reprisal for wrongdoing. Actually, it
may also exist where no disciplinary actions ever
. using authority sparingly and always without have to be taken. Most people realize they cannot get
displaying it; along without self-discipline and that no organization
can function and no progress can be made unless in-
l delegating authority to the lowest echelon dividuals conform to what is best for the whole group.
possible; The supervisor who can build the spirit of coopera-

3-12
tion, which is the basis for true discipline, has few l Direct command: In a military formation, the
discipline problems. direct command, or formal type of order, is always
used. It is also used when there is immediate danger,
The following paragraphs differentiate between fire, accident, disobedience of safety rules, etc.
positive discipline and negative discipline:
l Request: The request is the best type of order
l Positive discipline is the force that originates to give for daily routine work. It is used for most
within individuals that prompts them to obey rules orders given by good supervisors.
and regulations. People in a Navy organization do
what is right because they do not want to hurt the l Suggestion: The suggestion is excellent when
group as a whole and because they believe that by fol- you wish personnel to proceed on their own when you
lowing the accepted rules, they will help the group do not know exactly how the job should be done. It is
achieve its objectives. This is called esprit de corps. also excellent for building initiative. Suggestions
The supervisor who builds esprit de corps has little build morale and show your personnel that you have
need to resort to negative discipline. Discipline and confidence in them. However, it is not clear-cut, and
high morale go hand in hand. Positive discipline is you certainly will have no recourse if the job is not
closely tied to the admiration and respect personnel done properly.
have for their supervisor. This, in turn, is based on
good human relations.
PERSONNEL.— The personnel involved in
l Negative discipline is fear based on the threat receiving orders may respond to a direct command, a
of punishment. It originates from without. If you sub- request, or a suggestion.
ject people to negative discipline, they will do only
enough to get by when you are watching. Then, when Direct command: The direct command is nor-
you leave for a few minutes, discipline also leaves. mally used to direct careless, lazy, insubordinate, or
Their only motivation for working is fear of reprisal. insensitive personnel. Except in unusual situations,
the direct command is normally reserved for those
who must be spoken to in a firm and positive manner.
Giving Orders
. Request: The request is, by far, the best type
A good supervisor gives much thought to the art of order to use with most personnel. To them, a sim-
of giving orders. Properly giving orders really is an ple request in the form of a question has the full effect
art that you must practice. Proficiency in giving or- of a direct order. Moreover, the request fosters a feel-
ders will reap many benefits. Since most disciplinary ing of cooperative effort and teamwork.
problems are the result of personnel not carrying out
orders, this subject cannot be overemphasized. There l Suggestion: The suggestion is excellent for
are three basic types of orders: (1) direct command, those to whom a suggestion is sufficient. It stimulates
(2) request, and (3) suggestion. people to show what can be done. People with real
initiative like to work on their own. In dealing with
You should always consider (1) the situation under sensitive, highly intelligent personnel, a mere hint that
which you will give the order, and (2) the personnel something is desired should be enough to get a project
who will carry out the order. The following subsec- started. Toss this person an idea by saying something
tions discuss the three types of orders, based on each like, “Petty Officer Jones, I wonder if it would be a
of these two considerations. good idea to do this?” or “Seaman Smith, do you have
any ideas on how this can be done?” This makes the
SITUATION.— The situation may involve a di- individual a key person in the project and provides a
rect command, a request, or a suggestion. feeling of importance. It also shows that you have

3-13
confidence in that person and provides excellent train- l Put the person at ease, Find a word of praise
ing. first, if appropriate, to take out the sting.

Although the situation and the individual are the l Never use sarcasm, anger, profanity, or abuse.
prime considerations in giving orders, the attitude and
the tone of voice in which they are given are also very 0 Fit the reprimand to the individual.
important. Whenever you give orders, apply the five
Cs: clearly, completely, concisely, confidently, and l Present the facts, (Have all the facts at hand;
correctly. Also, avoid orders that are unnecessary. the person may attempt to deny the charge.)

l Ask the person why there was an error.


Reprimanding
l Try to get the person to admit the mistake.
When one of your subordinates disobeys or fails to
carry out an order, you must take action. You would . Never threaten; this person knows how far you
be remiss in your duties as a supervisor if you did not. can go.
The most common type of discipline is the simple
reprimand. l Once the wrong is admitted, the reprimand is
over.
The reprimand must be fitted to both the person
and the situation. A sensitive person might be crushed l Leave on a friendly note, and let the person
by the slightest hint of something wrong, while an in- know the incident is closed. Never nag.
sensitive person could easily deal with a severe re-
buke. The reprimand should be a calm, constructive l Follow up later with a casual and friendly con-
action, not destructive. You are interested in the un- tact at the work center.
derlying causes, not in getting even with the person.
To test the effectiveness of your reprimand, ask
Failure to act when a reprimand is due is a sign of yourself “Did it build morale?” Remember, you must
poor supervision. No one likes a supervisor who is too get along with this person in the future; you must keep
lenient or who is ingratiating. If one person gets by with this person as a working, producing individual; and you
doing something wrong, the supervisor may lose con- must be able to get along with your own conscience.
trol. On the other hand, issuing too many reprimands You do not have to be soft, but remember that there is
is just as bad. a great deal of difference between dignity and arro-
gance.
A good supervisor knows how to draw a fine line
between harshness and leniency. A person with a keen
understanding of human nature should be able to dis- COMMUNICATIONS
cern this line. Be sure to practice the three Fs of dis-
cipline: fairness, firmness, and friendliness. The art of good communications is vital to your suc-
cess as a supervisor. Communications may be broken
The following list gives recommended suggestions down into two broad categories: internal and external.
for administering reprimands:
Internal Communications
l Get all the facts.
To achieve good internal communications, keep
l Never reprimand a person in front of others your personnel informed. They should know the reasons

3-14
behind any changes that affect them. If security pre- Personnel Assets
vents you from giving reasons, let them know that secu-
rity is the reason. They will understand. Personnel assets are the most complex to manage,
as well as the most flexible to use. Combat systems/
Communications is a two-way street. You, as the weapons personnel are responsible for maintaining a
supervisor, need feedback from your crew on every- variety of electronic and digital equipments and sys-
thing that is happening so you can make decisions and tems. Because the equipments and systems maintained
formulate plans. Be open and free in communicating by electronics personnel are very complex, long periods
with your people and encourage them to discuss their of training are required to qualify personnel for the
feelings and opinions. maintenance role.

Good internal communications also means each Personnel graduating from formal schools are
person is talking to every other person. Work centers assigned Navy enlisted classification codes (NECs).
and work groups should communicate freely with each There are many different NECs assigned to the FC
other to develop harmonious relations. Investigate any rating; your division will normally have several of these
breakdown in communications and try to correct the NEC requirements. At the present time, almost all FCs
problem immediately. are assigned by the Bureau of Naval Personnel (BU-
PERS) according to the requirements of the NECs.
External Communications
Division personnel are the keys to your success as
Without proper external communications, you will the division supervisor. Without their continuing loyalty
not be able to coordinate complex jobs involving a to you and their willingness to follow in the direction
number of work centers and/or divisions. You must that you lead, you will be unable to effectively achieve
develop good lines and methods of communications the required results. You may be a good technician, but
external to your work center. Running systems tests you cannot do everything yourself.
may involve several work centers aboard ship and, in
some cases, other ships or activities. Unless you can
effectively communicate your requirements to each Material Assets
work center, you will be unable to successfully com-
plete the systems tests. Material assets are all parts, tools, test equipment,
and workspaces that you need to perform the division’s
Much of your external communications will be in maintenance role. A deficiency in any one area makes
correspondence. The correspondence will be of little it difficult to perform your job in the most efficient
value unless you have an effective method of keeping manner. By carefully surveying your division and
track of the information and ensuring that it gets to the identifing its shortcomings, you can take corrective
ultimate users. You should develop controls to ensure action and improve the conditions under which your
that information gets to the people who will benefit the personnel will be working.
most from it. If you do this, you, the supervisor, will
be the winner.
MATERIAL AVAILABILITY.— Material avail-
ability determines how long it takes to complete a
ASSETS maintenance action. A spare part for a particular piece
of equipment could require from 6 months to over a
Effective supervisors make the best use of their year to acquire from a vendor who has to produce it on
assets, both personnel and material. To do this, you a special order. There is little the supervisor can do
must thoroughly understand the limitations and capa- about this situation. There are many other situations,
bilities of your personnel and know if there are any however, in which the supervisor can play a controlling
major deficiencies in your material assets. role.

3-15
As a supervisor, you will control (1) tools, (2) test better methods of arranging the workspace. This, in
equipment, (3) consumables, (4) safety equipment, and turn, should result in more-efficient working conditions.
(5) other materials specific to your work center. There-
fore, you must respect your personnel by having the Consider each area on a case-by-case basis. Brack-
correct material available for them to perform their ets, stowage bins, book shelves, and collapsible work-
preventive and corrective maintenance without delays benches may be installed in an amazing number of
caused by lack of material. places that previously may have been overlooked.
Involve all your people in the planning.

MATERIAL CONTROL.— The most effective If you are fortunate enough to be involved in the
way to control material assets is to maintain account- planning stages of a division maintenance area, you
ability. Mass issuing of tools to all work-center per- should consider the following items:
sonnel represents a major expense, and it usually means
the tools will not be available when needed. l Is adequate lighting available?

Loaning test equipment items to every work center l Are adequate 60-Hz and 400-Hz (if applicable)
that wants to borrow them may mean that the equipment power receptacles available?
will not be in the correct spaces when you need it. As
the supervisor, you should always be willing to help l Is the layout of the work center the most effec-
others, but you must have a system to keep track of tive use of the space?
material assets.
l Are special safety devices or safety precautions
You may make a simple equipment checkout log needed in the work center?
containing item description, serial number, work center,
name of the person to whom the item is checked out, l Is the parts storage area centrally located to all
date loaned out, date returned, and space for the lender’s workstations?
initials. Logging this information will allow you to track
tools borrowed and returned. However, this accountabil- These are just a few of the questions that you should
ity system works only if everyone uses it. ask. The only limits to how well a space can meet your
needs are the space available and your ingenuity and
Tools are government property and, as such, are imagination. If space is available, you should be able
accountable items. Thousands of dollars are needlessly to develop the plans for an efficient work area.
spent on tools each year because tools are misplaced
or are carelessly left lying around to be lost or stolen.
TRAINING
Space Assets
Training for personnel may be either formal or in-
Sometimes it seems as if combat systems/weapons formal, either off site or on site. As a supervisor, you
spaces are designed by people who will never have to will spend a good part of your time training your work
use them for maintenance. Ashore, the facilities are nor- force or arranging for training. Much of this training
mally adequate to provide proper maintenance. Aboard is informal, such as showing a new technician how to
ship, however, there is little space that is not dedicated align or adjust a radar repeater or how to use a technical
to some vital function. manual.

As a supervisor, you may feel there is little you can A good training program is balanced. The better
do about the inadequacies of your division spaces. trained your work force is, the more readily your divi-
Sometimes this may be true; but, in most cases, if you sion can perform the required maintenance with which
analyze the situation carefully, you can usually devise it is tasked.

3-16
OFF-SITE TRAINING about their particular work-center or work-group opera-
tion and system configurations. The courses of instruc-
Formal off-site training is composed of factory tion that FCs attend usually provide only the fundamen-
schools, class A and C schools, and fleet classes. tal theory and skills required to perform the minimum
maintenance on electronic and digital equipments. Most
l Factory schools are held by various vendors or C schools do not have the manpower or equipment
contractors. They are the costliest form of training avai- available for the students to pefrorm all the maintenance
lable. In addition to travel finds, fill or partial per diem tasks they will ultimately be required to do.
usually must be funded by the type commander (TY-
COM). These schools are often the only source of Most of the hands-on training that FCs receive is
training available for new types of equipment being at their first duty stations. As a supervisor, you will be
installed on new or modernized vessels. responsible for providing the extra training the new FC
will require to become a competent, technically skilled
. Navy class A and C schools are designated class technician.
A or class C to identify the level and type of training
offered. Class A schools offer the basic technical You can do this by combining the following training
knowledges and skills required to prepare personnel methods:
for job-entry-level performance and further specialized
training. Class C schools offer the advanced knowledge, l On-the-job training: On-the-job training is one
skills, and techniques required to perform a particular of the most widely used and easiest ways of providing
job in a billet. To send your personnel to these schools, training.
you must obtain training quotas. Your educational
services office (ESO) can assist you in obtaining train- l Personnel qualification standards: The person-
ing quotas. nel qualification standards program is designed to
develop a person’s ability to stand a watch or maintain
l Other formal classes are available from fleet a piece of equipment.
technical support centers (FTSCs). The classes offered
cover a wide range of equipment in use in the fleet and . Formal shipboard training: Formal shipboard
some of the basic skills required to maintain this equip- training is the best way to train large groups of people,
ment. FTSCs announce scheduled classes via messages but it requires more effort and preparation than most
to all local units on a monthly or quarterly basis, de- other methods.
pending on the location of the FTSC.

In addition, the Catalog of Navy Training Courses On-the-Job Training


(CANTMC), NAVEDTRA 10500, lists all formal
courses of instruction offered to naval personnel. It On-the-job training (OJT) is, by far, the simplest
contains the following information on each of the and easiest way to train. It can be used almost anytime
courses listed: location, length, class of school (A or that you, the supervisor, desires. In fact, you perform
C), convening frequency, purpose, scope, prerequisites, OJT many times a day without ever thinking about it.
quota control, and reporting designation. This publica- Showing a new FC how to perform radio frequency
tion is an invaluable aid for supervisors as they plan (RF) transmitter alignment, how to perform RF power
off-site training. It is normally located in the ESO. measurements, and how to perform a receiver sensi-
tivity check are all examples of OJT.

ON-SITE TRAINING When used wisely, OJT allows new FCs to gain
hands-on experience under operational conditions that
On-site training (shipboard) is necessary throughout normally cannot be acquired at a formal school. By em-
the naval establishment. Technicians reporting to their phasizing OJT, you will be able to increase the tech-
first duty station from a C school have much to learn nical competence of your new personnel in a shorter

3-17
period of time. Although you can use OJT informally, You should consider the following four factors when
you should also schedule it as part of your work center’s you are preparing for a formal training session:
in-rate training program.
1. Class lesson plans: Are adequate up-to-date
Personnel Qualification Standards lesson plans or instructor’s guides available? If lesson
plans (LPs) or instructor guides (IGs) are available, you
The Navy’s Personnel Qualification standards (PQS) should carefidly screen them to ensure that they contain
program is part of training and qualifying new person- the topics you want to present and all of the points you
nel. It is also used to cross-train and requalify experi- want to emphasize-the need-to-know material. If LPs
enced personnel. The concept of standards for personnel or IGs are not available or are inadequate for your
qualification is not new in the Navy. For many years, needs, prepare new ones. Whenever you start to prepare
various forms of qualification standards have been in an LP or an IG, you should remember one important
use. point: Instructors are the experts; they should be fully
knowledgeable in the subject area. If you are hazy on
Observing the performance of new technicians in some areas, get out the books and refresh your memory.
a division routine helps the supervisor decide when the Instructors who have not adequately prepared lose their
technicians are ready to stand a watch or work on equip- credibility when they falter or hesitate while covering
ment alone. PQSs are very beneficial and are required a subject. Figure 3-1 shows an example of a lesson plan
in a well-managed training program. outline.

The success of the PQS program in your division 2. Class schedule: Can the presentation be sched-
or work center depends on you, by your taking the uled at a time that will give maximum attendance?
following five steps: Schedule formal class presentations as early in the day
as possible when people are rested and are ready to start
1. Maintain an adequate PQS reference library of the day. They are most likely at that time to be in a
technical, procedural, and rate training manuals. more-receptive mood than after they have already
worked a full day and are waiting for liberty call. There
2. Manage effectively the overall division work- are always interruptions to class schedules. By planning
center training program. in advance and ensuring that all persons attending are
aware of the schedule, you can minimize the effects of
3. Have a program to prepare work-group supervi- outside events. Keep your training sessions short and
sors as PQS qualifiers. Supervise and assist schedule them over a number of days. Trying to cover
designated PQS qualifiers. too much material in 1 day may produce poor results
due to interruptions because of ship evolutions, loss
4. Have realistic individual qualification goals and of interest because of the length of the class, or the
time limits. technical nature of material covered.

5. Monitor individual qualification progress. 3. Class location: Is there a suitable location for the
training session? This is often a problem on small ships
Formal Shipboard Training since space is at a premium. At a shore station, training
rooms are usually available. An adequate space for a
The most difficult training to perform is that aboard classroom should be as comfortable as possible, well-
ship or in a busy maintenance shop. There are many lighted, arranged so the entire class can see the instruc-
variables to consider when you attempt formal training tor and vice versa, free from outside noise, capable of
aboard ship. First, consider the preparation required seating the class personnel, and adequately equipped
for presenting a formal class. with the necessary training devices.

3-18
4. Class achievement: How can you measure class as you do written tests. Require each student to perform
achievement? Written tests and performance tests are the procedure while another student assists. If neces-
the two primary methods of measurement. These tests sary, you can prepare job sheets to help the students
give you, the instructor, an idea of how well you pre- in a particularly complex procedure. Also, two students
sented the material. Prepare your written tests before
may take turns performing the same procedure as you
class, using the IG as a source topic to test. Include only
observe and grade their performances. Wherever a haz-
questions that are based on the need- to-know informa-
ardous condition may exist, always emphasize safety
tion that you presented during the lecture or demonstra-
tion. Prepare your performance tests in the same way precautions on the job sheet.

PART OF LESSON PLAN INSTRUCTOR’S ACTION FOR LESSON PLAN

TITLE Write the title and the lesson number.

OBJECTIVES List the learning objectives, making them realistic.

MATERIALS
(1) Training Aids (1) List the training aids.

(2) References (2) List the sources from which this material was obtained.

INTRODUCTION Introduce the lesson and create interest in it by possibly relating a short story
to catch the trainees’ interest. (The related story should key up the importance
of knowing the lesson.)

PRESENTATION Place the vital information to be taught in this portion of the lesson plan in outline
form. Outline it to provide a coordinated flow of information.

APPLICATION Prepare a list of questions in advance to see if the trainees have absorbed the
presented material. (Include the answers to the questions for reference.)

SUMMARY Review the vital elements of the presentation,

TEST Administer a small quiz, if desired.

ASSIGNMENT Give an assignment to reinforce the lesson, if desired.

Figure 3-1.-Example of a lesson plan outline.

Training Presentation l NEVER talk in a monotone voice. It will put


your class to sleep.
The training presentation is the culmination of your
effort and preparation. For the training to be effective, l NEVER jingle coins or keys in your pocket. It
you must present the prepared material in an effective
will divert the attention of the class from the
manner. All the effort you put into preparing for the
topic you are discussing because they are dis-
training session may be negated if you do not give an
tracted by what you are doing. If you have the
effective presentation.
habit of jingling coins or keys, remove them
The following list gives some of the pitfalls you from your pockets before you begin the training
should avoid when giving a formal presentation: session.

3-19
l NEVER talk during a loud burst of background tance of equipment standards to personnel before they
noise. Your class will not be able to hear you. begin maintenance on equipment to emphasize the
importance and quality of the equipment performance.
l NEVER use distracting mannerisms, such as tug-
ging your ear or playing with a ruler or a pen.
The class will pay more attention to what you Training Publications
are doing than to what you are saying.
The training chapter of Standard Organization and
l NEVER “talk down” to the class. It will cause Regulations of the U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32,
animosity toward you, and you will lose the discusses the quarterly forecast, weekly schedules, and
attention and interest of the class. various personal and group training records that must
be kept.
l NEVER lose control of the class. They will be
distracted and will not learn. The Catalog of Nonresident Training Courses,
NAVEDTRA 12061, lists training manuals and corres-
Keep your presentation interesting, accurate, and pondence courses. The Personnel Qualification Stan-
to the point. Toss in a comment on personal experience dards Catalog, NAVEDTRA 43100-5, contains an
when you want to emphasize a certain point, or ask alphabetical listing of PQS packages.
questions if you are losing the interest of the class or
of an individual. The object is to keep your class Some other sources of information are
working and receptive to the information you are pre-
senting. l TYCOM directives and work-center directives;

. Manual of Navy EnlistedManpower and Person-


Training Topics nel Classification and Occupational Standards,
NAVPERS 18068; and
A wide variety of topics are appropriate to a combat
systems/weapons division. In addition to combat sys- l Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC),
tems/weapons, you should have lesson plans and NAVEDTRA 10500.
training for other topics, such as safety, use of test
equipment, electronics casualty control, general military
subjects, and basic electronics. TRAINING SCHEDULES AND RECORDS

Chapter 1 discussed four standards that you can use The scheduling of shipboard training requires the
as a basis for your training program: (1) naval stan- careful attention of the training officer, the department
dards, (2) occupational standards, (3) personnel heads, and the division officers to minimize conflict
qualification standards, and (4) equipment standards. with the activities of the ship and to ensure that the time
allotted to training is used to the best advantage. The
. Use the applicable naval and occupational only justification for a record of training is that it
standards to tailor your training program to cover the provides continuity to the training program by indicat-
professional and technical requirements of your ing what training has been done.
personnel.
When developing a training schedule, you must
. Use the applicable equipment standards when consider the ship’s operating schedule and yard overhaul
you train personnel on new equipment or equipment periods assigned by the TYCOM. A yard overhaul takes
with which they may not be familiar. Stress the impor- place approximately every 3 years. See figure 3-2.

3-20
Figure 3-2.-Example of a ship’s training cycle adjusted to yard overhaul periods.

3-21
Long-Range Training Schedule quarters, off-duty studies, etc., take up much time
beyond the usual work week. The quarterly forecast
The ship’s training cycle is tied closely to the periods of all-hands evolutions, however, must be based on the
of time between overhauls. The long-range training realistic assumption that most training takes place dur-
plan, prepared by the training board, is the basic ing normal working hours.
instrument for planning and carrying out the ship’s
training requirements. In preparing the forecast, the training officer indi-
cates the total number of crew-hours that must be
The long-range plan contains only information of reserved for each all-hands evolution. Thus, during a
major importance needed to ensure that the overall co- week in which type training is to be conducted, 31
ordination and planning of the training effort are hours may be reserved for one all-hands evolution and
effective. It is not concerned with minor details of the 2 hours for another evolution. After the training officer
ship’s training schedule. has completed the calculations, there may be 10 crew-
hours reserved for training. On the basis of this
In effect, the plan outlines the periods of time that computation, the training officer may then inform all
are to be considered as all-hands evolutions, during division officers of the number of hours available for
which little personal training may be scheduled. These division activities (35 hrs -10 hrs = 25 hrs).
events include major inspection, trial, and maintenance
periods; competitive exercises; off-ship team training;
general quarters, general drills; etc. This plan becomes Division Quarterly Forecast of Activity
the framework for preparing the more detailed quarterly
forecast of all-hands evolutions and the weekly training As a leading FC, you will generally be called upon
schedules. to assist the division officer with the division quarterly
forecast, at least the portion concerning FC personnel.
The division officer may prepare a quarterly forecast
Quarterly Forecast of All-Hands Evolutions to show how the time available for division activities
is to be divided among watch standing, lessons, drills,
Based on the long-range training schedule and and routine operations.
general policy guidance from the commanding officer,
the training officer prepares a quarterly forecast, or This forecast is optional because small divisions,
estimate, of the number of normal working hours re- such as those on a destroyer, receive little benefit from
quired to carry out evolutions involving all hands. On its use. It is most helpful in the control of large groups
the basis of that estimate, the training officer also of personnel participating in diversified activities.
forecasts the number of hours that are available for
individual division activities. The forecast is simply a weekly breakdown of total
hours available during the quarter. First, the hours
When the ship’s employment schedule is reasonably needed for watch standing are subtracted from the total.
firm, the training officer prepares the quarterly forecast The remaining hours are divided according to the exist-
simultaneously with the long-range training schedule. ing situation. Some routine maintenance, for instance,
At other times, the training officer can forecast only may have been included because of operational commit-
as far ahead as reliable estimates can be made, perhaps ments, quality monitoring, or inoperative equipment.
monthly or biweekly. If so, the training cycle maybe adjusted to absorb the
extra time.
The analysis is based on a normal work week of 35
hours per person, 7 hours per day for 5 days. Obviously, A good rule of thumb, however, is a 50-50 approach
shipboard personnel work many more hours a week to training versus maintenance, unless equipment
than 35. Watch standing, equipment repairs, general becomes inoperable or an operational emergency arises.

3-22
Quarterly Training Schedule The weekly schedule should provide three categories
of training: (1) all-hands, (2) military, and (3) profes-
Preparing a quarterly schedule requires careful plan- sional.
ning and imagination to ensure completion of individual
and team training. The division officer is responsible l All-hands training is best typified by the onboard
for maintaining this schedule, and it is generally posted know-your-ship requirements. These requirements gen-
in an area where all FC rates have access. erally apply to all newly reported personnel, regardless
of rate or rating.
The leading petty officers generally meet with the
division officer to plan the quarterly training schedule, l Military training applies to the mandatory naval
depending on the ship’s operating schedule, the quar- standards for all hands, according to paygrade.
terly forecast of all-hands evolutions, and the adminis-
trative and maintenance needs of the division. l Professional training applies to personnel in a
specific rating group, by paygrade.
Most of the schedule is devoted to specific subjects
that are to be taught during indicated weekly periods.
A certain amount of instruction should take place during Training Records
every watch, but a definite schedule ensures that each
of the ship’s FCs drill and exercise at least once per The responsible LCPOs should know at all times
quarter, operational conditions permitting. how much training has been completed and how much
remains to be accomplished. Numerous records of
individual training must be maintained to keep this
Weekly Training Schedule information current.

Training petty officers should, at the end of each To standardize record keeping, the Chief of Naval
week, consult the quarterly training schedule and pre- Operations (CNO) has developed four forms, one of
pare a training program for the following week. The which should be suitable for any record or schedule
weekly schedule should include pertinent information needed in the training program. One of the forms is the
on the long-range training schedule and on training Weekly Training Schedule (OPNAV 3120/32).
items allocated for that week from the quarterly training
schedule. Any remaining training time may be used as The remaining forms are General Record, Type I
a pickup of any lessons, drills, exercises, etc., that may (OPNAV 1500/30); General Record, Type II (OPNAV
have been missed the previous week because of unfore- 1500/31); and General Record, Type III (OPNAV
seen circumstances. 1500/32). The main difference in these three forms is
a flexible columnar arrangement that permits any one
After completing the weekly training schedule, the of them to be used for several records.
training petty officers should forward it to the division
officer via the leading FC for approval and incorpora- l Type I is useful in preparing the long-range train-
tion into the division officer’s weekly division training ing schedule, the quarterly forecast of all-hands evolu-
schedule. tions, and the division quarterly forecast of activity.

When space permits, the weekly schedule may in-


. Type II maybe used to maintain both enlisted
clude the names of instructors and locations and times
and officer records of training. Its broad column on the
of lectures and films. Additionally, any major mainte-
left of the sheet permits relatively lengthy entries, such
nance activity, test, or inspection may be included in
the weekly training schedule, which may then serve as as names, functions, or training requirements. The other
a plan of the week. columns are headed by individual blanks.

3-23
l Type III is resewed for scheduling instructional the entries are coded or abbreviated. When a planned
periods. The reverse side is a calendar with a space for training period has taken place, the appropriate entry
each day of the year. Planned instructional periods are is made.
usually noted in pencil. Because of space limitations,

3-24
RECOMMENDED READING LIST

NOTE: Although the following reference was current when this TRAMAN was published,
its continued currency cannot be assured. Therefore, you need to ensure that you are studying
the latest revision.

Standard Organization and Regulations of the U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32, Chief of Naval Operations,
Washington, DC, 1994.

3-25
CHAPTER 4

COMBAT SYSTEMS,
SUBSYSTEMS, AND MAINTENANCE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Identify the combat systems reference manuals for your class of ship in a combat
systems environment.

2. Describe the subsystems that comprise shipboard combat systems.

3. Identify the objectives of the combat systems test and evaluation program.

4. Describe the functions of the ship’s electronics readiness team.

5. Discuss integrated maintenance as it pertains to combat systems maintenance.

6. Identify maintenance testing required in a combat systems environment.

7. Describe the goals of fault isolation.

INTRODUCTION The outputs of combat systems equipment into


the combat direction system (CDS) and weapons sys-
Compared to older combatant ships, today’s com- tem control equipment must be accurate (within as-
batants have more, and increasingly complex, elec- signed standards): Without accurate signals and data,
tronics and weapons equipment and systems. There- the ship may not be able to perform its combat mis-
fore, changes must be made to the traditional organi- sion.
zation of division responsibilities. This means com-
bining some of the responsibilities of the combat Current practice has one officer, the combat
systems/weapons department. systems/weapons officer, in charge of all weapons
systems (all weapons and electronics subsystems)
In the past, technicians were only concerned with maintenance. This integrates the maintenance of all
maintaining their assigned equipment so it would electronics and makes the ship more capable of ful-
operate when it was needed. Now, under the combat filling its mission.
systems concept, technicians must also ensure the
accuracy of their equipment and system outputs into In some configurations, it is possible that the
the combat system. Therefore, technicians must cross engineering department will supply personnel for
traditional boundaries and become familiar with the supporting systems, such as gyro distribution, cool-
operation and capabilities of the overall system. ing systems, primary power, and secondary power.

4-1
All subsystems of a combat system—weapons, aboard older combatants. To help these ships adopt
search radar, communications, antisubmarine war- and maintain these technologically advanced sys-
fare, electronic warfare, and sonar—interface tems, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) has
through the naval tactical data systerdcombat direc- directed that each ship within a ship class with
tion system (NTDS/CDS) subsystems. These collec- tactical data systems and related equipments installed
tively compose a single shipboard system. be provided with a combat systems technical opera-
tions manual (CSTOM).
All combat systems subsystems are very impor-
tant to the overall readiness of combatants. As a Developed specifically for each ship of a class,
senior technician and supervisor, you must work with the CSTOM contains the necessary technical data to
your fellow combat systems technicians, supervisors, provide the technicians with all aspects of systems
and operators to ensure a high state of combat sys- capabilities, operations, and maintenance.
tems readiness. Figure 4-1 illustrates the typical ex-
ternal components of a combat system. Specifically, the CSTOM contains and organizes
the technical data that shipboard personnel need (1)
COMBAT SYSTEMS to operate and maintain the integrated combat sys-
REFERENCE MANUALS tems, (2) to maintain material and personnel read-
iness, and (3) to define significant capabilities and
Two reference manuals are vital to the training of limitations of the combat system.
personnel in the operations of combat systems equip-
ment aboard ships. They are a combat systems train- The CSTOM is also a reference for the following
ing requirements manual and a combat systems topics:
technical operations manual. Both of these manuals
are generic, ship-class-specific publications that may l The integration of systems and subsystems.
be obtained aboard your particular ship.
. The readiness requirements for operational
COMBAT SYSTEMS TRAINING and maintenance personnel.
REQUIREMENTS MANUAL
l The establishment of the ship’s electronic
A combat systems training requirements manual
readiness team to maintain on-line combat systems
(CSTRM) is developed for each class of ships in the
readiness.
force. It specifies the standards of technical and oper-
ational training expected for all operators and tech-
l The provision of text and graphic materials to
nicians of that ship class.
be used for both classroom training and self- instruc-
tion. Pictorial diagrams, rather than conventional
COMBAT SYSTEMS TECHNICAL
OPERATIONS MANUAL block diagrams, provide more-realistic training. Data
are presented in levels ranging from elementary to
Sophisticated combat systems integration is rap- detailed, allowing presentations to be made at the
idly replacing the single-system operations found appropriate educational level.

4-2
COMBAT SYSTEMS SUBSYSTEMS acoustical countermeasures group, and (3) electronic
attack group.
Because many subsystems comprise an overall
combat systems, it would be impractical to cover all
the subsystems within this chapter. We will, there- Electronic Warfare Support Group
fore, discuss only a few of the major subsystems
found aboard one ship class, the Oliver Hazard Perry The electronic warfare support (ES) group sup-
(FFG-7). ports actions taken to search for, intercept, locate,
record, and analyze radiated electromagnetic energy
All subsystems are very important to the in support of tactical operations. Thus, ES equipment
readiness of the overall combat systems. Therefore, provides a source of countermeasures information
as a senior technician and supervisor, you must work required for threat detection, warning, avoidance, and
with your fellow combat systems technicians, super- target acquisition.
visors, and operators to ensure a high state of combat
systems readiness. The ES group also receives triggers from ship-
board emitters and develops the blanking pulses
required to prevent the emitters from interfering with
COMBAT DIRECTION SUBSYSTEM operating countermeasures equipment.

The combat direction system (CDS) subsystem is The major components of the ES group are (1)
a digital, computer-based, data-processing system the Electronic Countermeasures Set, AN/SLQ-32
that allows the crew to integrate, control, monitor, (V)2; and (2) the Blanker-Video Mixer, AN/SLA-
and make tactical use of the ship’s weapons systems. 10B.
It also allows the use of task force weapons against
air, surface, and subsurface threats.
Acoustical Countermeasures Group
Sensor data from radar, sonar, countermeasures,
and remote communications links are collected,
The acoustical countermeasures (ACM) group
correlated, and evaluated by the CDS operational
provides deception devices designed to provide false
program. The CDS program then develops and sends
or misleading acoustical targets for incoming acous-
recommendations and alerts to the console operators
tical homing torpedoes.
to enable them to use their sensor and weapon
resources efficiently.
The major components of the ACM group are (1)
the Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set, AN/
The CDS is composed of three major equipment
SLQ-25 (NIXIE); and (2) the Prairie/Masker System.
groups: (1) data processing, (2) data display, and (3)
data communications.

Electronic Attack Group


COUNTERMEASURES SUBSYSTEM
The electronic attack (EA) group provides false
The countermeasures subsystem is a stand-alone or misleading targets for incoming missiles or other
subsystem that provides combat systems with detec- weapons. In conducting mission assignments, the
tion, surveillance, identification, and engagement ship uses decoy systems primarily as a defensive
capabilities against threats the ship encounters during measure.
a mission.
The major component of the EA group is the
This subsystem is divided into three functional Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Chaff (SRBOC), Mk
groups: (1) electronic warfare support group, (2) 36 Mod 1.

4-4
CLOSE-IN WEAPONS SUBSYSTEM ious detection devices, including a sonobuoy re-
ceiver-transmitter for transferring sonobuoy data to
The Close-In Weapons Subsystem (CIWS), Mk the ship.
15 Mod 1, provides the final defense against antiship
cruise missiles (ASCMs) as part of the Navy’s Shipboard LAMPS equipment consists of (1) the
defense-in-depth concept. This subsystem engages Telemetric Data Receiving Set, AN/SKR-4A; and (2)
and destroys ASCMs or aircraft that penetrate a the Sonar Signal Processing Set, AN/SSQ-28.
ship’s primary defense envelope. It also provides
ASCM and antiair defense for ships operating in
other than defense-in-depth situations and may be MISSILE/GUN WEAPONS
operated in either the antiair warfare (AAW) auto- SUBSYSTEM
matic or manual mode.
The missile/gun weapons subsystem enables the
The CIWS is essentially a stand-alone weapons combat systems to deliver to a target an SM-1 missile
system consisting of (1) the Weapon Group, Mk 16 warhead or a 76-mm gun projectile. This subsystem
Mod 1; (2) the Remote Control Panel, Mk 340 Mod uses internally and externally generated raw data and
1; and (3) the Local Control Panel, Mk 339 Mod 2. processed data to provide the combat systems with
weapons assignment, direction, and firing capability.
This subsystem supports the combat system AAW,
UNDERWATER WEAPONS antisurface warfare (ASUW), and ASW missions.
SUBSYSTEM

The underwater weapons subsystem provides the HARPOON MISSILE WEAPONS


combat systems with an engagement capability SUBSYSTEM
against subsurface threats.
The Harpoon missile weapons subsystem pro-
The underwater weapons subsystem is composed vides a self-contained, surface-to-surface missile
of (1) the Sonar Set, AN/SQS-56; (2) the tactical system capable of launching the Harpoon missile at
towed array sonar (TACTAS); (3) the Torpedo over-the-horizon surface targets. The Harpoon mis-
Tubes, Mk 32 Mod 5; and (4) the Control Panel, Mk sile weapons subsystem is the ship’s primary surface-
309 Mod 0. to-surface weapon. This subsystem relies on the
weapons control processor (WCP) computer and
other elements of the combat systems for target
LIGHT AIRBORNE MULTIPURPOSE detection, threat evaluation, weapon pairing, and
SUBSYSTEM target data functions.

The light airborne multipurpose system


(LAMPS) is a computer-integrated, ship-helicopter SUPPORT SUBSYSTEM
subsystem that is capable of supporting both combat
and noncombat missions. The primary combat mis- The support subsystem is absolutely necessary to
sions are ASW and antiship surveillance and targe- equipment operation. It consists of the following sub-
ting (ASST). The secondary noncombat missions systems and equipments:
include search and rescue, medical evacuation, verti-
cal replenishment, and utility operations. 1. Dry air and nitrogen.

The LAMPS consists primarily of the SH-60B 2. Liquid cooling and heating.
Seahawk helicopter. This helicopter is an all-
weather, airborne platform capable of carrying var- 3. Ship power and distribution.

4-5
4. Ship parameters and distribution (own-ship unit in the force. Its specific objectives are as fol-
heading, roll and pitch, own-ship speed and distance, lows:
and wind speed and direction).
l Maintenance: To improve the combat systems
5. Air conditioning and heating. maintenance condition of the force.

6. Interior communications. l Overhaul planning: To improve the planning


process for the combat systems portion of overhauls
and major ship restricted availabilities (SRAs).
COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST
AND EVALUATION PROGRAM l Overhaul. To improve the quality of work
conducted on combat systems equipment, to increase .
The Combat Systems Test and Evaluation Pro- the focus on combat systems integrated testing, and
gram (CSTEP) is a combination of special teams, to ensure high levels of technical training during an
tests, evaluations, publications, and reports used to overhaul or an SRA.
promote the overall effectiveness and readiness of
shipboard combat systems. l Post-overhaul: To ensure maximum combat
systems effectiveness immediately after overhaul by
This program has three basic purposes: taking fill advantage of the basic and intermediate
training associated with the overhaul or the SRA.
1. To increase the priority and focus given to
combat systems during overhauls and ship restricted l Combat readiness: To maintain combat sys-
availabilities (SRAs); tems equipment readiness and training at a high level
throughout the entire operational cycle of each unit
2. To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of in the force; to provide for efficient and effective
combat systems evolutions that occur during a ship’s management of combat-systems-related training, ad-
life cycle schedule; and ministrative, and readiness programs; and to provide
a means to evaluate and report promptly a unit’s com-
3, To provide a procedure for the intermediate bat systems readiness.
unit commander (IUC) to use periodically in moni-
toring and assessing the combat systems organization The CSTEP is composed of many elements, all of
and readiness of individual units. which are intended to increase combat systems readi-
ness. Several of those programs are briefly discussed
The overall goal of the program is to develop and in this section. Table 4-1 shows a typical life cycle
maintain a high combat systems readiness in each schedule of CSTEP key events.

4-6
Table 4-1.-Typical Life Cycle Schedule of Combat Systems Test and Evaluation Program Key Events

4-7
GROUP COMMANDER’S COMBAT NAVSEACEN COMBAT SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS COORDINATION READINESS ASSISTANCE
SUPPORT TEAM
Personnel from the NAVSEACEN provide engi-
The group commander’s combat systems coord- neering technical support and material services to
ination support team (CSCST) assists in monitoring forces afloat. They assist in conducting combat sys-
and assessing an individual unit’s combat systems tems readiness reviews (CSRRs) and provide tech-
organization and readiness during all combat systems nical assistance for gun/missile/ASW battery and
readiness evolutions. During these evolutions, the gunfire control/missile fire control/ASW fire control.
CSCST conducts ship visits to evaluate and help de- These reviews are not the same as the technical assis-
velop shipboard programs to improve combat sys- tance for repairs provided by fleet technical support
tems readiness. Until permanent CSCST detachments centers (FTSCs). Instead, they provide assistance
are formed in individual home ports, group com- necessary to further the “self-reliance” of the ship’s
manders form CSCSTs from assets within the group force in improving the operational readiness of in-
and the ship’s home port. stalled ordnance.

Specifically, the CSCST takes the following


actions: COMBAT SYSTEMS READINESS
REVIEW
l Reviews combat systems administrative sup-
port (i.e., technical manuals, CSTOMs, consolidated The comprehensive combat systems readiness
ship/station allowance list [COSAL], planned main- review (CSRR) helps the ship’s force to achieve a
tenance system [PMS], general-purpose electronic high state of combat systems readiness for deploy-
test equipment [GPETE]), assesses progress during ment. Implicit in this goal are the following objec-
overhauls and ship restricted availabilities, conducts tives:
reviews of the combat systems integrated test plans
(CSITPs), and supports CSPOE/CSORE. l To assess the readiness of the ship’s combat
systems materiel and personnel and to report the
l Evaluates and, when required, conducts tech- status to appropriate seniors
nical training to improve the ship’s force ability to
light-off, test, operate, and maintain combat systems l To help the ship’s force and the IUCs correct
equipment. material problems

l Evaluates the effectiveness of the ship’s elec- l To provide on-the-job (OJT) training for the
tronic readiness team. ship’s force personnel and to improve the ship’s self-
sufficiency
l Assists in conducting the following CSTEP
events:
ORDNANCE SPECIAL ASSISTANCE
combat systems pre-overhaul assessment TEAM

combat systems post-overhaul examina- The ordnance special assistance team (ORDSAT)
tion consists of several technicians, both military and ci-
vilian, highly trained in various fire-control systems.
combat systems operational readiness The team’s primary purpose is to instruct the ship’s
examination (phases I and II) force in how to maintain its own equipment, thereby

4-8
improving its battery system as a whole. Ordnance the commanding officer with an operational assess-
equipment includes gun battery, gunfire control, ment of the total combat systems.
guided-missile fire-control, and underwater battery
fire-control systems.
COMBAT SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENT
PROGRAM ADVISORIES
COMBAT SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL
READINESS EXAMINATION The numbered combat systems improvement
program (CSIP) advisories are used by the type com-
The combat systems operational readiness exam- mander (TYCOM) to pass on to units lessons
ination (CSORE) is an evaluation conducted in three learned, recommendations, and specific guidance on
phases by the ship’s IUC to determine the material combat systems requirements.
readiness, personnel training level, and logistics sup-
port of the installed combat systems.
COMBAT SYSTEMS INTEGRATED
TEST PLAN
COMBAT SYSTEMS POST-OVERHAUL
EXAMINATION The combat systems integrated test plan (CSITP)
consists of detailed procedures for conducting all
The combat systems post-overhaul examination combat system tests through the systems level during
(CSPOE) is an evaluation of the combat systems overhaul. For further information on the CSITP, refer
readiness and training of the ship. It provides prereq- to Combat Systems Test and Certifiction Manual,
uisite testing and preparation for CSSQTs, WSATs, NAVSEA T9073-AB-TRQ-010.
and RFT; evaluates equipment readiness and the
ability of the ship’s force to light-off, operate, and
maintain equipment; and assesses the combat sys- COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST
tems technical training. COORDINATOR

The combat systems test coordinator (CSTC) is


COMBAT SYSTEMS SHIP the ship’s representative to the combat systems test
QUALIFICATION TRIALS task group. The CSTC is responsible for coordinating
all testing with the shipyard and for ensuring that all
The combat systems ship qualification trials testing is completed and involves the full ship’s force.
(CSSQTs) is a series of comprehensive tests and
trials designed to show that the equipment and SHIP’S ELECTRONICS
systems included in the CSSQT program meet READINESS TEAM
combat systems requirements. It also provides
training and familiarization to ship personnel in The CSTOM assigns to the ship’s electronics
maintaining and operating installed equipment, readiness team (SERT) the responsibility for main-
identifies design problems, and determines deficien- taining on-line combat systems readiness. Adminis-
cies in support elements (i.e., documentation, logis- tratively, the SERT reports to the systems testing
tics, test equipment, or training). officer (STO), who, in turn, reports to the combat
systems officer (CSO)/weapons officer.

OVERALL COMBAT SYSTEMS If your ship has a SERT, the discussion in this
OPERABILITY TEST subsection should help you understand its purpose. If
your ship does not yet have a SERT, you may wish
The overall combat systems operability test to use some of the SERT’s procedures within your
(OCSOT) is a level-1 PMS test designed to provide area of responsibility. See figure 4-2.

4-9
Figure 4-2.-Typical combat systems/weapons department organization.

SERT Training Ship alteration, ordnance alteration, and field


change configuration levels.
Using the CSTOM as the basic reference, the
SERT is trained as a unit in combat systems opera- Combat systems, subsystems, and equipment
tions, preventive and corrective maintenance, mainte- maintenance and scheduling.
nance management, and training.
Ordnance pamphlets and data, and NAVSEA
The SERT members should have knowledge in manuals.
the following areas, either by previous formal train-
ing or by a rigorous shipboard training program: Combat systems, subsystems, and equipment
tests.
PMS philosophy.
Logistics support.
PMS scheduled and corrective maintenance.
Members of the SERT are senior petty officers
Planned maintenance during overhaul. with extensive experience in subsystems and equip-
ment maintenance. Each must be an expert on at least
Maintenance data system. one subsystem. Since the SERT is an official part of
the ship’s organization, the duties of its members are
Combat systems, subsystems, and equipment primary, not collateral. Figure 4-3 shows where the
operation. SERT fits into the ship’s organization.

4-10
major branches of the combat systems/weapons de-
partment. The SERT members should have direct
access to the leading petty officers of each subsystem
group within the combat systems/weapons depart-
ment.

Additionally, because combat systems do not in-


clude all maintenance and operational departments of
the ship and because combat systems cannot operate
without the support of other departments, all de-
partments should be involved in implementing a
system-level maintenance program. Both officers and
enlisted personnel should participate in the sched-
uling process for the plan.

For the SERT to be held responsible for combat


systems readiness, it must have clearly defined re-
sponsibilities and authority. This is best done by a
specific shipboard instruction. The SERT’s authority
should be in the area of organization, as well as in
materiel and personnel readiness.

The knowledge that SERT personnel have must


not be confined to a particular subsystem if the or-
ganization is to function properly during condition
III and in port.

For all personnel to quickly understand combat


systems availability during conditions I and III, and
in port, the SERT should establish the following
three lines of communications:

1. Condition I: The STO should be assigned a


general quarters station in the combat information
center (CIC). He should be able to inform the tactical
control officer (TCO) of the present and changing
status of combat systems availability on a threat
basis. The rest of the SERT members should be as-
signed as roving evaluators for subsystems with
which they are most familiar. If possible, the duties
Figure 4-3.-Typical ship’s electronics readiness
of the roving evaluators should be rotated to ensure
team organization.
that SERT members become familiar with all areas
without affecting the overall operation of the combat
systems.
SERT Operations
2. Condition III: At least one SERT member
For the SERT to coordinate preventive and cor- should be on watch in the CIC, with the responsi-
rective maintenance efforts effectively, there must be bility of reporting combat systems status to the
extensive coordination and cooperation among the tactical action officer (TAO). The remaining SERT

4-11
members should perform their regular duties of test- and equipments. The SERT provides the foundation
ing, instructing, and evaluating maintenance activi- for maintenance through proper planning and execu-
ties. tion.

3. In port: At least one SERT member should be Certain PMS procedures at the combat systems
assigned to each duty section so that the command level are more oriented toward operator proficiency,
duty officer (CDO) will know the actual systems with summary observation of combat systems per-
status at all times. formance. The management guidance in the PMS
manual and the cycle and quarterly schedules is pri-
marily equipment- and department-oriented. This
SERT Responsibilities guidance provides minimum maintenance require-
ments for the subsystems and equipments covered
Responsibilities of the SERT are broadly defined under PMS. The SERT must operate within such
as maintenance management, readiness assessment, factors as the interdependence of equipments and
and operational training guidance required to ensure subsystems in the overall combat systems, the varia-
high-level combat systems readiness. tions of available manpower, and the dedication of
subsystems to operations during conditions I and III.
Specific responsibilities of SERT include the fol-
lowing actions: The scheduling and performance of PMS (sup-
ported by documentation and maintenance training)
l Integrating and managing PMS for the leads to fault detection, which provides a basis for
combat systems. readiness assessment. Maintenance management en-
sures that detected faults are isolated and followed by
l Determining mission-related materiel readi- corrective action. Effective corrective maintenance
ness. includes logistics control and the determination of
how important each corrective maintenance require-
l Managing the corrective maintenance effort ment is, based on parts availability and readiness
for the combat systems, including fault isola- assessment.
tion, and data collection and analysis.
Follow-up actions, including verification or re-
. Monitoring operational performance during testing, and complete shipboard and maintenance
condition watch exercises and ship or fleet data collection reporting are essential to an effective
operational exercises. PMS program.

l Evaluating both materiel and operational


readiness of the combat systems, and provid- SERT Materiel Readiness Assessment
ing internal or external reports as necessary.
The SERT materiel readiness assessment is di-
SERT PMS Management rected toward four major missions: AAW, ASW,
ASUW, and amphibious warfare (AMW). Materiel
The SERT PMS management includes super- readiness assessment involves performing tests and
vision of actual maintenance actions and all other operational checks on the subsystems to identify
efforts required to plan and support maintenance equipment that is either degraded or nonoperational.
events. Therefore, the management task involves The results of the tests and operational checks are
controlling all combat system PMS activities, includ- then used to determine how well the subsystems can
ing PMS tasks for the combat systems, subsystems, perform their mission requirements.

4-12
Readiness assessment is probably the most diffi- l Quanitative techniques involve the extensive
cult task facing the SERT because it requires the use of mathematics and reports based on graphs and
ability to provide an up-to-the-minute status of the numbers. Past shipboard experience has shown that
capabilities and limitations of the combat systems. It without computer support, quantitative assessment is
also requires the ability to recommend alternate not easily managed. Its numerical reporting lacks
combinations of equipment to meet mission needs. meaning or requires extensive explanation.

The SERT must know the results of all tests and, l Qualitative assessment (an application of
in addition, the minute-to-minute availability of the engineering analysis) is based on system knowledge,
combat systems, its subsystems, equipments, and all experience, and judgment. It is usually a verbal re-
support functions, such as primary power, chilled port. These assessments depend on the personal
water, dry air, and sound-powered telephones. experience level of the users. Therefore, written
guidance and report forms are required. The impact
Although all equipment problems are important, of no-go conditions, revealed by PMS results, must
the existing tactical environment can modify their be determined for each mission capability.
impact on a mission capability. For example, losing
the moving target indicator capability can be more After an assessment is made, each major function
important when the ship operates near land masses is assigned one of the following four readiness cri-
than when it operates in the open sea. teria:

Materiel readiness assessment should be ap- 1. Fully combat-readv status: All equipments as-
proached from the functional readiness aspect, rather sociated with a specific function are in the highest
than the equipment up-or-down-status aspect for the state of readiness with respect to that function.
following reasons:
2. Substantially combat-ready: Although all the
l Complex, multifunction electronic equipment equipments may not be fully operational, redundancy
is seldom completely down and less frequently com- permits the mission to be continued, resulting in a
pletely up. Normally, one or more functions are in high probability of success.
various states of degradation.
3. Marginally combat-ready: A function may be
l The impact of a fictional fault maybe dif- performed, but with a much-reduced probability of
ferent for the capability of each mission. success.

l The complex design of the combat systems 4. Not combat-ready: The equipment has a com-
includes some fictional redundancy. plete loss of function.

l The test results and operational fault directo- These readiness criteria provide the basis for a
ries relate problems to their effect on system func- summary report of readiness. A combat systems daily
tions rather than to the basic operation of the affected fault report should be submitted, listing the sub-
equipment. function faults of the day, their individual impact,
any alternative recommendations, and the expected
Readiness assessment uses two basic types of time of repair. See figure 4-4 for an example of a
techniques: quantitative and qualitative. daily fault report.

4-13
Figure 4-4.-Example of a combat systems daily fault report.

Materiel readiness does not end with the success- SERT Corrective Maintenance Management
ful completion of tests and scheduled maintenance.
In addition to testing, other actions (such as visual in- SERT corrective maintenance consists of two
spection for cleanliness, corrective maintenance, basic categories: fault isolation and corrective main-
quality control, and complete integrity) are a neces- tenance.
sary part of SERT responsibilities.
l The SERT is responsible for directing fault
Also, requesting the commanding officer to con- isolation at the combat systems level, managing cor-
duct materiel inspections, assigning SERT personnel rective maintenance at all combat subsystems levels,
to inspection teams, and conducting random equip- and coordinating corrective maintenance in related
ment inspections without prior notice may provide support subsystems.
excellent results, Such inspections should be for elec-
tronic and mechanical materiel readiness and l The SERT responsibility for corrective mainte-
preservation. The SERT representatives should also nance also includes coordinating fault-isolation ef-
provide results of such inspections to appropriate forts and evaluating the impact of faults to determine
authorities and provide follow-up inspections to the priority of each corrective maintenance require-
ensure that corrective action is taken. ment.

4-14
Two other SERT responsibilities are (1) follow- tion is made by retest, and required reports are com-
up action of verification or retesting, and (2) com- pleted. Since some faults tend to be repetitive, the
plete shipboard and maintenance data collection SERT should keep records of fault symptoms, identi-
subsystems reporting. Effective corrective mainte- fication, and corrective measures.
nance management first requires the consideration of
combat systems readiness, then efficient use of man- SERT Monitoring
power. These factors closely relate to the ship’s
employment and the tactical environment. The SERT responsibility for operational training
is vital since overall readiness assurance is a function
There will be times when more corrective main- of operational readiness (personnel proficiency) and
tenance requirements exist than can be simulta- materiel readiness. The goal of operational readiness
neously handled by the available manpower. In is to achieve maximum combat systems capability
addition, sometimes parallel faults exist that require for each mission under constantly changing condi-
the same personnel or the same system setup for fault tions of materiel readiness. The measurement of per-
isolation. When these conditions occur, the setting of sonnel readiness is based on the three following
repair priorities is based on management’s require- techniques:
ments for readiness and available manpower to make
the repairs. 1. PMS tests: In each case, the hardware must
be operating properly. Otherwise, the capabilities of
As the SERT collects and evaluates PMS results, the personnel cannot be determined accurately.
it should continually base its recommendations for
correcting faults on the tactical situation, complexity 2. Simulators or computer programs: The video
of fault isolation, and available manpower. Some signal simulators with computer programs provide a
faults may be designated for correction; others may means to assess the skill of the console operator.
be deferred. However, deferred faults, if left to ac- However, the computer programs are limited in as-
cumulate, tend to degrade overall systems readiness. sessing the capabilities of combat systems operators.
Therefore, as soon as the situation permits, deferred
faults should be repaired. 3. Monitoring of ship or fleet exercises: one
way to evaluate the capability of all combat systems
Faults detected within combat systems must be personnel is to actually monitor ship or fleet exer-
isolated to a subunit that can be replaced or repaired cises. These exercises include:
or to an alignment that can be made before actual
corrective action can be taken. Therefore, technicians l Electronic warfare exercises.
must have a thorough knowledge of the systems and
access to complete systems and equipment documen- l Gunnery exercises (antiair [AA], surface,
tation. and shore).

Most subsystems and equipment maintenance l Missile exercises (AA and surface.)
publications provide fault-isolation support in one or
two formats. The first format consists of symptoms l CIC exercises (aircraft, tracking and con-
presented in preselected, logical steps and in refer- trol).
ence tables, a logic chart, or logic diagram format.
The second format consists of flow diagrams and l Antiship cruise missile exercises.
relay ladders. The CSTOM provides amplifying in-
formation on fault isolation. l ASW exercises.

After a repair priority has been set and the faults


isolated, the managers of corrective maintenance When the SERT finds personnel deficiencies, it
must ensure that corrective action is taken, verifica- must provide operational training and guidance.

4-15
Since the SERT has the knowledge and training Scheduling is a critical element of preventive
capability, it is uniquely qualified to assist the ship’s maintenance management and requires a thorough
training officer in identifying the topics and content knowledge of the intent and conditions of each main-
of necessary training for both officers and enlisted tenance requirement card (MRC).
personnel.
Important conditions include
As an FC supervisor, you will periodically eval-
uate the operational readiness of your personnel. You l in-port and at-sea requirements,
should ensure that they are familiar with the follow-
ing topics: . outside service requirements,

l Intended purpose of all switches, indicators, l navigational support requirements,


controls, and the impact each has on other
subsystems or combat systems equipments. l combat systems operational usage,

l Communications links available at the station l ship control requirements,


and with the other stations.
l emission control conditions,
l Compliance with specified communications
disciplines. l computer program requirements,

. Knowledge that the lack of communications l subsystems interdependency,


discipline is an internal hazard to the combat
systems or to the ship. l impact on computer program capability,

SERT Test Selection and Scheduling l adverse weather conditions,

The integrated approach to testing is based on l time requirements, and


defining all functional test requirements and subject-
ing them to a critical examination. The examination l manpower requirements.
involves an engineering analysis in which each
function, parameter, and characteristic is examined From these conditions, the quarterly schedule can
for (1) its importance to mission or mode perform- be developed, based on the ship’s employment sched-
ance, (2) its reliability based on the circuit elements ule. Heavy maintenance is usually scheduled during
that affect the function, and (3) its expected mean in-port periods and independent ship exercises during
time between failures. nonthreat conditions (particularly for those proce-
dures requiring long periods of operational equip-
This approach places a test periodicity (daily, ment downtime).
weekly, monthly, quarterly, semiannually, annually,
and cyclically) on the functions. Critical functions If the employment schedule changes, the PMS
are assigned a high periodicity, regardless of relia- schedule may require modification. Daily and weekly
bility; while less critical functions may be assigned schedules are based on the ship’s readiness condition
a lower periodicity based on their reliability. and operational situation. Subsystem interdepend-
ence and manpower usage are also critical in sched-
Related functions are grouped by periodicity and uling.
functional interdependency so that they can be tested
during appropriate periods. The tactical situation Preventive maintenance management includes the
governs how and when maintenance is scheduled. following requirements:

4-16
@ Ensuring that events take place as scheduled The SERT must evaluate, monitor, and report
systems status during competitive and fleet exercises.
0 Coordinating manning and equipment avail- This includes organizing and instructing observers,
ability for interdependent testing preparing recording forms, defining data require-
ments, collecting and evaluating data, and preparing
l Providing adequate safety measures a composite internal report. These reports should be
limited to an evaluation of combat systems materiel
l Ensuring the availability of required support- and personnel readiness during the exercise.
ing systems

l Coordinating the actions of command and SERT Alignment Logs


tactical operation personnel
The SERT is responsible, during PMS activities
. Ensuring fault isolation and corrective main- and exercises, for determining the mechanical and
tenance follow-up electrical alignment of interrelated combat systems
functions. The SERT must also assess the impact of
l Ensuring the completion of required reports a misalignment on the mission.

The ship’s CSTOM contains readiness assessment When SERT members brief subsystems and
and fault-isolation diagrams that (1) indicate the test equipment personnel before an exercise or mission,
that requires the fewest ship resources, (2) verifies they must emphasize the need for caution when mak-
each combat systems interface function, and (3) aids ing adjustments to equipment subsystems that may,
the SERT in preventive maintenance management. in turn, affect the total combat systems alignment.

Alignment tests and efforts to reestablish refer-


SERT Readiness Assessment Reporting ence standards are complex and time-consuming.
They frequently require shore facilities, ideal envi-
After readiness assessment is completed, the ronmental conditions, and extensive data collection.
readiness status must be reported in a form that is Technicians should avoid making realignments that,
brief and easily understood and that presents a clear because of incomplete or inaccurate reference data,
picture of the combat systems effectiveness. This is result in inefficient use of manpower and resources.
done most effectively by addressing the status of the
combat systems equipment as it relates to a mission Experience has shown that unnecessary align-
capability. This summary report also provides a brief ment efforts can be avoided if reference data are kept
description of the effect each division’s group has on current, are accessible, and can be interpreted by all
the overall combat readiness of the ship. team members. Therefore, a combat systems align-
ment smooth log (if not already in effect) must be
Supporting information on specific subfunction maintained and kept current and accurate.
faults related to the summary report sample maybe
provided in a combat systems daily fault report form. A total combat systems alignment manual for the
Figure 4-4 shows a sample method of presenting class of ship (with combat system) should be avail-
daily fault information. The SERT should develop able (separate from the CSTOM). The manual should
report forms similar to that shown in figure 4-4 to fit explain the purpose of total combat systems align-
the ship’s requirements. The combat systems daily ment, provide management data needed for the
fault report is the responsibility of the SERT and analysis and troubleshooting of alignment problems,
should provide enough information for the CSO to and provide step-by-step procedures needed for com-
develop the mission summary reports. bat systems alignment.

4-17
INTEGRATED MAINTENANCE PLANNED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

Combat systems integrated maintenance is based Combat systems readiness requires efficient
on a comprehensive schedule of tests performed at maintenance. The key to this capability is an organ-
three mutually supporting levels: (1) systems, (2) ized system of planned maintenance to ensure the
subsystems, and (3) equipments. These integrated maximum operational readiness of the combat sys-
tests are designed to periodically test all combat tems. The Ships’ Maintenance and Material Man-
system functions, parameters, and characteristics agement (3-M) Manual, OPNAVINST 4790.4, sets
against specified tolerances. Successful equipment forth an effective PMS and assigns PMS manage-
performance during the tests usually indicates that ment responsibility.
the systems are combat ready.
The PMS provides regularly scheduled tests to
Integrated maintenance requirements are de- detect degraded performance and to prevent failures
veloped through engineering analysis, based on a during tactical operations. When failures occur dur-
study of all factors that significantly affect main- ing combat systems operations, the PMS provides a
tenance. The analysis defines system and equipment formal step-by-step fault-isolation and repair pro-
functions and sets tolerances (in terms of system cedure. Complete technical documentation (including
parameters) that allow operators and technicians to combat systems, subsystems, and individual equip-
determine if the systems are operating properly. ment manuals) is an integral part of the PMS. These
manuals provide the necessary information for
Integrated maintenance procedures provide mini- understanding, operating, and maintaining the com-
mum preventive maintenance coverage of the combat bat systems.
systems and are designed to test specific functions
under specific conditions. Sometimes, equipment Shipboard maintenance falls into the three fol-
operators and technicians may not understand the lowing categories:
purposes of all the tests. However, they must still
follow the procedural sequences explicitly. Improvis- 1. Organization-level maintenance: Mainte-
ing or shortcutting procedural sequences of-ten leads nance within the capability of ship personnel.
to incorrect troubleshooting or masking of actual
faults. 2. Intermediate-level maintenance: Maintenance
requiring assistance from outside the ship,
The integrated maintenance concept follows PMS such as a tender or an FTSC.
principles and is the most effective way to achieve
PMS goals. Compliance with this concept enables 3. Depot-level maintenance: Maintenance re-
the SERT to manage the combat systems mainte- quiring port facilities, such as shipyard main-
nance effort and to achieve the optimum level of tenance.
readiness with the most effective use of available
manpower. The goal of PMS is to perform maintenance at
the organization or intermediate level. Therefore,
Integrated maintenance is the planned mainte- depot-level maintenance is not reflected in PMS.
nance system (PMS) as it relates to the maintenance
documentation of a typical integrated combat The PMS is a planning and control system that
systems, the PMS program, maintenance scheduling, prescribes a logical and efficient approach to
and maintenance data system. complex mechanical, electrical, and electronic main-

4-18
tenance. It was developed to provide supervisors at Comprehensive procedures for planned main-
each maintenance level with methods for effectively tenance of the combat systems, subsystems,
planning, scheduling, and controlling shipboard and equipments.
maintenance. It includes a maintenance data-collec-
tion system that is used to record important sche- Systems fault-isolation procedures.
duled and corrective maintenance information, and
an electronic data- processing capability that is used Scheduling and control of maintenance task
to retrieve this information for maintenance analysis. performance.

The goal of PMS is maximum operational Description of the methods, materials, tools,
efficiency of all equipments and the reduction of and personnel required for maintenance.
equipment downtime, maintenance man-hours, and
maintenance costs. Even though the PMS provides Adherence to the PMS program will provide the
methods and resources to accomplish each goal, it is following results:
not self-sufficient and does not replace the initia-
tive of maintenance supervisors or reduce the need Improved confidence in systems maintenance
for technically competent personnel. The recording
and feedback of maintenance and personnel data Reduced testing time
allow continuing management analysis and improve-
ment of maintenance methods and personnel use. Elimination of redundant testing resulting
from lack of coordination
If the ship’s force accepts the PMS program and
makes fill use of its planning methods, the mainte- Detection of most malfunctions during sched-
nance system will promote confidence and reliability. uled maintenance events
It will be capable of ensuring that the combat
systems will be available when they are needed. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING

Data gathered from the fleet show conclusively The normal flow of events and requirements the
that ships that adhere to their PMS schedule maintain SERT should use in developing an integrated mainte-
a significantly higher state of materiel readiness with nance schedule is illustrated in figure 4-5. This figure
no greater maintenance manpower usage than ships shows maintenance management responsibilities and
that do not. The SERT concept is designed to ensure the sequence of events that flows from the depart-
that the combat systems PMS is properly scheduled,
ment master and work-center PMS record books
managed, and used.
(containing the maintenance index pages), through
the scheduling tools (cycle, quarterly, and weekly
schedules), to test actions, unscheduled maintenance,
PMS PROGRAM
and reporting. However, due to the shipboard envi-
The PMS program is essential to equipment ronment, it does not show the variants and con-
readiness. The primary ingredients of the PMS straints the SERT must consider in the quarterly,
program are as follows: weekly, and daily scheduling.

4-19
Figure 4-5.-Planned maintenance system.

4-20
Maintenance Index Page Weekly Schedule

The maintenance index page (MIP) contains a The weekly schedule is a visual display that is
brief description of the requirements on the MRC for posted in the working area of each maintenance
each item of equipment, including the periodicity group. The maintenance group supervisor uses this
code, the man-hours involved, the minimum required schedule to assign personnel to perform maintenance
skill level, and any related maintenance require- on specific equipment. Assignments include system
ments. and equipment tests and servicing procedures.

The MIPs for all equipments in a department are


contained in the departmental master PMS record, MAINTENANCE DATA SYSTEM
which the department head uses to schedule mainte-
nance on the PMS schedule forms. Each work center The maintenance data system (MDS) provides a
should maintain a PMS record that contains the MIPs means of recording maintenance actions, processing
that apply to that work center. the recorded data to define important facts about
maintenance and equipment, and retrieving informa-
Cycle Schedule tion for analysis. Significant data identified by the
system include the reason for the malfunction, its dis-
The cycle schedule is used by the CSO to plan covery, the man-hours used in correcting the prob-
periodic maintenance and other requirements. It is a lem, the exact equipment affected, any delays in
visual display of preventive maintenance require- repair and their reasons, and the types of mainte-
ments based on the ship’s overhaul cycle. nance personnel required.

Quarterly Schedule Maintenance Actions

The quarterly schedule, planned from the cycle Maintenance personnel document certain ship-
schedule, is a visual display of the ship’s employment board maintenance actions and corrective mainte-
schedule. This schedule is prepared by the CSO in nance on specific categories of equipment at the time
cooperation with division officers, maintenance they actually perform or defer the maintenance ac-
group supervisors, system testing officers, and SERT tion. Information is recorded and put into the MDS
members. It shows the current status of preventive using the Ship’s Maintenance Action Form (OPNAV
maintenance for each group. The quarterly schedule 4790/2K).
assigns specific requirements in conjunction with the
ship’s operational schedule.
Data-Processing Facilities
Maintenance Control Board
The MDS data-processing facilities collect, store,
The maintenance control board contains the cycle and analyze maintenance information inputs into the
schedule and the current and subsequent quarterly system. This information yields data concerning
schedules. The board summarizes the status of cur- equipment maintainability and reliability, man-hours
rent and planned combat systems preventive main- usage, equipment alteration status, materiel usage
tenance. and costs, and fleet materiel condition.

4-21
Various automated reports are produced period- SUBSYSTEMS TESTING
ically for the ship, the repair activities, the unit com-
manders, and the type commanders. These automated Subsystems testing exercises two or more pieces
reports include a ship’s current maintenance project of equipment fictionally contained within the same
file, work requests, and preinspection and survey subsystem. The intent of subsystems testing is to test
deficiency listings. intrasubsystem (within the subsystem). However,
with the need for integrated testing, some functions
are tested intersubsystem (outside the subsystem).
MAINTENANCE TESTING
The subsystems operability/readiness test is the
Integrated maintenance tests must be scheduled keystone of integrated subsystems testing. This test
to reduce redundancy wherever possible. Combat consists of a rigidly controlled sequence of steps
systems testing is conducted at three levels: (1) designed to test all critical functions during a primary
systems, (2) subsystems, and (3) equipments. These mode of operation. The subsystems operability/readi-
three testing levels are described in the following ness test and a supporting family of tests use the
subsections. concept of end-point testing, in which functions are
stimulated at their terminal point, thereby verifiing
all operations within the function. Subsystems tests
SYSTEMS TESTING are functionally grouped and mode oriented so that
related functions can be tested by using the same set-
Systems testing exercises the entire combat sys- up, procedures, and stimuli.
tems. It is the highest level of testing that can be
done aboard ship. Combat systems tests are usually
automated and monitored in the CDS subsystems. EQUIPMENTS TESTING

Although these tests provide an overview of sys- Equipments testing generally concerns power
tems performance, they usually do not test the fill levels, frequencies, servos, special features, and out-
capabilities of the overall combat system itself. It is put functions. The equipment PMS may require
impractical, from an instrumentation and manpower special external stimulating equipment for test mea-
standpoint, to test all the fictional requirements at surements. These test measurements are often time-
the systems level. Therefore, confidence in opera- consuming and difficult to complete, but are always
bility or materiel readiness is mainly dependent on checked by the SERT to ensure optimum readiness.
integrated testing at the subsystem or equipment
level.
FAULT ISOLATION
Systems-level tests provide a verification of the
alignment between sensors; the on-line, real-time The goal of fault isolation is to determine system-
monitoring of combats system interfaces; and the atically the part or condition responsible for a fault or
overall test of the 3-D search radar and its interface degraded operation during testing or tactical opera-
with the CDS. These tests are described in the tion. The process often involves impact evaluation.
CSTOM. Impact evaluation requires considering whether (1)

4-22
to ignore the problem for the time being; (2) to There may have been more than one fault contribut-
switch to alternate equipment; or (3) to perform cor- ing to the out-of-tolerance condition that started the
rective maintenance immediately. Impact evaluation fault-isolation process. (The SERT’s responsibility
information is provided in the CSTOM. for fault isolation was discussed earlier in this chap-
ter under the heading “SERT Corrective Maintenance
The CSTOM provides fault-isolation procedures, Management.”)
both for faults that were detected during operations
and for faults that were known before the operations. The possibility of faulty replacement parts and
After a fault has been isolated to a specific unit or incorrect adjustment or alignment also exists. Cor-
interface, corrective action (repair, replacement, or rective maintenance may not have solved the prob-
alignment) must be taken. In the integrated mainte- lem; it may even have added to it. Therefore, each
nance concept, alignment is considered as corrective corrective action must be followed by verification.
maintenance only and, like other corrective action, Verification normally is done by re-creating the test
should be performed only when a fault is indicated. environment and rechallenging the function. Where
alignments are concerned, the verification process is
Fault isolation leads to corrective maintenance. complicated by a requirement that the effect of the
The corrective maintenance performed may or may maintenance upon other elements of the combat sys-
not bring the system back to an operating condition. tems be determined.

4-23
RECOMMENDED READING LIST

NOTE: Although the following reference was current when this TRAMAN was
published, its continued currency cannot be assured. Therefore, you need to ensure that
you are studying the latest revision.

COMNAVSURELANT Combat Systems Officers Manual, NAVSURFLANTINST 9093.3, Naval Surface Force,
U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk, VA, 1986.

In addition:
Combat Systems Technical Operations Manual (CSTOM) for your class of ship.

4-24
CHAPTER 5

WEAPONS EXERCISES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Discuss the personnel training and fleet exercises necessary to test personnel and
equipment readiness.

2. Identify the publications that contain antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, and
antisurface warfare exercises.

3. Describe the naval gunfire support qualifications process.

4. Describe the documentation required during missile-firing exercises.

INTRODUCTION TRAINING AND EXERCISES

This chapter discusses how combat systems/wea- The complex interrelationships between combat
pons personnel are trained, certified, and qualified. systems/weapons elements, compounded by the nor-
All ships have certain operational capabilities that mal attrition of personnel, require that combat sys-
provide invaluable training for the ship’s combat sys- tems/weapons training programs be developed and
tems/weapons teams. practiced to maintain a high state of personnel read-
iness.
Operational ships are in a competitive cycle con-
trolled by their type commander (TYCOM). During Combat systems/weapons personnel readiness is
each cycle, a ship is required to complete many sustained through frequent gunnery, missile, elec-
graded exercises and inspections and to maintain tronic warfare, and combat information center (CIC)
qualifications in designated capabilities. All these re- exercises. This includes a continuing program of in-
quirements apply toward the department and ship dividual and team training consisting of (1) ship and
battle efficiency “E” awards. Proficiency in these fleet operational training exercises, (2) training pro-
graded requirements is a result of preparation and ex- grams and simulators/stimulators, and (3) test pro-
tensive training. The survival of any ship in any hos- grams and procedures.
tile encounter is directly related to the proficiency
and training level of its crew.
OPERATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISES
As a Fire Controlman supervisor, you will be
responsible for ensuring that your division is fully Ship and fleet operational training exercises are
capable of completing all required combat systems/ designed to meet a variety of training objectives. The
weapons exercises. basic exercise objective is the demonstration of the

5-1
ship’s personnel proficiency in detecting, tracking, l To provide predeployment training.
and successfully engaging hostile threats.
l To test and evaluate new doctrine and proce-
The instructions that set forth specific training re- dures.
quirements include training and evaluation proce-
dures for conducting (1) readiness and operational l To stimulate development of new concepts in
evaluations, (2) composite training unit exercises, (3) naval warfare.
fleet exercises, and (4) battle readiness exercises.
Ships participating in composite training unit
exercises should make maximum use of underway
Readiness and Operational Evaluations time to the operating area for training and drilling.
This en route period is an excellent opportunity for
Readiness and operational evaluations are a ma- the combat systems/weapons team and participating
jor part of fleet exercises to provide advanced train- units to perfect their skills in the tactics and pro-
ing and to examine fleet capabilities and limitations cedures of the upcoming exercise.
in warfare aspects. Normally, the duration of the
exercise is 8 to 10 days, with the first 3 or 4 days de- In addition to intraship training, the units can also
voted to warm-up operations. The exercise scenario train in multiship operations and evolutions in prep-
and the emphasis on particular warfare areas are ad- aration to accomplish the stated exercise objectives.
justed to the number, type, and training state of the
participants. Specific accomplishment objectives in A composite training unit exercise has the fol-
a given readiness and operational evaluation are pub-
lowing specific objectives:
lished in the instruction letter for that exercise.

l To permit participants to conduct exercises in


All readiness and operational evaluation exer-
a multithreat environment to enhance readiness.
cises have the following broad objectives:

l To complete the maximum feasible type com-


l To train the fleet in various aspects of naval
warfare and confrontation at sea, with emphasis on mander exercises required to achieve unit training
improving command and control. readiness levels and special predeployment require-
ments;
l To provide specialized predeployment train-
ing for anticipated fleet operations. l To achieve unit familiarity and expertise in
fleet report requirements and procedures required by
l To identify, measure, and analyze the practi- higher authority.
cable extent of fleet performance, capabilities, and
limitations, and to develop appropriate recommended l To train in operations under the minimum
corrective action. radiation concept, radiating electronic and communi-
cations equipment necessary to accomplish a specific
l To develop and test new tactics and doctrine. mission or task, while, at the same time, ensuring
safety.
Composite Training Unit Exercises

l To identify all levels of performance degrada-


The composite training unit exercise has the fol-
tion due to ship and system incompatibilities.
lowing overall goals:

l To enhance the readiness of participating l To train and increase proficiency in all as-
units. pects of operational security.

5-2
Fleet Exercises Battle Readiness Exercises

Fleet exercises are held in accordance with fleet Battle Efficiency Competition, CINCLANTFLT-
exercise publications (FXPs), which combine the INST 3590.11, outlines the requirements for training
training prescribed for crews of all ship types. There exercises and inspections that units must establish
are three FXPs. and maintain to ensure high battle readiness. This
directive also contains the prerequisites and require-
l FXP 1, Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Exer- ments that individual ships must satisfy to earn battle
cises, contains submarine and antisubmarine exer- efficiency awards within the force. The evaluation of
cises. It also contains exercises to familiarize ASW battle readiness is administered to accomplish the
personnel with basic doctrine, tactics, and weapons; readiness objective in as flexible a manner as pos-
exercises to train air and surface units in coordinated sible.
operation against submarines; and exercises to train
air, surface, and submarine forces to operate under This evaluation is based on the following actions:
the direction of shore-based headquarters.
l Minimizing formal reporting on the conduct
l FXP 2, Antiair Warfare (AAW) Exercises, of exercises.
contains air and antiair warfare exercises. It also con-
tains exercises to train and evaluate gunnery person- l Providing for self-observing exercises at the
nel in detecting, tracking, and destroying air targets; discretion of the unit commander.
exercises to train and evaluate missile weapon sub-
systems personnel in detecting, tracking, and de- l Providing for operational equivalents in lieu
stroying air targets and antiship missiles; and of conduct of required exercises.
exercises to evaluate CIC personnel in intercept con-
trol and AAW operations. l Providing for maximum application of unit
commander judgment in supervising the program to
. FXP 3, Strike Warfare (STW), AntiSurface achieve the readiness objective.
Ship Warfare (ASQ), Intelligence (INT), Electronic
Warfare (ELW), and Command, Control, and Com- The exercise and inspection requirements pre-
munications (CCC) Exercises, contains ship exer- scribed are drawn from appropriate volumes of the
cises. It also contains exercises for training gunnery FXP series and fleet instructions and are modified or
personnel in naval gunfire support, surface firing, extended with the appropriate performance standards
and spotting; exercises for antimine defense and sur- and instructions for data collecting, evaluation, and
face-to-surface missile training; exercises for CIC reporting. The exercises specified are minimum re-
and EW personnel training; and exercises to detect quirements.
and combat antiship missile threats.

In addition, each publication contains safety pre- TRAINING PROGRAMS AND


cautions and exercise evaluation procedures. The SIMULATORS/STIMULATORS
force commander, the unit commanders, and the
commanding officers are encouraged to use these The proficiency exhibited by combat systems/
publications to develop training programs to main- weapons personnel during high-level operational
tain maximum proficiency in the applicable mission training exercises is often a reflection of the degree
of each ship. of competent training obtained at the subsystem

5-3
level and the ability of the personnel to work together ship’s sensors with a variety of scenarios. The advan-
as a team. Various systems and subsystems can em- tage of onboard training is that the operators can use
ploy computer training programs and simulators/ the equipment in its own configuration, which is not
stimulators to provide equipment and systems oper- always possible at land-based facilities.
ators with simulated operational environments for
training purposes.
Combat Systems/Weapons
As a supervisor, you should be familiar with the Operator Training
training programs and simulators/stimulators appli-
cable to your ship’s equipment or systems configura- Combat systems/weapons operator training is
tion. And you should make maximum use of the essential to an effective combat climate. In gun and
capabilities to fine-tune your operators and combat missile fire-control systems, a test mode usually pro-
systems team. This training can be very effective vides simulated targets and jamming. The targets can
when a ship is not actively operating. be tracked, and simulated engagements can be con-
ducted.

Combat Direction Systems The combat systems/weapons equipment, includ-


Operator Training ing gun mounts and missile launchers, can be exer-
cised by using simulated targets. Guided-missile
A variety of training is available for combat di- training rounds that incorporate a guided-missile
rection systems operators who perform duties in the simulator are used with the missile launchers to sim-
combat information center (CIC). Team training is ulate tactical missiles.
available at land-based facilities, as well as aboard
ship, Land-based facilities combine classroom in- Many of the tests designed to verify operational
struction and hands-on team training by using system capabilities of the combat systems and individual
mock-ups. Fleet technical support centers (FTSCs) subsystems provide operational training of equip-
may provide onboard team training by using the ment operators by using procedural instructions
ship’s actual equipment. Ship personnel may run in- identical or similar to the actual tactical operating
dividualized and team training by using training procedures. The degree of training provided for each
programs and simulators/stimulators aboard ship. subsystem varies with the function of the equipment
used and the testing philosophy of each subsystem.
Ships that are equipped with naval tactical data
systems (NTDSs) may conduct individualized train-
ing on the basic operation of CIC consoles with NAVAL GUNFIRE SUPPORT
hands-on instruction combined with the lesson trans- QUALIFICATION
lator (L-TRAN) program. Further training is best ac-
complished with a combination of individualized and All ships assigned shore bombardment or naval
team training. gunfire support (NGFS) have a required operational
capability to maintain an NGFS qualification. Gene-
Combat systems team training is accomplished rally, this requirement includes ships with 5-inch-
by using a variety of simulation/stimulation systems. caliber and larger guns.
These systems simulate data, commands, and re-
sponses required for real-time testing, training, and Unless revoked, qualification normally lasts for
evaluation. They are (1) land-based, (2) part of the 15 months. For example, if a ship were to complete
ship’s equipment, or (3) a combination of both. the first of several required exercises in January 1995
and the last required exercise in February 1995, it
Additional team training may be conducted in would be qualified until 30 April 1996. All exercises
pierside vans, such as the 20B5 or other pierside do not need to be completed at the same time, al-
trainers, to provide coordinated stimulation of the though that is encouraged for the maximum use of

5-4
the qualification period. Once qualified, the ship is radar beacon acquisition (RBA) exercise within 30
expected to maintain its proficiency level throughout days of firing qualification exercises.
the qualification period. Frequent firing exercises are
encouraged to maintain proficiency. In addition, other prerequisites may be required
by the TYCOM. If so, refer to the appropriate TY-
Type commanders (TYCOMs) require that the COM instructions.
basic NGFS team training course be completed when
(1) 30 percent of the NGFS team (less gun-mount
personnel) have been reassigned to other duties or QUALIFICATION RULES
permanently transferred, or (2) more than 90 days
have passed since the last NGFS exercise was fired. NGFS qualification is based on the satisfactory
completion of various elements and/or exercises.
NGFS qualification maybe terminated for any of Both a numerical score and a grade of satisfactory or
the following reasons: unsatisfactory are awarded. A score of 62.0 (60.0
SURFPAC) or higher is required for a satisfactory
l When a ship is graded “unsatisfactory” for grade for each exercise or event.
any NGFS exercise conducted for score. (This does
not include exercises conducted as rehearsals or for The final qualification score is the average of the
proficiency training.) last score attained in each of the required exercises or
events. The final score must be at least 62.0. SURF-
. When a ship fires unsatisfactorily during a PAC allows a score of less than 60,0 on no more than
major exercise. one event, excluding the counter battery event, to
qualify.
l When a ship commits a serious safety viola-
tion at any time. Only one exercise may be fired by unqualified
ships during each range visit. This ensures efficient
range use and maintains high qualification standards.
QUALIFICATION PREREQUISITES All subsequent exercises are fired for score.

Ships are required to routinely maintain a high Exercises in progress maybe aborted because of
state of material and gunnery readiness. As a result, foul range, ammunition malfunction, or equipment
the ships must comply with following prerequisites failure. Exercises may also be aborted to save time
before conducting live firing exercises for NGFS when, because of penalties or other point loss, the
qualification: score will be unsatisfactory.

l All required gunnery and gunfire control During a range visit, a ship achieving a satisfac-
planned maintenance system (PMS) must be current. tory grade on an exercise fired for score may not
refire that exercise to improve its score until all other
l All records of alignment checks must be pro- required exercises have been satisfactorily com-
perly recorded in the smooth fire-control log. pleted.

l Formal team training, either at an NGFS


trainer site or on board by an FTSC, must be com- EXERCISE DOCUMENTATION
pleted within 90 days before firing qualification exer-
cises. TYCOMs and fleet commanders have specific
data recording and reporting requirements for their
l All ships with the design capability of acqui- exercises. Appropriate exercise manuals and appli-
ring the radar beacon must successfully complete the cable instructions identify the reporting requirements

5-5
and formats. In addition to the exercise reporting Performance analysis of Navy missile weapons
requirements, the Naval Sea Systems Command systems is a complex task that requires specific data
(NAVSEASYSCOM) requires additional data collec- that are furnished on SMS firing reports. These data
tion and firing reports for surface missile systems. can be obtained from missile firing ranges and mis-
sile firing ships.
DATA COLLECTION
The STANDARD MWTARTAR missile firing
Before firings, during firings, and immediately report for DDG-, FFG-, CGN-, and CG-ship classes
after intercepts, data should be collected from var- is a five-page form that is required to be submitted
ious sources on the firing ship. In addition, telemetric within 4 days of each exercise. Other missile systems
(TIM) data should also be recorded; however, TLM have similar requirements.
is normally collected by other sources.

Data are collected from the fire-control systems ABORTED EXERCISE MESSAGES
by a combination of chart recorders, teletype print-
outs, and digital data extractions recorded on mag- An aborted exercise message must be submitted
netic tapes. Additional data may be collected in video after a commitment of range or target services to a
recordings of radar displays and charts plotting firing unit, and before firing the key closure.
engagement data. The specific forms of data collec-
tion required vary with the fire-control systems and This message contains the following information:
the TYCOMs.
1. The applicable data elements of the firing
Data extraction should start when a director is report.
designated to a target. It should continue until the
missile destructs (intercept plus approximately 10 2. The number of valid target presentations.
seconds). Teletype printouts should cover the same
time interval. Complete instructions for data collec- 3. The reason for failure to fire.
tion by missile systems are available from range per-
sonnel. 4. The identification of the equipment, the nature
of the casualty, and the date-time-group (DTG) of the
STANDARD MISSILE SYSTEM casualty report (CASREP), if applicable, if the rea-
FIRING REPORTS son for no-fire is a ship equipment casualty.

Standard missile system (SMS) firing reports are 5. A brief narrative of the exercise.
required for each missile firing (with the firing key
closed with the intent to fire). In addition to the firing All pertinent firing report information should also
report data, an SMS firing report message is required be entered into the fire-control smooth log and into
to be submitted within 48 hours for each firing test. the applicable equipment logs.

5-6
RECOMMENDED READING LIST

NOTE: Although the following references were current when this TRAMAN was pub-
lished, their continued currency cannot be assured. Therefore, you need to ensure that you
are studying the latest revision.

Antiair Warfare (AAW) Exercises, FXP 2, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC, 1987.

Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Exercises, FXP 1, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC, 1992.

Strike Warfare (SW), Intelligence (INT), Electronic Warfare (ELW), and Command, Control, and Communi-
cations (CCC) Exercises, FXP 3, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC, 1987.

5-7
APPENDIX I

REFERENCES USED TO DEVELOP THIS TRAMAN

Antiair Warfare (AAW) Exercises, FXP 2, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC, 1987.

Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Exercises, FXP 1, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC,
1992.

COMNAVSURFLANT Combat Systems Officers Manual, NAVSURFLANTINST 9093.3, Naval


Surface Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk, VA, 1986.

Department of the Navy Directives Issuance System Consolidated Subject Index, DPSINST 5215.1,
Washington, DC, 1994.

Format and Procedures for Validation of Enlisted Distribution and Verification Report (EDVR),
NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1080.1, Naval Military Personnel Command, Washington, DC, 1989.

Guide for User Maintenance of NAVSEA Technical Manuals, NAVSEA S005-AA-GYD-030/


TMMP, Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, DC, 1988.

Navy Stock List of Publications and Forms, NAVSUP 2002, Navy Publications and Forms Center,
Philadelphia, PA, 1994.

PQS Management Guide, NAVEDTRA 43100-1D, Naval Education and Training Support Center,
Pacific, San Diego, CA, 1991.

Requirements for Petty Officer First Class, NAVEDTRA 12046, Naval Education and Training
Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola, FL, 1991.

Requirements for Senior and Master Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 12048, Naval Education
and Training Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola, FL, 1991.

Standard Organization and Regulations of the US. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32, Chief of Naval
Operations, Washington, DC, 1994.

Strike Warfare (STW), Intelligence (INT), Electronic Warfare (ELW), and Command, Control, and
Communications (CCC) Exercises, FXP 3, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC, 1987.

AI-1
INDEX

A CSSQT, 4-9
ACM group, 4-4 CSSR, 4-8
Acoustical countermeasures group, 4-4 CSTEP, 4-6 to 4-17
Administration, 2-2 to 2-11 CSTOM, 4-2
electrical safety/shock, 2-9 to 2-10 CSTRM. 4-2
enlisted distribution & verification, 2-6 to 2-7
general quarters, 2-2 D
information security, 2-10 Data collection, 5-6
reports, 2-7 to 2-8 Department responsibilities, 1-2
safety, 2-8 Discipline, 3-12
ship manning, 2-3 to 2-5 Documentation, exercise, 5-5 to 5-6
space upkeep/cleanliness, 2-11 Duties, supervisory, 3-3 to 3-4
Advancement handbooks, 1-6 to 1-7
Advisories, improvement program, 4-9 E
Alignment logs, SERT, 4-17 EA group, 4-4
Alterations, 2-15 Eight o’clock reports, 2-7 to 2-8
Assets, 3-15 to 3-16 Electrical safety/shock, 2-9 to 2-10
Assistance team, ordnance, 4-8 to 4-9 Electronic
Availabilities, 2-13 attack group, 4-4
warfare support group, 4-4
B Enlisted distribution & verification, 2-6 to 2-7
Battle readiness exercises, 5-3 Equipment
Bibliography, advancement, 1-6 to 1-7 standards, 1-5
status reports, 2-8
C testing, 4-22
Casualty reports, 2-8 ES group, 4-4
CDS, 4-4, 5-5
Evaluations, readiness & operational, 5-2
Close-in weapons subsystem, 4-5
Examination, post-overhaul, 4-9
Collection, data, 5-6
Exercises
Combat systems, 4-1 to 4-24
battle readiness, 5-3
components, 4-3
composite training unit, 5-2
direction subsystem, 4-4, 5-4
documentation, 5-5 to 5-6
operator training, 5-4
fleet, 5-3
program advisories, 4-9
publications, 4-2 messages, 5-6
subsystems, 4-4 to 4-6 operational, 5-1 to 5-3
technical operations manual, 4-2 weapons, 5-1 to 5-7
Test & Evaluation Program, 4-6 to 4-17 External communications, 3-15
test coordinator, 4-9
training requirements manual, 4-2 F
Communications, 1-3, 3-14 to 3-15 Fault isolation, 4-14 to 4-15, 4-22 to 4-23
Components, combat system, 4-3 Field changes, 2-15 to 2-16
Composite training unit exercises, 5-2 Fleet exercises, 5-3
Coordinator, test, 4-9 Forecasts, training, 3-22
Coordination support team, 4-8
Countermeasures subsystem, 4-4 G
CSCST, 4-8 General quarters, 2-2
CSIP, 4-9 Group commander’s support team, 4-8
CSITP, 4-9
CSORE, 4-9 H
CSPOE, 4-9 Handbooks, advancement, 1-6 to 1-7
CSRR, 4-8 Harpoon missile weapons subsystem, 4-5

INDEX-1
R NGFS, 5-4 to 5-5
Information security, 2-10
Inspections, 2-11 to 2-12 0
maintenance administration, 2-12 Occupational standards, 1-4
material readiness, 2-11 to 2-12 OCCSTD-based publications, 1-6 to 1-7
performance, 2-11 to 2-12 Off-site/on-site training, 3-17
physical, 2-12 Operability test, 4-9
post-overhaul, 2-12 Operational
pre-overhaul, 2-12 evaluations, 5-2
survey, 2-11 readiness examination, 4-9
type commander, 2-11 training exercises, 5-1 to 5-3
Integrated Operations, SERT, 4-11
maintenance, 4-19 Operator training, 5-4
test plan, 4-9 Orders, types, 3-13 to 3-14
Intermediate availability, 2-13 Ordnance special assistance team, 4-8 to 4-9
Internal communications, 3-14 to 3-15 Organization, 2-1 to 2-2
Isolation, fault, 4-14 to 4-15, 4-22 to 4-23 combat systems/weapons department, 4-10
of responsibilities, 2-2
L SERT, 4-9 to 4-17
LAMPS, 4-5 OSCOT, 4-9
Lesson plan, 3-19 Overall combat systems operability test, 4-9
Light airborne multipurpose subsystem, 4-5 Overhaul, 2-13 to 2-16
Logs, alignment, SERT, 4-17
P
M Performance
Maintenance inspections, 2-11 to 2-12
administration inspection, 2-12 standards, 1-4 to 1-5
alterations, 2-15 Personnel
& material management responsibilities, 2-12 assets, 3-15
to 2-16 qualification standards, 1-4 to 1-5, 3-17 to
availabilities, 2-13 3-18
corrective, SERT, 4-14 to 4-15 responsibilities, 2-2
data system, 4-21 to 4-22 Physical inspections, 2-12
field change, 2-15 to 2-16 Plan, integrated test, 4-9
integrated, 4-18 to 4-22 Planned maintenance system, 4-18 to 4-20
overhaul, 2-14 PMS
post-overhaul, 2-15 management, 4-12
pre-overhaul, 2-14 program, 4-18 to 4-20
scheduling, 4-19 Post-overhaul, 2-15
shipyard overhaul, 2-13 examination, 4-9
testing, 3-11 inspection, 2-12
upkeep period, 2-13 Pre-overhaul, 2-14
Management, general, 3-2 to 3-3 inspections, 2-12
Material Presentation, training, 3-19
assets, 3-15 to 3-16 Problems
readiness assessment/inspection, 2-11 to 2-12, personnel, 3-10 to 3-12
4-12 to 4-14 six-column approach, 3-11 to 3-12
MDS, 4-21 to 4-22 Professional updates, 1-3
Messages, exercise, 5-6 Programs, training, 5-3 to 5-4
Missile/gun weapons subsystem, 4-5 Publications
Monitoring, SERT, 4-15 to 4-16 combat systems, 4-2
standards based, 1-6 to 1-7
N training, 3-20
Naval gurdle support qualification, 5-4 to 5-5
Naval standards, 1-4, 1-7 Q
NAVSEACEN combat systems readiness Qualification
assistance, 4-8 naval gunfire support, 5-4 to 5-5
NAVSTD-based publications, 1-7 standards, personnel, 1-4 to 1-5, 3-17 to 3-18

INDEX-2
Qualification (continued) Standard missile system firing reports, 5-6
trials, 4-9 Standards, 1-3 to 1-5
equipment, 1-5
R naval, 1-4, 1-7
Readiness occupational, 1-4
assessment, materiel, 4-12 to 4-17 performance, 1-4 to 1-5
assistance, 4-8 personnel qualification, 1-4 to 1-5, 3-17 to
evaluations, 5-2 3-18
examination, operational, 4-9 Subsystems
review, 4-8 combat, 4-4 to 4-6
Records, training, 3-23 to 3-24 testing, 4-22
Reference manuals, 4-2 Supervision, 3-1 to 3-16
Relationships Supervisor
teamwork, 3-8 responsibilities, 2-2
w/superiors/fellow supervisors, 3-8 traits, 3-5 to 3-7
Responsibility to users/upper management, Supervisory responsibilities, 1-1 to 1-7
3-4 to 3-5 department chain, 1-2
Reports professional update, 1-3
casualty, 2-8
standards, 1-4 to 1-5
daily fault, 4-14
subordinates, 1-2
eight o’clock, 2-7 to 2-8
technical materials, 1-5
enlisted distribution & verification, 2-6 to 2-7
to other ratings, 1-2
equipment status, 2-8
training, 1-2
SERT, 4-17
Support subsystem, 4-5 to 4-6
standard missile system firing, 5-6
Survey inspections, 2-11
Responsibilities
SERT, 4-12 Systems testing, 4-22
supervisory, 3-3 to 3-4
Restricted availability, 2-13 T
Teamwork, 3-8
S Technical
Safety, 2-8 availability, 2-13
Schedules materials, 1-5 to 1-6
maintenance, 4-19 Test
training, 3-20 to 3-24 coordinator, 4-9
Schools, 3-17 operability, 4-9
Ship plan, integrated, 4-9
reaming, 2-3 to 2-5 Testing
qualification trials, 4-9 maintenance, 4-22
Ship’s electronics readiness team, 4-9 to 4-17 SERT, 4-16 to 4-17
alignment logs, 4-17 systems, 4-22
corrective maintenance management, 4-14 to Three-M systems, 4-18 to 4-19
4-15 Training, 3-16 to 3-24
materiel readiness assessment, 4-12 to 4-14 & exercises, 5-1 to 5-4
monitoring, 4-15 to 4-16 cycle, 3-21
operations, 4-11 manuals, 1-6
organization, 4-9 to 4-11 off-site/on-site, 3-17
PMS management, 4-12 operator, 5-4
readiness assessment reporting, 4-17 presentation, 3-19
responsibilities, 4-12 programs, 5-3 to 5-4
test selecting & scheduling, 4-16 to 4-17 publications, 3-20
testing, 4-16 to 4-17 records, 3-20 to 3-24
training, 4-9 to 4-17 responsibilities, 1-2
Simulator/stimulators, 5-3 to 5-4 schedules, 3-20 to 3-24
Six-column approach to problems, 3-11 to 3-12 SERT, 4-9 to 4-17
SMS reports, 5-6 supervisory, 1-2
Space topics, 3-20
assets, 3-16 Traits, supervisory, 3-5 to 3-7
upkeep, 2-11 TYCOM inspections, 2-11

INDEX-3
U W
Underwater weapons subsystem, 4-5 Weapons exercises, 5-1 to 5-7
Updates, professional, 1-3 Work package, availability, 2-14 to 2-15
Upkeep period, 2-13

INDEX-4