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Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154

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Energy Conversion and Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running
with palm oil methyl ester
Biplab K. Debnath, Niranjan Sahoo, Ujjwal K. Saha ⇑
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 31 July 2011
Received in revised form 16 July 2012
Accepted 16 July 2012
Available online 16 October 2012
Keywords:
Diesel engine
Palm oil methyl ester
Compression ratio
Injection timing
Energy
Exergy

a b s t r a c t
The present work is set to explore the effect of compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT) on energy
and exergy potential of a palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. Experiments are carried out in a
single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled variable compression ratio diesel engine at a constant peed
of 1500 rpm under a full load of 4.24 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The study involves four
different CRs of 16, 17, 17.5 and 18; and three different ITs of 20°, 23° and 28°BTDC. Here, the CR of 17.5
and IT of 23°BTDC are the standard ones. The energy analysis performed for the experimental data
includes shaft power, energy input through fuel, output by cooling water and exhaust, uncounted loss
per unit time. Side by side, the effects of varying CR and IT on peak pressure, peak heat release rate, brake
thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature are also studied. The exergy analysis is carried out for
availability input, shaft, cooling water and exhaust availability, availability destruction and entropy generation. It shows that higher values of CR increase the shaft availability and cooling water availability,
however, they decrease the exhaust flow availability. The retardation and advancement of IT give similar
results. The exergy analysis also shows that with the increase of CR, the injection retardation and
advancement increase the shaft availability and exergy efficiency, while it reduces the exergy destruction. The entropy generation is also reduced for the similar CR and IT modifications.
Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The internal combustion (IC) engines are the building blocks of
modern civilization. This is because of their capability to convert
chemical energy of fuel into heat and mechanical energy. Nowa-days not only conventional fuels power IC engine, but also various renewable alternative fuels viz. biofuels, biogas, natural gas,
hydrogen etc. are also made use of fuel. Biofuels, especially the
methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils, popularly known as ‘biodiesels’, have an important contribution. This is because of the
need to reduce the use of fossil fuels in diesel engines without
modifying them [1,2]. Biodiesels are oxygenated fuels and can be
used in diesel engines to improve combustion efficiency. In order
to study effective utilization of energy, terminologically ‘thermodynamic analysis’ of biodiesel run IC engines is necessary. However, biodiesels have a comparatively lesser calorific value than
diesel, which causes lower power and efficiency [3]. This can be
improved by raising the CR. Laguitton et al. [4] showed that during
fully-premixed-charge combustion, the reduction of compression
ratio (CR) decreases the maximum rate of pressure change,
whereas, during diffusion combustion, the reverse phenomenon
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 361 2582663; fax: +91 361 2690762.
E-mail addresses:
d.biplab@iitg.ac.in (B.K. Debnath),
(N. Sahoo), saha@iitg.ernet.in (U.K. Saha).

shock@iitg.ernet.in

0196-8904/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2012.07.016

takes place. They also suggested that a reduction of CR offers similar benefits to those of retarded injection timing (IT). Kannan et al.
[5] demonstrated that the injection of jatropha methyl ester which
has a higher cetane number than diesel, results lower ignition delay. This causes the pressure crank angle curve to advance and peak
pressure to reduce along with heat release. This type of problem
can be solved by retarding the IT, which may also help reducing
the exhaust heat loss. This is more essential for low heat rejection
engines as far as recovering the exhaust heat loss [6].
The energy and exergy analysis for IC engines, especially for diesel engines, have been discussed merely in last two decades [7,8].
The second law analysis performed on various engine parts (Cummins make, USA) as well as whole diesel plants is reported by
Flynn et al. [9]. Van Gerpen and Shapiro [10] performed a detailed
analysis for a closed cycle, bringing into focus the belligerent term
of chemical availability along with the thermo-mechanical one.
Caton [11] showed experimentally and thermodynamically that,
implementation of lean operation, high exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR) levels and high CR can improve indicated thermal efficiency
from 37.0% to 53.9%. Further, Rakopoulos and Andritsakis [12]
studied the irreversibility’s in direct and indirect injection diesel
engines combustion. According to Giakoumis [13], the availability
destruction in a low heat rejection (LHR) engine is small, which
does not allow the mechanical work to increase. Rather, it
increases the potential for extra work recovery owing to the higher

At maximum load. [25] conducted exergy analysis on a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel from higholeic soybeans. and combustion chamber parameters are more vital to define the ideal insulation thickness.. in a 5. The uses of methane and methanol have showed improved performance as opposed to dodecane fuel. which include loss through exhaust gases and heat.2 kW engine (Kirloskar make. [28] have showed that the thermal balance of the engine operating on 15% and 20% ethanol–diesel blends is significantly different than 5% and 10% ethanol–diesel blends. T TO W g temperature (K) throttle opening dynamometer load (N) efficiency Subscripts II second law a air c cooling water d destroyed e exhaust gas eic exhaust gas inlet to calorimeter eoc exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter f fuel in input atm atmospheric condition s shaft u uncounted w water we water flowing through engine jacket wic water inlet to calorimeter wie water inlet to engine woc water outlet from calorimeter woe water outlet from engine USA). They have shown that around 45% of total soybean methyl ester fuel exergy has been destructed.K. India) for various loads. The same group of authors [22] have carried out the second law analysis of a diesel engine with variable throttle opening (TO) and loads. cooling water and exhaust gas potential and exergy destruction. Parlak et al.5 and 18 and ITs of 20°. higher exergy efficiency is observed for higher volumetric fraction of CO syngas due to better combustion of CO at high temperature regions. Canakci and Hosoz [24] have performed energy and exergy analyses on a turbocharged diesel engine (John Deere make. The maximum extractable power of both engines is less than 50% of the exhaust power. shaft work. Their study uncovered a method for calculating both combustion irreversibility and working medium availability for a diesel engine [18]. Kecebas [19] implemented exergoeconomic analysis for combustion of fuel in boilers and indicated that excess air. They have implemented second law analysis and chemical equilibrium hypothesis to estimate combustion irreversibility as a function of fuel reaction rate. They also stated that at lower loads (20% and 40%). The results indicate that. The CRs of 16. Side by side. However. in order to establish POME as an alternative to diesel fuel. and most of the energy and exergy destruction occur during combustion. the in-cylinder combustion temperatures have reduced for dual fuel combustion [21]. the availability destruction is increased due to poor combustion and reduced heat transfer availability losses. The effect of the reactants mixture pressure on availability destruction is found insignificant. Sahoo et al. and optimized the engine operating conditions. 17. increasing the H2 content in syngas from 50% to 100%. yellow grease methyl ester. This clears the picture of thermodynamic energy distribution of engine maneuver.148 B. It is found that the fuels have similar energy and exergy performance. CR and IT variation on energy and exergy distribution of a diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester (POME) is not clear. The details study of literature unfurls the fact that the affect of engine design and operating parameters viz. Some of other thermodynamic analysis performed by Rakopoulos and his co-workers [14–17] are available in literature. compared to the 100% CO dual fuel mode. Debnath et al. [20] performed second law analysis of syngas with a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). experiments are performed in a POME run diesel engine at full load condition for a set of CR and IT. The results obtained from the tests are then analyzed to explore the energy and exergy potential of fuel input. it is impossible to recover all the exhaust gas energy to useful work. constant volume. This study reveals that the availability destruction is decreased with increasing reactant temperatures. The engine is run with soybean methyl ester. In this context. The availability destruction for isooctane vapor and air mixtures at constant pressure. According to their investigation. 2. Objective The theoretical investigation on the effective distribution of energy at various components of IC engine has been done by coupling the first and the second laws of thermodynamics together. the effects of the variation . increased second law efficiency from 8 to 51%. it is necessary to uncover the effect of engine design and operating parameters on thermo mechanical energy–exergy distribution. This is due to better combustion process and increased work output with the presence of added H2. Hence. 17. 23° and 28°BTDC are considered for the experimentation (Table 1). diesel fuel and a 20% blend of each biodiesel and diesel fuel. Ajav et al. and constant temperature combustion processes have been studied by Chavannavar and Caton [23]. stack gas temperature. [26–27] have analyzed the exhaust energy and exergy loss in a low heat rejection diesel engine to that of a standard diesel engine. Caliskan et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 Nomenclature A BP BTDC BTHE C CI CO Cp CR EGT H IC LHV _ m N NRV O p Q q r Re RU S availability (kW) brake power (kW) before top dead center brake thermal efficiency carbon compression ignition carbon monoxide specific heat (kJ/kg K) compression ratio exhaust gas temperature (°C) hydrogen internal combustion lower heating value (kJ/kg) mass flow rate (kg/s) revolutions per minute (RPS) non return valve oxygen pressure (bar) energy per unit time (kW) density (kg/m3) dynamometer arm radius (m) specific gas constant (kJ/kg K) universal gas constant (kJ/kmol K) sulfur availability content of the exhaust gas.

The optical crank-angle sensor delivers a signal for each degree rotation of crank shaft. The VCR engine allows online modification of CR variation. capacity 661 cc (at standard CR 17. manometer. the engine is then allowed to run at other ITs by rotating the injection point adjustment nut. exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and entropy generation are also analyzed and discussed. The key properties of fuels used in this study are listed in the Table 2.5 mm. surroundings and exhaust gas [29]. peak heat release rate. The readings of temperatures. IT range 0°-30°BTDC.5. This increases temperatures at the outlet of the cooling water and exhaust gas. cylinder head and calorimeter. direct injection variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine (Kirloskar make. cylinder and fuel pressure variation are automatically recorded by the DAD. The engine is connected to a hydraulic cooling type eddy current dynamometer for loading.  Brake power (BP): BP ¼ ð2  p  N  W  rÞ=60000. the CR is changed by rotating the CR adjustor knob. Two PCB make piezo type sensors are mounted on the cylinder head and fuel injector for combustion pressure and fuel line pressure measurement.24 bar BMEP of CR and IT on peak pressure. The experimental setup.5 and IT of 23°BTDC for POME test. W is dynamometer load in N and r is the dynamometer arm radius in m. kW ð1Þ where N is speed of the engine in RPM. Once the data are recorded at this particular setting. The schematic diagram of the VCR diesel engine setup is shown in the Fig. The CRs under investigation are 16. The same process as discussed above is repeated to study other IT (Table 1) before complete shutdown. CR of 17. fuel measuring burette. 17.149 B. the engine speed reduces. air and fuel flow rate. The appropriate IT is confirmed from the fuel pressure data. Debnath et al. The engine produces 3. Once all the CRs at 23°BTDC are tested. All the analog signals recorded from different locations of the test rig are supplied to the ‘Enginesoft’ software for performance analysis. The setup has a stand-alone panel box consisting of air box. This DAD is connected to the computer with USB port and measurement of fuel flow is stored in computer in kg/h. Thereafter. / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 Table 1 The experimental metrix. for each IT.24 bar BMEP) is achieved. 1. the engine consumes more fuel resulting a higher heat release. India) fueled with POME. When the full load condition (4. A total of six thermocouples (four PT100 type and two K type) are installed at various locations of the setup for measurement of water and exhaust gas temperature. The basic equations used for performance calculations are as follows. Further it is assumed that the combustion air and exhaust gases are ideal gas mixtures and their potential and kinetic energy changes are minor [30].5). Analysis methodology The sequence of events happening in the engine operation can be identified as fuel and air entrainment. 1. stroke 110 mm. 17. It is connected through a fuel line and the signal of flow rate is transferred to the National Instrument made data acquisition device (DAD). exergy efficiency (gII).24 bar BMEP) at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. 4. friction. conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work. combustion. In order to maintain a constant BP. 3. heat loss through cooling water. A tilting cylinder block arrangement is used to vary the CR without stopping the engine and altering the combustion chamber geometry. speed. 18 23°BTDC 20°. As the load is increased. Mode Fuel Compression ratio Injection timing Engine operation Baseline Biodiesel Diesel POME 17. Fig.5 16. four stroke. Model No: EJA110A-DMS5A-92NN). the engine is brought back to no load condition slowly and allowed to run for few minutes. radiation. 17 and 18 along with the standard CR of 17. Experimental setup and procedure The experiments are conducted in a single cylinder.5 kW of rated power with diesel at full load (4. the engine is tested at all the CRs. The brief engine specification are: bore 87. fuel tank. POME is tested in the VCR engine at various CRs and ITs (Table 1). The fuel measurement is performed by differential pressure transducer (Yokogawa make. These signals are then interfaced to computer through engine indicator to measure rpm of the engine. Rotameters are used for cooling water flow measurement through the jackets of engine block. the engine is set at CR of 17. This indicates that the combustion inside the cylinder becomes steady and the engine is ready for data acquisition. Later. and hence. 23° and 28°BTDC Speed: 1500 ± 50 RPM Load: 4. the engine is allowed to run for few minutes and the temperatures at the outlet of cooling water and exhaust gas are monitored closely at the computer display until it reaches a steady state condition.5. The VCR engine is first run using diesel at standard diesel specification. a higher temperature inside cylinder. Reference atmospheric conditions are considered as 1 atm and 27 °C of pressure (Pamb) and temperature (Tamb). . Initially. CR range 12–18.K. Thereafter.5 and IT of 23°BTDC. brake thermal efficiency (BTHE).

Aw and Ae are the exergies that can be recovered. m rate of fuel in kg/s and LHVf is the lower heating value of the fuel in kJ/kg. kW ð8Þ 4.. Some amount of energy is flown through engine cooling water (4. Energy analysis The distributions of energy per unit time through different process calculated are included in Table 3. Cpw is the specific heat of water in kJ/kg K and Twie and Twoe are the inlet and outlet temperature of cooling water passing through engine jacket.  Destructed availability (Ad): The availabilities As. The standard deviation among the fuel energy input values lies within 0. Destructed availability Ad ¼ ½Ain  ðAs þ Aw þ Ae Þ.07H34. radiation. carbon. the average value of standard deviation falls under a very negligible range (<0. exhaust gas availability (Ae) and destructed availability (Ad) in the form of friction.K.06. energy in cooling water per unit time (Qw). RU is the universal gas constant in kJ/kmol K and the molecular weight (kg/kmol) of combustion products is calculated taking into account complete combustion. C.  Input availability of fuel (Ain): Calculated value. kW ð3Þ  Shaft power (Qs): Q s ¼ Brake power of the engine. BTHE ¼ bBP=fm þ 0:0432ðO=CÞ þ 0:2169ðS=CÞh1 ð2Þ % _ f is the mass flow where BP is the brake power of the engine in kW.84* 50–65 – 12.1. 4. % ð14Þ  Entropy generation rate: The procedure of entropy generation is fairly a novel technique to determine perfectly. viz. It is calculated from the thermodynamic relation Re = (RU/molecular weight). Energy analysis kW ð9Þ where H. * Properties Diesel POME Chemical composition Density (kg/m3) Lower calorific value (MJ/kg) Cetane number Auto-ignition temperature (K) Stoichiometric air fuel ratio C12H26 840 42 45–55 553 14. Results and discussion 5. Q e ¼ bðm kW ð6Þ _ a is the mass flow rate of air in kg/s.  Fuel energy supplied per unit time (Qin): _ f  LHVf c.92 C18. In the CI engine the 5. etc. etc.150 B. radiation.03). / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 Table 2 The fuel properties.2. operating auxiliary equipments.28 kW) and exhaust gas (2. O and S are the mass fractions of hydrogen.43 kW).  Uncounted energy losses per unit time (Qu): Q u ¼ ½Q in  ðQ s þ Q w þ Q e Þ. specific heat of exhaust where m gas (Cpe) is obtained from the energy balance of the flows passing through the calorimeter. kW=K ð15Þ _ we  C pw  ðT woe  T wie Þc=bðm _ f þm _ a Þ  ðT eic C pe ¼ bm  T eoc Þc. as follows: ð10Þ  Cooling water availability (Aw): _ we  C pw  T amb  lnðT woe =T wie Þc. _ f  LHVf  f1:0401 þ 0:1728ðH=CÞ Ain ¼ ½m  Brake thermal efficiency (BTHE): _ f  LHVf gc  100. operating auxiliary equipments. kW In compression ignition (CI) engine. A portion of this input energy in the form of chemical energy of fuel has been converted into mechanical shaft work (3. Debnath et al. kW ð13Þ  Exergy efficiency (gII): gII ¼ ½1  ðAd =Ain Þ. oxygen and sulfur contents [34]. The rest amount of energy (2. kW ð12Þ where Re is the specific gas constant of the exhaust gas in kJ/kg K.1. the fuel energy supplied per unit time (Qin) is transferred in its different processes. kJ=kg K ð7Þ _ wc . energy in exhaust gas per unit time (Qe) and uncounted energy losses per unit time (Qu) in the form of friction. Twic and Twoc are the mass flow rate. the losses in various components in an energy system and to indentify the scopes of enhancement of overall system performance [35]. inlet and outlet where m temperature of the cooling water passing through the calorimeter and Teic and Teic are the inlet and outlet temperatures of exhaust gas passing through calorimeter. The mean fuel energy input per unit time for entire CR and IT combinations studied are 13. These different forms of energies are calculated according to the following analytical expressions [22].  Shaft availability (As) As ¼ Brake power of the engine. kW ð4Þ  Energy in cooling water per unit time (Qw): _ we  C pw  ðT woe  T wie Þc. shaft power (Qs). Exergy analysis The availability can be described as the ability to perform useful amount of work by the supplied energy [31].93O2 870 39. Q in ¼ bm  2:0628ðH=CÞig.52* availability of fuel (Ain) supplied is converted into different types of exergy. Aw ¼ Q w  bm kW ð11Þ  Exhaust gas availability (Ae): _ f þm _ a Þ  T amb  fC pe lnðT amb =T eic Þ  Re Ae ¼ Q e þ bðm  lnðpamb =pe Þgc. Q w ¼ bm kW ð5Þ _ we is the mass flow rate of cooling water in kg/s passing where m through engine jacket. heat transfer to the surrounding. The entropy generation can be expressed as S_ ¼ ½Ad =T amb . shaft availability (As).97 kW) has been lost . cooling water availability (Aw). viz. Hence.15 kW. These forms of energies are calculated according to the following analytical expressions as described in the literature [32–33].47 kW). heat transfer to the surrounding.  Energy in exhaust gas per unit time (Qe): _ f þm _ a Þ  C pe  ðT eic  T amb Þc.00–0.

5 18 23 20 20 20 20 23 23 23 23 12.02) 3.06 12.36 13. In order to achieve this. the values of three ITs are averaged and included in Fig.43 3.01) ±(0. However. The situation is also attributed to the increase in the BTHE with the increase in CR for .06 13.04) ±(0.61 13.89 2.61 13.95 ±(0.03) ±(0. Consequently. However.00) ±(0. it is also Fig.05) ±(0. This increases the rate of combustion. Fig. Debnath et al. there has been a 20. Since the engine runs at a constant speed.44 ±(0. the peak heat release rate.13 2.40 3.01) ±(0.07) ±(0. about 21.24 2. the BTHE is found to improve for the POME run engine showing a decrease of 6% as opposed to a decrease of 9% as observed earlier.01) ±(0.24 2.77 3.5 18 16 17 17. as the piston reaches close to TDC.01) ±(0.38 2. Effect of compression ratio on energy distribution.00) ±(0.16) ±(0.38 2.21 2.04) ±(0.28 ±(0. and hence.04) ±(0.15) ±(0.00) ±(0.5 16 17 17.01) ±(0.5 and IT = 23°.57 2.09) ±(0. the POME run engine produces around 9% lower BTHE than diesel. heat transfer to surroundings.00) ±(0. The effects of CR and IT on energy per unit time sharing are included in Figs.07) ±(0. 2. observed that.04) ±(0.84 12.14 4. The fact is also validated from the Fig.01) ±(0. radiation. That is why. (3)–(8).45 3.23 4.56 2. Hence.40 ±(0. altering the engine design and operating parameters (CR and IT).44 ±(0. at CR = 17. This causes an increase in shaft power (Qs) (% of fuel input) which is observed from Fig.02) ±(0.07) POME 16 17 17. The engine is operated at constant speed and constant BP for all the CR and IT combinations.46 2.44 3. The lower BTHE for the POME run engine is due to the increase in fuel energy input. 2 as well. Side-by-side.10) 2.83 13.45 3.43 ±(0.02) 3. it has to consume a little more POME to cover up its lower energy content.5 18 28 28 28 28 13.06 12.00) ±(0. with an increase in CR due to higher heat release.00) ±(0.06) ±(0. 2 and 3.46 4.16 4.50 2. Effect of injection timing on energy distribution.50 13.10) ± Standard deviation.56 4. The input fuel energy is reduced with the increase in CR (Table 3).50 12.03) ±(0.01) ±(0.43 3. fuel consumption becomes more for the same BP (Table 3).98 4.73 2. 3. rises the peak pressure.08) ±(0. Thus.03) ±(0. 2.41 3. Hence.04) ±(0.04) ±(0. due to friction. Advancement of IT means that fuel is applied at cooler environment to that of retardation. To study the effect of CR on various energy distributions.17% of overall increase in peak pressure is observed as CR is increased from 16 to 18.00) ±(0.00) ±(0.45 3.29 2.43 3. However.50 13.07) ±(0.66% rise in peak heat release rate too.03) ±(0. This is because the high temperature environment at higher CR causes the pressure to elevate to a higher value. Therefore approximately 26% of input energy is converted into mechanical work and 74% of input energy is lost in various ways from the system.06) ±(0.00) ±(0.15) ±(0.43 3.29 4.19 ±(0.27 4.61 3.02) ±(0.03) ±(0.00) 4.13) ±(0.08) ±(0.08) ±(0.85 2.01) 4.04) 2.01) ±(0.K. Effect of injection timing and compression ratio on peak pressure and peak heat release rate.55 2. it is justified that POME with a little lower LHV can supply proportionately a substantial amount of energy to run the engine.38 ±(0. Table 2 shows that the POME has a lower calorific value which is merely 5% lesser than diesel.19) ±(0.05) ±(0.00) ±(0.04) ±(0. The values are obtained by using the Eqs. CR IT Qin (kW) Qs (kW) Qw (kW) Qe (kW) Qu (kW) Diesel 17.08 3.19) ±(0.21 3.49 2.58 2.19) ±(0. advancing the IT increases peak pressure and peak heat release rate. it is seen that.01) 3.08) ±(0.69 ±(0.00) ±(0. 4.67 3.04) ±(0.20 4.25 ±(0.26 4.04) ±(0. the remaining high fuel quantity attains a favorable environment for combustion. / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 Table 3 Results of energy analysis.10) ±(0. Fig.151 B.21 3. 4. the rise in CR causes surge in the temperature during the compression stroke [32].44 3. it has to produce a constant power at a particular load.02) 2.

since input exergy through air for combustion is neglected. However.13 kW.91 kW for CRs of 16. availability associated with engine cooling water and exhaust gas. shaft availability. The shaft availabilities for the CRs of 16. The ITs. if considered.54 kW and 2. 6). Debnath et al. The cooling water availabilities for all the CRs studied are very low. The standard deviation among the fuel exergy input values lies between 0. 2). However. There is a slight increase in exhaust gas availability is encountered with the increase in IT.5% of fuel input. Effect of injection timing and compression ratio on exhaust gas temperature. the average values of rate of exhaust heat loss for all the CRs are 2. the peak heat release rate point has a match with the top dead center point (TDC) for the IT retardation rather than advancement or the standard diesel IT.15 kW. This is because of the reduction of fuel supply during IT advancement or retardation than the standard IT. The average input fuel availabilities are 14. 6. As a result.152 B.75 kW and 13. 70% of input exergy is destroyed from the system. The mean values of fuel energy supplied per unit time during 20°BTDC and 28°BTDC are 12. This reduction of absolute value of fuel availability is responsible for the increase in shaft availability although it is considered as the shaft work or BP. POME having a higher CN than diesel provides lower ignition delay [36]. This can also be termed as total input exergy. 2.2.27 kW and 4. with respect to cumulative availability.5% of fuel availability is found to be associated with the cooling water. the reduction in the heat loss through the exhaust gas also reduces the temperature of the exhaust gas. The variation of exergy flow through the exhaust gas also has a little effect on CR variation. The mean shaft availabilities at 20°BTDC and 28°BTDC are 7% and 4% higher than the same at 23°BTDC. which is maintained constant throughout. The trend of availability destruction for IT retardation and advancement are found to be lower than the standard 23°BTDC of IT. which in other words. in turn. Only a maximum of around 0. The increase in CR increases heat release during the combustion stroke at 20°BTDC. 17. This is because. 17. the POME is injected slightly earlier than other ITs and well before the piston reaches the TDC. 14.5% of respective fuel input for CR of 16. 3). It represents the availability values and standard deviations of various terms including fuel availability. are 6.5 and 18.43 kW). 13. The reason is discussed in the earlier paragraph. However.99 kW and 13.5% and 24. Figs. Advancing (28°BTDC) and retarding (20°BTDC). 17. considering CR and IT variation. This is because of the rise of EGT with IT advancement and increase The findings of exergy (the second law) analysis are included in Table 4. in the intermediate range of CR (17 and 17. at 28°BTDC. This is probably because of the increase in the EGT as observed from Fig. Some amount of exergy is flown through engine cooling water and exhaust gas. heat transfer to surroundings.3%. 7 and 8 describe the variation of availability associated with shaft. Exergy analysis Fig.7% of fuel input. approximately 30% of input exergy is found which can be called as available energy from the thermodynamic viewpoint. POME run diesel engine (Fig. respectively. 26.15 kW.14 kW which. 5). the IT has increased the shaft power (% of fuel input) and hence BTHE (Fig. Hence.2% lower than the rate of energy supplied during standard IT. Fuel injection advancement and retardation have a significant effect on the energy distribution (Fig.K. Effect of injection timing and compression ratio on brake thermal efficiency.5%.53 kW for 20°BTDC to 28°BTDC.47 kW. As a result. The trend of shaft availability for CR variation (Fig.03). 5).34 kW.01 and 0. no significant variation is attained from cooling water availability because. There is a fluctuation of uncounted heat loss. However. Therefore. respectively. the maximum cooling water availability is found as 0. The values of shaft energies are 25. cooling water.05.5 and 18 are 23. / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 in average cooling heat loss per unit time.41 kW for 20°BTDC to 28°BTDC. This allows POME to have more time to mix with air. Therefore. The effect of IT on availability balance shows (Fig. These values are 4. 6. 7) is almost same to that of shaft power as described in Fig. radiation. 17. The countable increase in shaft availability due to IT advancement and retardation . This result an increase in the amount of heat carried away by the cooling water (Fig. the availability destruction trend has shown a lowering trend. This is the reason of higher shaft availability at IT of 20°BTDC. On the other hand. With the increase in CR. 4. All these facts coupled with higher rate of fuel energy input at 23°BTDC causes reduction in uncounted heat loss for IT retardation and advancement. Fig. The rest amount of exergy has been lost due to friction.4% and 26. The burning of this charge releases a higher amount of heat upon combustion thereby increasing more cooling water heat loss unlike 23°BTDC. the combustion can be described as fully premixed and partially premixed combustion [4].8%.5 and 18. 8) that the shaft availability increases with IT advance and retardation. This is probably because of the lesser increase of engine cooling water temperature during POME test.1%. the average value of standard deviation falls below a very negligible range (<0. 5. other than 20°BTDC have similar effect at low and at high CR settings. exhaust gas and availability destruction with respect to CR and IT separately. A portion of this input has been converted into mechanical shaft work (3.3% and 3. 26. The matter is further confirmed from the EGT analysis (Fig. The increasing trend of shaft availability coupled with diminishing of fuel availability are probably be the reason of the reduction of availability destruction at the circumstances of almost unchanged cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities for CR variation. the uncounted energies are unaffected at higher CRs. 17. the exergy associated with the cooling water and exhaust gas also come under consideration [20]. The mean fuel exergy for entire CR and IT combinations studied is 14. 5. 2.5). 24. can be called partially premixed charge. 17. However. the heat loss through the exhaust gas is also reduced. 24.

comparable to other forms of exergy (cooling water and exhaust flow) is the reason of around 1.07 ± (0.00) 3.02) 13.05) 30.44 ± (0. Fig.00) 0.62 ± (0.06 ± (0. Debnath et al.03) 14. / Energy Conversion and Management 65 (2013) 147–154 Table 4 Results of exergy analysis. That means a lower compression ratio with standard diesel IT is not much efficient while running POME in diesel engine as far as the paramount deployment of the rate of available energy of fuel is concerned. 10.08 ± (0.04) 29.02 ± (0. 17.01) 9. Comparing the mean values.30 ± (0. Fig.46 ± (0.5% and 1% fall of exergy destruction.22) 0. 9. .67) 0.K.11) 0.38 ± (0.81 ± (0.04) 3.39) 0.45 ± (0.01) 28.00) 3.40 ± (0. the exergy analysis signifies that.15) 0.06) 0.43 ± (0.08 ± (0.21) 0.25 ± (0.41 ± (0.49 ± (0.01) 14.62 ± (0.40 ± (0. Fig.28 ± (0. Effect of injection timing and compression ratio on exergy efficiency.01) 14.153 B.73 ± (0. the standard IT of 23°BTDC gives 29% of the same.01) 3.01) 13.23) 0.44 ± (0.06 ± (0. Effect of injection timing and compression ratio on entropy generation.03 ± (0. The variations of exergy efficiency with respect to CR and IT are included in Fig.03) 10.69 ± (0.27 ± (0.66 ± (0.49) 0. CR IT Ain (kW) As (kW) Aw (kW) Ae (kW) Ad (kW) gII Diesel 17. The mean values of exergy destruction and entropy generation are 10.06) 30.07) 30.09 ± (0.02) 30.39 ± (0.07) 0. The trend suggests that a decrease in the CR increases the entropy generation.033 kW/K respectively. The variation of entropy generation with respect to CR and IT are shown in Fig.16 ± (0.17) 0.01) 0.08 ± (0.00) 3.20) 0.08) 9.59 ± (0.04) 23 23 23 23 28 28 28 28 14.45 ± (0. 8.05) 14.04) 27.15) 0.11) 0.05) 27.03) 0.5% and 29% for CR of 16.44 ± (0.02 ± (1.19) 0.70 ± (0.05) 13.03 ± (0.36 ± (0.44 ± (0.00) 3.01) 9.78 ± (0. for better utilization of the available energy supplied by POME.04) 9.03) 14.79 ± (0.53 ± (0.00) 3. Fig.17 ± (0.03) 14.77 ± (0.5 18 ± Standard deviation.02 ± (2.86 ± (0.74 ± (0.67 ± (0.21) 0.24) 0.81 ± (0.51 ± (0.45 ± (0.04) 28.01) 29.47 ± (0.18 ± (0.95 ± (0.55 ± (0.03 ± (0.66 ± (0.03 ± (0.5 18 16 17 17.03) POME 16 17 17.19) 10.01) 13.00) 3.01) 3.07) 30.09) 9. It is clear that POME provides a better second law (exergy) efficiency with advancement (28°BTDC) and retardation (20°BTDC) of IT rather than 23°BTDC of IT at higher CR range.04) 30.5 16 17 17.31) 0.04) 9.33) 0.51 ± (0.43 ± (0. The trend of entropy generation is found almost reciprocal of exergy efficiency as expected. it is seen that POME run engine offers around 31% of maximum exergy efficiency for CR of 17%.20) 0.43) 0.00) 3.72 ± (0.5 18 23 20 20 20 20 13.03) 9. 10.90 ± (0. Effect of compression ratio on exergy distribution. 23°BTDC is bestowed with higher entropy generation than 20°BTDC and 28°BTDC of IT.01) 3.02) 3.03) 10.69 ± (0.40 ± (0.55 ± (0.42 ± (0.05 ± (0.44 ± (0.10 ± (0.47 ± (0.02) 10.08 ± (0.74 ± (0. the engine always have to run at higher CR with IT retardation. Effect of injection timing on exergy distribution.28) 0.08 ± (0.30 ± (0.07) 10.64 ± (0.05) 10.00) 3. 7.91 ± (0. 9. Side-by side.04) 30.04) 0.70 ± (0. Therefore.03) 14.77 ± (0.0 kW and 0. While IT advancement and retardation allow 31% of exergy efficiency.

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