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RESEARCH II (Research in Science)

Fourth Year
Course Description
Research II for the Fourth Year deals with researches in Science. A study of the course equips the students with the
knowledge and skills of conducting researches in science and in preparing for scientific communications which may
serve as an avenue for higher level of competence in research.
In order to acquire mastery and competence of scientific writing skills, students are exposed to the rudiments of
conducting researches, writing research reports, and preparing for the science congress.
Course Objectives
After going through the activities in Research II, the learner shall have developed the following competencies.


1. Demonstrate ability to conduct a research in science; e.g. identify a researchable topic, documents the
research report or investigatory project, and prepare for a science congress.


2. Develop ability to write science research reports and laboratory research/investigatory projects.


3. Improve creative, critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

General and Specific Competencies


I. Overview of Research
1. Appreciate the nature and characteristics of research.
1.1 Express effectively thoughts and feelings in describing the nature of research
1.2 Express in writing why a knowledge of scientific research methodology can be of value to researchers
1.3 Discuss the different types of experimental research methodologies used in science research


2. Determine the ethical issues that need to be addressed in conducting research in science
2.1 Discuss the ethical standards and issues in conducting research.


II. Research Problem

1. Demonstrate ability to formulate a researchable problem.
1.1 State the main problem and sub-problems of the research
1.1.1 Express in written form the main problem and sub-problem of the research
1.2 State the significance of the research problem
1.2.1 Cite information and express the significance of the research problem
1.3 State the scope and limitations of the research problem


III. Hypothesis


1. Demonstrate competence in formulating a hypothesis

1.1 Distinguish the types of hypothesis
1.2 Describe directional and non-directional hypothesis
1.2.1 Distinguish between directional and non-directional hypothesis
1.2.2 Give an example of each.
1.3 Formulate a hypothesis in three ways
1.3.1 null hypothesis
1.3.2 alternative hypothesis
1.3.3 cause and effect statement


2. Demonstrate the ability to identify the variables involve in research investigations

2.1 Describe the term variable that can be investigated by researchers
2.1.1 Express thought orally explaining what is meant by the term variable
2.1.2 Distinguish the types of variables that might be investigated by researchers in science
2.1.3 Explain how variables differ from a constant
2.1.4 Distinguish between a quantitative and a categorical variable
2.1.5 Explain how dependent and independent variable are related


IV. Review of Related Literature and Studies

1. Write the review of related literature and studies section of research report
1.1 Distinguish between related literature and studies
1.2 Apply the guidelines in preparing the review of related literature and studies
1.3 Define the terms/variables of the research
1.3.1 Express in correct words variables of the research


V. Research Design
1. Plan the research design
1.1 Apply the guidelines on how to make a research design
1.1.1 Discuss the guidelines that are extensively applied in making a research design
1.1.2 Identify the experimental and control groups
1.1.3 Design the necessary experimental and control set-ups
1.1.4 Apply the principle of sampling technique and strategy in the selection of samples


2. Write the materials and methods in conducting an experiment

2.1 Apply the guidelines in scientific writing in preparing the materials and methods section of a research report


VI. Data Collection

1. Determine appropriate tools/instruments for gathering data.

1.1 Explain what is meant by instrumental techniques

1.2 Identify the appropriate instrumental techniques in data collection.
1.3 Name three ways in which data can be collected by researchers.
1.4 Use information maps and other concept maps as aid in documentation


2. Develop ability to gather and record quantifiable data.

2.1 Establish patterns or trends in the data collected.
2.1.1 Classify data into qualitative and quantitative
2.1.2 Identify the types of measurement scales. Name four types of measurement scales. Give an example of each.
2.2Present data in graphic (photomicrographs and photographs) and non-linear texts
2.2.1 Determine the appropriate mode of presenting data
2.2.2 Make a write up of charts and graphs
3. Analyze and interpret data collected
3.1 Use appropriate measures (central tendency and variation) in describing the data.
3.1.1 Apply appropriate measures in describing collected data
3.1.2 Explain in writing the data presented in non-linear texts.
3.2 Identify appropriate test for significance of hypothesis
3.2.1 Apply appropriate tests for significance of hypothesis
3.2.2 Apply the guidelines/steps in the testing for significance of hypothesis
3.2.3 Analyze and interpret the results
VII. Conclusion and Recommendation


1. Draw conclusions and formulate recommendations

1.1 Write valid conclusions
1.2 Make relevant recommendations


VIII. Writing a research report

1. Demonstrate competence in writing a research report
1.1 Write the science report following the standard format for the various parts of a research paper; e.g. title page,
table of contents, abstract, appendices, texts, graphs, tables and charts, documentations and references cited,
approval sheet, list of table sand figure.


IX. Oral Defense/Science Congress

1. Demonstrate ability for a science congress
1.1 Follow the mechanics of a science congress
1.2 Use appropriate format for exhibit display