19 views

Original Title: 1-s2.0-S0019057816000501-main.pdf

Uploaded by Sindhu Bhaskar

- Delta Operator modeling and Control using Genetic Algorithm Controllers Based on Ga and De
- ECE320_StudyGuide
- Process Modeling, Identificaion and Control
- Predictive Control of Requirement Stability
- A New Approach for Approximate Modeling and Controller Design of SISO Multiple Time Delay System
- Control Systems model paper
- Multiple Model Predictive Control for Wind
- Final Ver Correction8
- Advances_and_Aplication_in_Sliding_Model_Control_System_[AhmadTaherAzar_QuanminZhu].pdf
- 52120 MT Modern Control Theory
- ParametricControlMechanical Wood Thesis1995
- 22319847 LQR Tuning of Power System Stabilizer for Damping Oscillations(1)
- www.ijerd.com
- Feedback Control, 1a. Ed. - Stephen J. Dodds.pdf
- Control of Induction Motor Using Polytopic LPV Models
- Twin Rotor Observer Implementation
- Control
- Process Control Books and Journal Articles Tend to Emphasize Problems With a Single Controlled Variable
- c108_www.matlabi.ir_dC Motor Position Control Using State Space Technique
- a243895.pdf

You are on page 1of 13

ISA Transactions

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

of electro-hydraulic actuator with decayed memory lter

Qing Guo a,c,n, Ping Sun a, Jing-min Yin a, Tian Yu b, Dan Jiang d

a

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China

Center for Power Transmission and Motion Control, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK

c

The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

d

School of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 611731 Chengdu, China

b

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 26 October 2015

Received in revised form

4 January 2016

Accepted 8 February 2016

This paper was recommended for publication by Dr. A.B. Rad

hydraulic controller design due to many parameter uncertainties in practice. In this study, a parametric

adaptive backstepping control method is proposed to improve the dynamic behavior of EHS under

parametric uncertainties and unknown disturbance (i.e., hydraulic parameters and external load). The

unknown parameters of EHS model are estimated by the parametric adaptive estimation law. Then the

recursive backstepping controller is designed by Lyapunov technique to realize the displacement control

of EHS. To avoid explosion of virtual control in traditional backstepping, a decayed memory lter is

presented to re-estimate the virtual control and the dynamic external load. The effectiveness of the

proposed controller has been demonstrated by comparison with the controller without adaptive and

lter estimation. The comparative experimental results in critical working conditions indicate the proposed approach can achieve better dynamic performance on the motion control of Two-DOF robotic arm.

& 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Parametric adaptive estimation

Electro-hydraulic system

Backstepping control

Decayed memory lter

1. Introduction

Electro-hydraulic servo systems (EHSs) are nowadays widely

used in mechatronic control engineering, due to their higher loadbearing and small size-to-power ratio [1]. One of the fundamental

difculties in hydraulic control and EHS operations is undesirable

dynamic behavior of the established controller due to the ignorance

of parametric uncertainties and unknown disturbance. Some parametric uncertainties are almost caused by unknown viscous

damping, load stiffness, physical characteristics of valve, bulk

modulus [2]. Since some unknown parametric variation may be

signicant in different working conditions (i.e., the phenomenon

such as oil temperature variations, pressure-ow characteristics,

hysteresis in ow gain characteristics, oil leakage, characteristics of

valves near null) [3], many state/output feedback controllers cannot

be well established to guarantee the dynamic performance of EHS.

Thus, the parametric estimation is one available method to obtain

unknown parameters by state observer construction integrated with

n

Corresponding author at: School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of

Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 2006, Xiyuan Ave, West Hi-Tech

Zone, Chengdu 611731, China.

E-mail addresses: guoqinguestc@uestc.edu.cn (Q. Guo),

sunping0944@163.com (P. Sun), yinjm1028@163.com (J.-m. Yin),

ty267@bath.ac.uk (T. Yu), jdan2002@uestc.edu.cn (D. Jiang).

uncertainties, the mainly disturbance is largely unknown torque/

force disturbances caused by external loadings on hydraulic actuator. So further references have been more focused on disturbance

rejection of EHS. For instance, Ref. [4] proposed a nonlinear controller in which the external load is treated as uncertain but

bounded disturbance. It has been shown that the closed loop stability can directly be analyzed by the Lyapunov technique. Yao and

Bu [5,6] assumed that the maximum relative uncertainty of the

external load disturbance is bounded by a known value and proposed a discontinuous projection-based adaptive backstepping

controller. Kim [7] presented a disturbance observer (DOB) with PI

form to estimate a biased sinusoidal external load. Then, Won [8]

developed a high-gain disturbance observer (HDOB) with backstepping to compensate for the unknown external load and guaranteed tolerance of the position tracking error. These references

denote that the external load with wide variations is an important

factor to decline dynamic response performance of a hydraulic

controller, especially in some critical condition where the external

load of the hydraulic actuator is close to the limitation. Therefore, to

improve the dynamic behavior of EHS, various advanced control

approaches were developed to estimate unknown parametric

uncertainties and unmeasured disturbance.

Recently, some robust H 1 control methods [912] and quantitative feedback theories [13] have been presented to overcome

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009

0019-0578/& 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Guo Q, et al. Parametric adaptive estimation and backstepping control of electro-hydraulic actuator with

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

controller. A geometric control approach [14] was veried by

numerical simulation to realize the dynamic tracking position of a

single-rod cylinder. In the past two decades, backstepping control

was widely used in EHS [1517]. If the model of EHS is a strict

feedback system [18,19], the backstepping controller based on

state feedback can be well implemented. Then Yao and Bu [20]

presented a discontinuous projection-based adaptive backstepping controller to estimate some unknown parameters of

asymmetric hydraulic actuator. Subsequently, Guan [21,22] also

constructed a parametric adaptive estimation law to guarantee the

asymptotic convergence of backstepping controller. Kaddissi [23]

proposed an equivalent parameter identication method by the

least squares and obtained better performance than the linear

controller. Ahn [24] presented an adaptive position control for a

pump-controlled EHA based on an adaptive backstepping control

scheme. To address some unmeasured physical states, Sun [25]

proposed a perturbation observer to estimate the load pressure of

single-rod hydraulic actuator. Pi [27] designed an observer-based

cascade controller to estimate disturbance force in hydraulic

manipulator. In addition, some output observers [2630] were

used to estimate hydraulic states with less measured information

than state feedback observers. These various observers were veried in backstepping or other nonlinear control method.

However, to the best of authors knowledge, aforementioned

backstepping and adaptive controllers need to deal with some

derivatives of virtual control variables which exist in backstepping

iteration. These derivatives can be computed by the system state

error model and parametric estimated law established in recursive

controller design [18]. Since this computed process easily lead to

derivative explosion, few researches are focused on the quality of

these virtual control variables (i.e., data validation). If these virtual

control variables are not available, especially violent, both the stability and dynamic performance of EHS will be signicantly

decreased. Thus, this paper presents a parametric adaptive backstepping control method based on state feedback to estimate some

unknown parameters in hydraulic model. Then a decayed memory

lter is proposed to compute the derivatives value of virtual control

variables in the backstepping control design. The effectiveness of the

proposed control is veried by a comparative experimental study.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. The

dynamic models of EHS and external load are constructed in

Section 2. The parametric adaptive backstepping controller and

the decayed memory lter are designed in Section 3. Then the

related experimental results are demonstrated in Section 4. Finally,

the conclusion is drawn in Section 5.

2.1. Two-DOF robotic arm

The mechatronics plant is two-DOF Robotic Arm which is

similar to Robotic Bigdog. The motion control of Robotic Arm is

driven by an electro-hydraulic system (EHS) shown in Fig. 1. The

upper arm and forearm rotate around the shoulder and elbow

joint in sagittal plane respectively. The torso is xed on the

ground. The main external load is a disc on the top of forearm. The

electro-hydraulic system is comprised by two servo valves, two

hydraulic cylinders, two pistons, a xed-displacement pump and a

relief valve.

2.2. Dynamics of EHS

The load ow QL of a servo valve can be described as follows

s

1

ps sgnxv pL ;

1

Q L C d wxv

13

Elbow

10

6

Shoulder

11

12

8

9

Fig. 1. The electro-hydraulic servo control mechanism of Two-DOF robotic arm (1, 4servo valves, 2, 5hydraulic cylinders, 3, 6pistons, 7relief valve, 8xed displacement

pump, 9tank, 10forearm, 11upper arm, 12torso, 13external load).

Please cite this article as: Guo Q, et al. Parametric adaptive estimation and backstepping control of electro-hydraulic actuator with

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

position of the servo valve, ps is the supply pressure of the pump,

Cd is the discharge coefcient, w is the area gradient of the valve

spool, and is the density of hydraulic oil.

The ow-pressure continuous equation of hydraulic cylinder is

Q L Ap

dy

V t dpL

C tl pL

;

dt

4e dt

total leakage of the cylinder, e is the effective bulk modulus, Ap is

the annulus area of cylinder chamber, and Vt is the half-volume of

cylinder.

If the major viscous friction of hydraulic oil is simplied as

Coulomb friction, the mechanical dynamic equation driven by an

hydraulic actuator can be constructed as follows

Ap pL my by_ Ky F L ;

viscous damping coefcient, and FL is the external load on the

hydraulic actuator.

The dynamics of the servo valve describes the relationship

between the spool position and the input control voltage. It is one

order linear model [5] as follows

T sv x_ v xv K sv u;

where Ksv is the gain of the control voltage u, Tsv is the response

time constant of servo valve.

In Eq. (1), the function sgn( ) should be smoothed in the

derivation of backstepping control, which is replaced by the

hyperbolic tangent function tanh( ) as follows

sgnxv tanhkxv

ekxv e kxv

;

ekxv e kxv

k0;

_ pL ; xv T , the output

If the state vector X x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; x4 y; y;

variable y x1 and the control input u(t) are dened, the dynamics

of EHS is constructed as the 4th state space model as follows

8

x_ 1 x2

>

>

>

>

>

1

>

>

x_ 2 Kx1 bx2 Ap x3 F L

>

>

m

>

<

4 Ap

4 C

4 C w p

6

ps tanhkx4 x3 x4

x_ 3 e x2 e tl x3 epd

>

>

Vt

V

V

>

t

t

>

>

>

>

1

K sv

>

>

x4

u:

> x_ 4

:

T sv

T sv

the torques on 2 hydraulic actuators.

The above equation is unfolded as follows

8

H I1 I 2f m1 P 1 P 2m1 m2f P 1 P 22 m2f P 2 P 2m2 2m2f P 1 P 2 P 2 P m2 cos 2 m1 ;

>

>

> 11

>

< H 12 I m P 1 P 2 P 2 P m2 cos 2 m1 ;

2f

2f

>

> H 21 H12 ;

>

>

: H I m P P2 ;

22

2f

2f

2 m2

9

8

>

C 2m2f P 1 P 2 P 2 P m2 _ 2 sin 2 m1 ;

>

> 11

>

< C C =2;

12

11

> C 21 m2f P 1 P 2 P 2 P m2 _ 1 sin 2 m1 ;

>

>

>

:

C 22 0;

(

10

G2 m2f gP 2 P m2 sin 1 2 ;

11

where m1 is the upper arm mass including cylinder, m2 is the

forearm mass, mf is the load mass, I1 is the inertia of the upper arm

around the shoulder, I2 is the inertia of the forearm around the

elbow, I2f is the inertia of the forearm around the elbow including

load, m2f is the forearm mass with the load mass, m1f is the load

mass of the upper arm, P 1 P 2 is the length of the upper arm, P 1 P m1

is the distance from the upper arm centroid to shoulder, P 2 P m2 is

the distance from the forearm centroid to elbow, and m1 is the

eccentric angle of cylinder to shoulder.

The known mechanical parameters are substituted into (9)

(11), Tu and Tf can be computed. Then the external load FL in (6) is

divided into two items and described as follows

8

T u 1 ; 2

>

>

;

> F Lu 1 ; 2

>

<

l 1 1

12

T f 1 ; 2

>

>

;

F Lf 1 ; 2

>

>

l 2 2

:

where FLu is the load force on shoulder hydraulic actuator, FLf is the

load force on elbow hydraulic actuator, and the dynamic force

arms li i ; i 1; 2 are computed by triangle geometry.

Remark 1. Due to measurement noise and uncertainty disturbance in engineering practice, FLu and FLf are difcult to be

obtained. The computed value in (12) may deviated from the true

value. Thus, these values should be handled by a lter before used

in parametric estimation law.

3. Parametric adaptive backstepping controller

The main external load on two hydraulic actuators are described as the driving torques of Two-DOF robotic arm as shown in

(3). In this study, FL can be described as the variable disturbance

different from other unknown constant parameters such as K, b,

e, Ctl, Cd, w, . To signicantly suppress this dynamic disturbance,

FL is estimated in parametric estimation laws, which is used in

backstepping design.

If all the mechanical parameters are known, the external load FL

is constructed by the Lagrange equation as follows

_ q_ Gq T ;

Hqq Cq; q

"

H

"

H 11

H 12

H 21

#

H 22

1

q

;

2

"

;

"

Tu

Tf

C 11

C 12

C 21

C 22

"

;

G1

G2

#

;

8

controller design. If these unknown parameters are dened as

1 mK ; 2 mb ; 3 FmL , 4 4VetAp ; 5 4VetC tl ; 6 4Vet pC dw, then the

dynamics of EHS can be described as follows [28,31]

8_

x 1 x2 ;

>

>

>

>

Ap

>

>

>

< x_ 2 m x3 1 x1 2 x2 3 ;

p

13

x_ 3 4 x2 5 x3 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 x4 ;

>

>

>

>

>

1

K sv

>

>

x4

u:

: x_ 4

T sv

T sv

Remark 2. Generally, i i 2; 4; 5; 6 are often perturbed by different hydraulic physical characteristic. If the load spring constant

K and the load mass m are given, 1 can be considered as a known

constant. The parameter 3 is either an unknown constant or a

dynamic variable due to the characteristic of the external load FL.

Please cite this article as: Guo Q, et al. Parametric adaptive estimation and backstepping control of electro-hydraulic actuator with

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

parameters in the study.

control 2 are designed as follows

^ 1 k1 x1 z2 ;

At rst, the state error zi i 1; ; 4 and the parametric estimated error ~ i i 1; 6 are dened as follows

(

z1 x1 x1d ;

14

zi xi i 1 i 2; 3; 4;

~ i i ^ i ;

i 1; ; 6

virtual control, ^ i is the estimation of i.

15

i is the ith

are constant, if the virtual control variables i A C 1 i 1; 2; 3, and

their derivatives _ i i 1; 2; 3 are smooth, then there exists a backstepping controller u, which guarantees zi t i 1; ; 4-0,

~ i t i 1; ; 6-0, as t-1.

Proof. If x_ 1d a 0, we see that

z_ 1 z2 1 x_ 1d :

16

2

18

1 is designed as follows

1 c1 z1 x_ 1d ;

26

Then the derivative of z3 is

z_ 3 x_ 3 _ 2 4 x2 5 x3 6

q

ps tanhkx4 x3 x4 _ 2 :

27

6

2

X

1

1

i ^ i ;

V 3 V 2 z23

2

2ki

i4

28

the derivative of V3 is

Ap

V_ 3 c1 z21 c2 z22 z2 z3 z3 4 x2 5 x3

m

6

_

_

^_

q

^

^

4~

ps tanhkx4 x3 z4 3 _ 2

4 5 ~ 5 6 ~ 6

0

Ap

z2

@m

k4

k5

^ 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 z4

k6

A

p

ps tanhkx4 x3 3 ^ 4 x2 ^ 5 x3 _ 2

0

0

1

1

_

_

_

q

^ 4

^ 5

^ 6

~ 4 @ x2 z3 A ~ 5 @ x3 z3 A ~ 6 @ x4 z3 ps tanhkx4 x3 A;

k4

k5

k6

c1 z21 c2 z22 z3

^ 6

0

1

29

19

Therefore, the derivative of V1 is

V_ 1 c1 z21 z1 z2 :

m

c2 m

m ^

z1

z2

1 x1 ^ 2 x2 ^ 3 c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d ;

Ap

Ap

Ap

Ap

V_ 2 c1 z21 c2 z22 z2 z3 ;

m

V_ 1 z1 z2 1 x_ 1d ;

24

25

17

^ 3 k3 z2 ;

V 1 12 z21 :

^ 2 k2 x2 z2 ;

20

If the parametric adaptive estimation laws and the virtual

control 3 are designed as follows

q

_

_

_

^ 4 k4 x2 z3 ; ^ 5 k5 x3 z3 ; ^ 6 k6 x4 z3 ps tanhkx4 x3 ;

30

z_ 2 x_ 2 _ 1

Ap

x3 1 x1 2 x2 3 c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d

m

Ap

Ap

z3 2 1 x1 2 x2 3 c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d ;

m

m

21

31

q

V_ 3 c1 z21 c2 z22 c3 z23 z3 z4 ^ 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 ;

3

2

X

1

1

V 2 V 1 z22

i ^ i ;

2

2k

i

i1

m

z2 c3 z3 ^ 4 x2 ^ 5 x3 _ 2

Ap

;

3

p

^ p tanhkx x

22

Therefore, the derivative of V2 is

Ap

Ap

z3 2 1 x1 2 x2 3 c1 x2

V_ 2 c1 z21 z1 z2 z2

m

m

^_

_

_

^

1

2

^ 3

c1 x_ 1d x 1d ~ 1 ~ 2 ~ 3

k1

k2

k3

A

A

p

p

c1 z21 z2 z1 z3 2 ^ 1 x1 ^ 2 x2 ^ 3 c1 x2

m

m

If the Lyapunov function V4 is dened as

V 4 V 3 12 z24 ;

33

V_ 4 V_ 3 z4 z_ 4 c1 z21 c2 z22 c3 z23 z3 z4 ^ 6

q

ps tanhkx4 x3

q

x4 K sv

z4 z3 ^ 6 ps tanhkx4 x3

u _ 3 :

T sv T sv

0

1

0

1

0

1

_

_

_

^ 1

^ 2

^ 3

c1 x_ 1d x 1d ~ 1 @ x1 z2 A ~ 2 @ x2 z2 A ~ 3 @ z2 A:

k1

k2

k3

23

32

34

u

T sv

x4 T sv

T

c4 z4

_ 3 sv z3 ^ 6

K sv

K sv K sv

K sv

q

ps tanhkx4 x3 ;

35

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

V_ 4 c1 z21 c2 z22 c3 z23 c4 z24 o 0;

36

Thus, by the parametric adaptive estimation laws (24) and (30),

the elements involving ~ i i 1; ; 6 vanish in V_ 4 . Simultaneously, V_ 4 is negative denite by the virtual control (19), (25),

(31) and the backstepping controller (36). This iteration controller

guarantees the parametric estimation errors ~ i i 1; ; 6 and

the system state error zi i 1; ; 4 converging to zero.

From the assumption in Theorem 1, the derivative of 2 and 3

used in (25) and (31) can be simplied as follows:

m

Ap

_ 2 z2 1 x_ 1d c2 z3 c2 2

c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d

_ 3 z3

^ 5

c2 m

^ 1 x1 ^ 2 x2 ^ 3

Ap

c1 m ^

x_ 2 ;

Ap

37

m

c2 z2 z1 c3 x_^ 3 _ 2 ^ 4 x_^ 2

Ap

x_^ 3 2

p ;

^ 6 ps tanhkx4 x3

38

where x_^ 2 and x_^ 3 are estimated by the dynamic model of EHS as

follows

8

< x_^ Ap x ^ x ^ x ^ ;

2

3

1 1

2 2

3

m

:

39

p

:^

^

^

^

x_ 3 4 x2 5 x3 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 x4 :

3.2. Decayed memory lter design

As shown in (37) and (38), although the derivatives _ 2 and _ 3

are computed in backstepping design, the algorithm is still very

complicated. If these derivatives directly used in the controller u,

the robustness of this backstepping controller may decline.

Therefore, a decayed memory lter is designed to re-estimate

these derivatives and ltering the variable parameter 3 mentioned in Remark 1. The lter form is described as follows [32]

8

>

>

>

_^ k 1 T

^ k 1

> E k k

>

c

>

<

2 ; 3 ; 3

40

^

>

^ k ^ k 1 _ k 1 T c G E k

>

>

>

>

>

_^ k

_^ k 1 H E k;

:

Tc

^ k is the estimation

where k is the kth calculated value of ,

^

_

_ , T is the

of k, k is the kth estimation of the derivative

c

2

interval of controller, the lter parameters are G 1 ,

H 1 2 , and the range of the lter factor is (0, 1).

Since the calculated values of 2 and 3 are obtained from (25)

and (31), the estimation values ^ i ; _^ i i 2; 3 are obtained by (40).

From (12), the calculated value of 3 is described as follows

8

F ; T ;

>

>

> 31 Lu 1 2 u 1 2 ;

>

<

m1f

m1f l1 1

41

F

T

>

1

2

Lf

f 1 ; 2

>

>

;

32

>

:

m2f

m2f l2 2

where 31 and 32 represent the two calculated values of the

parameter 3 for two hydraulic actuators. After (41) is substituted

^

into (40), the estimation values ^ 3i ; _ 3i i 1; 2 are obtained.

Then the convergence of the proposed hlter should be anaT

lyzed. If the vector k is dened as k ^ k; _^ k , then the

#"

"

# "

# " #

1 G 1 GT c

G

^ k 1

^ k

42

H

H k:

1H

_^ k 1

_^ k

Tc

Tc

Theorem 2. Assuming that k is the input of discrete linear system

(42), and ^ k and _^ k are the outputs, then (42) is input-to-state

stable (ISS), and ^ k-k, _^ k-_ k, as k-1.

Proof. (1) If two constants are dened as 1 1 G, 2 1 H,

then we can see that 1 o 1, 2 o 1, 1 o 2 . The characteristic

polynomial of system matrix A in (42) is described as follows

"

#

s 1 1 T c

sI A

43

s2 1 2 s 1 0:

2Tc 1 s 2

Substituting 1 , 2 2 into (43), the eigenvalues of

system matrix A are given by

q

1 2 7 1 2 2 41

:

44

s1;2

2

2

than 1. According to the stability of linear discrete system, if the

system input k is bounded, then (42) is input-to-state

stable (ISS).

(2) Since the two outputs ^ k and _^ k are ISS, the lter convergence can be analyzed by two steps. Firstly, from (42), we can

see that

^ k 1 G^ k 1 1 GT c _^ k 1 Gk:

45

integer n0 ; 8 k 4 n0 , _^ k-0 and ^ k ^ k 1. Substituting

these two conditions into (45), we can obtain that ^ k-k.

Secondly, From (42), the dynamics of _^ k is given by

H

Tc

H

Tc

_^ k ^ k 1 1 H_^ k 1 k:

46

integer n1, 8 k 4n1 , ^ k 1-k 1 and _^ k _^ k 1. Simultaneously, we can see that THc k k 1 H _ k 1. Substituting these three conditions into (46), we can obtain that

_^ k-_ k.

3.3. Revised parametric adaptive control law

In Theorem 1, the unknown parameter 3 is assumed to be

constant. This assumption is not appropriate due to the variable

external loads on two hydraulic actuators. Thus, aforementioned

parametric adaptive backstepping controller should be revised to

guarantee the EHS (13) convergence.

Theorem 3. Assuming that the unknown parameters 3 is variable

but its derivative _ 3 is bounded, and the other unknown parameters

i i 1; 2; 4; 5; 6 are constants, if the virtual control variables

i A C 1 i 1; 2; 3, and their derivatives _ i i 1; 2; 3 are bounded,

then there exists a revised backstepping controller u, such that

zi t i 1; 4-0, ~ i t i 1; 6-0, as t-1 is guaranteed.

_

Proof. The parametric adaptive estimation law of ^ 3 in (24) can

be revised as follows

_

^ 3 k3 z2 _^ 3 _ 3 sgn3 ^ 3 ;

47

max

_

_

is the bound of the lter error 3 (i.e.,

where 3

max

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

_ 3 _ 3 _^ 3 ),

^

_^

3 is the calculated value from (41), 3 and 3 are

the lter outputs.

Due to _ 3 a 0, the Lyapunov function V2 is rewritten as follows

Ap

Ap

0

z3 2 ^ 1 x1 ^ 2 x2 ^ 3 c1 x2

V_ 2 c1 z21 z1 z2 z2

m

m

^_

_

_^

1

2

^ 3 _ 3 ~

3

c1 x_ 1d x 1d ~ 1 ~ 2

k3

k1

k2

Ap

Ap

c1 z21 z2 z1 z3 2 ^ 1 x1 ^ 2 x2 ^ 3

m

m

0

1

0

1

^_

^_

1

2

c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d ~ 1 @ x1 z2 A ~ 2 @ x2 z2 A

k1

k2

0

1

_

^ 3 _ 3

48

z 2 A:

~ 3 @

k3

_

_

Substituting (47) and ^ 1 and ^ 2 in (24) into (48), we can see

that

Ap

~ 3 _ _

0

3 3 sgn ~ 3 :

V_ 2 c1 z21 c2 z22 z2 z3

m

k3

max

49

_

. This denotes that the last element in (49) is less than 0.

3

max

_ 3 _ 3 _^ 3 ) are bounded by _ 2 max , _ 3 max , then the virtual control

d

^

maxt-1 f_ di t _^ i tg and maxt-1 f_ 3 t _ 3 tg, where _ di t

d

j_ i jmax sin 2 t for i 2; 3, _ 3 t _ 3

sin 2 t. The constants

max

_

j_ i jmax and 3

can be estimated in the following simplied

max

controller (55).

Therefore, the revised backstepping controller (52) guarantees

zi i 1; 4 and ~ i i 1; 6 converging to zero. This controller

involves the parametric estimation laws (24), (30), and (47), the

state errors (14), the virtual control laws (19), (25), (50), and the

ltering estimation (40) as shown in Fig. 2.

4. Experiment

In our studies, the Two-DOF robotic arm is employed to implement

and test the performance of the proposed control method. Meanwhile,

several working conditions will be considered when both arms of

robotic are driven simultaneously, or either one joint is run instead.

The comparative experiments are demonstrated by which used

parametric adaptive estimation law and the proposed lter or not.

4.1. Experiment setup

The Two-DOF robotic arm is manufactured by Italian Institute of

Technology shown in Fig. 3. The specic parameters and brands of

main components in the experimental architecture are listed in

3 is revised as follows

m

z2 c3 z3 ^ 4 x2 ^ 5 x3 _^ 2 _ 2 max sgn z3

Ap

:

3

p

^ p tanhkx x

6

50

rewritten as follows

q

0

V_ 3 c1 z21 c2 z22 c3 z23 z3 z4 ^ 6 ps tanhkx4 x3

~ 3 _ _

3 3

k3

max

sgn ~ 3 z3 _ 2 _ 2 max sgn z3 ;

51

Finally, if the controller u is redesigned as follows

T sv

x4 T sv ^

T

c4 z4

_ 3 sv _ 3 max sgn z4

K sv

K sv K sv

K sv

q

T sv ^

z3 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 ;

K sv

u

52

~ 3

0

sgn ~ 3

V_ 4 c1 z21 c2 z22 c3 z23 c4 z24 _ 3 _ 3

k3

max

z3 _ 2 _ 2 max sgn z3 z4 _ 3 _ 3 max sgn z4 o 0:

53

By the parametric adaptive estimation law (47), the sign of the

0

dynamic element ~ 3 is guaranteed to be negative in V_ 4 . Similarly,

the signs of z3 and z4 become negative by the virtual control (50)

and the revised backstepping controller (53). This iteration controller guarantees ~ i i 1; ; 6 and zi i 1; ; 4 converging

to zero.

Remark 3. The constants _ 3

, _ 2 max and _ 3 max need

max

Form (41) and (46), these three constants can be estimated by

servo valve, 4 pressure gauge, 5 relief valve, 6 xed displacement pump, 7

servo motor, 8 encoder, 9 pressure sensor, 10 tank, 11 IPC).

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

Table 1

The specic parameters and brand of main components.

Element

Type

Marks

Quantity

Servo motor

Fixed displacement pump

Servo valve

Hydraulic cylinder

Relative encoder

Pressure sensor

BSM63N-375

TFH-315

D633-R02K01M0NSM2

LB6-1610-0080-4M

AEDA-3300-BE1

M3041-000006-350BG

BALDOR

Takako

Moog

Hoerbiger

AVAGO

MEAS

1

1

2

2

2

4

Table 2

Hydraulic parameters used in experiments.

Parameter

Value

Cd

xv max

ps

Vt

0.62

0.024 m

7.9 mm

40 bar

Smax

Ap

79 mm

2:01 cm2

1:74 10 5 m3

Ksv

7:9 10 4 m=V

1000 N/m

e

Tsv

2:2 108 Pa

12 ms

2200 Ns/m

K

C tl

m1

mf

I2

m2f

P1 P2

P 2 P m2

2:5 10 11 m3 =s Pa

1.772 kg

1 kg

0:015 kg m2

1.739 kg

0.35 m

0.12 m

Parameter

m2

I1

I2f

m1f

P 1 P m1

m1

Value

800 kg=m3

0.739 kg

0:071 kg m2

0:022 kg m2

3.511 kg

0.16 m

7.9

shown in Table 2. Since the hydraulic parameters Cd, w, , e, K, b, and

Ctl are not obtained exactly, which have some uncertainties in different experimental conditions, it is necessary to estimate the

uncertain parameters i i 1; 2; 4; 5; 6 by the proposed parametric

adaptive estimation law. However, the approximate values C d , w, ,

e , K , b, and C tl can be preset from some hydraulic references as

shown in Table 2. If the proposed parametric adaptive estimation law

is not adopted, the approximate values i i 1; 2; 4; 5; 6 without

considering parametric uncertainties can also be used in the backstepping controller instead of the estimation values. From the parametric denition in (13), the known nominal values are given by

8

>

s

e

K

K

>

>

1

; 1

>

>

>

m

m2f

1f

>

>

>

>

>

e

b

b

> s

>

>

2

; 2

>

>

m1f

m2f

>

>

>

>

<

4 A

;

54

4 e p

>

Vt

>

>

>

>

>

>

> 5 4 e C tl

>

>

>

Vt

>

>

>

>

>

4 C w

>

>

epd

>

>

: 6

Vt

s

shoulder and elbow actuators.

Thus, the simplied backstepping controller is redesigned as

follows

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

8

p

T sv

x4

T sv

T

>

>

u

c4 z4

_ 3 sv z3 6 ps tanhkx4 x3

>

>

>

K

K

K

K

sv

sv

sv

sv

>

>

>

m

c m

c m

>

>

>

_ z2 1 x_ 1d c2 z3 c2 2 2 1 x1 2 x2 3 c1 x2 c1 x_ 1d x 1d 1 x_ 2

>

< 2

Ap

Ap

Ap

>

x_ 3 2

m

>

>

_ 3 z3 c2 z2 z1 c3 x_ 3 _ 2 4 x_ 2 5 p

>

>

A

>

p

p

>

6

s tanhkx4 x3

>

>

>

p

>

A

p

>

: x_ 2 x3 1 x1 2 x2 3 x_ 3 4 x2 5 x3 6 ps tanhkx4 x3 x4 :

m

displacement of cylinder is not more than 58 mm to avoid the

boundary collision of robotic arm. The initial values of estimated

parameters are predened as zero, i.e., ^ i0 0 i 1; ; 6 to verify

the convergence effectiveness of the parametric estimation laws.

Some control parameters are designed as follows:

(1) The constants: k1 10, k2 0:1, k3 10 3 , k4 10 6 ,

k5 10 9 , and k6 10 5 .

3

(2) The constants: c1 10, c2 1, c3 10 5 , c4 10

.

_

3

_ 2

(3) The

constants:

5

10

,

5 107 ,

3

max

max

_ 3

0:01.

max

(4) The lter parameters: 0:7. T c 10 3 s.

4.2. Result of the proposed controller

In order to verify the proposed parametric adaptive backstepping controller in (52), two sinusoidal demands of the cylinder

displacement are selected as xs1d 29 sin 0:6 t mm, xe1d

29 sin t mm. The four state responses, six parametric estimations, and two control voltages of the proposed controllers are

shown in Figs. 46.

Fig. 4 a shows the good displacement tracking responses of two

sinusoidal demands by the proposed controllers. The load pressures measured by pressure sensors are not more than the supply

pressure 40 bar shown in Fig. 4c. Due to larger dynamic load on

the shoulder actuator, the motion frequency of shoulder should be

lower than the elbow. During time slice (0, 0.8 s), the control

saturation arises since the initial tracking error is signicant. After

0.8 s, the spool positions of two servo valves are not exceeded the

saturation 7 xv max , which are similar to the dynamic characteristic of two control voltages us and ue shown in Fig. 6. In the

experiment, the robotic arm motion will generate resonance effect

when the tracking tendency of two joint angles approaches each

55

actuators need simultaneously suffering two maximum external

loads, the instant control supplement is signicant as shown in

Fig. 6a and b.

The six uncertain parameters are estimated respectively by

the parametric adaptive estimation laws (24), (30), and (47)

s

e

shown in Fig. 5. The parametric estimations ^ and ^ respecs

load spring constant is almost consistent with the approximate

preset values. The other four parametric estimations ^ 2 , ^ 4 , ^ 5 ,

and ^ 6 also converge to respective steady-state values like ^ 1 .

However, these parametric estimations have obviously deviated

from the approximate preset values respectively. This phenomenon indicates that the permanent parameters 2 , 4 , 5 , and 6

cannot show the actual hydraulic parameters Cd, w, , e, b, Ctl

with some uncertainties in different working conditions. Different from the steady characteristic of the other ve parameters,

s

e

^ , ^ are dynamic estimations, which described two variable

3

robotic arm motion. If the parametric estimated errors of ^ i i

2; 4; 5; 6 are signicant, the static control bias emerges in the

long time shown in the initial 1 s in Fig. 7f. If the dynamic estis

e

mations of ^ and ^ are inaccurate, the dynamic control

3

4.3. Comparison results

4.3.1. Comparison with simplied backstepping controller

To illustrate the problem, the comparison results for two different backstepping controllers are given in two critical conditions

where the external load of the hydraulic actuator is close to the

limitation. The proposed controller (52) involves the parametric

estimation laws and the ltering estimation. The other simplied

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

10

Fig. 7. The comparison result for the demand input xs1d 14:5 sin 2t mm.

and no ltering estimation, where the approximate preset parameters 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 are determined by (54), 3 is computed

by (41), not used (40) and (47). Different from the above experimental condition, the elbow joint is xed and the displacement

demands of shoulder are selected as xs1d 14:5 sin 2 t mm,

xs1d 29 sin t mm. The comparison results are shown in

Figs. 7 and 8. The derivatives _ 2 and _ 3 obtained by the proposed

as shown in Fig. 7ad. This experimental phenomenon denote that

the proposed lter has more capability to suppress the violent

derivative of virtual control than the conservative approach based

on model computation. Fig. 7e shows that the proposed controller

has higher tracking performance, since the parametric estimation

laws is used to adapt the actual hydraulic parameter with uncertainties. On the contrary, the simplied backstepping controller

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

11

Fig. 8. The comparison result for the demand input xs1d 29 sin t mm.

behavior of the closed control loop and results into the sharp

controller as shown in Fig. 7f.

Especially in a large stroke motion experiment of shoulder

actuator as shown in Fig. 8, the simplied backstepping controller

could not obtain the satisfactory tracking performance. However,

to some extent, the proposed lter still guarantees the dynamic

response of shoulder actuator. These results show that the large

stroke motion is easier to cause the saturated and sharp controller

than the high frequency motion due to the dynamic external load

on the shoulder actuator.

4.3.2. Comparison with PI controller

Similarly for the same tracking demands of two conditions shown

in the above section, the comparison results with PI controller are

given in Figs. 9 and 10. Here the PI controller is described as

R

us K p xs1 K i xs1 dt, where xs1 xs1d xs1 . The two parameters

Kp 100 and Ki 15, which have been well tuned to guarantee fast

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

12

Fig. 9. The comparison result for the demand input xs1d 29 sin t mm.

Fig. 10. The comparison result for the demand input xs1d 14:5 sin 2t mm.

Fig. 11. The comparison result for the demand input xs1d 29 sin 2t mm.

0.5 Hz, the tracking error of the shoulder cylinder is no more than

3 mm as shown in Fig. 9a, which indicates that both two controllers

can obtain good dynamic response performance under the low frequency demand xs1d 29 sin t mm. Then the motion frequency is

behavior of the proposed controller is better than the PI controller as

shown in Fig. 10a. Slight chatters emerge in PI control as shown in

Fig. 10b. If the control parameters are reduced to eliminate the

chatter phenomenon, the tracking accuracy will be declined this

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

for the parametric uncertainties adaptation and load disturbance

suppression comparison with the PI controller.

4.3.3. Comparison with general parametric adaptive controller

To verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in more

severe condition, the third tracking demands xs1d 29 sin 2 t

mm and the elbow cylinder is always extended. Both controllers

are compared in this condition. One is the proposed controller, and

the other is the general parametric adaptive controller with no

decay memory lter, which is derived from (24), (30), (19), (25),

(31), (35). When the frequency is 1 Hz and the motion range is

increased to the whole stroke of cylinder, the external load disturbance is signicantly increased. The dynamic performance of

the proposed controller is better than the general parametric

adaptive controller as shown in Fig. 11a. The latter controller

emerges control saturation and slight chatters as shown in Fig. 11b,

which indicates that the proposed decay memory lter can

attenuate the control saturation caused by the derivative explosion

of virtual control in backstepping design.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a parametric adaptive backstepping controller

based on state feedback is presented to implement the displacement control of electro-hydraulic actuator. The dynamic models of

this EHS and the external loads were rst constructed. Then, the

parametric adaptive estimation law is designed to estimate six

uncertainty parameters, and the recursive backstepping controller

was established by Lyapunov technique. After that, a decayed

memory lter is used to estimate the two virtual control variables

and corresponding derivatives. Simultaneously, the backstepping

controller is also revised to guarantee the convergence of the state

error and the parametric estimated error. The sinusoidal tracking

results verify this proposed method in the motion control of the

robotic arm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed controller comparison with the simplied backstepping controller is

well demonstrated in critical working conditions.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge Prof. Andrew Plummer, Director of

Power Center for Power Transmission and Motion Control,

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath for the

funding assistance and previous work. This work was supported

by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.

61305092 and 51205045), the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of

China (No. 2013M542487), and the Open Foundation of the State

Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control (No.

GZKF-201515).

References

[1] Manring ND. Hydraulic control systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons;

2005.

[2] Fales R, Kelkar A. A robust control design for a wheel loader using mixed

sensitivity H-innity and feedback linearization based methods. In: Proceedings of the 2005 American control conference, Portland, OR, USA, 2005. p.

43816.

13

[3] Mili V, itum , Essert M. Robust H1 position control synthesis of an electrohydraulic servo system. ISA Trans 2010;49(October (4)):53542.

[4] YU H, Feng ZJ, Wang XY. Nonlinear control for a class of hydraulic servo system. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 2004;5(November (11)):14137.

[5] Yao B, Bu FP, Reedy J, Chiu T-C. Adaptive robust motion control of single-rod

hydraulic actuators theory and experiments. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron

2000;5(March (1)):7991.

[6] Bu F, Yao B. Observer based coordinated adaptive robust control of robot

manipulators driven by single-rod hydraulic actuators. In: Proceedings of the

2000 IEEE-ICRA, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2000. p. 30349.

[7] Kim W, Shin D, Won D, Chung CC. Disturbance-observer-based position

tracking controller in the presence of biased sinusoidal disturbance for electrohydraulic actuators. IEEE Trans Control System Technol 2013;21(November

(6)):22908.

[8] Won D, Kim W, Shin D, Chung CC. High-gain disturbance observer-based

backstepping control with output tracking error constraint for electrohydraulic systems. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 2015;23(March (2)):787

95.

[9] Guo Q, Yu T, Jiang D. Robust H 1 positional control of 2-DOF robotic arm driven

by electro-hydraulic servo system. ISA Trans 2015;59(November (11)):5564.

[10] Guo Q, Yu T, Jiang D. High-gain observer-based output feedback control of

single-rod electro-hydraulic actuator. IET Control Theory Appl 2015;9

(November (16)):2395404.

[11] He W, Zhang S, Ge SS. Robust adaptive control of a thruster assisted position

mooring system. Automatica 2014;50(July (7)):184351.

[12] He W, Zhang S, Ge SS. Adaptive control of a exible crane system with the

boundary output constraint. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2014;61(August

(8)):412633.

[13] Niksefat N, Sepehri N. Design and experimental evaluation of a robust force

controller for an electro-hydraulic actuator via quantitative feedback theory.

Control Eng Pract 2000;8(December (12)):133545.

[14] Ursu I, Toader A, Halanay A, Balea S. New stabilization and tracking control

laws for electrohydraulic servomechanisms. Eur J Control 2013;19(January

(1)):6580.

[15] Ursu I, Ursu F, Popescu F. Backstepping design for controlling electrohydraulic.

J Frankl Inst 2006;343(January (1)):94110.

[16] Alleyne A, Liu R. A simplied approach to force control for electro-hydraulic

systems. Control Eng Pract 2000;8(December (12)):134756.

[17] Alleyne A, Liu R. Systematic control of a class of nonlinear systems with

application to electrohydraulic cylinder pressure control. IEEE Trans Control

Syst Technol 2000;8(July (4)):62334.

[18] Krstic M, Kanellakopoulos I, Kokotovic PV. Nonlinear and adaptive control

design. New York: Wiley; 1995.

[19] Khalil HK. Nonlinear systems. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall; 2001.

[20] Bu FP, Yao B. Nonlinear model based coordinated adaptive robust control of

electro-hydraulic robotic arms via overparametrizing method. In: Proceedings

of the 2001 IEEE-ICRA, Seoul, Korea, 2001. p. 345964.

[21] Guan C, Pan SX. Nonlinear adaptive robust control of single-rod electrohydraulic actuator with unknown nonlinear parameters. IEEE Trans Control

Syst Technol 2008;16(May (3)):43445.

[22] Guan C, Pan SX. Adaptive sliding mode control of electro-hydraulic system

with nonlinear unknown parameters. Control Eng Pract 2008;16(November

(11)):127584.

[23] Kaddissi C, Kenne JP, Saad M. Identication and real-time control of an electrohydraulic servo system based on nonlinear backstepping. IEEE/ASME Trans

Mechatron 2007;12(February (1)):1222.

[24] Ahn K, Nam D, Jin M. Adaptive backstepping control of an electrohydraulic

actuator. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron 2014;19(June (3)):98795.

[25] Sun H, Chiu GT-C. Nonlinear observer based force control of electro-hydraulic

actuators. In: Proceedings 1999 American control conference, San Diego, CA,

USA, 1999. p. 7648.

[26] Yao J, Jiao Z, Ma D. Extended-state-observer-based output feedback nonlinear

robust control of hydraulic systems with backstepping. IEEE Trans Ind Electron

2014;61(November (11)):628593.

[27] Pi YJ, Wang XY. Observer-based cascade control of a 6-DOF parallel hydraulic

manipulator in joint space coordinate. Mechatronics 2010;20(September

(6)):64555.

[28] Kim W, Won D, Shin D, Chung CC. Output feedback nonlinear control for

electro-hydraulic systems. Mechatronics 2012;22(September (6)):76677.

[29] Kim W, Won D, Chung CC. High gain observer-based nonlinear position control for electro-hydraulic servo systems. In Proceedings of the 2010 American

control conference, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2010. p. 14406.

[30] Nakkarat P, Kuntanapreeda S. Observer-based backstepping force control of an

electrohydraulic actuator. Control Eng Pract 2009;17(August (8)):895902.

[31] Kim W, Won D, Tomizuka M. Flatness-based nonlinear control for position

tracking of electrohydraulic aystems. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron 2015;20

(February (1)):197206.

[32] Zarchan P. Tactical and strategic missile guidance. Reston, VA: AIAA; 1997.

decayed memory lter. ISA Transactions (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2016.02.009i

- Delta Operator modeling and Control using Genetic Algorithm Controllers Based on Ga and DeUploaded byDhavalaSanthoshKumar
- ECE320_StudyGuideUploaded byTumenbayar Lkhagvatseren
- Process Modeling, Identificaion and ControlUploaded byluisagarcia366
- Predictive Control of Requirement StabilityUploaded byArulraj
- A New Approach for Approximate Modeling and Controller Design of SISO Multiple Time Delay SystemUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Control Systems model paperUploaded byNaushad Sheik
- Multiple Model Predictive Control for WindUploaded byrsowmiya
- Final Ver Correction8Uploaded byDharani Kumar
- Advances_and_Aplication_in_Sliding_Model_Control_System_[AhmadTaherAzar_QuanminZhu].pdfUploaded byamerico079
- 52120 MT Modern Control TheoryUploaded byhari0118
- ParametricControlMechanical Wood Thesis1995Uploaded byyxiefacebook
- 22319847 LQR Tuning of Power System Stabilizer for Damping Oscillations(1)Uploaded bySudipta Rong
- www.ijerd.comUploaded byIJERD
- Feedback Control, 1a. Ed. - Stephen J. Dodds.pdfUploaded byfasp
- Control of Induction Motor Using Polytopic LPV ModelsUploaded byFethi Farhani
- Twin Rotor Observer ImplementationUploaded bytidjani86
- ControlUploaded bymechme3
- Process Control Books and Journal Articles Tend to Emphasize Problems With a Single Controlled VariableUploaded byGrazel MD
- c108_www.matlabi.ir_dC Motor Position Control Using State Space TechniqueUploaded byMuhammad Ahsan Ayub
- a243895.pdfUploaded byAnonymous WkbmWCa8M
- 1-s2.0-S1474667015365484-main.pdfUploaded byVignesh Ramakrishnan
- McGee Passive Dynamic WalkingUploaded byKrissana Nerakae
- Cart BallUploaded byCarlo Recendiz
- 6107-13580-3-PB-LQRUploaded byMuhammad Faris
- 1 - 15.pdfUploaded byknightfelix12
- 0_lec16.pdfUploaded byAndrea Susak
- Research PprUploaded byEngr Rana Ali Safian
- Example DC Motor State Space Position ControllerUploaded byDrRat P Ratanamalaya
- Exam RT2 2015 SummerUploaded byLuis Carvalho
- EEE342-Ch1-1.MorgulUploaded bya_sefer

- 1-s2.0-S0168169908002457-main.pdfUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- End EffectersUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- Dinamica Newton EulerUploaded byPaul Alvarez Herrera
- 1285-3407-1-PBUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- papeAutomatic detection of skin defects in citrus fruits using a multivariate image analysis approachr 09Uploaded bymariano_angelo
- c 01140001Uploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- Simulink HydroUploaded byKannan Venkat
- 1-s2.0-S016816991000013X-mainUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- 1-s2.0-S0306261909004115-main.pdfUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- 1-s2.0-S0141635912000049-main.pdfUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- 1-s2.0-S0045790611001819-main.pdfUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- 1-s2.0-0021863488901424-mainUploaded bySindhu Bhaskar
- Jose_paul (1) (1)[1]Uploaded bySindhu Bhaskar

- Method Subtractive CulsteringUploaded bytranthan
- 123Uploaded byHüthâifâ Abdérahmân
- Pirovano2012 Fuzzy AI in GamesUploaded bylalolalo33333
- Cybernetic Analysis of Indian Societal SystemUploaded byPramod Malik
- Predictive Modeling SoftwareUploaded byravindrakp
- Mi Assnmnt 3Uploaded byAshish Kushwaha
- Deng 2016Uploaded byYosua Siregar
- An Image Search Reranking Model based on attribute assisted hypergraphUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Adaptive Control Using Multiple Models, Switching, AndUploaded byMiguel Casas
- scs3.pdfUploaded byAlan Dougherty
- Section-16 SCADA SystemsUploaded bysvdkar
- Parth and Danny Robotics AIUploaded byParth Pankaj Tiwary
- Second order Integral Sliding Mode Control: an approach to speed control of DC MotorUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Introduction to Deep Learning, Part 1Uploaded byJuanCarlosGuerrero
- The Subtle Use of Connotation and Symbolism in the Advertising AppealUploaded byCizka Antana
- A nonlinear time-varying channel equalizer using self-orgamming wavelet neural networks - Neural Networks, 2004. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International Joint Conference on.pdfUploaded by尤仁宏
- 10.1.1.84Uploaded byStefan Beeman
- Convolutional Neural NetworkUploaded bytccpy
- Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network Regression for Continuous Pain Intensity Estimation in VideoUploaded byjeffconnors
- International Conference About technology And Signal Processing In TunisiaUploaded byYasser Rolling Up
- Strategy DraftUploaded byNewsweek Romania
- NeuralNetworkPresentation.pptUploaded byRamadhan Bilal Assidiq
- Daftar Dosen MTI Dengan Research Interest-V04_2Uploaded byDionisio Ximenes
- Control-Systems-10es43-Notes (1).pdfUploaded byprem035
- Autoreferat IlkaUploaded byGodofredo
- Lecture01 IntroUploaded byRijy Lorance
- Ejercicio-9.4Uploaded byRobin Angel Romero
- 04 - A fuzzy System.pptUploaded byJiwa Abdullah
- Root LocusUploaded byuflilla
- Bharat AbstractUploaded byBharatVala