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1st January 2013

Learning

Practical No. 1 Whole and part method of learning.

Introduction:
learningis one of the most importantmental [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Mental] function
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Function_(engineering)?action=edit&redlink=1] of humans, animals and
artificialcognitive [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Cognition] systems. It relies on the acquisition of
different types ofknowledge [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Knowledge] supported byperceived
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Perception] information [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Information] . It leads
to the development of newcapacities [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Capacity] ,skills
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Skill] ,values [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Value_(personal_and_cultural)]

,understanding [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Understanding] , andpreferences


[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Preference] . Its goal is the increasing of individual and groupexperience
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Experience] . Learning functions can be performed by different
brainlearning processes [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Learning_process?action=edit&redlink=1] , which
depend on the mental capacities of learning subject, the type of knowledge which has to be acquitted,
as well as onsocio-cognitive [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Socio-cognitive] and environmental
circumstances[1] [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_learning#cite_note-0] .
Learning ranges from simple forms of learning such ashabituation
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Habituation] andclassical conditioning
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Classical_conditioning] seen in many animal species, to more complex
activities such asplay [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Play_(activity)] , seen only in relatively intelligent
animals[2] [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_learning#cite_note-1] [3]
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_learning#cite_note-2] and humans. Therefore, in general, a
learning can beconscious [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Conscious] and not conscious.
For example, for small children, non-conscious learning processes are as natural asbreathing
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Breathing] . In fact, there is evidence for behavioral learningprenatally
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Prenatal] , in whichhabituation [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Habituation]
has been observed as early as 32 weeks intogestation [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Gestation] ,
indicating that thecentral nervous system [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Central_nervous_system] is
sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on indevelopment
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Developmental_Psychology] .[4]
[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_learning#cite_note-3]

From the social perspective, learning should be thegoal [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Goal] ofteaching


[http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Teaching] andeducation [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Education] .

Definitions:
According to Peter Gray, psychologist and author of the introductory textbook "Psychology,"
learning is defined broadly as "any process through which experience at one time can alter an
individual's behavior at a future time." Most of psychology, according to Gray, is concerned
with learning, as our behavior is a consequence of our experience.

The alteration of behaviour as a result of individual experience. When an organism can


perceive and change its behaviour, it is said to learn.
'An observable and measurable change in behaviour that is the result of an experience'.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience and practice.

Definition of learning given by various psychologists:


Daniel Bell
-Learning is modificationdue to energiesof organismand environment impinging onthe
organism itself.
Gates
-Learning ismodification ofbehaviour through experience.
Crow Crow
-Learning involves the acquisition of habits,knowledge and attitude.
Ruch
-Learning is a process, which bring about changes in the individual wayof responding as
aresult of contact with aspects of environment.
Skinner
Learning as acquisition and retention.
Encyclopedia of Education Research
- Learning refers to grow th of interest, know ledge and skillsand to transfer these to
newsituation.

Characterstics:
(1) Learning is growth
The individual grows as he lives. This growth implies i both physical as well as mental development of the
learner. The individual gains experiences through various activities. These are all sources of learning. The
individual grows through living and learning. Thus growth and learning are inter-related and even
synonymous.
(2) Learning is adjustment
Learning enables the individual to adjust himself properly, with the new situations. The individual faces new
problems and new situations throughout his life and learning helps him to solve the problems encountered
by him. That is why; many psychologists describe learning as "a process of progressive adjustment to the
ever changing conditions which one encounters." The society in which we live is so complex and so dynamic
that any one type of adjustment will not be suitable for all or many situations and problems. It is through
learning that one could achieve the ability to adjust adequately to all situations of life.
(3) Learning is purposeful
All kinds of learning is goal-oriented. The individual acts with some purpose. He learns through activities.
He gets himself interested when he is aware of his objectives to be realized through these activities.

Therefore all learning is purposive in nature.


(4) Learning is experience
The individual learns through experiences. Human life is fall of experiences. All these experiences provide
new knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes. Learning is not mere acquisition of the knowledge, skills
and attitudes. It is also the reorganization of experiences or the synthesis of the old experiences with the
new.
(5) Learning is intelligent
Mere cramming without proper understanding does not make learning. Thus meaningless efforts do not
produce permanent results. Any work done mechanically cannot yield satisfactory learning outcomes.
Learning therefore must be intelligent.
(6) Learning is active
Learning is given more importance than teaching. It implies self-activity of the learning. Without adequate
motivation he cannot work whole-heartedly and motivation is therefore at the root of self-activity. Learning
by doing is thus an important principle of education, and the basis of all progressive methods of education
like the Project, the Dalton, the Montessori and Basic system.
7) Learning is both individual and social
Although learning is an individual activity, it is social also. Individual mind is consciously or unconsciously
affected by the group activities. Individual is influenced by his peers, friends, relatives parents and
classmates and learns their ideas, feelings and attitudes in some way or others. The social agencies like
family, church, markets, and clubs exert immense, influence on the individual minds. As such, learning
becomes both individual as well as social.
(8) Learning is-the product of the environment
The individual lives in interaction of the society. Particularly, environment plays an important part in the
growth and development of the individual. The physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of
the child is molded and remolded by the objects and individuals in his environment. Therefore, emphasized
that child's environment should be made free from unhealthy and vicious matters to make it more effective
for learning.
(9) Learning affects the conduct of the learner
Learning is called the modification of behavior. It affects the learner's behavior and conduct. Every learning
experience brings about changes in the mental structure of the learner. Therefore attempts are made to
provide such learning experiences which can mould the desired conduct and habits in the learners.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING:

1. Learning is a fundamental process of life.


2. It is a continuous process it effects all modes of behaviour.

3. Learning is change in response or behavior, may be favorable or unfavorable.


4. It is a process of change not a product in the form of changed behaviour.
5. Learning takes place when an organism reacts in a situation.
6. Learning is universal.
7. Learning is total reaction of the individual to the total situation.
8. Learning is transferable.
9. Learning is a process and not a product.
10. The process of learning is determined by conscious as well as unconscious experiences

Learning Theories: Four Perspectives [http://www.lifecirclesinc.com/Learningtheories/orientations.html]

Within each "perspective" listed below, there may be more than one cluster of theories. Click on
the name of the theorist to go to the page with biographical information and a description of the
key elements of his/her theory.
1. Behaviorist Perspective
Classical Conditioning: Stimulus/Response
Ivan Pavlov [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Pavlov.html] 1849-1936
Classical Conditioning Theory
Behaviorism [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/behaviorism.html] :
Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement
John B. Watson [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Watson.html] 18781958 Behaviorism
Edward L. Thorndike [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Thorndike.html]
1874-1949 Connectivism
Edwin Guthrie [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/guthrie.html] 1886-1959
Contiguity Theory
B. F. Skinner [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Skinner.html] 1904-1990
Operant Conditioning
William Kaye Estes [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Estes.html] 1919 Stimulus Sampling Theory
Neo-behaviorism [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/neobehaviorism.html] : StimulusResponse; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior
Edward C. Tolman [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Tolman.html] 18861959 Sign Theory & Latent Learning
Clark Hull [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/clarkhull.html] 1884-1952
Drive Reduction Theory
Keneth W. Spence [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Spence.html] 19071967 Discrimination Learning
2. Cognitive Perspective: Learning as a Mental Process
Gestalt Learning Theory [http://www.lifecirclesinc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/gestalttheory.html] : Perception, Decision making, Attention,
Memory, & Problem Solving

Max Wertheimer [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/wertheimer.html] 1880


-1943 Gestalt Learning Theory
Kurt Lewin [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/Lewin.html] 1890 - 1947 Field
Theoretical Approach
Wolfgang Kohler [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/kohler.html] 1887 - 1967
Insight Learning
Kurt Koffka [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/koffka.html] 1887 - 1941
Gestalt Theory
Leon Festinger [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/gestalt/Festinger.html] 1919 - 1989
Cognitive Dissonance
Information Processing and Computer Models
D.O. Hebb [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/Hebb.html] 1904 - 1985
Neurophysiologic Theory
George A Miller [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/GAMiller.html] 1920 Information Processing Theory
Allen Newell [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/Newell.html] 1927 - 1992 General
Problem Solver
Craik & Lockhart [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/craiklockhart.html] Levels of
Processing
Allan Paivio [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/paivio.html] 1941 - Dual Coding
Theory
David E. Rumelhart [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/rumelhart.html] 1942 Interactive Activation with Competition
Constructivism: [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/constructivism.html]
Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator
David Ausubel [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/ausubel.html] 1918 2008 Subsumption Theory
Jerome Bruner [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/bruner.html] 1915 Constructivism
Jean Piaget [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/piaget.html] 1896 - 1990
Genetic Epistemology
Jean Lave [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/Lave.html] Situated
Cognition
Chris Argyris [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/argyris.html] 1923 Double Loop Learning
Rand J. Spiro [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/spiro.html] Cognitive
Flexibility
David Kolb [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/kolb.html] Learning
Styles
John Flavell [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/flavell.html]
Metacognition
Roger Schank [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/Schank.html] Script
Theory
Psychoanalytic: The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning
Sigmund Freud [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Freud.html] 1856-1939
Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning

3. Humanistic Perspective: Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning


Abraham Maslow [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/humanist/maslow.html] 19081970 Humanistic Theory of Learning
Carl Rogers [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/humanist/rogers.html] 1902-1987
Experiential Learning
Jack Mezirow [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/humanist/mezirow.html]
Transformational Learning
4. Social Learning Perspective: Learning as a group process
Lev Vygotsky [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/social/Vygotsky.html] 1896 - 1935
Social Constructivism
Albert Bandura [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/social/bandura.html] 1925 Observational Learning
John Seely Brown [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/social/Brown.html] Cognitive
Apprenticeship
5. General Theories of Memory & Intelligence
J. R. Anderson [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/JRAnderson.html] ACT*
J.P. Guilford [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/guilford.html] Structure of Intellect
Howard Gardner [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Gardner.html] Multiple
Intelligences
Robert Sternberg [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Sternberg.html] Triarchic
Theory of Intelligence
6. Instructional Theories
John Bransford [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/bransford.html] Anchored
Instrution
Lee Joseph Cronbach [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/cronbach.html] 1916 2001 Aptitude Treatment Interaction
K.P. Cross [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Cross.html] CAL- Characteristics of
Adult Learners
Robert Gagne [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Gagne.html] 1916-2002
Conditions of Learning
Malcolm Knowles [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/knowls.html] Andragogy
Lev Landa [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Landa.html] Algo-Heuristic
Mager [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Mager.html] Criterion-ReferencedInstruction
Merrill [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/merrill.html] Component Display Theory
Reigeluth [http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/reigeluth.html] Elaboration Theory

So the factors that affect learning are:


1. Motivation
Motivation is at the heart of learning. It is sine qua non for learning. It arouses, sustains, directs and
determines the intensity of learning effort.

2. Maturation
It makes speedy learning possible. The child who is physically and mentally mature learns a subject at a
faster rate.
3. Physical and Mental Development
The child affects learning. The child who is mentally and physically not developed learns at a slower rate.
4. Home Conditions and School Environment affect learning.
5. Academic Ability of the T eacher Affects learning.
6. Meaningfulness of Subject-matter makes learning easier.
7. T eaching Methods
It facilitates learning children learn more by activity or by doing or by Play way.
Then there are factors that make learning easy. Such factors that tend to promote learning are intent to
learn, distributed effort over learning, capitalizing whole and part learning, knowledge of progress,
recitation, active recall, application of what is learned and activity.
To make these factors that facilitate learning more effectively, we work have to improve learning conditions
by giving audio-visual aids, by giving praise and reprimand, by arousing rivalry and co operation and by
guiding children properly.

Posted 1st January 2013 by JayDee


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