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Michael C.


System Description:
Water generated during drilling, well completion and production is categorized either as flowback or
produced water. Flowback water is the initial fluid produced after hydraulic fracturing and is typically
recovered during the first six weeks of well production. The flowback water characteristics stem from
the initial source water, the natural formation brine, fracturing fluid, additives, proppants and drilling
fluids. Generally, 20-40% of the fracturing fluid volume is recovered as flowback. Produced water is the
water which naturally exists within the shale formation and is recovered concurrently with oil and gas.
After the initial flowback period, produced water resembles the characteristics of the formation brine.
The volume recovery rate of produced water is lower in comparison to the flowback, but occurs over the
decades of a well’s lifetime. Currently, the majority of flowback and produced water is disposed of in salt
water disposal wells

Flow pattern for the clarification process. In the first tank, the raw water or influent is combined with a
coagulant, commonly ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride or aluminum. The coagulated influent
then passes into the flocculation tank where a polymer and a ballast material such as microsand, iron
oxides or chemically enhanced sludge is added. Coagulation and sedimentation times are reduced by the
addition of chemical additives and the ballast material. After ballast and polymer additions, the
flocculated water then proceeds to the third tank where additional mixing occurs, allowing the floc to
coalesce into larger precipitates. The matured, flocculated water proceeds to the clarification tank
where the floc is separated from the water by passing through plate or tube settlers. Clarified water
then exits from the top of the system.

Settled floc and ballast material are collected and pumped to the ballast recovery unit where the ballast
is separated from the waste solids. The waste solids are sent to disposal and the recovered ballast is
returned to the first flocculation tank.

Projected Key Benefits:
1.) Reuse of flowback and produced water: Physical and chemical treatment system that reduces
suspended solids to acceptable reuse standards for hydraulic fracturing.
2.) Mobile Precipitation: A system easily deployed on site, allowing treatments for multi-well
completions, or transport to a nearby well.
3.) High Contaminant Removal: Total suspended Solids (TSS) turbidity, oil/grease, color and
4.) Chemical Coagulation: A wide range of available coagulants and polymers allows customization
to site specific needs.

) Automated Chemical Feed System: Treatment begins with proper dosing of chemicals to precipitate dissolved contaminants.5. The Frac Water Reuse system incorporates chemical metering pumps. . day tanks and pH instrumentation to ensure treatment objectives are being achieved.