You are on page 1of 11


The Future Impact of a Hydraulic Fracturing Pilot Project on the
Completion Strategy in South- Fuwaris Field
Jamal Al-Rubaiyea, Kuwait Gulf Oil Company; Abdulaziz Al-Najim, Musaad Sulaiman Al-Harbi,
and Majed Al-Dwaish, Saudi Arabian Chevron; Sayantan Sanyal, Kuwait Gulf Oil Company

Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Oil and Gas India Conference and Exhibition held in Mumbai, India, 24 –26 November 2015.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents
of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect
any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written
consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may
not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

The South Fuwaris field comprises of low to moderately permeable heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs,
developed with horizontal bare-foot completions with increased pay-zone exposure. Hydraulic Fracturing
conducted in tangent section of the production liner for a horizontal open-hole producer is shaping the
development strategy for this field where conventional coiled-tubing matrix stimulations couldn’t achieve
the intended wormhole penetration due to inherent pumping rate limitations, and borehole enlargements
had rendered Acid fracturing in open-hole only moderately successful. The inability to attain effective
pressure containment necessary for formation breakdown had resulted in unsuccessful open-hole Acid
fracture treatments in this field for both existing and newly drilled wells, either due to non-uniform
bore-hole enlargement left-over by formation dissolution from previous matrix stimulations, or due to
undulations and wash-outs in newly drilled laterals. To circumvent these operational limitations, the
candidate well was drilled as a barefoot completion in the direction of minimum horizontal stress with an
extended production liner to accommodate a cased-hole Acid Fracture treatment with transverse fracture
orientation designed to drain a large section of the reservoir. Well testing was distributed into phases to
interpret the production enhancement from this completion technique, to quantify contribution from the
open-hole lateral after initial completion, from the isolated uppermost fractured interval immediately after
the Acid Fracture treatment and the subsequent commingled production from both the open-hole lateral
and the cased-hole fractured intervals. The key elements that led to the success of this project were the
execution of well placement perpendicular to the fracture plane orientation as expected from local stress
distribution, achieving an effective cement bond in the horizontal production liner and an advanced fiber
based Acid-Fracturing stimulation designed to deliver deeper and infinitely conductive fractures. Evaluated in terms of operational cost savings and efficiency of the treatment execution, the treatment strategy
is a major improvement over the conventional multi-stage assemblies previously employed for fracturing
open-hole horizontal laterals in the South Fuwaris field. The job design eliminated the use of any complex
permanent down-hole assembly for the fracturing treatment which means there isn’t any reduction in the
cross sectional area and hence no additional pressure drop imposed by flow restrictions and also a
complete bore-hole access is available for future open-hole matrix stimulations or other interventions. The
objective was to evaluate the existing completion strategy in South Fuwaris field for horizontal wells; to

located in the Partitioned Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia comprises of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs from the Lower Cretaceous period with low to moderate permeability. The development wells are predominantly drilled horizontal to attain increased reservoir exposure in these thin and tight pay zones. A common method of doing this is to use hydraulic fracturing to crack the rock and create the paths required. the treatment objective being creation of deeply etched wormholes to enhance production. a meticulous design with acid diversion is required to achieve a uniform acid placement in the open-hole lateral. . The project’s success has opened pathways to further explore in this direction to establish the optimum completion design for thin and tight heterogeneous carbonate formations like South Fuwaris. Enhanced production of hydrocarbon is often analyzed as the outcome of balance between the deliverability from the reservoir to the fracture which in turn is related to the Fracture Half-Length. Stimulation treatments are necessary over the production life of the wells. Hydraulic Fracturing is an established technique to create a fracture in low to medium permeability rock using a pressurized fluid and fill such fracture with multi-layers of proppant and packing the fracture with high conductivity channel in sandstones / shale or creating an infinitely conductive flow-channel by etching the fractured rock with acid in the case of carbonates. The primary goal of creating a mechanically stable propped fracture & the etching of the fracture-face with acid is to provide high flow capacity conduit to deliver the hydrocarbons to the wellbore with the maximum possible rate and the lowest pressure drop across the reservoir. based on the reservoir conditions of low permeability. Hydraulic Fracturing was deemed as an effective stimulation technique for South Fuwaris wells. Hydraulic fracturing technique is therefore applied to both carbonates & sandstones worldwide to enhance the production from marginal reservoirs. Quite early on. However. low API oil and low water cut. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the carbonate formation in this area.2 SPE-178049-MS challenge the current ideology focused entirely on performance of long open-hole single or multilaterals. Coiled tubing with in-built optical fiber is used in many of the stimulation treatments to record a real-time downhole temperature log which enhances better interpretation of variation in permeability across the lateral. ESP (Electrical submersible pump) is a preferred mode of artificial lift to produce the wells at commercially viable rates. and focus more on reservoir development by way of fractures initiated entirely from the cased-hole horizontal section. The effective fracture half-length and the deliverability of hydrocarbon from the reservoir to the fracture to the wellbore are thus in turn associated with the fracture conductivity defined as product of fracture permeability and fracture width. During matrix stimulation. Low to medium permeability reservoirs require a highly conductive channel to aid in the flow of hydrocarbons to the wellbore. Introduction The South Fuwaris field. the end result in most cases is a merely enlarged borehole created by formation dissolution. either to remove the skin damage inflicted by drilling fluids or to revive the diminished productivity after prolonged production. pathways are needed to allow the flow to move through the rock to the well and to enable it to be pumped to surface. Application of Larger coil size with friction reducing fluids and higher acid strength were effective in achieving a minor increment in the pumping rates but the net effect was not a commendable improvement over previous results. Hydraulic Fracturing in Carbonates When Hydrocarbons are trapped in low to medium permeability rock. Higher injection rates are absolutely necessary to drive the acid worm-holes deep into the reservoir. more so in the case of a low permeable heterogeneous reservoir like South Fuwaris. therefore in this instance a fracture must be conductive enough to ensure adequate production rates. due to the inherent flow-rate restriction associated with pumping fluids through Coiled tubing and the complexities of in-situ acid reaction rates. Matrix acidization via coiled tubing is an established stimulation strategy for the long horizontal open-hole completions.

The post-job analysis revealed that seal had been lost across some of the packer stages while the fracturing fluids were being pumped. the reaction between the acid and the carbonates is instantaneous and increases with higher formation temperatures. Multi-stage Open-hole fracturing in SF wells: Lessons learnt Post job analysis of the coiled tubing matrix acid-stimulation jobs done in horizontal open-hole South Fuwaris wells depicted that pumping rates attained during the treatment weren’t effective towards intended placement of deeper worm-holes.SPE-178049-MS 3 Acid fracturing is best applied to carbonate reservoirs. Of these. existing wells that had already been subjected to a matrix stimulation treatment. Acid reacts instantaneously with the carbonate rock when in contact with the fracture face. This evidence was supported by the Caliper log survey done in these wells. Thus the viscosity and the leak-off properties of the pad should be controlled to allow maximum fracture width prior to the acid touching the rock. a Multi-stage Acid Fracturing was carried out on the selected candidate. Inadvertently. Thus. the principal difference with a proppant channel fracturing is that acid fracturing consists of acid-etching the face of the hydraulically created fracture. After a long phase of screening. the major hindrance against the success of these jobs was the non-uniform borehole profile prevalent in most of the South Fuwaris open-hole laterals. As had already been suspected. Reaction occurs between the acid and the formation allowing acid to penetrate deeper into the fracture before becoming spent along the fracture half length. instead a near well-bore formation dissolution was being delivered in most of the cases. thereby creating an infinitely conductive path. primary concern is the penetration distance which the acid will have to travel along the fracture length. When the acid contacts the walls of the fracture. injection rate and viscosity of acid along with the temperature of the formation. low minimum horizontal stress on the fracture is required to maintain an adequate conductivity along the fracture half-length over the life of the fractured well. Factors such as fracture width. at least once in their production life were rejected at the candidate selection phase due to huge variations in the bore-hole size over the length of the lateral. The individual open-hole segments were fractured with a pressurized pad fluid followed by acid-etching the fractured rock to create conductive flow-channel paths. the fracturing treatment must be designed to achieve a fracture of significant width yet provide the minimal leak-off. which betrayed the entire objective of the treatment design. Conductivity is created by non-uniform etching and channeling due to viscous fingering. The pad fluid is used to create the geometry of the desired dimensions and followed by acid injection to etch the fracture walls. Multi-stage hydraulic Fracturing was carried out by placing a pre-fabricated Frac assembly in the open-hole that segmented the bore-hole into smaller stages by the use of open-hole packers as depicted in figure 1. In view of the above requirement. From the hindsight of this historical evidence. all will play a significant role in the penetration of acid into the fracture. since the bore-hole section has to be hydraulically isolated by the packer’s sealing elements and subjected to extreme break-down pressures above the fracture gradient. Several factors and considerations have to be taken into account when designing the Acid-Fracturing treatment. caliper logs recorded across newly drilled laterals prior to any matrix treatment also depicted patterns of wash-outs and undulations which would be a deterrent against establishing an effective pressure-seal. Due to the inherent ductility of carbonate formations. . A uniform bore-hole profile is a basic requirement for this treatment to be successful. conducting a Multi-stage Acid Fracturing in the open-hole lateral was deemed as a preferable option. thus leading to creation of some worm holes enhancing the leak-off within the fracture therefore leading to the fracture towards closure.

Failure in obtaining the requisite pressure-seal across the bore-hole translates into low probability of fracturing the intended intervals. Internal diameter restriction in the multi-stage completion would increase friction loss and affect productivity. Commingled production from the stimulated bare-foot completion and the hydraulically fractured cased-hole perforations would ensure faster payback and increased recovery. In conjunction with the service company assigned for the Acid Fracturing project. This design was implemented prior to the success of the Acid Fracturing job done in SF-AB. Cement evaluation of the existing horizontal production liners . The multi-stage Frac assembly left inside the open-hole lateral would eliminate the scope of any future interventions for productivity restoration. an alternate approach was devised to conduct the multiple fracture treatments across the extended tangential section of the production liner placed horizontally across the pay-zone. The lessons captured from this Acid Fracture job were: 1. The design had certain inherent deficiencies as discussed in the paper. Due to the operational and performance limitations imposed by the above mentioned hydraulic fracturing in an open-hole lateral. Two major obstacles hindering the selection of a suitable pilot well were the cement integrity of the production casing and the length of the liner itself. South Fuwaris asset management team started scanning the existing horizontal open-hole producers to be candidates for conducting Acid fracturing in the cased-hole tangent production liner. Considerable capital expense has to be incurred due to the combined cost of the Frac assembly and huge treatment volumes. For an 8-1/2⬙ bore-hole. an advanced fiber based Acid-Fracturing treatment was successfully designed and executed to deliver deeper fractures with infinitely conductive channels for a pilot well SF-AB in the South Fuwaris field. This is a major handicap as known from the history of South Fuwaris wells that require multiple stimulation treatments over their production life. 4. Uncertainty related to the Post-fracture performance complicates the overall project economics. the internal diameter available for fluid flow would be reduced to less than 5⬙ after setting the Frac assembly. 2.4 SPE-178049-MS Figure 1—Completion Schematic after Multistage Acid Fracturing for a standard horizontal open-hole lateral in South Fuwaris. 3. Acid Fracturing in the cased-hole tangent section: Pre requisites and preparatory work Early 2013.

the production had declined from an initial value of 500 STB/ day of oil to less than 300 STB/ day of oil. The different aspects of well completion were integrated at the design stage to prepare the well SF-AB as a future cased-hole Acid-Fracturing candidate. However in the case of well SF-AB. placement of the open-hole horizontal lateral was done on a SSW-NNE trajectory to exploit the regional stress distribution in favor of fracture propagation for the planned Hydraulic fracture treatment in the cased-hole tangent section.8ppg cement were used to cement the liner. Prior to drilling the horizontal lateral. the additional length being sufficient to house a series of perforations for fracturing between the ESP and the casing shoe. This would include: 1. (Refer to figure 4 depicting the production . the cement design was fine-tuned to optimize the number of casing centralizers. data that would be absolutely crucial at a later stage for the Acid-Fracture design. the well was initially completed as a barefoot open-hole horizontal producer with plans in place to conduct acid fracturing after quantifying the production decline trend from the open-hole over a brief period of time.½⬙ vertical pilot hole was drilled from the 9-5/8⬙ intermediate casing for the sole purpose of gathering structural and geological data from wireline logs. casing stand-off value and most importantly. sections with long channelings along with un-even circumferential distribution of the cement from low side to high side of the liner. The fracturing treatment was conducted in mid-2014 after monitoring 6 months of well performance from the open-hole lateral section. Many of the horizontal wells drilled in the Oolite reservoir follow a well placement trajectory of NNW-SSE. Based on the insights gathered from several rounds of discussions with the cementing company and the well-completion team. The tangent section was kept around 400 feet longer than the prevailing liner design.SPE-178049-MS 5 showed frequent patches of bad cements. Moreover. Well SF-AB. Incorporate a certain degree of flexibility in the overall design. Well placement design to place the 8 ½⬙ extended tangent section in a sweet spot that would reap maximum benefit from the Hydraulic Fracture. Allocate a certain length of the cased-hole tangent section for ESP (Electrical submersible pump) placement. It was observed that from the commencement of production till the date of Acid-Fracture operation. to compensate for parameters that may turn out to be different from estimated values. In order to assess and quantify the effectiveness of the treatment design. the equipment length being estimated from target production rate and expected well productivity. the length of the tangent section in existing wells were designed to be just enough for adequate placement of the ESP (Electrical submersible pumps) without sufficient margin to accommodate both an ESP and a series of perforations for a Fracture treatment. the slurry design. still in its inception stage was revised entirely from scratch to adapt it for the Acid-Fracturing project. scheduled to be drilled and completed by mid-2013 was deemed as fit to be a candidate for the treatment program. The well design. This was necessary to eliminate any risk of channelling behind pipe during the fracturing operation. that would provide the production liner with the necessary strength to sustain extreme pressures expected while Acid Fracturing. The 7⬙ liner was run-in-hole with an arrangement of two centralizers for every casing joint and a combination of 17 ppg and 15. an 8. Ratawi Oolite reservoir in South Fuwaris field is an elongated NNW-SSE double plunging anticlinal structural closure. 2. SF-AB was completed as a 6-1/8 inch open-hole horizontal lateral delivered below a 7 inch production liner. 3. The only available solution was to drill a new horizontal well and incorporate the designs necessary for a future cased-hole Acid-fracturing treatment. 4. Coiled tubing based matrix stimulation was performed in the 6-1/8⬙ open-hole horizontal lateral and SF-AB was put on production around November 2013 with an ESP. Review cement integrity data from previous horizontal completions in South Fuwaris and formulate a cement design in conjunction with the drilling and completion teams. Further endeavor is underway between the concerned groups to improve on the cement strategy for future cased-hole Acid fracture treatments in the South Fuwaris wells.

dependent on the data quality obtained from the 1st stage. The initial Fracturing proposal involved a traditional Plug & Perf approach where each stage would be perforated. perforation length for each stage and the requisite blank section to be left between the stages. the intended SF-AB Fracturing design underwent several revisions based on inputs from both South Fuwaris Asset management and the Acid Fracturing design crew. Perform the Fracturing treatment after fine-tuning the pumping schedule based on parameters determined from the previous step. Tubing test valve and high resolution pressure gauges (Both internal and external to record the pressure in tubing and casing respectively) 4. Over the course of these 6 months.6 SPE-178049-MS history for this well). Prepare well for the next stage of Fracturing. POOH the Fracturing string assembly. will lead to unwanted loss of acidic fluid near the wellbore of the acid and will have majority of the acid spent along that region of the fracture face. The pumping schedule with respect to the sequence and volumes of the Pad. Fiber diverting agents are pumped in order to provide superior diversion by generating a barrier to flow in the perforations where the effect on overall . Evaluating the Petro physical parameters to fairly estimate the trade-off between Fracture length maximization and Fracture height containment to stay above the Oil-water contact. it was anticipated and from what has been evidenced in the past. This step would be absolutely necessary for the 1st stage and might not be done for the later stages. Deciding the optimum number of stages. Evaluate the down-hole pressure signature. The design objectives for the Acid Fracture treatment in SF-AB were to: 1. The primary concerns involved were: 1. Instead of deploying the mill-able plug option. Compensate for the production decline from the open-hole by attaining the maximum production from the cased-hole fractured intervals. Run in hole with the Fracturing string on 3 ½⬙ tubing. Post completion of the Acid Fracturing treatment. Perform Calibration tests and Mini-Frac to gather data on formation parameters. most of the milled debris cannot be circulated out of the well and will be injected deep into the reservoir. 5. a single trip in the well with a milling bit would be necessary to mill out all the isolation plugs. Three sets of perforation intervals were planned based on the available liner section. 3. safety point. Sustain current wellbore completion without imposing any restrictions in accessing the open-hole lateral in future interventions. Acid-fracturing in SF-AB: Job Execution and Post-Fracturing performance Permeability and spurt loss are two key parameters that affect acid fracturing treatment and if not properly controlled. 2. consisting of Packer assembly. Run in hole with a Retrievable bridge Plug set it in the blank casing section below the perforations. Achieve deep penetration into the formation in order to enhance the fracture-conductivity 3. 7. Un-set and POOH the Retrievable bridge Plug. This option was rejected at the design stage based on the culmination of previous experiences in South Fuwaris field related to milling of isolation plugs. 2. Selection of the type of plug would be crucial for the success of the entire job. acid and Diverter. Apart from the detrimental effect on productivity. 2. Since the reservoir pressure is sub-hydrostatic. the plan was improvised for each fracturing stage as: 1. fractured and subsequently isolated with a fast-drillable bridge plug before moving on to the next stage. Perforate the required interval in the 7⬙ horizontal Liner using Tubing conveyed perforations and POOH. 3. 6. the injected debris creates further complications to the delicate ESP components while flowing back episodically.

the chemical system is cleaned up with the presence of hydrocarbons and the fibers are dissolved. The data collected from the above mentioned tests were: 1. determined from the G-function plot of the decline curve done at the end of the Mini-Frac. there is an increased viscosity development and temporary clogging of the wormholes within the fracture face in addition to temporary plugging of the perforations leading to an optimum placement of acid fracturing treatment. The Fiber based diversion technology that was deployed in the well SF-AB combined viscoelastic diverting acid with degradable fibers. of 3 ½⬙ tubing string. The step-rate tests were done using a 7% KCL brine solution while the Mini-Frac was done using the designed treatment PAD fluid to simulate parameters as close as possible to the actual treatment design. the retrievable bridge plug was un-set and POOH and the well was prepared for fracturing the next stage. Spurt loss is a function of the heterogeneity of the formation. 4. After every stage of fracture treatment. A possible explanation was the highly viscous PAD design coupled with the high rates pumped through 8000 ft. It is temporarily designed to control leak-off of acidizing fluids into the natural and wormholes in carbonates from acidizing of the rock face. Due to the sub-hydrostatic value of the reservoir pressure. three intervals were finalized for perforation and Fracturing treatment. a thing worthy of mentioning is that the friction losses estimated from the surface pumping data and that determined after retrieving the down-hole precision gauges came out to be drastically different and were much greater than anticipated. 3.SPE-178049-MS 7 skin is the greatest. perforation and temporary isolation prior to the actual fracturing for each stage took 2-3 days while an additional 2-3 days were spent in Running in hole with the Fracture string. Fracture closure pressure. Injection of fiber based diverting agents controls spurt losses and therefore allows acidizing fluids to penetrate deeper into the fracture face and coherently allow diversion along the zone of interest vertically to cover the entire interval for superior coverage while performing the acid fracturing treatment. After the treatment. The fibers with the aid of viscoelastic diverting acid creates aids in the bridging of these natural or enhanced higher permeable paths in addition to continuous buildup of viscosity as acid is spent. generally not well characterized during the job design. This leads to an increase in diversion efficiency of chemical self-diverting systems in natural fractures where viscous leak-off control methods alone are typically not as effective. conducting the Calibration tests. Though this dynamic data cannot be expected to remain consistent from one set of perforations to another.e. The formation showed very high fluid leak-off. As part of the Calibration tests prior to pumping the Main fracturing treatment on the first interval. considerable analytical difficulties were encountered in order to determine the accurate value of the closure stress. As the fiber based diverting agents react with the carbonate rock. determined from the Step-Rate test. The fibers create a network of fibrous bridges across the fissures or dominant wormholes causing flow restrictions. Injection of these fibers at lower rates when the diverter stage is nearing the perforations tends to lower the spurt losses thus allowing diversion of the fracturing fluids. Quantitative evaluation of the friction pressure losses at near wellbore based on the difference between the Bottom-hole injection pressure and the Instantaneous shut-in pressure. The preparatory work mentioned in the previous section i. something that has been observed in previous open-hole Fracture treatments and is attributed to the existence of natural fractures in the South Fuwaris field. Fracture extension pressure. An average gap of 80 ft. step-rate tests and Mini-Frac were conducted to provide the best possible information about the formation. from the middle section of one perforation interval to another was maintained to reduce probability of fracture over-lap. 2. the objective being estimation of formation parameters to recalibrate the existing stress model. fracturing the perforated interval and eventually POOH with the Fracture string. The information gathered from the Calibration test was substantially valuable for tweaking the actual treatment design. To optimize the available length of the 7⬙ production liner. The designed viscosity for the PAD and subsequent batch of fluids for the actual .

It’s calculated as: Net Pressure⫽ (Bottom-hole Injection Pressure) . logical inference being the creation of etched surfaces contributing to the observed pressure difference. so as to aid in the fracture propagation along the fracture half-length by temporarily plugging the worm-holes created by the acid reaction and keep the treatment pressure above the closure stress for the duration of the treatmentѠ The Instantaneous shut-in pressures after the Main treatment had a difference of about 300 psi to 500 psi from the Calibration tests. A pumping rate above 30 bbl. Net Pressure is calculated as difference of the Instantaneous Shut-in Pressure and the Closure pressure. Each time the diverter stages reached the fractured formation. 5. The chemicals used in the treatment were proprietary products of the Acid Fracturing Company. fine-tuned based on the specific requirements for the SF-AB treatment. followed by a Post flush of 7% KCL. it is the excess pressure in the fracturing fluid available to propagate the fracture and simultaneously increase the fracture width i.(Pressure losses due to tortuosity and near wellbore fraction) . (Figures 2 and 3 depict the actual pumping schedule and the Step Rate test respectively. the Instantaneous shut-in pressure equals the Bottom-hole Injection Pressure as the effect of all the friction related pressure losses reduce to zero. The initial PAD and Acid stages provided the geometry required for the fracture and the proceeding fluids were designed to divert and etch the existing fracture. /min had to be maintained throughout the fracturing job as the pumping pressure continued to drop over the course of fracture propagation. a pressure build-up of around 150 psi was immediately observed which was indicative of the desired objective achieved by the diversion procedure. The Net Pressure. Hence.e.) Figure 2—Pumping Schedule of the Main Fracturing Treatment in SF-AB. The pumping schedule for the actual treatment per stage consisted of a Pre-flush (Brackish water⫹ Mutual solvents) ⫹ High viscosity PAD (for Fracture initiation) ⫹ alternate batches of Main Acid (HCL ⫹ additives) and Diverter. .8 SPE-178049-MS fracturing had to be revised based on the data obtained during the Mini Frac. the Net pressure must be kept higher than the Fracture extension pressure.(Closure stress) At the point of instant shutdown.

The objective was to conduct a post –job evaluation by measuring the fracture effectiveness from the upper-most single stage. of open-hole lateral prior to the fracturing job. Once phase 3 commenced around October 2014. it was observed that the total commingled production from the fractured intervals in cased hole and the horizontal open-hole was initially around 1000 STB. the production from the upper interval declined to around 500 STB. /day of oil. /day of Oil.) . over 3 months the production gradually declined to a steady value of 800 STB. 2nd phase would involve fracturing the planned intervals and isolating the top-most fractured interval from the rest of the well and the 3rd and final phase would consist of commingled production from both the open-hole and the fractured intervals. Well testing from the 2nd phase clearly established that the sole production from the upper fractured interval was around 700 STB. this was quite an improvement when compared to the production figure of less than 300 STB. The 1st phase involved quantification of production decline from the open-hole lateral. /day of oil. the project was effectively deemed to consist of 3 phases. /day of oil.SPE-178049-MS 9 Figure 3—Step Rate Test to determine Fracture Extension Pressure in SF-AB Post fracturing treatment. Though it had not been planned this way from the start but as learning evolved over time. The information gathered from 2nd and 3rd phases would go a long way in understanding the fracture performance and utilize it for subsequent job designs. (Figures 4 and 5 depict the production history and the Post-Fracture Completion schematic respectively. Gradually. the top-most fractured interval was isolated by a bridge plug from the rest of the well that included two sets of perforated and fractured interval and the horizontal open-hole. over a period of 4 months. /day of Oil that was being produced from around 2700 ft.

. Figure 5—Completion Schematic after the cased-hole Acid Fracturing job was conducted in SF-AB.10 SPE-178049-MS Figure 4 —Production History of the well SF-AB.

Al-Rubaiyea. B. Mchaweh. 2010. A.. /day⫽ Stock Tank barrels per day. 19-22 September. Florence Italy. Michael. ⬙Revitalization of South Fawares Field Using Open Hole Multistage Completion Systems-A Pilot Project Case Study⬙. K. 2014. Evaluation is underway to include this design aspect even for multilateral horizontal producers wherein a certain extended length of the production liner above the side-track window would be allocated to accommodate the intended fracturing intervals in future.A. paper prepared for SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.SPE-178049-MS 11 Conclusion Considering the fact that SF-AB was producing less than 300 STB. 10-12 December. Schlumberger. 4.A. STB.S. Martin. Denver. USA. Enhancing Natural Gas Production. 5-8 October. Malaysia. H. 3. Pavlova. Current South Fuwaris wells are incorporating a liner design length to accommodate any Acid Fracture jobs in the future. E. Tim Lesko. We would like to further acknowledge our colleagues and business partners who have made innumerable contributions towards this project. Energy Tribune Publishing Inc. P.A.M. Houston. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Kuwait Gulf Oil company and the Saudi Arabian ministry of Petroleum. POOH⫽ Pull Out of Hole. The success of the SF-AB pilot project has paved in the way for a similar type of completion in future South Fuwaris wells. ⬙Understanding Diversion With a Novel Fiber-Laden Acid System for Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Formations⬙. paper prepared for presentation at the International Petroleum Technology Conference held in Kuala Lumpur. Tony.E. A. Nomenclature SF⫽ South Fuwaris ESP(s) ⫽ Electrical Submersible Pumps. Lecerf. Nasr-El-Din. /day of oil from just three cased-hole Frac intervals demonstrates that Acid Fracturing the cased hole tangent section is a very cost effective and highly successful production enhancement technique. TX. paper prepared for SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. This technique is also a major improvement over the conventional multi-stage fracture assemblies employed earlier. 2.A.A. in terms of cost savings and the efficiency of treatment execution along with the advantage of a complete bore-hole access for future interventions.M. M. Saudi Arabian Chevron for the permission to publish and present this paper. J. 2003.J. ⬙Acid Fracturing of a Gas Carbonate Reservoir: The Impact of Acid Type and Lithology on Fracture Half-Length and Width⬙. References 1. Al-Najim. Tardy. S. J. S.A. Further treatments of similar kind with increased number of stages are being undertaken and the learnings will be applied to shape future horizontal well completion strategy in South Fuwaris. Rahim. University of Houston. G. 2007. F. Al-Mutairi. an initial gain of more than 700 STB. Bartho. Modern Fracturing. C. /day of oil prior to the fracturing job and assuming a sustained open-hole contribution. A. Al-Harbi. Hadi. BJ services. Al-Muntasheri. Z. Economides. Cohen. Al-Ayyaf. . Voropaev.