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**So a "law" was invent
**

ed: mass is constant, independent of speed. That "law" is now found to be incorr

ect. Mass is found to increase with velocity, but appreciable increases require

velocities near that of light. A true law is: if an object moves with a speed of

less than one hundred miles a second the mass is constant to within one part in

a million. In some such approximate form this is a correct law. So in practice

one might think that the new law makes no significant difference. Well, yes and

no. For ordinary speeds we can certainly forget it and use the simple constantma

ss law as a good approximation. But for high speeds we are wrong, and the higher

the speed, the more wrong we are. Finally, and most interesting, philosophicall

y we are completely wrong with the approximate law. Our entire picture of the wo

rld has to be altered even though the mass changes only by a little bit. This is

a very peculiar thing about the philosophy, or the ideas, behind the laws. Even

a very small effect sometimes requires profound changes in our ideas. Now, what

should we teach first? Should we teach the correct but unfamiliar law with its

strange and difficult conceptual ideas, for example the theory of relativity, fo

ur-dimensional space-time, and so on? Or should we first teach the simple "const

ant-mass" law, which is only approximate, but does not involve such difficult id

eas? The first is more exciting, more wonderful, and more fun, but the second is

easier to get at first, and is a first step to a real understanding of the seco

nd idea. This point arises again and again in teaching physics. At different tim

es we shall have to resolve it in different ways, but at each stage it is worth

learning what is now known, how accurate it is, how it fits into everything else

, and how it may be changed when we learn more. Let us now proceed with our outl

ine, or general map, of our understanding of science today (in particular, physi

cs, but also of other sciences on the periphery), so that when we later concentr

ate on some particular point we will have some idea of the background, why that

particular point is interesting, and how it fits into the big structure. So, wha

t is our over-all picture of the world?

1-2 Matter is made of atoms If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge w

ere to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of

creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words

? I believe it is the atomic hypothesis (or the atomic fact, or whatever you wis

h to call it) that all things are made of atoms little particles that move around

in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart

, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. In that one sentence, you

will see, there is an enormous amount of information about the world, if just a

little imagination and thinking are applied. To illustrate the power of the atom

ic idea, suppose that we have a drop of water a quarter of an inch on the side.

If we look at it very closely we see nothing but water smooth, continuous water. E

ven if we magnify it with the best optical microscope available roughly two thousa

nd times then the water drop will be roughly forty feet across, about as big as a

large room, and if we looked rather closely, we would still see relatively smoot

h water but here and there small football-shaped things swimming back and forth. V

ery interesting. These are paramecia. You may stop at this point and get so curi

ous about the paramecia with their wiggling cilia and twisting bodies that you g

o no further, except perhaps to magnify the paramecia still more and see inside.

This, of course, is a subject for biology, but for the present we pass on and l

ook still more closely at the water material itself, magnifying it two thousand

times again. Now the drop of water extends about fifteen miles across, and if we

look very closely at it we see a kind of teeming, something which no longer has

a smooth appearance it looks something like a crowd at a football game as seen fr

om a very great distance. In order to see what this teeming is about, we will ma

gnify it another two hundred and fifty times and we will see something similar t

o what is shown in Fig. 1-1. This is a picture of water magnified a billion time

s, but idealized in several ways

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