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Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly

Chapter 2

**Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier
**

2.1 Introduction

Because of their ability to conduct current in one direction, diodes are used in rectifier

circuits. The definition of rectification process is “ the process of converting the alternating

voltages and currents to direct currents and the device is known as rectifier” It is extensively

used in charging batteries; supply DC motors, electrochemical processes and power supply

sections of industrial components.

The most famous diode rectifiers have been analyzed in the following sections. Circuits and

waveforms drawn with the help of PSIM simulation program.

There are two different types of uncontrolled rectifiers or diode rectifiers, half wave and full

wave rectifiers. Full-wave rectifiers has better performance than half wave rectifiers. But the

main advantage of half wave rectifier is its need to less number of diodes than full wave

rectifiers. The main disadvantages of half wave rectifier are:

1- High ripple factor,

2- Low rectification efficiency,

3- Low transformer utilization factor, and,

4- DC saturation of transformer secondary winding.

2.2 Performance Parameters

In most rectifier applications, the power input is sine-wave voltage provided by the electric

utility that is converted to a DC voltage and AC components. The AC components are

undesirable and must be kept away from the load. Filter circuits or any other harmonic reduction

technique should be installed between the electric utility and the rectifier and between the

rectifier output and the load that filters out the undesired component and allows useful

components to go through. So, careful analysis has to be done before building the rectifier. The

analysis requires define the following terms:

The average value of the output voltage, Vdc ,

The average value of the output current, I dc ,

The rms value of the output voltage, Vrms ,

The rms value of the output current, I rms

The output DC power, Pdc = Vdc * I dc

(2.1)

The output AC power, Pac = Vrms * I rms

(2.2)

The effeciency or rectification ratio is defiend as η = Pdc / Pac

(2.3)

The output voltage can be considered as being composed of two components (1) the DC

component and (2) the AC component or ripple. The effective (rms) value of the AC component

of output voltage is defined as:2

Vac = Vrms

− Vdc2

(2.4)

The form factor, which is the measure of the shape of output voltage, is defiend as shown in

equation (2.5). Form factor should be greater than or equal to one. The shape of output voltage

waveform is neare to be DC as the form factor tends to unity.

FF = Vrms / Vdc

(2.5)

The ripple factor which is a measure of the ripple content, is defiend as shown in (2.6). Ripple

factor should be greater than or equal to zero. The shape of output voltage waveform is neare to

be DC as the ripple factor tends to zero.

9

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2

2

Vrms

− Vdc2

Vac

Vrms

RF =

=

=

− 1 = FF 2 − 1

(2.6)

2

Vdc

Vdc

Vdc

Where VS and I S are the rms voltage and rms current of the transformer secondery respectively.

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) measures the shape of supply current or voltage. THD

should be grearter than or equal to zero. The shape of supply current or voltage waveform is near

to be sinewave as THD tends to be zero. THD of input current and voltage are defiend as shown

in (2.8.a) and (2.8.b) respectively.

THDi =

I S2 − I S21

I S2

VS2 − VS21

VS2

= 2 − 1 , and

=

−1

(2.8)

THDv =

I S21

I S1

VS21

VS21

where I S1 and VS1 are the fundamental component of the input current and voltage, I S and VS

respectively.

In general, power factor in non-sinusoidal circuits can be obtained as following:

Real Power

P

=

= cos φ

(2.10)

PF =

Apparent Voltamperes VS I S

Where, φ is the angle between the current and voltage. Definition is true irrespective for any

sinusoidal waveform. But, in case of sinusoidal voltage (at supply) but non-sinusoidal current, the

power factor can be calculated as the following:

Average power is obtained by combining in-phase voltage and current components of the same

frequency.

P

V I cos φ1 I S1

PF =

= S S1

=

cos φ1 = Distortion Factor * Displacement Faactor

(2.11)

VS I S

VS I S

IS

Where φ1 is the angle between the fundamental component of current and supply voltage.

Distortion Factor = 1 for sinusoidal operation and displacement factor is a measure of

displacement between v(ωt ) and i (ωt ) .

**Single-Phase Half Wave Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load
**

Fig.2.1 shows a single-phase half-wave diode rectifier with pure resistive load. Assuming

sinusoidal voltage source, VS the diode beings to conduct when its anode voltage is greater than

its cathode voltage as a result, the load current flows. So, the diode will be in “ON” state in

positive voltage half cycle and in “OFF” state in negative voltage half cycle. Fig.2.2 shows

various current and voltage waveforms of half wave diode rectifier with resistive load. These

waveforms show that both the load voltage and current have high ripples. For this reason, singlephase half-wave diode rectifier has little practical significance.

Fig.2.1 Single-phase half-wave diode rectifier with resistive load.

Similarly. Vm is the maximum value of supply voltage. (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of diode D1.2 Various waveforms for half wave diode rectifier with resistive load.15) 2R Where.2.1 has a pure resistive load of R Determine (a) The efficiency. The average or DC output voltage can be obtained by considering the waveforms shown in π Fig. I S is the same as that of the load and diode currents V Then I S = I D = m (2. I dc = Vdc Vm = R πR .2.2. the average or DC component of load current is: I dc = Vdc Vm = R π R The root mean square (rms) value of a load voltage is defined as: π Vrms V 1 = Vm2 sin 2 ωt dωt = m ∫ 2π 0 2 (2.10 Chapter Two Fig. Because the load is resistor.2.12) Where. the root mean square (rms) value of a load current is defined as: I rms = Example 1: The rectifier shown in Fig.14) Vrms Vm = R 2R It is clear that the rms value of the transformer secondary current.2 as following: Vdc Vm 1 V t d t ω ω = sin = m π 2π ∫0 (2. I D is the rms value of diode current.2. Solution: From Fig. the average output voltage Vdc is defiend as: π Vdc V V 1 = Vm sin(ωt ) dωt = m (− cos π − cos(0)) = m π 2π 2π ∫ 0 Then.

2 Half Wave Diode Rectifier With R-L Load In case of RL load as shown in Fig.Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier π Vrms V 1 = (Vm sin ωt ) 2 = m .57 2 − 1 = 1.2 R Then. VS = m 2R 2 The rms value of the transformer secondery current is the same as that of the load: I S = Vm .3. the voltage across the diode changes its direction and there is current through the load at the instant ω t = π radians and the diode continues to conduct till the energy stored in the inductor becomes zero.57 Vm 2 Vdc π Vac = FF 2 − 1 = 1. the current through the circuit is not zero and there is some energy stored in the inductor. 2π 2 ∫ 0 I rms = 11 Vm V and.53% = V m Vm Pac Vrms * I rms * 2 2R Vm Vrms π (b) FF = = 2 = = 1. The voltage source.4.3 Half Wave Diode Rectifier With R-L Load . When the voltage across the inductor is negative. the efficiency or rectification ratio is: Vm Vm * Pdc Vdc * I dc π πR η= = = 40. An expression for the current through the diode can be obtained by solving the deferential equation representing the circuit.2. and vs is negative when π < ω t <2π. if vs = Vm sin (ωt ) .211 Vdc (d) It is clear from Fig2. When vs starts becoming positive. The polarity of voltage across the inductor is as shown in the waveforms shown in Fig. the current tends to flow in the reverse direction and the diode blocks conduction. The voltage across an inductor is positive when the current through it is increasing and it becomes negative when the current through it tends to fall. The entire applied voltage now appears across the diode as reverse bias voltage.2 that the PIV is Vm .2.2. the diode starts conducting and the source keeps the diode in conduction till ω t reaches π radians. vs is positive when 0 < ω t < π. Fig. When vs changes from a positive to a negative value. (c) RF = 2. At that instant defined by ω t =π radians. it is in such a direction as to forward-bias the diode.3. After that.

ωL Z R = Z cos φ . This average value can be obtained as shown in (2. the current would keep decreasing.24) we get: β − Vm tan φ i(β ) = sin (β − φ ) + sin (φ )e (2.5(1 − sin( 2 β ) 2π 0 2 π (2. ωL = Z sin φ and tan φ = wL R t ω − Φ Vm tan φ (2. as ωt increases. Assume Z∠φ = R + j wL Then Z 2 = R 2 + w 2 L2 . For some value of ωt .12.4 Various waveforms for Half wave diode rectifier with R-L load. Since the diode blocks current in the reverse direction. the current would evaluate to a negative value.27) 2. If ω t > β.25) =0 Z The value of β can be obtained from the above equation by using the methods of numerical analysis. where each half of the transformer with its associated diode acts as half wave rectifier or as a bridge diode rectifier as shown in Fig.27).2. the current would be zero. 2.26). The advantage and disadvantage of center-tap diode rectifier is shown below: . β Vdc V V = m * ∫ sin ωt dωt = m * (1 − cos β ) 2π 0 2π (2. The rms output voltage in this case is shown in equation (2. The value of β can be obtained by substituting that i (ωt ) = 0 wt = β into (2.Chapter Two 12 Fig.8.24) i (ωt ) = sin (ωt − φ ) + sin (φ )e R Z Starting from ω t = π.2.4 Single-Phase Full-Wave Diode Rectifier The full wave diode rectifier can be designed with a center-taped transformer as shown in Fig. the diode stops conducting when ωt reaches β. say β.26) β Vrms Vm 1 = * ∫ (Vm sin ωt ) 2 dwt = * β + 0.

Fig. The circuit shown in Fig. and. 2. Therefore.2. and.9 as shown in the following: Vdc = 1 π π ∫ 0 Vm sin ωt dωt = 2 Vm π and I dc = 2 Vm π R (2. • The output is twice that of the center tapped circuit for the same secondary voltage.2.9 Various current and voltage waveforms for center-tap diode rectifier with resistive load.4.2. Fig. Disadvantages • It requires four diodes instead of two.2.8 Center-tap diode rectifier Fig.8 has two diodes D1 and D2 and a center tapped transformer.36) . [ In case of pure resistive load. The average and rms output voltage and current can be obtained from the waveforms shown in Fig. Hence DC output is obtained across the load. current flows through the load in the same direction for both half cycles of input AC voltage.2. • There are always two diodes in series are conducting.1 Center-Tap Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load In the center tap full wave rectifier. Whereas in the negative half cycle the diode D1 is reverse bias “OFF” and diode D2 is forward bias “ON” and again current flows from point a to point b. total voltage drop in the internal resistance of the diodes and losses are increased.2. • The peak inverse voltage is one half of the center-tap circuit. The following sections explain and analyze these rectifiers. The diode D1 is forward bias “ON” and diode D2 is reverse bias “OFF” in the positive half cycle of input voltage and current flows from point a to point b.13 Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier Advantages • The need for center-tapped transformer is eliminated.8. in full wave circuit.9 shows various current and voltage waveform for converter in Fig.

483 Vdc (d) The PIV is 2Vm (c) RF = 2.40) (2. So. In positive half cycle the supply voltage forces diodes D1 and D2 to be "ON". (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of diode D1.12 Single-phase full bridge diode rectifier. It is easy to see the operation of these four diodes.2. the supply voltage forces the diodes D1 and D2 to be "OFF". So. In same time it forces diodes D3 and D4 to be "OFF".38) (2. input voltage (D3 and D4 are “OFF”).2. the current moves from positive point of the supply voltage across D1 to the point a of the load then from point b to the negative marked point of the supply voltage through diode D2.11 (b) FF = rms = 2 Vm 2 2 Vdc π Vac = FF 2 − 1 = 1. In same time it forces diodes D3 and D4 to be "ON". diodes D3 and D4 conduct (D1 and D2 are “OFF”).The efficiency or rectification ratio is 2 Vm 2 Vm * Pdc Vdc * I dc π πR = = = 81. During the negative one.12 which known as a single-phase full bridge diode rectifier.2. So.3 Single-Phase Full Bridge Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load Another alternative in single-phase full wave rectifier is by using four diodes as shown in Fig. Solution:.112 − 1 = 0.4. The rectifier in Fig. In the negative voltage half cycle. the current moves from negative marked point of the supply voltage across D3 to the point a of the load then from point b to the positive marked point of the supply voltage through diode D4.8 has a purely resistive load of R Determine (a) The efficiency.41) Example 3. it .41) (2.14 Chapter Two Vrms = 1 π π 2 ∫ (Vm sin ωt ) dωt = 0 Vm 2 and I rms = Vm 2 R PIV of each diode = 2Vm V VS = m 2 The rms value of the transformer secondery current is the same as that of the diode: V IS = ID = m 2R (2.05% η= Vm Vm Pac Vrms * I rms * 2 2R Vm V 2 = π = 1. The current flows through diodes D1 and D2 during the positive half cycle of Fig.

(d) The peak inverse voltage.2. In this case.2.13.11 Vdc (a) η = 2 2 Vrms − Vdc2 Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = − 1 = FF 2 − 1 = 0. I dc = 2 Vm = 12.132 V .15. (b) Form factor. I rms = m = 14.14.4.13 Various current and voltage waveforms of Full bridge single-phase diode rectifier.06 % Pac Vrms I rms V (b) FF = rms = 1.2. Fig.4 Full Bridge Single-phase Diode Rectifier with DC Load Current The full bridge single-phase diode rectifier with DC load current is shown in Fig.2. In this circuit the load current is pure DC and it is assumed here that the source inductances is negligible.7324 A π R V Vm = 212.142 A 2R 2 Pdc V I = dc dc = 81. Example 4 The rectifier shown in Fig. (PIV) of each diode. a DC output current can be obtained at the load in both positive and negative halves cycles of the supply voltage. So. VS=300 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio.15 Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier is clear that the load currents moves from point a to point b in both positive and negative half cycles of supply voltage. And the rms value of the input current is I S = I o .956 V .12 has a purely resistive load of R=15 Ω and. Determine (a) The efficiency. the circuit works as explained before in resistive load but the current waveform in the supply will be as shown in Fig. (e) Input power factor. The complete waveforms for this rectifier is shown in Fig.2. and.482 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc (d) The PIV=300V V I cos φ Re al Power (e) Input power factor = = S S =1 Apperant Power VS I S 2. (c) Ripple factor. . Solution: Vm = 300 V Vdc = 1 π π ∫ Vm sin ωt dωt = 2 Vm π 0 1/ 2 Vrms 1 π = ∫ (Vm sin ωt )2 dωt π 0 = = 190.

...16 Chapter Two Fig..15.. Fig.2.52) we can obtain the value of is I S1 = 2 IS I − 1 = o ∴THD ( I s (t )) = 4 Io I S1 2π 4 Io 2π 2 −1 = 2π 4 2 − 1 = 48. . The supply current in case of pure DC load current is shown in Fig.) 3 5 7 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 (2. an = 0 . as we see it is odd function....51) 2 Io [cos 0 − cos nπ ] = 4 I o for n = 1.....34% . 5..52) 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ∴THD( I s (t )) = + + + + + + = 46% or we can obtain 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 THD ( I s (t )) as the following: From (2.2.... and bn = 2 π I o * sin nωt dωt π∫ = 0 = 2 Io [− cos nωt ]π0 nπ (2.. 3....15 Various current & voltage waveforms for single-phase diode bridge rectifier for pure DC load.2. nπ nπ Then from Fourier series concepts we can say: i (t ) = 4 Io π 1 1 1 1 * (sin ωt + sin 3ωt + sin 5ωt + sin 7ωt + sin 9ωt + . then an coefficients of Fourier series equal zero.14 Full bridge single-phase diode rectifier with DC load current..

2.2. Fig. Due to the value of LS the transitions of the AC side current iS from a value of I o to − I o (or vice versa) will not be instantaneous.01A (e) I S1 = 2π 2π Input Power factor= V I * cos φ I * cos φ 27. Various voltage and current waveforms of single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance are shown in Fig. And this process is called current commutation process.15 Shows the single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance.482 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc (d) The PIV=Vm=300V 4 Io 4 * 30 = = 27. Fig. Fig.11 Pac Vrms I rms Vdc 2 2 2 Vrms − Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = − 1 = FF 2 − 1 = 0.16 Various current & voltage waveforms for single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance.2.16. The finite time interval required for such a transition is called commutation time.01 Re al Power = S S1 = S1 = *1 = 0.15 Single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance. Vrms=212.132 V I dc = 30 A and I rms = 30 A P V I V (a) η = dc = dc dc = 90 % (b) FF = rms = 1.4.5 Effect Of LS On Current Commutation Of Single-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier.Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier 17 Example 5 solve Example 4 if the load is 30 A pure DC Solution: From example 4 Vdc= 190.986 V.2. .9 Lag Apperant Power VS I S IS 30 2.

62). Fig. At this time the supply voltage starts to be negative.2. Solution: (i) From (2. it will take time ∆t to completely turn OFF D1 and D2 and to make D3 and D4 carry the entire load current ( I o ). (ii) Power factor. so diodes D1 and D2 have to switch OFF and diodes D3 and D4 have to switch ON as explained in the previous case without source inductance.61) 2π The DC voltage with source inductance tacking into account can be calculated as following: 2V Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce − Vrd = m − 4 fLs I o (2. Vm = 11000 * 2 = 15556V 2V Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce − Vrd = m − 4 fLs I o π . find: (i) Average DC output voltage. source inductance X s = 5 mH supply to feed 200 A pure DC load.68) (2.69) π u u π − 2 3 Example 6 Single phase diode bridge rectifier connected to 11 kV.2. 50 Hz. So. Fig. 2ωLs I o u = cos −1 1 − (2.16.17 shows the equivalent circuit of the diode bridge at time ∆t .2.56) V m − 4ω LS I o Vrd = = −4 f LS I o (2.64) 8I o u * sin 2 2 πu 2 sin (u ) (2. But due to the source inductance it will prevent that to happen instantaneously. Also in the time ∆t the supply current will change from I o to − I o which is very clear in Fig. And (iii) Determine the THD of the utility line current.17 The equivalent circuit of the diode bridge at commutation time ∆t .18 Chapter Two Let us study the commutation time starts at t=10 ms as indicated in Fig.2.16.62) π Is = I S1 = pf = 2 I o2 π u − π 2 3 (2.

69) as following I 2 * sin (u ) 2 * sin (0.5 Three Phase Diode Rectifiers 2.21 the load voltage.21 shows a half wave three-phase diode rectifier circuit with delta star three-phase transformer.5.85 − 1 = THDi = − 1 = 40.005 * 200 = 9703V (ii) From (2.2.2. 46 I S1 2. and the previously conduct diode is reverse biased “OFF case”. the diode with highest potential with respect to the neutral of the transformer conducts.917 pf = S1 * cos = IS 2 π u π .005 * 200 −1 −1 u = cos 1 − Vm = cos 1 − 15556 = 0.285 rad .22.2. For the rectifier shown in Fig.46 A 2 π * 0.22 Secondary and load voltages of half wave three-phase diode rectifier.285 π − 3 2 3 2 IS = 2 I o2 π u − = π 2 3 I S1 = 8I o u * sin = 2 2 πu 2 * 200 2 π 0. π 6 5π 6 Fig. primary diode currents and its FFT components are shown in Fig.56) the commutation angle u can be obtained as following: 2ωLs I o 2 * 2 * π * 50 * 0.85 A π 8 * 200 0.285) u = = 0. As the potential of another diode becomes the highest.2.19 Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier Vdc actual = 2 *15556 π − 4 * 50 * 0. In this circuit.285 * sin = 179.23 and Fig.24 respectively. .2.1 Three-Phase Half Wave Rectifier Fig. load current is transferred to that diode.2.285 2 − 3 = 193. The input power factor can be obtained from (2.285 u π − 0. Fig.84% 179 .285 2 2 2 IS 193.

20 Chapter Two Fig.8407 Vm (2.2.8407 Vm 2 8π (2.24 FFT components of primary and diode currents.827Vm and I dc = R 2 *π * R 2π dωt = 1 3* 3 + Vm = 0.23 Primary and diode currents.2.827 * Vm 3 3 Vm = = 0. 5π in the output voltage we can calculate the average 6 6 and rms output voltage and current as following: By considering the interval from Vdc 3 = 2π Vrms = 5π / 6 ∫ Vm sin ωt dωt = π /6 5π / 6 3 2π ∫ (Vm sin ωt ) π /6 2 π to 3 3 Vm 0. Primary current Diode current Fig.73) R Then the diode rms current is equal to secondery current and can be obtaiend as following: 08407 Vm Vm (2.70) (2.74) = 0.72) 0.4854 Ir = IS = R R 3 I rms = .

bn = 0 of secondary current..54V 2.8407 Vm ..5.58 * 2 = 375. (2.26.17 nπ = 0 for all treplean harmonics = (2.21 is operated from 460 V 50 Hz supply at secondary side and the load resistance is R=20 Ω.28 % 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc (e) The PIV= 3 Vm=650. If we put Y-axis at point ωt = 30o then we can deal with the secondary current as even functions. Solution: 460 = 265.7.16.767 % I rms = R Pac Vrms I rms V (b) FF = rms = 101.Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier 21 Note :the rms value of diode current has been obtained from the rms value of load current divided by 3 because the diode current has one third pulse of similar three pulses in load current. If the source inductance is negligible.8..2.2. it is better to move y axis to make the function as odd or even to cancel one coefficient an or bn respectively. Then. (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Transformer utilization factor. Values of an can be calculated as following: 1 a0 = 2π an = 1 π π /3 ∫ I o dωt = −π / 3 π /3 Io 3 ∫ I o * cos nωt dwt −π / 3 = Io [sin nωt ]−ππ//33 nπ Io * 3 for n = 1. To calculate Fourier transform of the diode current of Fig.77) . the diode current and primary current are shown in Fig. I dc = = 2π R R 2π 0.2.2.2. determine (a) Rectification efficiency. Vm = 265.2 Three-Phase Half Wave Rectifier With DC Load Current and zero source inductance In case of pure DC load current as shown in Fig.11.75) ThePIV of the diodes is 2 VLL = 3 Vm Example 7 The rectifier in Fig.14.26.13. nπ I = − o * 3 for n = 4.827 Vm .657 % Vdc (c) RF = 2 2 2 Vrms − Vdc Vac Vrms = = − 1 = FF 2 − 1 = 18.. Then.5.25.8407 Vm P V I Vrms = 0.10. (e) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode. η = dc = dc dc = 96.58 V .59 V (a) VS = 3 3 3 Vm 0827 Vm 3 3 Vm Vdc = = 0.

.26 Primary and secondary current waveforms and FFT components of three-phase half wave rectifier with dc load current .78) 2 2 2 *π 2 − 1 = 1.24% 9 New axis I THD( I s (t )) = S I S1 Io / 3 −1 = −1 = 3I O π 2 Fig.. π 3 2 4 5 7 8 (2.22 Chapter Two I s (t ) = IO 3I O 1 1 1 1 1 + sin ωt + sin 2ωt − sin 4ωt − sin 5ωt + sin 7ωt + sin 8ωt − −.0924 = 109.2.

6554 Vm = 1.654Vm 3 2 VLL 1.30 the waveforms is as shown in Fig. I rms = 100 A P V I 310.6554 Vm = R )2 dωt = 3 9* 3 + Vm = 1. the AC side inductance LS is neglected and the load current is pure resistance. The average output voltage is :Vdc = 3 π I dc = Vrms = I rms 2π / 3 ∫ 3 Vm sin ωt dωt = π /3 3 3 Vm π = 3 2 VLL π = 1.59 V 3 3 3 Vm Vdc = = 0.2.34 shows Fourier Transform components of output DC voltage.759 *100 V (b) FF = rms = 101.92) (2.8407 Vm = 315. Fig.5. Fig. diode current secondary current and Primary current respectively.2.28 % (c) RF = 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc (d) The PIV= 3 Vm=650.30.827 Vm = 310.654Vm = 1.31 shows complete waveforms for phase and line to line input voltages and output DC load voltages.2.759 V .30 Three-phase full wave diode bridge rectifier.1 Three-Phase Full Wave Rectifier With Resistive Load In the circuit of Fig. I dc = 100 A 2π Vrms = 0.58 V .3505VLL 3 3 Vm 1.613 * 100 η = dc = dc dc = = 98.2. IL Ip Is 3 1 5 VL a b c 4 6 2 Fig.5 Three-Phase Full Wave Diode Rectifier 2.33 shows the secondary and primary currents and PIV of D1.93) (2.613V .3516VLL 2 4π (2.37 % Pac Vrms I rms 315.31. Fig.23 Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier Example 8 Solve example 7 if the load current is 100 A pure DC 460 Solution: (a) VS = = 265.32 shows diode currents and Fig.91) (2.2.58 * 2 = 375.54V 2. For the rectifier shown in Fig. Vm = 265.3505VLL = = = π R R πR R 3 π 2π / 3 ∫ ( 3 Vm sin ωt π /3 1.2.94) .657 % Vdc 2 2 2 Vrms − Vdc Vac Vrms = = − 1 = FF 2 − 1 = 18.2.2.

9667 R R 3 I S = 0. .2.6554 Vm Vm = 0. Fig.24 Chapter Two Then the diode rms current is Ir = 1.96) Fig.32 Diode currents.2.9667 2 (2.31 shows complete waveforms for phase and line to line input voltages and output DC load voltages.95) Vm R (2.

0876 A 2 4π R .2.Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier 25 Fig. If the source inductance is negligible. Vm = 265.226 V .59 V 3 3 3 Vm 3 3 Vm 1.0613 A R π π R Vrms = 1.30 is operated from 460 V 50 Hz supply and the load resistance is R=20 Ω.58 * 2 = 375.6554 Vm 3 9* 3 + Vm = 1. 460 Solution: (a) VS = = 265. diode current secondary current and Primary current respectively of three-phase full wave diode bridge rectifier. I rms = = 31.34 Fourier Transform components of output DC voltage.752 V .654Vm Vdc = = 1. Example 10 The rectifier shown in Fig. I dc = = = 31. determine (a) The efficiency. Fig.6554 Vm = 621.58 V . (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode .654Vm = 621.2.2.33 Secondary and primary currents and PIV of D1.

35.01% I S1 I * cos(0) = S1 IS IS Fig... and bn = 2 π 5π / 6 ∫ I o * sin nωt dωt π /6 = 2 Io [− cos nωt ]π5π/ 6/ 6 nπ 2 Io 2 Io 2 Io 2 Io ( 3 ).. b5 = 2 3I o 1 1 1 1 sin ωt − sin 5v ωt − sin 7ωt + sin 11ωt + sin 13ωt (2.08 % Pac Vrms I rms Vdc (c) RF = 2 2 2 Vrms − Vdc Vac Vrms = = − 1 = FF 2 − 1 = 4 % and (d) The PIV= 3 Vm=650. Fast Fourier Transform of Secondary and primary currents respectively is shown in Fig2.....98) π 13 11 7 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 THD ( I s (t )) = + + + + + + + 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 2 = 31% Also THD ( I s (t )) can be obtained as following: 2 2* 3 IS = I o . b11 = (− 3 ). THD ( I s (t )) = 3 π Power Factor = 2 IS − 1 = I S1 2/3 2*3/π 2 − 1 = 31.83 % and (b) FF = rms = 100...2. for n = 2.14.6.15.12..8.4.3.10.54V 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc 2.36...5. b13 = (− 3 ).. As we see it is odd function. I S1 = I o then...(2. ... then an=0. b1 = 2 Io I s (t ) = 3 . secondary and primary currents.9.2 Three-Phase Full Wave Rectifier With DC Load Current The supply current in case of pure DC load current is shown in Fig.35 The D1 and D2 currents.2. b7 = π 13π 11π 7π 5π bn = 0.26 Chapter Two η= Pdc V I V = dc dc = 99...97) ( 3 ).

Fig.2. 2.38 The output DC voltage of three-phase full wave rectifier with source inductance . The DC component of the output voltage is reduced.4 Three-Phase Full Wave Diode Rectifier With Source Inductance The source inductance in three-phase diode bridge rectifier Fig. Fig.36 Fast Fourier Transform of Secondary and primary currents respectively.5.37 will change the shape of the output voltage than the ideal case (without source inductance) as shown in Fig.37 Three-phase full wave rectifier with source inductance Fig.2.Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier 27 Fig2.38 shows The output DC voltage of threephase full wave rectifier with source inductance.2.2.2.31.

115) Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce − Vrd = 1.2549 * 2 2 2 pf = I S1 u 233. L = 0. 50 Hz supply has 8 mH source inductance to feed 300A pure DC load current Find.35VLL − 6 fLI d Vdcactual = 1.2549 * cos = * cos = 0.109). Solution: (i) By substituting for ω = 2 * π * 50 .2549 u sin * 2 3 = * sin following: I S1 = = 233. then u = 0.008 H .2549 rad .120) as 4 3 Io 4 3 * 300 0. (i) Commutation time and commutation angle. 2549 u π − 0. I d = 300 A . VLL = 33000V in (2. = 14.9644 Lagging π u π 0 .05% I 233 .121) then 3 * sin (u ) 3 sin (0.2549) pf = = = 0. 28 1 S .28 A πu 2 π * 0. (iv) Total harmonic distortion of line current.109) 6ω LI o = 6 fLI o (2.35 * 33000 − 6 * 50 * .929 2 2 2 IS 239.929 A 6 π 3 6 π 3 The rms value of fundamental component of supply current can be obtained from (2.929 − 1 = THDi = − 1 = 24.35VLL − 6 fLI d The DC voltage reduction due to source inductance is : Vrd = 2 6 Io u 2 I o2 π u I and = sin − S 1 π 3 6 πu 2 The power factor can be calculated from the following equation: IS = pf = I S1 u cos = IS 2 2 6 Io u sin πu 2 3 * sin (u ) u cos = 2 2I π u π u u π − − π 3 6 3 6 2 o Example 11 Three phase diode bridge rectifier connected to tree phase 33kV.9644 Lagging.115) as following: Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce − Vrd = 1. Is 2 239.61 o (ii) The the actual DC voltage can be obtained from (2. (ii) DC output voltage. (iii) Power factor.28 Chapter Two 2ω LS I o Commutation angle is .008 * 300 = 43830V (iii) the power factor can be obtained from (2. u = cos −1 1 − VLL (2.114) 2π The DC voltage without source inductance tacking into account can be calculated as following: (2.2549 * π − 6 3 6 3 (iv) The rms value of supply current can be obtained as following: 2 I d2 π u 2 * 300 2 π 0.2549 Is = * − = − = 239.28 0.

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