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Alysson N. Diógenes

Luís Orlando Emerich Dos Santos

Universidade Positivo (UP)

Federal University of Santa Catarina





Carlos Appoloni
Universidade Estadual de Londrina

Available from: Luís Orlando Emerich Dos Santos
Retrieved on: 16 October 2015

Using geometrical parameters measured from rock thin sections. Gás e Biocombustíveis . Professor– Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina . O material conforme. A partir dos parâmetros geométricos medidos. knowing only geometrical parameters measured from the rock microstructure thin sections. Este Trabalho Técnico foi selecionado para apresentação pelo Comitê Técnico do evento. seguindo as informações contidas na sinopse submetida pelo(s) autor(es). These experiments are often very expensive and time-consuming. Carlos R. as its macroscopic properties determination have many applications in different areas. Instituto Brasileiro de Petróleo. no Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisador – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina 3 Doutor. through standard experiments.IBP Este Trabalho Técnico foi preparado para apresentação na Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008. it is possible to construct a three-dimensional (3D) model of the microstructure. é possível reconstruir um modelo tridimensional (3D) da microestrutura. only the 2D results will be presented. buildings and mechanics. the digital image analysis techniques are a very fast and low cost methodology for physical properties prediction. oil exploiting. não necessariamente reflete as opiniões do Instituto Brasileiro de Petróleo. E. Os organizadores não irão traduzir ou corrigir os textos recebidos. Ambos os modelos conservam autocorrelação espacial. chord size distribution and d3-4 distance transform distribution for a pixel-based reconstruction and spatial correlation for an object-based reconstruction. Celso P. apenas os resultados 2D serão apresentados. As this research is in its beginning. The 2D and 3D preliminary results are compared with microstructures reconstructed by truncated Gaussian methods. as soils.IBP2260_08 POROUS MEDIA MICROSTRUCTURE RECONSTRUCTION USING PIXEL-BASED AND OBJECT-BASED SIMULATED ANNEALING – COMPARISON WITH OTHER RECONSTRUCTION METHODS Alysson N. Abstract The reservoir rocks physical properties are usually obtained in laboratory. This research analyzes two methods for porous media reconstruction using the relaxation method simulated annealing. realizada no período de 15 a 18 de setembro de 2008. É de conhecimento e aprovação do(s) autor(es) que este Trabalho Técnico seja publicado nos Anais da Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008. Os resultados bidimensionais (2D) e 3D serão comparados com microestruturas reconstruídas através do método de Gaussiana Truncada e imagens microtomográficas. Em contraparte. apresentado. Professor – Universidade Estadual de Londrina 4 Doutor. Hence. não foi revisado pelo IBP. Introduction The porous media characterization is indeed a very interesting problem for scientific and technological purposes. dos Santos 2. Fernandes4 Copyright 2008. Como este trabalho encontra-se em sua fase inicial. Diógenes1. Doutorando – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina 2 Doutor. Gás e Biocombustíveis. Appoloni3 . e considerando-se isotropia e homogeneidade estatística. Luís O. We assume statistical homogeneity and isotropy and the 3D model maintains porosity spatial correlation. O conteúdo do Trabalho Técnico. como apresentado. sendo necessário apenas. seus Associados e Representantes. conhecer parâmetros geométricos medidos de seções finas da microestrutura das rochas. ______________________________ 1 Mestre. a técnica de análise de imagens é um método que se mostra rápido e de baixo custo para predição dessas propriedades. 1. Esta pesquisa apresenta dois métodos para reconstrução de meios porosos utilizando o método simulated annealing – um baseado em movimentação de pixels e outro de objetos. Resumo As propriedades físicas das rochas reservatório são normalmente obtidas em laboratório por experimentos que freqüentemente são caros e demorados.

2. the pore size distribution and the permeability. 2. This plug is impregnated with resin. The rocks’ testimonies are sawed and a piece of it called plug is extracted. The present research objective is to develop a technique for the porous media reconstruction in 3 dimensions (3D) using object-based and pixel-based simulated annealing methods. time consuming and sample destructive. the digital image analysis techniques advances. Figure 01 – Rock sample image acquired by optical microscopy. 1992). Microstructure Characterization 2D Characterization. there are the reservoir rocks. They are often expensive. measured in microtomographies or images acquired with optical microscopy. This image is segmented to find the pore-space which is impregnated with the blue resin using the well known HSI segmentation method (Gonzales & Woods. usually obtained in laboratory experiments. which is the most used for this purpose and with some samples’ X-ray microtomographies obtained using a SKYSCAN 1172 X-Ray microtomograph equipment located at the Petrobrás Research Facility (CENPES). Methods This topic is divided into microstructure characterization and reconstruction.1. Among these properties we can mention the porosity.Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008 Among the porous media. 2 . The comparison method will be measuring the quadratic error to the autocorrelation function. The microstructure images are obtained through optical microscopy and a sample result image is at Figure 01. Its porous microstructures geometries can present a high complexity organization and because of it. The only need is the correct characterization of the rock microstructure. One method to characterize the microstructure is to extract 2D information from the rock microstructure. The results will be compared with the truncated Gaussian method. On the other hand. applied to rocks plane sections is a fast and low-cost methodology for the determination of these properties. An example is at Figure 02 with the pore-space in white. For reservoir rocks these experiments are accomplished in testimonies extracted from the soil. there are several geometric and physical properties someone can use to characterize these materials. it is sawed again and a slice is grinded until it reaches 100µm thick.

al. (1983) to solve optimization problems. 2. as autocorrelation. the probability to accept bad moves. called object and in this research. 02.99 ⋅ Ti (02) The differences from de pixel-based simulated annealing (PSA) and the object-based simulated annealing (OSA) remains on the neighborhood definition and how the initial state is generated. Some of the most common cooling schedules are the geometric and the adaptative (Ben-Ameur. 01.Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008 Figure 02 – Binary image with pore-space in White. To find a good solution we move from a solution to one of its neighbors in accordance to the Metropolis probabilistic criterion exposed in Eq. The PSA exchanges a white pixel coordinate with a black pixel and measure the effect of this change in the parameters to be optimized. i. With the binary image. is high at the beginning to allow the algorithm to escape from local minimum. This probability decreases in a progressive way by reducing the temperature.e. Both presented methods optimize the autocorrelation function and the PSA method also optimizes the chord size distribution and distance transform distribution. Classically. generally large. About the initial state. 3 . 1992). To use a simulated annealing algorithm. representing the solutions of an optimization problem. 2004). Then a neighborhood structure is defined. chord size distribution and distance transform distribution (Adler. The OSA changes the spatial location of one connected set of pixels. The OSA begins with a grain size distribution represented by spheres with different radius which are randomly disposed along the image. se Et ≤ Et −1 ⎧⎪1 p = ⎨ (E −E ) /T se Et > Et −1 ⎪⎩e t −1 t (01) If the cost decreases then the solution is changed and the move is accepted. one sphere. the PSA starts the processing with a completely random image.2. Ti +1 = 0. moves with increase in terms of cost. Microstructure Reconstruction Methods Simulated Annealing. These parameters are used by the reconstruction methods to recreate the pore-space in 3D. This research adopts the geometric cooling schedule exposed at Eq. Otherwise. the move is accepted only with a probability depending on the cost increase and a control parameter called temperature. one has first to define a set of solutions. The method used to decrease the temperature is generally called cooling schedule. More information about these parameters can be obtained in Adler (1992) and Chassery & Montanvert (1991). we can measure the desired parameters. The simulated annealing method was first developed by Cerny (1985) and Kirkpatrick et.

This method has been widely (Adler. i. 6 shows the binary primary image. (a) (b) Figure 04 – Sandstone microstructure image reconstructed using PSA(a) and OSA (b) with 7. specifically the autocorrelation function. respectively. Superposed Spheres (SS). This method was also evaluated with reduced resolution. This superposition is compensated by adding spheres in the 2 pixel diameter spheres. referred in Table 1 as sample 1. 1992) used and reconstructs a 3D porous media from 2D data.8µm resolution. 3. if the primary image had a 1µm resolution. Figure 03 – Primary sandstone microstructure image with 7. OSA and TG with decreased resolution methods. 4 to 8 show the reconstructed images using the PSA. 1998).8µm resolution.e. Each sphere will superpose neighboring spheres according to a specified parameter. 4 .. This method proposed by dos Santos et al (2002) uses a grain size distribution to generate a 3D image. 3 and 4. The method calculates the sphere number to be fit at the porous media for each diameter for saving the porosity. The Fig. so the porosity will be the same as the original.Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008 Truncated Gaussian (TG). Presently this method has the best results for reconstructing sandstones (Liang et. 2D Results 2D results are compared focusing the autocorrelation error. The resulting reconstructed images were generated with reduced resolution with factors of 2. al. The Figs. the reconstructed image with amplification factor of 2 will have 2µm resolution.

57E-04 1. The method is still very time-consuming.80% 03 15.12E-05 7.53E-02 7. There is still a problem for correcting the grain size distribution measured in 2D images to fit a 3D grain size distribution.66% 04 18.42E-01 3.31E-02 3. The PSA method was very slow and had better reconstructions than the TG method for the same resolutions in most cases.48E-01 8. but if someone can develop faster parameters which better describe the microstructure this method can have better results.97E-02 1. having the least quadratic error for 7 from 8 samples.67E-03 4.62E-03 2.15E-03 1. The data is presented in Table 1.85E-03 3.60E-05 6.51E-02 1. We analyzed the quadratic error for 8 samples.93% 08 26. while the TG reconstruction is performed in just a few seconds. However.Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008 Figure 05 – Sandstone microstructure image reconstructed using Truncated Gaussian with reduced resolution (31.10E-05 1.84% 05 19.11E-03 3.38E-03 4.85E-05 2. Samples Porosity 01 13.93E-03 2.11E-04 2.75E-03 6. This point is discouraging.31E-02 4.19E-05 3. Discussion As seen at Table 1.17E-03 7.89E-03 5. the OSA method was the one which better represented the autocorrelation function for 7 samples. The dark gray shows the point where other method was better than both simulated annealing methods.01E-02 9.22E-02 9.28E-03 2. The light gray shows the result with the least error. the microstructure is better represented by the latter method.2µm).56E-05 1.57E-02 Minimal TG-F4 OSA OSA OSA OSA OSA OSA OSA 4. Even if the resulting image isn’t visually similar to the primary one.79E-03 2. Several authors as DeHoff & Rhines (1968) and Edwards (1980) presented solutions for these measurements and their methods will be analyzed in future work for 2D grain size distribution correction.62E-03 2.82E-05 1. 5 .08E-06 6. The last column shows which method minimizes best the samples autocorrelation function.56E-04 4.87E-04 1.98E-04 1. Table 1 – Autocorrelation function quadratic error comparison for the 2D reconstruction methods researched in this work.98E-02 4.84% 07 23.27E-04 6.81% PSA 1.61E-03 5.67E-02 4.70E-04 SS 1. the PSA takes several hours for 2D images.99E-02 Autocorrelation Function Quadratic Error OSA TG-F1 TG-F2 TG-F3 TG-F4 4.24% 02 13.25E-01 2.45E-05 2.16E-04 1.84E-05 2.80E-03 6.50% 06 20.53E-02 1. but when the TG resolution is decreased.74E-04 1.22E-03 2.78E-04 1.98E-03 9.74E-04 1.46E-02 2.78E-01 2.85E-03 7. the autocorrelation function error was minimized effectively. The OSA results were very encouraging.

MONTANVERT.. A. KIRKPATRICK. (2004) “Prediction of permeability for porous media reconstructed using multiple-point statistics”. L. 671–680. Prentice Hall. (1985) “A thermodynamical approach to the traveling salesman problem: An efficient simulated algorithm. C.E. P.. GONZALES. SRIVASTAVA.B. (1992).. Heinemann.. GASPARI. WILKINSON. A reconstruction technique for threedimensional porous media using image analysis and Fourier Transform. (1991) “Géométrie discrete en analyse d’images”.. “Multivariate geostatistics: Beyond bivariate moments”. The next step in this research is to reconstruct all these samples in 3D and compare the results. M. R. P. G. Even more if compared with the SS method. PHILIPPI. S. S. R. p. BLUNT. The OSA method achieved the objective the PSA hasn’t.C.O.. (1980) “The deduction of the probability distribution of sphere sizes in a random assembly from measurements on a cross-section through the assembly”. ARPAT. 5.. W. v. Mathematical Geology. C. and this improves the final connectivity. J. which offer similar results when the connectivity is compared.R. FERNANDES. V. MAGNANI.P. 133–144.” Science. Dordrecht. Z. M. 369–385. H. A. Conclusion The PSA method was slower and less effective than the OSA method. RHINES. which is being very fast if compared to the OSA and PSA methods. The time is still a barrier. 273283. GELATT.Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2008 The TG method didn’t present good results. (1968) “Quantitative Microscopy”.. GUARDIANO. R. DOS SANTOS.” Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications. 220. Mc Graw-Hill. 2002. BEN-AMEUR.Paper CIT02-0449 EDWARDS. Editions Hermès DEHOFF.J.. PHILIPPI. Brazil . vol. Caers. FERNANDES.. CERNY. No. LIANG. 13 (1980) L209-11. Soares. Butterworth. 29. (2004) “Computing the Initial Temperature of Simulated Annealing” Computational Optimization and Applications. 41–51. (2007) “Conditional simulation with Patterns”.. F. pp. P.P. these parameters were mainly preserved. The SS method was no better than the TG for autocorrelation. J. 39.R.M. as both methods are very time consuming. M. p. 6 . pp. it demands a resolution reduction for reducing the autocorrelation error and even so... F. 70. S. 2.C. “Conditional simulation of complex geological structures using multiple-point statistics” Mathematical Geology. 6. Geostatistics Troia: Kluwer Academic Publications. eds. WOODS..P. as in most cases.. This happened because the way the object movement is realized. F. Caxambu MG. 1–22. 45.C. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.. vol. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the Agência Nacional do Petróleo – ANP for fundings and the the Petrobrás Research Facility (CENPES) for providing the microtomographies used in this research. “Porous Media: Geometry and Transports”.T. References ADLER. Instead of moving isolated pixels. and VECCHI. Even without considering the d34 pore and grain size distributions errors during the optimization stage. 34. (1983) “Optimization by simulated annealing.D.. it had no better results than the OSA or the SS methods.F. CHASSERY. H. OKABE. the method moves objects. however this method has an advantage. Proceedings of the ENCIT 2002. 066135 STREBELLE. (1998).. It reconstructs microstructures with reasonable low error preserving only the autocorrelation function. C. (1992) “Digital Image Processing”.. 21. 7. (1993). D.S.. M. (2002) “Reconstrução tridimensional de microestruturas porosas com o método das esferas sobrepostas”. Vol. Journal of Petroleum Science. Physical Review E.