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Motivation and Introduction

Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics
Philip Bechtle

August 2011

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

1

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

1

Motivation and Introduction

2

Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

3

Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk

4

The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?
The Incredible Success of the Standard Model
The End of the Standard Model?

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

2

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

1

Motivation and Introduction

2

Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

3

Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk

4

The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?
The Incredible Success of the Standard Model
The End of the Standard Model?

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

3

08.2011 4 . or Speed me up if I’m telling you stuff which has been told several times before Sometimes. Let’s have as much interesting discussion as possible! P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. you’ll hear about some crazy stuff which is not completely explained in this lecture. In this case: Ask questions and look forward to the more advanced lectures later on.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Before we start Please For the next two lectures: You may want to print the slides and take notes on them during the lecture Please ask questions anytime whenever you have one Interrupt if I’m too fast.

see http://pdg.2011 5 .cern. Shaw: Particle Physics. Wiley 1997 Halzen. Wiley 1984 Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics.web. Martin: Quarks and Leptons.gov or http://pdg.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Some (typically more theory-oriented) literature Martin.lbl.ch P. Wiley 2008 Perkins: Introduction to High Energy Physics Particle data booklet.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Motivation We live in truly exciting times The LHC is a huge success Recent results could mean that the Higgs boson might be discovered soon The end of the reign of the SM is eagerly avaited You have the chance to witness and actively contribute to a new era of revolution in particle physics P.2011 6 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 7 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? P.

2011 7 .08. P. I didn’t choose the wrong subject .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? No. . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. .

2011 8 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Even more order on the level of Atoms P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 9 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Search for the Fundamental Order of nature Rutherford Geiger Marsden 1909 HERA LEP Tevatron LHC 2009 We achieved a lot in the last 100 years . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. P. . .08.

2011 10 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Our Current Picture of Elementary Particles P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.

2011 11 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Standard Model of Elementary Particles Dass ich erkenne. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. was die Welt im Innersten zusammenh”alt“ ” P.08.

2011 12 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. there are no particles with the correct properties for Dark Matter P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Why we know that we missed something Experimental Knowledge: The SM is incomplete! In the SM.08.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? P.2011 13 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Why is the electromagnetic force of the tiny magnet stronger than the gravity of all the earth combined? P.08.2011 13 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 14 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? A warning: Order without fundamental reason P.08.

08.2011 15 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Particle Physics is also about History P.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011 16 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The “everlasting” goals of particle physics What are the fundamental building blocks of Nature? What are the interactions between them? Where does the mass of the particles originate? What is the structure of space and time? What is dark matter? Or even dark energy? Why is antimatter different from matter? P.

08.2011 17 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The “Common Knowledge” about particles P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 18 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 1 Motivation and Introduction 2 Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 3 Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk 4 The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

π. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. g .2011 19 .08. n. c. SUSY ??? P. q. W .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Discoveries at Accelerators Predicted discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron 1995: The history of physics is full of predicted discoveries: e + . b Most recent example: top quark Future examples: Higgs. Z .

. precision B studies at the e + e − B factories ..08.2011 20 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics High Energy Physics: Shifting the The Energy Frontier The interplay between electron and hadron machines has a long and fruitful tradition J/ψ at SPEAR (e + e − ) and AGS (proton fixed target) Υ discovery at E288 (p fixed target). top quark at LEP and Tevatron To be continued in the form of LHC and ILC P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Z . but not at the energy frontier DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Complementarity of pp and e + e − machines Proton-(Anti-)Proton Colliders Higher energy reach (limited by magnets) Composite particles: unknown and different colliding constituents. exactly definded initial system. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles Electron-Positron-Colliders Energy reach limited by RF Point like particles. spin polarisation possible Hadronic final states with clear signatures Precision machines Discovery potential. t) In some cases: precision measurements possible (W mass at the Tevatron) P.08. energy. quantum numbers.2011 21 . energies in each collision Confusing final states Discovery machines (W .

matrix can be complex ⇒ CP-violation Prediction of the b and t mesons Discovery of the b 1977 Precision tests at e + e − B-factories P. Maskawa 1973: If at least 3 generations. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics High Energy Physics is not ONLY about discovering particles Quark mass eigenstates = eigenstates of the quark-Higgs-interaction Quark mass eigenstates 6= eigenstates of the weak interaction Wqq ′ vertex: transition between different quarks: CKM matrix Kobayashi.2011 22 .08.

08.2011 23 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Time to Breath. Think and Ask P.

08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 24 . we probe the smallest things at the highest possible energies P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Accelerators: Basics Want: As many colliding particles as possible at the highest possible energy hc Energy is connected to resultion: deBroglie wave length λ = ph = βE Energy is connected to the mass of particles that can be produced: E = mc 2 Therefore.

0. 0)) p √ mX ≤ s ≈ 2mT pB Colliding Beams: mX2 = px2 = (pB + pB )2 = ((EB . 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Accelerators: Basics Want: As many colliding particles as possible at the highest possible energy hc Energy is connected to resultion: deBroglie wave length λ = ph = βE Energy is connected to the mass of particles that can be produced: E = mc 2 Therefore. 0. 0. we probe the smallest things at the highest possible energies For highest energies: Want colliding beams. not fixed target: Fixed target: 2 mX2 = px2 = (pB + pT )2 = ((EB .08. 0. pB ) + (EB . 0. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. 0. −pB )) p √ mX ≤≤ s = 2 EB EB = 2EB P.2011 2 24 . 0. pB ) + (mT .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Accelerators: Basics Requirements: √ Highest possible beam energy ( s. heavy mX .2011 25 .08. focussing For more details see lecture on accelerators P. small λ → resolution) Highest possible beam intensity: Luminosity L= nfN1 N2 dN /σ ≈ dt σx σy Best possible beam quality: Energy spread. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Accelerators: The Synchrotron P.2011 26 .

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

Accelerators: The Synchrotron

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

27

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

Accelerators: Acceleration

Accelerate by using a Cavity:
Radio Frequency Resonator with
f ≈ GHz
Use superconducting material
like Nb at T = 1.8 K

Problem: E (t) → B(t), but B
fiekd destroys Cooper pairs
Eeff ≈ 35 MV/m in the
currently best cavities
Not problematic for hadron
colliders
P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

28

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

Accelerators: Circular vs. Linear
Forgive me, it’s in German, but the formulas are enough . . .

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

29

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Time to Breath.08.2011 30 . Think and Ask P.

100m below surface P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 31 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics The large Hadron Collider LHC The most powerfull collider ever 27km long.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Der Large Hadron Collider Proton-Proton collisions at highest energies and luminosities Circumference 27 km Centre-of-mass energy 10 – 14 TeV Design-Luminosity 1034 cm−2 s−1 Number of proton bunches 2808 Distance between collisions 25 ns Interactions per bunch crossing up to 25 Protons per bunch 1011 Number of dipol magnets 1232 Total stored energy 1.08.1GJ Airbus 380. 560 t at 700 km/h P.2011 32 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics The LHC P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 33 .

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 34 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Example: The ATLAS Experiment Together with CMS: The fastest and biggest digital camera on earth: P.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Example: The ATLAS Experiment Together with CMS: The fastest and biggest digital camera on earth: P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 34 .

2011 34 . but 4 M Pictures per second is already pretty impressive Data stream corresponds to 250 000 DVDs per second P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Example: The ATLAS Experiment Together with CMS: The fastest and biggest digital camera on earth: Design: 40 Millionen Pictures per second! Currently: about 1/10th of the design. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Setting up the experiments P.08.2011 35 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Setting up the experiments P.08.2011 35 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 35 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Setting up the experiments P.

08.2011 35 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Setting up the experiments P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Setting up the experiments P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011 35 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Let’s have a detailed look P.2011 36 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

B o → W − c + X )? → Vertex Detector Where do all the particles point to? → Vertex Detector. B. . .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics What do we need to measure? From where do all the particles come? → Vertex Detector Are there secondary decays (e. P. dE /dx in Tracking Detector π ± .2011 37 .08. Magnetic Field What is the energy of all particles? → Calorimeters Identify the particles → all detectors! π ± ... Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.g. . e: e. Tracking Detector What are all the momenta of the charged particles (r = p/(eB))? → Tracking Detector. e: Fraction of energy in the gebinning and the end of the calorimeter µ: Muon System outside of the calorimeters D.g. : Vertex Detector . K ± .

readout of all channels at > 100kHz. extremely fast (timestamping within 25ns).2011 38 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. high occupancies > 10−4 P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: Vertexing Extreme requirements: Radiation hard.

2011 39 . Bechtle: -0 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics number of tracks Examples for Vertexing Performance 1200 1000 Aligned geometry µ=-11µm. σ=49µm ATLAS Preliminary SiUp-SiLow Tracks MC perfect geometry µ=-1µm.4 -0.8 -0.2 P.08.6 -0.8 ∆ d0 [mm] Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.6 0.2 0. σ=32µm Nominal geometry 800 600 400 200 0 -0.4 0.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Examples for Vertexing Performance P.2011 40 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. .08. .2011 41 . P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss .

08.2011 41 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss . P. . . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss . .08.2011 41 .

. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss . .2011 41 .08.

2011 41 . . P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. .

. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 41 . P.08. .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Vertexing and Tracking: The ATLAS tracking Tracking detectors should in principle be build out of nothing – they should not disturb the path of the particles and lead to no significant energy loss . . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. .08. P.2011 41 .

2011 42 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Particle Identification: Example Maesure dE /dx from signal hight Measure p from r = p eB Get β from p = βγm Only one solution for m! P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

slac.html P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. µ): Every radiation length X0 : approximately 1 oair production or Bremsstrahlung Hardly any energy transfer to the material All Energy visible! Play around yourself: http://www2.stanford.2011 43 . e.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Electromagnetic Calorimeter For particles which interact only electromagnetically (γ.edu/vvc/egs/basicsimtool.

Monolithic Calorimeters ATLAS: sampling ECAL made of LiAr and Pb Dense. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. difficult to make No energy lost in inactive detector part: Great resolution P.2011 44 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Sampling vs. short X0 Resulution reduced by energy captured in Pb CMS: Homogenious PbWO4 crystals Expensive.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Examples for ECAL resolutions P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 45 .

2011 46 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Hadronic Calorimeter complex composition hadronic interactioon lengtt λ >> X0 (why?) Energy transfer to disrupt nuclei → not all energy visible! P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

g.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Hadronic Calorimeters Usually want 10 λ: Always use sampling calorimeters.08. and they are huge! E. stainless steel and plastic scintillator P.2011 47 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Hadronic Calorimeters: Typical Resolutions at Hadron Collider Detectors P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 48 .

08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 49 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics No energy loss in front of the calorimeters? P.

e.2011 50 . at an e + e − linear collider: P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics There might be much more precise detectors than ATLAS and CMS in the Future .g. . .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Time to Breath.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 51 . Think and Ask P.

Z 0 P.2011 52 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Just very few historical landmarks of particle physics The Rutherford Experiment performed by Geiger and Marsden The discovery of the positron The discovery of the electroweak Standardmodel: W ± .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics The “Rutherford” Experiment The discovery of the complex substructure of the atom The fundamental principle of this experiment from 1909 is the same as what we do at the LHC P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 53 .08.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics The “Rutherford” Experiment P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 54 .

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

The Discovery of the Positron
Antiparticles were predicted by Dirac in 1927 (see later how he
predicted them)
Use very high B-field (1.5T)
Get the direction from dE /dx
Get momentum and charge
from curvature:
charge positive, p = 23 MeV
Proton with same p would have
get stuck in Pb
highly relativistic particle
doesn’t get stuck
Must be new, yet unknown
positively charged light particle:
positron
P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

55

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

The Discovery of the W ± and Z 0
By the time of the 1970’s, a lot of particles were discovered, and everybody
wondered about the ordering principle, the theory behind.
One crazy idea was the Standard Model, invetend mostly by Glashow,
Salam and Weinberg. It predicted heavy gauge bosons W ± and Z 0 (see
later) with precisely predicted properties.
The Z 0 should be something like the photon γ, but with a heavy mass and
with coupling to neutrinos.

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

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Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors
Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics

Prelude to the Discovery of the Z 0
Look for neutrinos interacting with matter:

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Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

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Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 58 .08. we find interactions without visible incoming or outgoing particle: a new interaction P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Prelude to the Discovery of the Z 0 Indeed.

2011 59 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics The Discovery of the Z 0 But can we see the new particle and measure it’s properties? Yes. we can An era of discoveries in the 70’s and early 80’s P.

and the CERN UA-1 collaboration (widely expected. John Iliopoulos. and Thomas Ypsilantis 1956 Neutrino detected by Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan (proposed by Wolfgang Pauli in 1931 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in beta decay) 1962 Muon neutrino proved distinct from electron neutrino by group headed by Leon Lederman 1964 Higgs boson predicted as a result of a mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking proposed by Peter Higgs (remains hypothetical as of 2005. Anderson (proposed by Paul Dirac in 1927) 1937 Muon discovered by Seth Neddermeyer. Emilio Segre. 1919 Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford 1932 Neutron discovered by James Chadwick 1932 Positron discovered by Carl D. Abdus Salam. down quark. 1974 J/Ψ particle discovered by groups headed by Burton Richter and Samuel Ting. Rochester and C. Street. Carl Anderson. 1911 Atomic nucleus identified by Ernest Rutherford.) 1947 Pion discovered by Cecil Powell (predicted by Hideki Yukawa in 1934) 1947 Kaon. the first strange particle.C. this was eventually associated with the quark model (predicted by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1963) and thus constitutes the discovery of the up quark. demonstrating the existance of the bottom quark (proposed by Kobiyashi and Maskawa in 1973) 1979 Gluon observed in three jet events at DESY. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.e.08. demonstrating the existence of the charm quark (proposed by Sheldon Glashow. predicted in detail by Sheldon Glashow. Simon van der Meer. based on scattering observed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden.D. and Luciano Maiani in 1970) 1975 Tau lepton discovered by group headed by Martin Perl 1977 Upsilon particle discovered at Fermilab. and Steven Weinberg in the 1960s) 1995 Top quark discovered at Fermilab 2000 Tau neutrino proved distinct from other neutrinos at Fermilab P. Butler 1955 Antiproton discovered by Owen Chamberlain. (It was mistaken for the pion until 1946. but widely expected to be found at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in the early 2010s) 1969 Partons (internal constituents of hadrons) observed in deep inelastic scattering experiments between protons and electrons at SLAC. and strange quark.C.C. photon) discovered by Paul Villard in uranium decay. Clyde Wiegand.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics History of Discoveries 1897 Electron discovered by J.J. J. discovered by G. Stevenson.2011 60 . 1983 W and Z bosons discovered by Carlo Rubbia. using cloud chamber measurements of cosmic rays. and E. Thompson 1899 Alpha particle discovered by Ernest Rutherford in uranium radiation 1900 Gamma ray (i.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics Time to Breath.08. Think and Ask P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 61 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? 1 Motivation and Introduction 2 Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 3 Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk 4 The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 62 .

2011 63 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.lbl.gov: P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Fundamental Properties of “Fundamental” Particles From http://pdg.

gov: P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.lbl.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Fundamental Properties of “Fundamental” Particles From http://pdg.2011 63 .

2011 64 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Properties of Composite Particles P.08.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 64 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Properties of Composite Particles P.

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

How are particles described theoretically
Very short example: QED is a local abelian U(1) gauge symmetry
Fermions (particles with Spin 21 , which form the matter of the SM) are the quanta of
fields ψ obeying the Dirac equation:
(i∂µ γ µ − m)ψ = 0
This equation of motion is derived from a formula called Lagrangian:
¯ / − m)ψ
Lfree = ψ(i∂
using ∂/ = ∂µ γ µ , which contains the fundamental input which we put into the theory, in
terms of masses, couplings and relations between fields.
For the field ψ, two solutions of the Dirac equation exist:
One with Energy +E , and one with energy −E . The first one are the particles. The latter
ones are the antiparticles.

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

65

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

How are particles described theoretically
So, that’s the particles. How do we get the forces? Simple:
Make the theory gauge invariant under local gauge transformations:
ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x)
What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian?

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

66

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

How are particles described theoretically
So, that’s the particles. How do we get the forces? Simple:
Make the theory gauge invariant under local gauge transformations:
ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x)
What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian?
¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x))
Lfree → Lfree − ψγ

P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

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that’s the particles.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? How are particles described theoretically So.2011 66 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. How do we get the forces? Simple: Make the theory gauge invariant under local gauge transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) Lfree → Lfree − ψγ That’s not invariant! P.

P.2011 66 . . How do we get the forces? Simple: Make the theory gauge invariant under local gauge transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) Lfree → Lfree − ψγ That’s not invariant! But luckily it’s also not QED . that’s the particles.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? How are particles described theoretically So. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. .

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 67 . Now modify the derivative: ∂µ → ∂µ + iqAµ (x) = Dµ P. we would have needed the photon Aµ anyway . but also a charge q. add a gauge field Aµ (Spin 1) obeying: Aµ (x) → U −1 Aµ U + 1 −1 1 U ∂µ U = Aµ (x) − ∂µ α(x) q q A miracle has occured: we introduced not only a gauge field. .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? How are forces described theoretically In order to save QED under the transformation U(x) = e −1α(x) . . Also.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? How is everything described theoretically Let’s write L again with all possible Lorentz and gauge invariant terms: 1 ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ − q ψγ ¯ µ ψAµ L = − Fµν F µν + ψ(i 4  The last term describes the interaction between a current ¯ µψ ψγ and the gauge field of the photon f f q Aµ with coupling (here: em charge) γ q. but we’ll not discuss that in this lecture – wait for later! P.2011 68 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. The mass of the particle in the term Feynman-Diagram ¯ mψψ will lead to big problems later on.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. Think and Ask P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Time to Breath.2011 69 .

2011 70 . W − . P.08. Just. Wait a bit for the Higgs mechanism and later lectures. it’s a more complex gauge group: A non-abelian gauge group SU(2)L .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Phenomenons of the Weak Force The weak force works as QED. there are many complications here which I won’t mention directly. let’s look at the phenomenons only arising from the 3 gauge particles W + . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. νe ν1 νe e g g′  W− Example Feynman-Diagram of a W exchange  Z0 Example Feynman-Diagram of a Z exchange However. acting only on the lefthanded particles. Z 0 . a more detailed look will come later. Here.

Just. not on leptons. In principle it’s easy. the massless gluons.2011 71 . which leads to interesting phenomenons. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles  g Example Feynman-Diagram of a g interaction DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. q q g g gS g  g Example Feynman-Diagram of a g exchange P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Phenomenons of the Strong Force The strong force also works as QED. but the coupling constant gS is strong and the gluons interact with themselves. They interact only on quarks. it is based on an even bigger non-abelian gauge group: SU(3)C It has 8 gauge particles.08.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Phenomenons of the Strong Force Confinement and Jets P.2011 72 .08.

08. π. .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Phenomenons of the Strong Force The strong force is also the one which holds all the complex hadrons together: Protons.2011 73 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. K. P. . . Neutrons.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Standard Model The Standrad Model is the combination of the Gauge groups SU(3)C × SU(2)L × U(1)Y including the Higgs Mechansism Gravity is described separately by General Relativity P.2011 74 .

2011 75 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Think and Ask P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? Time to Breath.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? 1 Motivation and Introduction 2 Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Tools of Particle Physics: Accelerators and Detectors Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics 3 Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk 4 The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? P.2011 76 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

.085 ± 0.1875 ± 0.042 July 2011 Introduction to Particles 0.20 ± 0.1465 ± 0.00066 0.2324 ± 0.0032 0.0030 Afb meas fit meas |O −O |/σ 0 1 2 3 91.540 ± 0.378 ΓW [GeV] 2.399 ± 0.1722 0.742 [nb] Rl 0.1039 Afb 0.0707 ± 0. Measurements include Measurement (5) Particle content complete up to Higgs boson All masses.00095 0.c 0.02759 mZ [GeV] 91.02750 ± 0.01646 0.b Rc mt [GeV] P.27 0 DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.923 ± 0.4959 0 σhad 41.1721 ± 0.092 173.0023 2.0012 0.027 0.21629 ± 0.767 ± 0.1513 ± 0.00033 0.668 Al(SLD) 0. asymmetries are described Measured CP violation (mostly) described . couplings.0743 Ab 0.1482 0. 0.0021 0.037 41. Bechtle: Fit ∆αhad(mZ) 173.4952 ± 0.020 0.0035 0..01714 ± 0.1874 0.08.2011 1 2 3 77 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Describes all precision experiments performed yet Within expected statistical fluctuations .478 20.0021 ΓZ [GeV] 2.0016 0..025 20.023 80.1482 2 lept sin θeff (Qfb) 0.670 ± 0.l Afb Al(Pτ) Rb 0.935 Ac 0. .21579 0.2314 mW [GeV] 80.0992 ± 0.90 2.

Wµ ) −gg ′ g2 W 3µ 4 8 We have the mass term on the W ± already. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 78 . The gauge bosons of the SM have the following mass terms:  ′2  µ  1 2 2 + − 1 2 µ g −gg ′ B 3 g v Wµ Wµ + v (B .08. Let’s diagonalize the mass matrix of the hypercharge field Bµ and the third component of the SU(2)L gauge field Wµ3 :  Aµ Zµ0  =  cos θW − sin θW sin θW cos θW  Bµ W 3µ  Now another miracle has occured: The photon field Aµ drops out of EWSB! P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB We have seen before. that the SM has the interactions SU(2)L × U(1)Y .

(gWµ3 − g ′ Bµ ).08. Bechtle: + g ′2 (g ′ Wµ3 + gBµ ).2011 79 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB we have now introduced the Weinberg angle sin θW = p g′ g 2 + g ′2 From the diagonalization of the mass matrix for Wµ3 and Bµ Aµ = p Zµ0 = p 1 g2 1 g 2 + g ′2 P. Introduction to Particles mA2 = 0 mZ2 0 = (g 2 + g ′ 2 )v 2 4 DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

c. the neutral currents have been introduced (’74 November revolution: Gargamelle): p g ′2 gg ′ g 2 + g ′2 µ 0 p e ¯ γ e)Z . as the first tested firm prediction of this theory.) 2 2 In addition.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB We also obtain the charged current and its coupling to the Wµ+ as g √ (¯ νL γ µ eL Wµ+ + h. = (1 − γ ) L= e e L 2 qe = p gg ′ g 2 + g ′2 .2011 80 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. 2 e = eL + eR This formalism can now be used to predict the detailed behaviour of the Z 0 P.08. 1 eR = (1 + γ 5 )e. (Lγ µ τ3 L − 2 2 e¯γ µ e Aµ µ 2 ′ 2 2 ′ 4 g +g g +g where     1 ν ν 5 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? 3 Parameters for the Shape of the Differential e + e − → Z 0 Cross-Section dσ dΩ 2   α2em  (1 + cos2 θ) Qf2 − 2χ1 ve vf Qf − χ2 (ae2 + ve2 )(af2 + vf2 ) 4s +2 cos θ [−2χ1 ae af Qf + 4χ2 ae af ve vf ]} = NC χ1 = χ2 = ae = −1. vf = 2If − 4Qf sin2 θW Jump to Angular Distribution P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. af = 2If . 16 sin2 θW 256 sin4 θW s(s − MZ2 )  cos2 θW (s − MZ2 )2 + MZ2 Γ2Z s2  cos4 θW (s − MZ2 )2 + MZ2 Γ2Z ve = −1 + 4 sin2 θW .08.2011 81 .

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The Total e + e − → Z 0 Cross-Section Perfectly described by the 3 non-digital parameters from before! Theory curve is not the one from before but it includes radiative corrections Z 0 is a dramatic resonance! P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 82 .

0083 Result before LEP: Nfam < 5.2011 83 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.9841 ± 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Counting Invisible particles: Neutrinos Γtot = Γℓℓ + Γqq + Nfam Γνν Total width depends on the number of neutrino families! Result: Nfam = 2.9 P.

since detector systematics cancels (as long as the detector is symmetrical) P.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Even more Detail: Angular Distributions Linear Term in cos θW on page Jump to Differential Cross-Section causes a forward-backward Asymmetry AFB : AFB = σ(cos θ > 0) − σ(cos θ < 0) σ(cos θ > 0) + σ(cos θ < 0 Pure AFB is better than a fit to the whole distribution. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 84 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Even more Detail: Angular Distributions Linear Term in cos θW on page Jump to Differential Cross-Section causes a forward-backward Asymmetry AFB : AFB = σ(cos θ > 0) − σ(cos θ < 0) σ(cos θ > 0) + σ(cos θ < 0 Pure AFB is better than a fit to the whole distribution. since detector systematics cancels (as long as the detector is symmetrical) P.08.2011 84 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Precision Tests of Loop Corrections e + e − machines can see effects of virtual particles Measurement (5) 0.0016 0.21586 0.374 ΓW [GeV] 2.398 ± 0.540 ± 0.01714 ± 0.0992 ± 0.1722 0.21629 ± 0.1875 0.0032 0.140 ± 0.4952 ± 0. Bechtle: 0.3 m [GeV] MZ2 0th order (1+O(mt2 )+O(ln mh2 )+· t· · ) P.020 0.0742 Ab 0.00066 0.1721 ± 0.02758 ± 0.l Afb Al(Pτ) Rb = Introduction to Particles 0.027 0.c 0.9 ± 1.668 Al(SLD) 0.b Rc MZ2 Fit ∆αhad(mZ) 0 DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.1875 ± 0.744 [nb] Rl 0.1481 2 lept sin θeff (Qfb) 0.00035 0.025 20.935 Ac 0.00095 0.0021 ΓZ [GeV] 2.02768 mZ [GeV] 91.0021 0.1465 ± 0.0707 ± 0.0012 0.4957 0 σhad 41.1513 ± 0.767 ± 0.0030 Afb meas fit meas |O −O |/σ 0 1 2 3 91.025 80.091 170.2011 1 2 3 85 .670 ± 0.2314 mW [GeV] 80.1481 0.1038 Afb 0.01645 0.8 171.477 20.923 ± 0.037 41.0035 0.08.060 2.0023 2.2324 ± 0.

08.02750±0. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.02749±0.00010 2 4 ∆χ 2 incl.00033 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Precision Tests of Loop Corrections e + e − machines can see effects of virtual particles 6 mLimit = 161 GeV July 2011 Theory uncertainty ∆α(5) had = 5 0.2011 85 . low Q data 3 2 1 0 Excluded 30 100 300 mH [GeV] P.

Bechtle:  1/q 1 1 + ··· = q/ q/ H ∞ X  n=0 Introduction to Particles + .08... + 1/q H H   1 gf v 1 n   √ = 2 q/ q/ − g√f 2v DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Graphical Representation of how Mass is Created The Higgs mechanism is like a boring cocktail party: famousness“ gf of a particle determines its mass: ” (g f v/ 2 ) + f 1/q 1 1 + q/ q/  gf v √ 2 P.2011 86 .

2011 87 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The first glimpse of the Higgs? P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? 95% CL Limit on σ/σSM The first glimpse of the Higgs? ATLAS Preliminary 10 Observed CLs Expected ± 1σ ±2σ ∫ Ldt = 1.2 fb -1 s = 7 TeV 1 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 mH [GeV] If this turns out to be the SM Higgs. it will be an unprecedented success: a prediction more than 40 years old would come true! P.0-1.2011 87 .08.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Time to Breath. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Think and Ask P.08.2011 88 .

we already found a very fundamental scale. finding more and more fundamental scales? I think: NO. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Let’s revisit the progress of Particle Physics Rutherford Geiger Marsden 1909 HERA LEP Tevatron LHC 2009 Will we go on like that.2011 89 . we need to understand it! P.

2011 90 . we can show the follwing: The electron cannot be a composit particle How do we show that incredible claim (within the principles of QM)? P. So using QM.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Why we assume we have found something incredibly fundamental Quantum Mechanics seems to work on the most fundamental scale we know. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.

08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Why we assume we have found something incredibly fundamental Quantum Mechanics seems to work on the most fundamental scale we know. we can show the follwing: The electron cannot be a composit particle How do we show that incredible claim (within the principles of QM)? Heisenbergs uncertainty principle tells us: ∆x∆p ≥ ~/2 = 3. From scattering experiments.29 × 10−16 eV s Let’s apply that on the electron. P. So using QM. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. we know its size is tiny: re < 10−18 m 10−18 m ∆p ≥ ~/2 → ∆p ≥ 98 GeV/c But the electron has a mass which is much smaller: me = 511 keV/c 2 . . .2011 90 .

we know its size is tiny: re < 10−18 m 10−18 m ∆p ≥ ~/2 → ∆p ≥ 98 GeV/c But the electron has a mass which is much smaller: me = 511 keV/c 2 . The electron must be elemental.2011 90 . From scattering experiments. we can show the follwing: The electron cannot be a composit particle How do we show that incredible claim (within the principles of QM)? Heisenbergs uncertainty principle tells us: ∆x∆p ≥ ~/2 = 3. . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.29 × 10−16 eV s Let’s apply that on the electron.08. it cannot be composed of more fundamental constituents P. So using QM. .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Why we assume we have found something incredibly fundamental Quantum Mechanics seems to work on the most fundamental scale we know.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? How do we Know About Dark Matter In many models. the dark matter is a thermal relic WIMP: Weakly Interacting Massive (stable) Particle Once in thermal equlibrium. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. they’ve ’frozen out’ due to the expansion of the universe (Can’t decay on their own – need a partner to annihilate with) Calculable density Naturally appear in SUSY with R-parity: mDM ≈ 100 GeV SM QFD couplings P.2011 91 .08.

Bechtle: Renormalisation Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Supersymmetry Even if we find the Higgs. we still have a problem .2011 92 .08. . mass P. Tevatron 95% CL LEP 95% CL 10 9 8 7 G fitter SM Jul 10 ∆χ 2 From indirect measurements: mh < 140 GeV 3σ 6 5 2σ 4 Theory uncertainty Fit including theory errors Fit excluding theory errors 3 2 1σ 1 0 Λ2 ∆mh ∼ 2 natural mh = MPlanck Finetuning: 50 100 150 200 250 300 MH [GeV] 2·19 mh.obs = |102·19 GeV ≈ 100 GeV {zGeV} − |(1 − ǫ)10 {z } nat.

o. .f. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 92 . ∆mh ∼ Λ2 Nice addition for free: If R-parity conserved. automatically the Lightest SUSY Particle (LSP) is a stable DM candidate But: Where are all those states? ∆mh ∼ ln Λ P.08. From indirect measurements: mh < 140 GeV To prevent quadratic divergencies: Introduce shadow world: One SUSY partner for each SM d.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Supersymmetry Even if we find the Higgs. we still have a problem . .

Nice addition for free: If R-parity conserved.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Supersymmetry Even if we find the Higgs.f.08. we still have a problem .o. . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles But: Where are all those states? SUSY breaking introduces a lot of additional parameters Understand model: Measure parameters! DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. automatically the Lightest SUSY Particle (LSP) is a stable DM candidate In any case: mHlike < 1 TeV mSUSY ≤ O(TeV) ⇒ Terascala P. From indirect measurements: mh < 140 GeV To prevent quadratic divergencies: Introduce shadow world: One SUSY partner for each SM d. .2011 92 .

2315(02) DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles exp sin2 θW = 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Why try (trust?) SUSY? Wim de Boer et al. (1991): Prediction“ of sin2 θW : ” SUSY = 0.2335(17). sin2 θW P.08.2011 93 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? A Warning: Apparent Finetuning P.08.2011 94 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

08. elektrons. B-Jets.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? What do we hope to find? Need everything: MET. myons. Jets. taus P.2011 95 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 96 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The possible discovery of Physics at the Terascale inclusive spectra: probably fastest way to discover SUSY-like physics Challenging because very good detector understanding with relatively little data needed (ca.i + ETmiss ATLAS MC 1 fb−1 @ 7 TeV P. L ≈ 1 fb−1 ) Meff = P i pT . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

which decay chains? Quantum numbers.08. which masses. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles Meff = P i pT . couplings? P. L ≈ 1 fb−1 ) Is it really SUSY? Or something else? Which particles.i + ETmiss ATLAS MC 1 fb−1 @ 7 TeV DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The possible discovery of Physics at the Terascale inclusive spectra: probably fastest way to discover SUSY-like physics Challenging because very good detector understanding with relatively little data needed (ca.2011 96 .

which masses.2011 96 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The possible discovery of Physics at the Terascale inclusive spectra: probably fastest way to discover SUSY-like physics Challenging because very good detector understanding with relatively little data needed (ca. which decay chains? Quantum numbers. couplings? Meff = P i pT . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.i + ETmiss ATLAS MC 1 fb−1 @ 7 TeV P. L ≈ 1 fb−1 ) Is it really SUSY? Or something else? Which particles.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. which decay chains? 102 Data 2010 ( s = 7 TeV) Monte Carlo QCD W+jets Z+jets DrellYan tt SU4 (x10) Dilepton Channel OS ∫ 10 Entries / 10 GeV inclusive spectra: probably fastest way to discover SUSY-like physics -1 L dt ~ 70 nb 1 ATLAS Preliminary 10-1 10-2 10-30 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Emiss [GeV] T ATLAS data @ 7 TeV only 70 nb! Quantum numbers. couplings? P. L ≈ 1 fb−1 ) Is it really SUSY? Or something else? Which particles.08.2011 96 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The possible discovery of Physics at the Terascale Challenging because very good detector understanding with relatively little data needed (ca. which masses.

L ≈ 1 fb−1 ) Is it really SUSY? Or something else? Which particles.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The possible discovery of Physics at the Terascale inclusive spectra: probably fastest way to discover SUSY-like physics Challenging because very good detector understanding with relatively little data needed (ca.2011 96 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles ATLAS MC 1 fb−1 @ 14 TeV kinematic edges ⇒ mass information DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. which masses. couplings? P. which decay chains? Quantum numbers.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 97 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Still Searching for the Unexpected! Miracles and open questions – incomplete Dark Matter Explanation for EWSB and Hierarchy problem Gauge Coupling Unification Matter Asymmetry of the Universe Smallness of the neutrino masses and absence of their righthanded couplings Mass hierarchy of the SM particles Dark Energy How does gravity fit into the picture? P.

2011 97 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Still Searching for the Unexpected! Miracles and open questions – incomplete Dark Matter Explanation for EWSB and Hierarchy problem Gauge Coupling Unification Matter Asymmetry of the Universe Smallness of the neutrino masses and absence of their righthanded couplings Mass hierarchy of the SM particles Dark Energy How does gravity fit into the picture? My favourite reason why the SM is wrong (i. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. incomplete): qℓ = −nC (qu − qd ) P.e.08.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Particle Physics is Philosophy Not from the beginning the gods disclosed everything to us. yet he himself can not know that it is so. Xenophanes of Kolophon. but in the course of time we find. There never was nor will be a person who has certain knowledge about the gods and about all the things I speak of. 500 b. a better knowledge. These things have seemed to me to resemble the truth.2011 98 . searching. Even if he should chance to say the complete truth.c. ca. P.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 99 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Backup Slides P.08.

∂ µ denotes a partial derivative for x 0 . χ1/2 = . This 4-dimensional space is independent of the 4-dimensional spinor space.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Prerequisites: γµ. χ−1/2 = ~ σ~p 0 1 p0 +m χs The 4 × 4 γ matrices are acting on the 4 dimensions of ythe spinors. Aµ or Fµν ) always denotes a 4-dimensional Lorentz vector. x 3 respecively. ∂ µ and the † The notation is a little bit confusing sometimes. Einstein convention: 4-vector: x µ scalar: x µ yµ matrix: x µ y ν P. x 1 . x 2 . so let’s try to sort things a little bit: Fermions are represented by 4-dimensional spinors: !     √ χs 1 0 ψ(p) = p0 + m .2011 100 .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. An index (γµ .

08. γ = −1 0 0 0  −i 0 0 0 0 1 0 0   0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  γ 5 := i γ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 =  1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 † ∗ Hermitean adjoint: ψ : aij = a .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Prerequisites: γµ.2011 101 . γ =  0 −1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 0 0 −1     0 0 0 −i 0 0 1 0  0 0 i 0  3  0 0 0 −1    γ2 =   0 i 0 0  . Dirac adjoint: ψ¯ = ψ † γ 0 ji P. ∂ µ and the † Dirac matrices (each matrix acting on a 4-dim spinor):     0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 1 0 0   1 0 γ0 =  0 0 −1 0  . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. where sα denotes the parameters of the system.08.2011 102 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The Lagrangian Require that the action S remains invariant under small changes of the fiends φ: δS =0 δϕi S is determined by the Lagrangian (classically: L = T − V ) Z S[ϕi ] = L[ϕi (s)] dn s. The equations of motion of the system can then be derived from the Euler-Lagrange equation:   ∂L ∂L =0 − ∂µ ∂(∂µ ϕ) ∂ϕ P.

2 Then.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? The Lagrangian Classical Example in three-dimensional space: 1 L(~x . 2.2011 103 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. 3. the Euler-Lagrange equation is:   ∂L d ∂L = 0 − dt ∂ x˙ i ∂xi with i = 1. The derivation yields: ∂V ∂L = − ∂xi ∂xi   1 ∂ ∂ 1 ∂L = m ~x˙ 2 m ( x˙ i x˙ i ) = m x˙ i = ∂ x˙ i ∂ x˙ i 2 2 ∂ x˙ i   ∂L d = m x¨i dt ∂ x˙ i From the Euler-Lagrange-equation we get the equation of motion: P. ~x˙ ) = m ~x˙ 2 − V (~x ).

e.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Gauge Transformations Global Gauge Invariance: Require that L (i. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. the equation of motion) is invariant under the transformation: ψ(x) → e i α ψ(x) with α being the same everywhere. P.08.2011 104 .

why should we use the same gauge here and behind the moon at the same time? P.e. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. But given relativity.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Gauge Transformations Global Gauge Invariance: Require that L (i. the equation of motion) is invariant under the transformation: ψ(x) → e i α ψ(x) with α being the same everywhere.2011 104 .08.

08. why should we use the same gauge here and behind the moon at the same time? Local Gauge Invariance: Require that L is invariant under local transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Gauge Transformations Global Gauge Invariance: Require that L (i.e.2011 104 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. But given relativity. the equation of motion) is invariant under the transformation: ψ(x) → e i α ψ(x) with α being the same everywhere.

08.2011 104 .e. But given relativity.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Gauge Transformations Global Gauge Invariance: Require that L (i. why should we use the same gauge here and behind the moon at the same time? Local Gauge Invariance: Require that L is invariant under local transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) This principle is the foundation of the SM P. the equation of motion) is invariant under the transformation: ψ(x) → e i α ψ(x) with α being the same everywhere. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

08. Every element has an inverse element. The operation has an identity element. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 105 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Group Theory in a Tiny Nutshell A group is a set G (the ”underlying set”) under a binary operation satisfying three axioms: The operation is associative. P.

Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Every element has an inverse element.08. inf[ P. The operation has an identity element. A generating set of a group G is a subset S such that every element of G can be expressed as the product of finitely many elements of S and their inverses. Very simple example: 2 is the generator of all numbers 2n . n = [0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Group Theory in a Tiny Nutshell A group is a set G (the ”underlying set”) under a binary operation satisfying three axioms: The operation is associative.2011 105 .

2011 105 . Every element has an inverse element. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. n = [0. P. inf[ Construct the SM particles as elements of a group invariant under operations within the group. A generating set of a group G is a subset S such that every element of G can be expressed as the product of finitely many elements of S and their inverses. Very simple example: 2 is the generator of all numbers 2n .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Group Theory in a Tiny Nutshell A group is a set G (the ”underlying set”) under a binary operation satisfying three axioms: The operation is associative. The operation has an identity element.08.

2011 106 . P. σj ] = 2i εijk σk {σi . σj } = 2δij · I Example for an SU(2) transformation: i ψ(x) → e i τi α (x) ψ(x) SU(2) and SU(3) are not abelian. . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08. i. the generators of the group do not commute. the generators are proportional to the Pauli matrices:       1 0 0 −i 0 1 .e. σ3 = .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Some Mathematics: SU(2) For the special unitary group SU(2). σ2 = σ1 = 0 −1 i 0 1 0 The generators of the group are τi = 21 σi . The Pauli matrices obey [σi .

2 DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. λ2 =  i 0 0 . λ6 = 0 0 1 1 0 0 i 0 0 0 1 0     1 0 0 0 0 0 1 λ7 = 0 0 −i  .08. λ8 = √ 0 1 0  3 0 0 −2 0 i 0 The generators of SU(3) are defined as T by the relation Ta = P. λ3 = 0 −1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0       0 0 1 0 0 −i 0 0 0 λ4 = 0 0 0 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Some Mathematics: SU(3) The analog of the Pauli matrices for SU(3) are the Gell-Mann matrices:       1 0 0 0 −i 0 0 1 0 λ1 = 1 0 0 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles λa .2011 107 . λ5 = 0 0 0  .

08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Tb ] = i 8 X fabc Tc c=1 where f is called structure constant and has a value given by f 123 = 1 1 f 147 = f 165 = f 246 = f 257 = f 345 = f 376 = 2 √ 3 f 458 = f 678 = 2 tr(Ta ) = 0 P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Some Mathematics: SU(3) The generators T obey the relations [Ta .2011 108 .

Make the theory gauge invariant under local U(1) transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED QED is a local abelian U(1) gauge symmetry Using our knowledge about the Lagrangian.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 109 . we construct the Lagrangian which gives us the equation of motion of the Dirac equation ((i ∂µ γ µ − m)ψ = 0): ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ Lfree = ψ(i using ∂/ = ∂µ γ µ .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED QED is a local abelian U(1) gauge symmetry Using our knowledge about the Lagrangian.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. we construct the Lagrangian which gives us the equation of motion of the Dirac equation ((i ∂µ γ µ − m)ψ = 0): ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ Lfree = ψ(i using ∂/ = ∂µ γ µ . Make the theory gauge invariant under local U(1) transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) Lfree → Lfree − ψγ P.2011 109 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED QED is a local abelian U(1) gauge symmetry Using our knowledge about the Lagrangian. we construct the Lagrangian which gives us the equation of motion of the Dirac equation ((i ∂µ γ µ − m)ψ = 0): ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ Lfree = ψ(i using ∂/ = ∂µ γ µ . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Make the theory gauge invariant under local U(1) transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) Lfree → Lfree − ψγ That’s not invariant! P.08.2011 109 .

we construct the Lagrangian which gives us the equation of motion of the Dirac equation ((i ∂µ γ µ − m)ψ = 0): ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ Lfree = ψ(i using ∂/ = ∂µ γ µ .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED QED is a local abelian U(1) gauge symmetry Using our knowledge about the Lagrangian. . P. .08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Make the theory gauge invariant under local U(1) transformations: ψ(x) → e i α(x) ψ(x) What is the transformation behaviour of the free Lagrangian? ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) Lfree → Lfree − ψγ That’s not invariant! But luckily it’s also not QED .2011 109 .

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED In order to save QED under the transformation U(x) = e −1α(x) . we would have needed the photon Aµ anyway . .08. .2011 110 . Also. Now modify the derivative: ∂µ → ∂µ + iqAµ (x) = Dµ Let’s write L again with all possible Lorentz and gauge invariant terms: 1 ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ − q ψA ¯ /ψ L = − Fµν F µν + ψ(i 4 using Fµν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ P. add a gauge field obeying: Aµ (x) → U −1 Aµ U + 1 1 −1 U ∂µ U = Aµ (x) − ∂µ α(x) q q A miracle has occured: we introduced not only a gauge field. but also a charge q. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

2011 111 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Introduction: QED Let’s check the transformational behaviour under local U(1) again: 1 ′ ′µν L → L′ = − Fµν F + ψ¯′ (i ∂/ − m)ψ ′ − q ψ¯′ A/′ ψ ′ 4 1 ¯ ∂/ − m)ψ − ψγ ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) − q ψγ ¯ µ ψAµ + ψγ ¯ µ ψ(∂ µ α(x)) = − Fµν F µν + ψ(i 4 =L with 1 1 ′ Fµν = ∂µ (Aν − ∂ν α(x)) − ∂ν (Aµ − ∂ν α(x)) q q 1 1 = Fµν − ∂µ ∂ν α(x) + ∂ν ∂µ α(x) = Fµν q q QED including a gauge field is invariant under local U(1)! Use this principle to construct the SM P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

8 are the eight 3 × 3 Gell-Mann-Matrices and i .08. qB which are transforming under the fundamental representation of SU(3)C :  a λa  qj . B run over the color indices. . j = R. G . . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. The transformation works in principle just as in case of the QED. As in QED before. qi → qi ′ = e i α (x) 2 ij where λa with a = 1.2011 112 1 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QCD: SU(3)C The fundamental states of QCD are the three color states of the quarks:   qR q = qG  . the transformation renders the free Lagrangian not invariant under SU(3). . . We need to introduce a gauge field Aaµ transforming according to the adjoint representation: P. it’s just slightly more complex due to the eight dimensions of the SU(3) generators.

P.2011 113 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. v for the gluon field.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QCD: SU(3)C Using the quarks q and the gluons Aaµ we can now write the Lagrangian LQCD 1 a µν = − Fµν Fa + i q¯i 4 ∂/δij + igC  λa 2  A / ij ! a qj with a Fµν = ∂µ Aaν − ∂ν Aaµ − gC f abc Abµ Acν which is different than in U(1) due to the non-abelian character of SU(3). qi (x) = (2π)3 2p0 spins λ analogously without the spinors u.08. A little bit more detail: The full form of the field operators can be written as: X Z  d3p p ai λ (p)ui λ (p)e −ipx + bi+λ (p)vi λ (p)e ipx .

The only input parameter is αs = P. c. s. obeying [bi (p). aλ+′ (k ′ )] + Quarks = δλλ′ δ3 (~k − ~k ′ ) − Gluonen − Gluonen All of the above has to be done separately for q = u.2011 114 . t. bj+ (p ′ )] + Quarks = δij δ3 (~p − ~p ′ ). Bechtle: gC2 4π Introduction to Particles ≈ 0.3 for a scale of Q 2 ≈ 1 GeV2 DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. [aλ (k). d.08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QCD: SU(3)C : Just for completeness What’s all that stuff in the previous equation? Important are the creation and annihilation operators ai λ and bi λ . b.

obeying [bi (p). The only input parameter is αs = gC2 4π ≈ 0. . t. c.2011 114 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QCD: SU(3)C : Just for completeness What’s all that stuff in the previous equation? Important are the creation and annihilation operators ai λ and bi λ . a beautifully simple theory with awfully complex consequences . s. . d. . b.3 for a scale of Q 2 ≈ 1 GeV2 That’s it . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. aλ+′ (k ′ )] + Quarks = δλλ′ δ3 (~k − ~k ′ ) − Gluonen − Gluonen All of the above has to be done separately for q = u. [aλ (k). bj+ (p ′ )] + Quarks = δij δ3 (~p − ~p ′ ). P.08. .

R → R′ = R and under U(1)Y according to L → L′ = e i β P. Q = −1. Y = −2 2 which transform SU(2)L according to a τa 2 L → L′ = e i α L. 3 L= = (1 − γ ) I3 = − 12 . Q = −1. Introduction to Particles R → R ′ = eiβ aY 2 R DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Y = −1 5 . Q = 0. I3 = 0.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Leptonic Sector We choose the SU(2)L doublett     1 ν ν I = + 12 . Bechtle: aY 2 L. Y = −1 e e L 2 and the singlett R = eR = 1 (1 + γ 5 )e.2011 115 .08.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Leptonic Sector Now we construct the gauge fields Wµa for SU(2)L analogously to SU(3)C before and Bµ of U(1)Y analously to the QED before. We get the covariant derivative Y τa Dµ = ∂µ + ig Wµa + ig ′ Bµ . P.2011 116 .08. Waµν − Bµν B µν + i LD L1QFD = − Wµν 4 4 with a Wµν = ∂µ Wνa − ∂ν Wµa − g ǫabc Wµb Wνc Bµν = ∂µ Bν − ∂ν Bµ . we can construct the first part of the QFD Lagrangian 1 1 a / L + i RD / R. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. 2 2 Using this.

2011 117 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Masses Mass of the gauge bosons Now we would like to add gauge boson masses: 1 2 µ M B Bµ 2 However.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. this is not invariant under SU(2): 1 1 1 → M 2 (B µ − ′ ∂ µ α(x))(Bµ − ′ ∂µ α(x)) 2 g g P.

08.2011 117 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. this is not invariant under SU(2): 1 1 1 → M 2 (B µ − ′ ∂ µ α(x))(Bµ − ′ ∂µ α(x)) 2 g g Mass of the fermions  1 1 5 5 (1 − γ ) + (1 + γ ) e −m¯e e = −m¯ e 2 2 = −m(¯ eR eL + e¯L eR )  But only eL and not eR is transforming under SU(2)! P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Masses Mass of the gauge bosons Now we would like to add gauge boson masses: 1 2 µ M B Bµ 2 However.

this is not invariant under SU(2): 1 1 1 → M 2 (B µ − ′ ∂ µ α(x))(Bµ − ′ ∂µ α(x)) 2 g g Mass of the fermions  1 1 5 5 (1 − γ ) + (1 + γ ) e −m¯e e = −m¯ e 2 2 = −m(¯ eR eL + e¯L eR )  But only eL and not eR is transforming under SU(2)! We haveIntroduction a beautiful theoryDESY of Summerstudent massless particles! to Particles Lectures 01.2011 P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Masses Mass of the gauge bosons Now we would like to add gauge boson masses: 1 2 µ M B Bµ 2 However. Bechtle: 117 .08.

2011 118 . Otherwise the photon acquires mass.08. we introduce the Higgs doublett into the theory:    + a 0 φ i σa2vα 1 √ Φ= . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. Y = +1 which is gauged like Φ = e φ0 2 v +η We obtain v = potential p −µ2 /λ as vacuum expectation value of the field in the V (Φ) = µ2 + λ Φ Φ + (Φ+ Φ)2 2 4 with λ > 0 and µ2 < 0. such that there is spontaneous symmetry breaking (the ground state does not obey the symmetries of the theory). P.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB In order to allow masses for the gauge bosons. φ+ has to be gauged to 0 in order to render the charge operator Q = I3 + Y2 unbroken.

2011 119 .08.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB Using the global SU(2)L gauge transformation from before   a 1 0 ′ −i σ 2vαa L ⇒ Φ= √ L→L =e 2 v +η we obtain the following expression for the mass sector of the QFD: √ L2QFD = − 2f (LΦR + RΦ+ L) + |Dµ Φ|2 − V (Φ) P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

The Incredible Success of the Standard Model
The End of the Standard Model?

QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB
Using the global SU(2)L gauge transformation from before  

a
1
0

−i σ 2vαa
L ⇒ Φ= √
L→L =e
2 v +η
we obtain the following expression for the mass sector of the QFD:

L2QFD = − 2f (LΦR + RΦ+ L) + |Dµ Φ|2 − V (Φ)
From where do we get the fermion masses?

− 2f (LΦR + RΦ+ L)
acts as a mass term with the Yukawa coupling parameter f determining the
mass of the fermion.
P. Bechtle:

Introduction to Particles

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

119

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

The Incredible Success of the Standard Model
The End of the Standard Model?

QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB

The gauge boson masses are coming from
1
1
1
a 2
) + g ′2 v 2 Bµ B µ − gg ′ v 2 B µ Wµ3
|Dµ Φ|2 = g 2 v 2 (Wµν
8
8
4
using
(Wµ1 )2 + (Wµ2 )2 = (Wµ1 + iWµ2 )(Wµ1 − iWµ2 ) = 2Wµ+ Wµ−

introducing the charged currents. That yields 
′2 
µ 
1 2 2 + − 1 2 µ
g
−gg ′
B
3
g v Wµ Wµ + v (B , Wµ )
−gg ′
g2
W 3µ
4
8

We have the mass term on the W ± already. Let’s diagonalize the mass
matrix of the hypercharge field Bµ and the third component of the SU(2)L
gauge field Wµ3 : 
  
µ 

cos θW
sin θW
B
=
Zµ0
W 3µ
− sin θW cos θW

Now another P.miracle
occured:
The photon
field AµLectures
drops
out of EWSB!
Bechtle: has
Introduction
to Particles
DESY Summerstudent
01.08.2011
120

Motivation and Introduction
Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics
Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk
The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End?

The Incredible Success of the Standard Model
The End of the Standard Model?

QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB
we have now introduced the Weinberg angle
sin θW = p

g′
g 2 + g ′2

From the diagonalization of the mass matrix for Wµ3 and Bµ
Aµ = p

Zµ0 = p

1
g2

1

g 2 + g ′2

P. Bechtle:

+

g ′2

(g ′ Wµ3 + gBµ ),

(gWµ3 − g ′ Bµ ),

Introduction to Particles

mA2 = 0

mZ2 0 =

(g 2 + g ′ 2 )v 2
4

DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.08.2011

121

(Lγ τ3 L − 2 2 e¯γ µ e Aµ µ 2 ′ 2 2 ′ 4 g +g g +g where qe = p gg ′ g 2 + g ′2 is the electromagnetic charge and e = eL + eR This formalism has to be written for all three lepton families ℓ = e.08. P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01.2011 122 .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y EWSB We also obtain the charged current and its coupling to the Wµ+ as g √ (¯ νL γ µ eL Wµ+ + h.) 2 2 In addition. the neutral currents have been introduced (’74 November revolution: Gargamelle): p g ′2 gg ′ g 2 + g ′2 µ µ 0 p e ¯ γ e)Z .c. µ. as the first tested firm prediction of this theory. τ .

the stronger the Higgs coupling to it (or the other way around!) The position of the minimum of the potential V (Φ) = µ2 + λ Φ Φ + (Φ+ Φ)2 2 4 is known: Compare v g √ ν¯L γ µ eL Wµ+ 2 2 Φ V −A with V − A theory: Leff ∼ − G2F . . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles  2 g GF 1 √ = ⇒ v = 246 GeV 2 2 01.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Properties of the Higgs Potential The heavier the particle.2011 M Lectures 123 2 DESY 2 Summerstudent . P. .08.

Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? QFD: SU(2)L × U(1)Y Remarks There are a few non-trivial observations about EWSB in the SM: It is not trivial that the photon field Aµ fullfills mA = 0 qe ¯ e γ µ eAµ (i. no coupling to the neutrino and the same coupling to the left and right fields) at the same time! All three elements of MW = cos θW MZ can be measured independently ⇒ precision tests The Higgs has been introduced to give mass to the gauge bosons. but it offers an elegant way to introduce masses of the fermions. a W µν There is a self-interaction among the gauge bosons in the − 14 Wµν a term.08.2011 124 . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. it was not constructed as the gauge boson fermion interactions. too.e. This just pops out of the theory. Does Nature obey the SM also in P.

bR ′ ′ d L s L b′ L being the weak interaction eigenstates. . Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. . cR .2011 125 . sR .Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Quarks For the quarks. we choose the fundamental states differently for the mass and the interaction operators:       u c t . tR .08. We get the mass eigenstates using the CKM matrix:     ′   d d d 1 λ Aρλ3 e i δ 2  s ′  = VCKM  s  ≈    −λ 1 Aλ s ′ 3 i δ 2 b Aλ (1 − ρe ) −Aλ 1 b b VV + = 1 P. dR . uR .

  +  √ √ φ −φ0 ′ ′ ¯ ¯ dR − 2fu (¯ uR . u. d ) − 2fd (¯ φ0 φ+ P. We use a SU(2) transform of the Higgs field for the right-handed up-type quark mass terms. We ge tadditional terms for the right-handed up-type quarks. for which we have no corresponding leptons in the SM wit hmassles sneutrinos.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Quarks Then the QFD of the quarks can be written in exact analogy to the leptons.08. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. d ) u.2011 126 .

5 GeV ≈? ≈ 0.7 GeV ≈ 81 GeV ≈ 0. P.8 This has to be slightly extended if neutrino masses and mixing are added. for which we have no corresponding leptons in the SM wit hmassles sneutrinos. 23 ≈ 0. We use a SU(2) transform of the Higgs field for the right-handed up-type quark mass terms. 004 mτ ms mt α(Q 2 ≈ 0) ρ ≈ 1. 22 ≈ 0.08.2011 126 . d ) u.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Quarks Then the QFD of the quarks can be written in exact analogy to the leptons. 5 mµ md mb mW λ δ ≈ 105 MeV ≈ 5 MeV ≈ 4. We ge tadditional terms for the right-handed up-type quarks. 7 GeV ≈ 150 MeV ≈ 174 GeV ≈ 1/137 ≈ 0. d ) − 2fd (¯ φ0 φ+ Input parameters to the QFD: me mu mc mH sin θW A ≈ 511 keV ≈ 5 MeV ≈ 1. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. u.   +  √ √ φ −φ0 ′ ′ ¯ ¯ dR − 2fu (¯ uR .

For each outgoing (anti)particle.08. for each incoming (anti)particle u(¯ v ). write ǫµ (ǫ∗µ ) For each internal line.2011 127 . write u¯(v ). In this case.Motivation and Introduction Tools and Historical Foundations of particle Physics Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk The Standard Model – Shortly Before its End? The Incredible Success of the Standard Model The End of the Standard Model? Reading the Feynman Rules 1 2 3 4 5 Draw your Feynman diagram Follow the fermion lines in opposite direction of the arrows. write a propagator: Fermion: 1/(p/ − m) Photon: −igµν /p 2 Boson: −i(gµν − pµ pν /M 2 )/(p 2 − M 2 ) Read the couplings from the Lagrangian: ¯ µ ψAµ QED example: Lint = −qe ψγ denotes the coupling of an incoming fermion ψ and an outgoing fermion ψ¯ to the photon Aµ with coupling qe . For each incoming(outgoing) photon. P. Bechtle: Introduction to Particles DESY Summerstudent Lectures 01. we get iqe γµ for each photon-electron vertex.