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# Polarization of Antenna

Cristina Tene, Freddy López, Valeria Bone, Deysi Tixi, Hipatia Ilbay
Abstract — This paper describes the polarization of
an antenna.

Polarización Circular:

Index Terms—,
I. INTRODUCTION
magnetic fields have a certain bias. Since this field
radiated at large distances can be considered a plane
wave, it may consider that there is only field in directions
perpendicular to the propagation direction (to where the
information is transmitted). So if, for example, we take
propagation direction Z axis only have components of
electric and magnetic field in the X and Y axes
II. THEORY
Depending on how the offset x and y components of the
electric field will have three types of polarization:
Linear: If they are the same phase or in antiphase (offset
= 0 or pi)
Circular: If they are out of phase pi / 2 or 3pi / 2 and
their magnitudes are equal
Elliptical: If they are out of phase and have the same or
different magnitudes.
Most commonly have linear or circular polarization, so
we focus on them.
To understand the concept of polarization is best to see a
few performances:

Linear Polarization:

La importancia de como polariza una antena el
preparada para captar un campo eléctrico de su misma
polarización (principio de reciprocidad). Es decir, que
si una antena
genera un campo eléctrico
con
polarización lineal en transmisión, esa misma antena
captar de forma eficiente un campo eléctrico de su
misma polarización. Esto no impide que pueda captar
parte del campo eléctrico de una antena con distinta
polarización, sino que sólo captará una parte de la señal
recibida.

RESULTS AND SIMULATION:
CODIGO
function varargout =
Polarizacion_Antena(varargin)
% POLARIZACION_ANTENA MATLAB code for
Polarizacion_Antena.fig
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA, by itself,
creates a new POLARIZACION_ANTENA or
raises the existing
%
singleton*.
%
%
H = POLARIZACION_ANTENA returns
the handle to a new
POLARIZACION_ANTENA or the handle to
%
the existing singleton*.
%
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA('CALLBACK',hObject
,eventData,handles,...) calls the
local
%
function named CALLBACK in
POLARIZACION_ANTENA.M with the given
input arguments.
%
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA('Property','Value'

. 'gui_OpeningFcn'. eventdata. GUIDATA. GUIHANDLES % Edit the above text to modify the response to help Polarizacion_Antena % Last Modified by GUIDE v2. handles) %% CONSTANTES ----------------------------------------------------------% permitividad y permeabilidad del vacío . % --. function Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn(hObject . % Update handles structure guidata(hObject.. % hObject handle to figure % eventdata reserved .handles not created until after all CreateFcns called % Hint: place code in OpeningFcn to populate axes1 % --. 'gui_LayoutFcn'. handles. % % See also: GUIDE.. varargin{:}).to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles empty .to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA) % varargin command line arguments to Polarizacion_Antena (see VARARGIN) % Choose default command line output for Polarizacion_Antena handles..Outputs from this function are returned to the command line. . 'gui_Singleton'. % hObject handle to figure % eventdata reserved .output.gui_Callback = str2func(varargin{1}). handles). % --..DO NOT EDIT gui_Singleton = 1. end if nargout [varargout{1:nargout}] = gui_mainfcn(gui_State.. end % End initialization code . varargin) % This function has no output args.. . 'gui_OutputFcn'. function CAMPO_Callback(hObject. handles) % hObject handle to axes1 (see GCBO) % eventdata reserved . . gui_State = struct('gui_Name'. function varargout = Polarizacion_Antena_OutputFcn(hObject.) creates a new POLARIZACION_ANTENA or raises the % existing singleton*.Executes on button press in CAMPO. % UIWAIT makes Polarizacion_Antena wait for user response (see UIRESUME) % uiwait(handles.. All inputs are passed to Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn via varargin.5 23-Oct2014 06:20:03 % Begin initialization code . . eventdata. mfilename. . 'gui_Callback'.DO NOT EDIT % --. after setting all properties. % % *See GUI Options on GUIDE's Tools menu. []).output = hObject.. function axes1_CreateFcn(hObject..to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA) % Get default command line output from handles structure varargout{1} = handles.Executes during object creation. if nargin && ischar(varargin{1}) gui_State. [] .. eventdata. eventdata. Choose "GUI allows only one % instance to run (singleton)".figure1). property value pairs are % applied to the GUI before Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn gets called.Executes just before Polarizacion_Antena is made visible. varargin{:}). Starting from the left.. An % unrecognized property name or invalid value makes property application % stop.. @Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn. @Polarizacion_Antena_OutputFcn. gui_Singleton. see OutputFcn. handles) % varargout cell array for returning output args (see VARARGOUT). else gui_mainfcn(gui_State..

*z)+1/ (2. t = (T/101)*i. %% DATOS ---------------------------------------------------------------- z0 = 2.*z) +exp(alpha.5).P.*exp(j*0)). E = real(exp(-j*k*z). %% ---------------------------------------------------------------------% periodo T = 1/f.'markerfacecolor'.Pav. hold on %plot([z0 z0].854e-12.*alpha.'or'. E = real((exp(-j*k*z) +exp(+j*k*z)). % campo % velocidad de la luz z = linspace(-3.[-3 3]. % impedancia intrinseca % hObject GCBO) handle to CAMPO (see .*exp(j*2*w*t)). % constantes de fase y atenuación beta = real(k).E_z0. % parametros constitutivos del material epsilon = epsilon0*epsilonr.*z). mu0 = 4*pi*1e-7.epsilon0 = 8. % plot(z. eta = sqrt(mu-j*eps)/sqrt(epsilonj*eps). % frecuencia for i=0:200 h = figure.'r '). % hold off % % axis([min(z) max(z) 0 1/ (real(eta))]) M(i+1) = getframe(h).1) epsilonr = 1. % Pav = 1/(2*real(eta)).*real(eta)).3. mur = 1.2) % % P = 1/(2*real(eta)).100).*z).'linewidth'.*exp(2. mu = mu0*mur.*exp(2. % constante de propagacion k = w*sqrt(mu-j*eps)*sqrt(epsilonj*eps).'--') hold off axis([min(z) max(z) -6 6]) % frecuencia angular w = 2*pi*f. % parámetros constitutivos relativos del material %subplot(2. end implay(M.1.1.*exp(j*w*t)).1.'linewidth'.1.*real(exp(j*2*k*z). c=1/sqrt(epsilon0*mu0).1.'linewidth'. alpha = -imag(k). f = 300e6. % hold on % plot(z. plot(z0. % subplot(2.10000).5). % longitud de onda lambda = c/f.E. plot(z.*alpha.exp(-alpha.*exp(j*w*t)).'--') %plot(z.5). hold on E_z0 = real((exp(j*k*z0)+exp(+j*k*z0)).

% parametros constitutivos del material epsilon = epsilon0*epsilonr. plot(z0. % longitud de onda lambda = c/f.Executes on button press in campo_magnetic. % frecuencia angular w = 2*pi*f.*z)+1/ (2.10000). % impedancia intrinseca for i=0:200 t = (T/101)*i. % Pav = 1/(2*real(eta)).*exp(2. %subplot(2.5). f = 300e6.'or'.*exp(j*w*t)).1.*exp(j*2*w*t)).3. %plot(z.*z).*exp(j*w*t)).'--') T = 1/f. hold on E_z0 = real((exp(j*k*z0)+exp(+j*k*z0)). epsilon0 = 8. % velocidad de la luz E = real(exp(-j*k*z).[-3 3]. %% DATOS ---------------------------------------------------------------% frecuencia h = figure.% eventdata reserved .5).'markerfacecolor'. z0 = 2. c=1/sqrt(epsilon0*mu0). mu = mu0*mur. hold on %plot([z0 z0].'b '). % campo mu0 = 4*pi*1e-7.*real(eta)). % plot(z. alpha = -imag(k).to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA) % constante de propagacion k = w*sqrt(mu-j*eps)*sqrt(epsilonj*eps).'linewidth'.'--') hold off axis([min(z) max(z) -6 6]) % subplot(2.'linewidth'. z = linspace(-3. eventdata.*exp(j*0)).E_z0.5). mur = 1.2) % % P = 1/(2*real(eta)).Pav.*alpha.P. % --.exp(-alpha.1. .1.*exp(2. %% ---------------------------------------------------------------------% periodo beta = real(k).854e-12. plot(z.*alpha.*z) +exp(alpha.'linewidth'. % parámetros constitutivos relativos del material epsilonr = 1.E.1) E = real((exp(j*k*z)+exp(j*k*z)).*z). % hold on % plot(z. function campo_magnetic_Callback(hObject.*real(exp(j*2*k*z).1.1. handles) %% CONSTANTES ----------------------------------------------------------- % constantes de fase y atenuación % permitividad y permeabilidad del vacío eta = sqrt(mu-j*eps)/sqrt(epsilonj*eps).

y. eventdata. Magnetic Field % Create some x data x = linspace(0.100). 0. 'EdgeColor'. figure fill3(x.to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA) % --.to be defined in a future version of MATLAB % handles structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA) Fig7: Radiation pattern at 9GHz at 0º& 90º . % Create two waves to plot y = sin(x). u. M(i+1) = getframe(h). end implay(M. handles) Figure5. z. y. u.5) hold on % Add arrows for the first wave quiver3(x. 'r'. 'r') % Plot the first wave in blue and fill with color fill3(x. % Add the arrows for the second wave quiver3(x. 0. u. 'b'. u. z = sin(x-pi). % hObject handle to campo_magnetic (see GCBO) % eventdata reserved . 'b'.28) axis square daspect([1 1 1]) xlim([0 13]) ylim([-1 1]) zlim([-1 1]) % hObject handle to Polarizacion (see GCBO) % eventdata reserved . 0.5) Figure 6.% hold off % % axis([min(z) max(z) 0 1/ (real(eta))]) As shown in figure 5. u. u. 'r'. Electric Field POLARIZATION OF ANTENNA: Fig7. % Plot the first wave in red and fill with color u = zeros(size(x+pi)). 'b') % Use equal axis scaling view(-49. function Polarizacion_Callback(hObject. u. 'FaceAlpha'. z. 30). Shows the directivity for the operating frequency of 9GHz. u. 'FaceAlpha'. 4*pi. 0. u. u.Executes on button press in Polarizacion. 'EdgeColor'.

any wave can be decomposed into two circularly polarized waves right or left.20GHz V.antennatheory. evaluated in the far field. simply by designing the electric field on unit vectors oriented in said directions. CONCLUSION .The polarization of an antenna is the polarization of electromagnetic fields from an antenna.IV.Any waveform can be decomposed into two orthogonal linear polarizations.20-12. .Circular polarization is a desirable feature for many antennas. Antennas used in GPS systems are right-handed circularly polarized.es/antenas/Tema_1/polarizacion.htm http://www.com/spanish/basics/antennapol . Applying the same principle.upv. REFERENCES http://www. Two antennas are circularly polarized suffer no loss of signal due to the polarization mismatch. Fig8: Gain at 8. .php .