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# LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION
CHAPTER 1 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS]
ITEM

MEANING / DEFINITION

Physical quantity
Kuantiti fizik

A quantity that can be measured
Kuantiti yang boleh diukur

Base quantity
Kuantiti asas

A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities
Kuantiti fizik yang tidak dapat ditakrifkan dalam sebutan kuantiti fizik yang lain

Derived quantity
Kuantiti terbitan

A physical quantity that is derived by combining base quantities. This can be done
by multiplication or division or both.
Kuantiti fizik yang dihasilkan daripada gabungan kuantiti asas secara pendaraban
atau pembahagian atau kedua-duanya

Precision / Consistency
Kepersisan

A measurement is more consistent when there is a smaller deviation among the
Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih konsisten apabila terdapat sisihan yang kecil
antara bacaan-bacaan

Accuracy
Kejituan

The accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement is to the actual
value of the quantity being measured. A measurement is more accurate when the
reading is closer to the actual value
Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih jitu apabila bacaan itu lebih hampir kepada nilai
sebenar

Sensitivity
Kepekaan

The ability of an instrument to detect small changes in the physical quantity that is
measured
Kebolehan alat mengesan perubahan kecil pada kuantiti yang diukur.

Error
Ralat

The difference between the reading obtained and the actual value
Perbezaan antara bacaan yang diperoleh dan nilai sebenar

Systematic error
Ralat sistematik

A systematic error is an experimental error that will produce readings which are
either always higher or always lower than the actual value that is being measured.
Ralat sistematik ialah ralat eksperimen yang akan menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan
yang sama ada sentiasa lebih besar atau sentiasa lebih kecil daripada nilai sebenar
yang sedang diukur.

Random error
Ralat rawak

A random error is caused by uncertainties in a measurement that will produce
readings that could be higher or lower than the actual value that is being measured.
Ralat rawak adalah disebabkan oleh ketakpastian dalam suatu pengukuran yang
akan menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan yang lebih tinggi atau lebih kecil daripada nilai
sebenar.

Parallax error
Ralat paralaks

Is a random error which occurs when the eye of the observer is not directly above
the scale of the instrument, causing the line of sight to be not perpendicular to the
scale
Ialah ralat rawak yang berlaku apabila mata pemerhati tidak tegak di atas skala
alat pengukur, menyebabkan garis penglihatan tidak serenjang dengan skala itu

Zero error
Ralat sifar

Is a systematic error where the instrument does not show zero reading when it is not
taking a measurement.
Ialah ralat sistematik di mana alat itu tidak menunjukkan bacaan sifar semasa
tidak membuat pengukuran

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"Life was meant to be lived, and curiosity must be kept alive"
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LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION

ITEM

MEANING / DEFINITION

Manipulated variable
Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan

A physical quantity which you control and change for the purpose of investigation
in an experiment
Kuantiti fizik yang dikawal atau diubah untuk tujuan menjalankan penyiasatan
dalam suatu eksperimen

Responding variable
Pembolehubah bergerakbalas

A physical quantity which changes in response to changes to the manipulated
variable
Kuantiti fizik yang yang berubah disebabkan oleh perubahan kepada
pembolehubah dimanipulasikan

Fixed variable
Pembolehubah dimalarkan

A physical quantity which is kept constant throughout the experiment
Kuantiti fizik yang dikekalkan malar sepanjang eksperimen

2
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"Life was meant to be lived, and curiosity must be kept alive"
-

Objek yang direndam atau separa rendam dalam suatu bendalir akan dikenakan oleh satu daya julangan yang sama dengan berat bendalir yang tersesar oleh jasad itu. the pressure of the fluid decreases when the velocity of the fluid increases. Berat objek yang terapung adalah sama dengan berat cecair yang disesarkan Hydrometer Hidrometer An instrument that measures the relative density of liquids. tekanan bendalir itu berkurang apabila laju pengaliran bertambah.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION CHAPTER THREE (FORCES AND PRESSURE) ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Pressure Tekanan The force acting perpendicularly on unit area of a surface. Daya yang bertindak secara normal pada seunit luas permukaan Atmospheric Pressure Tekanan Atmosfera The pressure which is caused by the weight of the thick layer of air (atmosphere) above the earth’s surface. Law of flotation Hukum apungan The weight of an object floating on the surface of a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the object. Archimedes’ principle Prinsip Archimedes An object that is completely or partially immersed in a fluid is acted on by a buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.blogspot. Pascal's principle Prinsip Pascal The pressure applied on the surface of an enclosed liquid is transmitted uniformly throughout the liquid Tekanan yang dikenakan pada permukaan suatu cecair akan dipindahkan dengan seragam ke seluruh cecair. 5 http://nazuris. Tekanan yang disebabkan oleh lapisan tebal udara di atas permukaan bumi. Alat untuk mengukur ketumpatan relatif cecair. Dalam suatu pengaliran bendalir yang mantap.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Bernoulli’s principle Prinsip Bernoulli In a steady flow of a fluid. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Pressure law Hukum Tekanan The pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature provided the volume of the gas is kept constant.blogspot. Tekanan suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar terus dengan suhu mutlaknya apabila isipadu gas itu dikekalkan tetap 7 http://nazuris. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .com/ "Life was meant to be lived.

Mencapahkan sinar-sianr selari dari satu titik Focal length Panjang fokus The distance between the principal focus. and curiosity must be kept alive" - . Jarak antara fokus utama. Sinar tuju. refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. Snell's law : The ratio (sin i) / (sin r) is a constant.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. sinar biasan dan garis normal di titik tuju berada pada satah yang sama. Nisbah (sin i) / (sin r) adalah suatu pemalar Apparent depth Dalam ketara The distance of the image formed by refraction from the surface of the water. dan pusat optik suatu kanta 8 http://nazuris. reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION CHAPTER FIVE (LIGHT) ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Reflection of light Pantulan cahaya Reflection of light occurs when a light ray is incident on a mirror and changes its direction of propagation Pantulan cahaya berlaku apabila suatu sinar cahaya ditujukan pada suatu cermin dan arah perambatannya berubah Laws of reflection Hukum pantulan cahaya 1 2 1 2 The incident ray.blogspot. Jarak dari permukaan air ke objek Total internal reflection Pantulan dalam penuh Total internal reflection occurs when light travelling in a denser medium towards a less dense medium is totally reflected when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle Pantulan dalam penuh berlaku apabila cahaya yang merambat dalam medium yang lebih tumpat kea rah medium yang kurang tumpat dipantul sepenuhnya apabila sudut tuju melebihi sudut genting Critical angle Sudut genting The angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is 90o Sudut tuju dalam medium lebih tumpat yang menyebabkan sudut biasan dalam medium yang kurang tumpat menjadi 90o Convex lens Kanta cembung Converges parallel light rays to a point Menumpukan sinar-sinar selari pada satu titik Concave lens Kanta cekung Diverges parallel light rays from a point. Perubahan arah perambatan sinar cahaya apabila sinar itu melintasi sempadan antara dua medium dengan ketumpatan optik yang berlainan. Laws of refraction Hukum pembiasan 1 2 1 2 The incident ray. F. O of a lens. Sinar tuju. F and the optical centre. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. sinar pantulan dan garis normal di titik tuju berada pada satah yang sama. Sudut tuju sama dengan sudut pantulan Refraction of light Pembiasan cahaya The change of direction of propagation light when it crosses the boundary between two materials of different optical densities. Jarak dari permukaan air ke imej yang dibentuk oleh pembiasan Real depth Dalam nyata The distance of the object from the surface of the water.

Period Tempoh The time taken to make one complete oscillation Frequency. f Frekuensi The number of complete oscillations made by a vibrating system in one second One complete oscillation Satu ayunan lengkap A complete oscillation may be referred as the movement of a vibrating system from one extreme position to the other and back to the same position. Wavelength. Natural frequency Frekuensi asli The frequency of a system when it oscillates freely.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Longitudinal wave Gelombang Membujur A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. Wavefront Muka Gelombang A wavefront is a line or plane where the vibrations of every point on it are in phase Transverse wave Gelombang Melintang A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is at perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. Amplitude Amplitud The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position. Resonance Resonans Resonance occurs when a system oscillates at the maximum amplitude when the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. λ Panjang gelombang The wavelength is the distance between successive points of the same phase in a wave. and curiosity must be kept alive" - . 9 http://nazuris. Damping Pelembapan Damping occurs when an oscillating system loses energy due to frictional forces. Forced oscillation Ayunan paksa Forced oscillation occurs when a system oscillates under the influence of an external driving force.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION CHAPTER SIX (WAVES) ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Wave motion Perambatan gelombang Wave motion carries energy from one place to another place in a medium without the transfer of the particles along the medium.blogspot.

Coherent waves Gelombang Koheren Waves of the same frequency and are in phase. Destructive interference Interferens memusnah Occurs when two waves that are out of phase superimpose to produce zero resultant amplitude 10 http://nazuris. Reflected wave Gelombang Pantulan The wave which has undergone a change in direction of propagation after reflection. and curiosity must be kept alive" - . Interference Interferens Superposition of two coherent waves constructively or destructively Constructive interference Interferens membina Occurs when two waves that are in phase superimpose to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Reflection of waves Pantulan gelombang Reflection of waves is the change in direction of propagation when a wave strikes an obstacle.com/ "Life was meant to be lived.blogspot. Incident waves Gelombang Tuju The waves moving towards an obstacle. Angle of incidence Sudut Tuju The angle between the direction of propagation of the incident wave and the normal Angle of reflection Sudut pantulan The angle between the direction of propagation of reflected wave and the normal. Law of Reflection Hukum Pantulan The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection Refraction of waves Pembiasan Gelombang Refraction is the change of direction of propagation when the speed of a wave changes as it moves from one medium to another Diffraction of wave Pembelauan Gelombang Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves as they pass through an aperture or around the edge of an obstacle Principle of superposition Prinsip superposisi The sum of the displacements of all the component waves at the point.

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Antinode Antinod A point where constructive interference occurs. CHAPTER SEVEN (ELECTRICITY) 11 http://nazuris. Node Nod A point where destructive interference occurs.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Loudness Kenyaringan The intensity of a sound as heard by an observer (depends on the amplitude of the sound) Pitch Kelangsingan The pitch of the sound is an indication of the sharpness of a sound (depends on the frequency of the sound) SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) is a system used to detect underwater objects or to determine the depth of the water by means of an echo. and curiosity must be kept alive" - . guitar string and tuning fork. Electromagnetic waves Gelombang elektromagnet Electromagnetic waves are propagating waves in space with electric and magnetic components.blogspot. Sound wave Gelombang bunyi Sounds are longitudinal waves produced by vibrations such as the vibrations of the diaphragm of a loudspeaker.

Power Kuasa Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy Power Rating Kadar kuasa The power rating of an appliance denotes the rate at which it consumes electrical energy at a certain voltage 12 http://nazuris.e.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Ohm’s Law Hukum Ohm The electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor.m.) The total energy supplied by a cell when one unit of charge flows through the cell. if the temperature and other physical dimensions remain constant. A SI unit of current Coulomb.g. Internal Resistance Rintangan dalam The resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte or electrodes Electrical Energy Tenaga elektrik Energy supplied by a source of electricity (cell / battery) when current flows in a closed circuit.blogspot. Electromotive Force (e. C A unit of charge Electric field Medan elektrik An electric field is a region where an electric force acts on a particle with an electric charge.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Current Arus Current is the rate of flow of electric charge Ampere. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .f) Daya gerak elektrik (d. Potential Difference Beza keupayaan Potential difference is defined as the work done to move a unit of charge from one point to another in an electric field. Ohmic Conductor Konduktor Ohm Material which obey Ohm’s Law Non Ohmic Conductor Konduktor bukan Ohm Material which do not obey Ohm’s Law Resistance Rintangan Resistance is defined as (potential difference)/(current) Effective Resistance Rintangan berkesan The effective resistance is the combined resistance in the circuit.

blogspot. Catapult field Medan lastik The resultant field produced when a straight wire carries a current in a uniform magnetic field.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Lenz's law Hukum Lenz Lenz's Law state that an induced electric current always flows in such a direction as to oppose the change in magnetic flux.m.e. It acts as a magnet when the current is flow and ceases to be a magnet when the current is switched off. D.g. Electromagnetic induction Aruhan electromagnet The production of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a changing magnetic flux. 13 http://nazuris.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION CHAPTER EIGHT (ELECTROMAGNETISM) ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Electromagnet Elektromagnet An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current. teraruh An emf produced in a conductor when there is a changing magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by the conductor Induced current Arus teraruh Induced current is produced in a circuit when there is a changing magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by a conductor Faraday's law Hukum Faraday The magnitude of the induced e.m. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .f. Direct current motor Motor arus terus A direct current motor is used to convert electrical energy into rotational kinetic energy. It is a temperory magnet.f is directly proportional to the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux. Magnetic field Medan magnet A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic materials experiences a force. Direct current Arus terus Current which flows in one direction. Induced e.

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Alternating current Arus ulang alik Current which flows back and forth in two opposite directions Transformer Transformer A device which steps up or steps down the voltage of an alternating current. Step-up transformer Transformer injak naik A transformer that steps up voltage Step-down transformer Transformer injak turun A transformer that steps down voltage Ideal transformer Transformer unggul A transformer where the output power is equal to the input power and the efficiency is 100% Transmission of electricity Penghantaran elektrik The transmission of electricity from the power station to consumers (industries and residential areas) by electric cables National Grid Network Rangkaian Grid Nasional The national grid is a network of electrical cables connecting electrical power stations to consumers of electricity. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .blogspot.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. 14 http://nazuris.

Cathode ray Sinar katod A beam of fast moving. n-type semiconductor Semikonduktor jenis-n Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are free electrons p-type semiconductor Semikonduktor jenis-p Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are holes Semiconductor diode Diod semikonduktor A p-n junction device which conducts current in one direction only Forward-biased Pincang ke hadapan A diode is forward biased when the p-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. Reverse-biased Pincang songsang A diode is reverse biased when the p-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. Rectification Rektifikasi To convert alternating current into direct current using diodes Half-wave rectification Rektifikasi separuh gelombang The process of rectification using a diode which allows current flow in half of a cycle. and curiosity must be kept alive" - . Full-wave rectification Rektifikasi penuh gelombang The process of rectification using four diodes to allow current to flow in a complete cycle and in the same direction.blogspot. high energy electrons Semiconductor Semikonduktor Materials whose resistance is between those of good conductors and good insulators.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Doping Pendopan The process of adding a small amount of impurities into the semiconductors.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION CHAPTER NINE (ELECTRONICS) ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Thermionic emission Pemancaran termionik A process of emitting electrons from a hot metal surface. 15 http://nazuris.

com/ "Life was meant to be lived.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION Smoothing Capacitor Kapasitor perata A capacitor that is used to smoothen the output voltage of a rectification process n-p-n transistor Transistor n-p-n A transistor which consists of a layer of p-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of n-type semiconductors. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .blogspot. Truth table Jadual kebenaran A truth table shows the results of every possible output given every possible input. AND gate Get DAN A logic gate where the output is 1 only when both inputs are 1 NOT gate /Get TAK A logic gate that inverts the input Or gate Get ATAU A logic gate where the Output is 1 except when both inputs are 0 16 http://nazuris. p-n-p transistor Transistor p-n-p A transistor which consists of a layer of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of p-type semiconductors. Logic gate Get logic A logic gate is an electronic switch with one or more inputs and only one output.

Nuclear fusion Pelakuran nuklear Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus Nuclear reactor Reaktor nuklear A nuclear reactor produces tremendous amount of energy through nuclear fission.LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS and DEFINITION ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Atomic mass unit (a.m.u) is used to measure the masses of atomic particles.u) Unit jisim atom The atomic mass unit (a.com/ "Life was meant to be lived. Nuclear fission Pembelahan nuklear A process involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei and several neutrons at the same time Chain reaction Tindak balas berantai A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction in which the neutrons produced in a reaction can initiate another similar reaction. and curiosity must be kept alive" - .m. 18 http://nazuris.blogspot.

Calculate Give answer through calculation 14. Classify Separate into a few groups according to fixed characteristics. Discuss Give views from various aspects 10. When State the time or period 8. 19. Construct Draw diagram / one that uses geometrical method / tools 9. Determine Find answer base on process/reasoning 29. What Give required / specific information 3. Key word Expected response 1. Describe To tell about something (story like) in detail and systematically. How much/ what is the value Give a quantitative answer 6. Define Give definition for the term given 28. Identify Pick out or determine something based on facts/descriptions given. 17. Suggest Give an idea / opinion 12. Estimate Give a quantitative value based on calculation or reasoning. List State facts/statements in point form. Name Give name/terminology for something such as component/process/instrument 23. 1 - Bahan Study Fizik . Tabulate Arrange things/data according to specified aspects. 2. State Give facts without explanation /support 24. Illustrate Give facts with support such as diagrams/reasons/explanation to make clear an idea. Why Give reason 22. Prove Show truth using mathematical method / exampels / facts of physics 11. Predict Give/state forecast for something based on facts 25.KEY WORDS IN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS KEY WORDS IN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS No. 15. Compare Give similarity and difference between two things 5. 16 Explain Give method/reason about something in order that it is easily understood. Shade Denote an area by colouring/filling/draw lines to cover the area Draw Make figure such as chart/diagram/graph /shape using instruments according to scale and in detail 21. Arrange Place according to fixed order 27. How Describe / give explanation / method /condition / steps concerning an event 4. Find Give an answer without calculation / with simple calculation 13. 26. Differentiate Give the difference / contrast between two or more things / events 7.SMAPT Prepared by nazuriS . 18. 20.

SMAPT Prepared by nazuriS . Starts melting latter / Starts freezing earlier Changes shape easily when acted upon by external force Does not change shape easily when acted upon by external force Breaks easily / breaks under small external force Difficult to break / Needs a large force to break Does not rust easily / quickly Low 6 Melts at low temperature / Freezes at low temperature.PHYSICS TERMINOLOGIES FOR PAPERS 2 AND 3 PHYSICS TERMINOLOGIES FOR PAPERS 2 AND 3 No. 1 - Bahan Study Fizik . short time to heat up Low / small 3 Need less heat to raise temperature More difficult to heat up. TERM 1 Density 2 VALUE MEANING Low / small Lighter / easy carry/not heavy High / large Heavier / more compact Small Spring is soft / easy to stretch Large / big Spring is stiff / difficult to stretch Spring constant (k) Easily heated up . takes more time to heat up Specific Heat Capacity (c) High / large Need more heat to raise temperature. use more fuel Need less heat to melt / vaporise Low / small 4 Time to melt / vaporise is shorter Specific Latent Heat (l) Need more heat to melt / vaporise High / large Time to melt / vaporise is longer Low Melting point / 5 Freezing point High Low High Low High Rust easily / quickly Rigidity High 7 Strength 8 Rate of rusting Starts melting earlier / Starts freezing later Melts at higher temperature / Freezes at higher temperature.