An Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics
P. A. Davidson
Linear Elastic Waves
John G. Harris
Vorticity and Incompressible Flow
Andrew J. Majda and Andrea L. Bertozzi
Innite Dimensional Dynamical Systems
James C. Robinson
An Introducion to Symmetry Analysis
Brian J. Cantwell
Backlund and Darboux Transformations
C. Rogers and W. K. Schief
FiniteVolume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems
Randall J. LeVeque
Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability
P. G. Drazin
Theory of Vortex Sound
M. S. Howe
M. S. HOWE
Boston University
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge , United Kingdom
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521812818
Cambridge University Press 2003
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of
relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place
without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format 2002




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 hardback


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 paperback
Contents
Preface
page xiii
1
Introduction
1.1 What is Vortex Sound?
1.2 Equations of Motion of a Fluid
1.3 Equation of Linear Acoustics
1.4 The Special Case of an Incompressible Fluid
1.5 Sound Produced by an Impulsive Point Source
1.6 FreeSpace Greens Function
1.7 Monopoles, Dipoles, and Quadrupoles
1.8 Acoustic Energy Flux
1.9 Calculation of the Acoustic Far Field
Problems 1
1
1
2
4
7
10
12
13
18
20
23
2
Lighthills Theory
2.1 The Acoustic Analogy
2.2 Lighthills v 8 Law
2.3 Curles Theory
2.4 Sound Produced by Turbulence Near a Compact Rigid Body
2.5 Radiation from a Noncompact Surface
Problems 2
25
25
29
32
36
37
39
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
41
41
44
46
49
Contents
53
58
63
65
70
79
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
82
82
84
88
Vorticity
Vorticity and the Kinetic Energy of Incompressible Flow
The Vorticity Equation
The BiotSavart Law
Surface Force in Incompressible Flow Expressed in Terms
of Vorticity
4.5 The Complex Potential
4.6 Motion of a Line Vortex
Problems 4
93
100
106
112
5
Vortex Sound
5.1 The Role of Vorticity in Lighthills Theory
5.2 The Equation of Vortex Sound
5.3 VortexSurface Interaction Noise
5.4 Radiation from an Acoustically Compact Body
5.5 Radiation from Cylindrical Bodies of Compact Cross Section
5.6 Impulse Theory of Vortex Sound
Problems 5
114
114
116
124
128
130
131
132
6
VortexSurface Interaction Noise in Two Dimensions
6.1 Compact Greens Function in Two Dimensions
6.2 Sound Generated by a Line Vortex Interacting with
a Cylindrical Body
6.3 Inuence of Vortex Shedding
6.4 BladeVortex Interaction Noise in Two Dimensions
Problems 6
136
136
139
145
150
154
7
Problems in Three Dimensions
7.1 Linear Theory of VortexAirfoil Interaction Noise
7.2 BladeVortex Interactions in Three Dimensions
7.3 Sound Produced by Vortex Motion near a Sphere
7.4 Compression Wave Generated When a Train Enters a Tunnel
Problems 7
156
156
158
162
166
172
Contents
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
Bibliography
Index
xi
175
175
186
191
194
199
204
209
213
Preface
Vortex sound is the branch of uid mechanics concerned with the conversion
of hydrodynamic (rotational) kinetic energy into the longitudinal disturbances
we call sound. The subject is itself a subsection of the theory of aerodynamic
sound, which encompasses a much wider range of problems also involving, for
example, combustion and entropy sources of sound. The book is based on an
introductory onesemester graduate level course given on several occasions at
Boston University. Most students at this level possess an insufcient grasp of
basic principles to appreciate the subtle coupling of the hydrodynamic and
acoustic elds, and many are illequipped to deal with the novel analytical
techniques that have been developed to investigate the coupling. Great care
has therefore been taken to discuss underlying uid mechanical and acoustic
concepts, and to explain as fully as possible the steps in a complicated derivation.
A considerable number of practical problems occur at low Mach numbers
(say, less than about 0.4). It seems reasonable, therefore, to conne an introductory discussion specically to low Mach number ows. It is then possible
to investigate a number of idealized hydrodynamic ows involving elementary
distributions of vorticity adjacent to solid boundaries, and to analyze in detail
the sound produced by these vortexsurface interactions. For a broad range of
such problems, and a corresponding broad range of noise problems encountered
in industrial applications, the effective acoustic sources turn out to be localized
to one or more regions that are small compared to the acoustic wavelength. This
permits the development of a unied theory of sound production by vortex
surface interactions in terms of the compact Greens function, culminating in a
routine procedure for estimating the sound, and providing, at the same time, an
easy identication of those parts of a structure that are likely to be important
sources of sound. Many examples of this type are discussed, and they are simple
enough for the student to acquire an intuitive understanding of the method of
xiii
xiv
Preface
solution and the underlying physics. By these means the reader is encouraged to
investigate both the hydrodynamics and the sound generated by a simple ow.
Experience has shown that the successful completion of this kind of project,
involving the implementation of a widely applicable yet standard procedure for
the prediction of sound generation at low Mach numbers, motivates a student
to understand the ostensibly difcult parts of the theory. One or more of the
problems appended to some of the later chapters can form the basis of a project.
The nal chapter contains a set of worked examples that have been investigated by students at Boston University. I wish to thank my former students
H. AbouHussein, A. DeBenedictis, N. Harrison, M. Kim, M. A. Rodrigues,
and F. Zagadou for their considerable help in preparing that chapter.
The mathematical ability assumed of the reader is roughly equivalent to
that taught in an advanced undergraduate course on Engineering Mathematics.
In particular, the reader should be familiar with basic vector differential and integral calculus and with the repeated sufx summation convention of Cartesian
tensors (but a detailed knowledge of tensor calculus is not required). An elementary understanding of the properties of the Dirac function is desirable (Lighthill, 1958), including its interpretation as the formal limit of an
sequence, such as
(x) =
(x 2
,
+ 2)
+0.
(x xn )
,
 f (xn )
n
1
Introduction
1 Introduction
Fig. 1.1.1.
+ div(v) = 0,
1 D
+ div v = 0,
,
Dt
D 1
div v =
Dt
(1.2.1)
where
D
=
+ v
+ vj
Dt
t
t
x j
(1.2.2)
Dt
3
Values of , and = / (the kinematic viscosity) for air and water at
10 C and one atmosphere pressure are given in the Table 1.2.1:
Table 1.2.1. Density and viscosity
Air
Water
, kg/m3
, kg/ms
, m2 /s
1.23
1000
1.764 105
1.284 103
1.433 105
1.284 106
1 Introduction
1.2.3 Energy Equation
This equation must be used in its full generality in problems where energy is
transferred by heat conduction, where frictional dissipation of sound is occurring, when shock waves are formed by highly nonlinear events, or when sound
is being generated by combustion and other heat sources. For our purposes it
will usually be sufcient to suppose the ow to be homentropic; namely, the
specic entropy s of the uid is uniform and constant throughout the uid, so
that the energy equation becomes
s = constant.
(1.2.4)
We may then assume that the pressure and density are related by an equation
of the form
p = p(, s), s = constant.
(1.2.5)
This equation will be satised by both the mean (undisturbed) and unsteady
components of the ow. Thus, for an ideal gas
p = constant ,
(1.2.6)
 p
,
pref
where the reference pressure pref = 2 105 N/m2 . Thus, p = p0 1 atmosphere ( = 105 N/m2 ) is equivalent to 194 dB. A very loud sound 120 dB
corresponds to
2 105
p
120
10( 20 ) = 2 104 1.
5
p0
10
Similarly, for a deafening sound of 160 dB, p/ p0 0.02. This corresponds
to a pressure of about 0.3 lbs/in2 and is loud enough for nonlinear effects to
begin to be important.
The passage of a sound wave in the form of a pressure uctuation is, of
course, accompanied by a backandforth motion of the uid at the acoustic
acoustic pressure
.
mean density speed of sound
In air the speed of sound is about 340 m/sec. Thus, at 120 dB v 5 cm/sec; at
160 dB v 5 m/sec.
In most applications the acoustic amplitude is very small relative to the mean
pressure p0 , and sound propagation may be studied by linearizing the equations.
To do this we shall rst consider sound propagating in a stationary inviscid uid
of mean pressure p0 and density 0 ; let the departures of the pressure and density
from these mean values be denoted by p , , where p / p0 1, /0 1. The
linearized momentum equation (1.2.3) becomes
0
v
+ p = F.
t
(1.3.1)
(1.3.2)
where q is the rate of increase of uid volume per unit volume of the uid, and
might represent, for example, the effect of volume pulsations of a small body
in the uid. The linearized equation is then
1
+ div v = q.
0 t
(1.3.3)
(1.3.4)
0
s = constant.
(1.3.5)
1 Introduction
The derivative is evaluated at the undisturbed values of the pressure and density
( p0 , 0 ). It has the dimensions of velocity2 , and its square root denes the speed
of sound
p
,
(1.3.6)
c0 =
s
where the derivative is taken with the entropy s held xed at its value in the
undisturbed uid. The implication is that losses due to heat transfer between
neighboring uid particles by viscous and thermal diffusion are neglected
during the passage of a sound wave (i.e., that the motion of a uid particle
is adiabatic).
From (1.3.5): = p /c02 . Hence, substituting for in (1.3.4), we obtain
q
1 2
2
div F,
(1.3.7)
p = 0
t
c02 t 2
where the prime ( ) on the acoustic pressure has been discarded. This equation
governs the production of sound waves by the volume source q and the force
F. When these terms are absent the equation describes sound propagation
from sources on the boundaries of the uid, such as the vibrating cone of a
loudspeaker.
The volume source q and the body force F would never appear in a complete
description of sound generation within a uid. They are introduced only when
we think we understand how to model the real sources of sound in terms of
volume sources and forces. In general this can be a dangerous procedure because, as we shall see, small errors in specifying the sources of sound in a uid
can lead to very large errors in the predicted sound. This is because only a tiny
fraction of the available energy of a vibrating uid or structure actually radiates
away as sound.
When F = 0, Equation (1.3.1) implies the existence of a velocity potential
such that v = , in terms of which the perturbation pressure is given by
p = 0
.
t
(1.3.8)
It follows from this and (1.3.7) (with F = 0) that the velocity potential is the
solution of
1 2
2
= q(x, t).
(1.3.9)
c02 t 2
This is the wave equation of classical acoustics.
c0
Air
Water
m/s
ft/s
km/h
mi/h
ft
340
1500
1100
5000
1225
5400
750
3400
0.3
1.5
1
5
For future reference, Table 1.3.1 lists the approximate speeds of sound in air
and in water, and the corresponding acoustic wavelength at a frequency of
1 kHz (sound of frequency f has wavelength = c0 / f ).
(1.4.1)
A
+ B,
r
1 Introduction
where A A(t) and B B(t) are functions of t. B(t) can be discarded because the pressure uctuations ( 0 /t) must vanish as r . Applying the condition /r = vn at r = a, we then nd
=
a 2 vn (t)
, r > a.
r
(1.4.2)
a 2 dvn
= 0
(t)
t
r dt
decays as 1/r with distance from the sphere, and exhibits the unphysical characteristic of changing instantaneously everywhere when dvn /dt changes its
value. For any time t, the volume ux q(t) of uid is the same across any closed
surface enclosing the sphere. Evaluating it for any sphere S of radius r > a, as
shown in Fig. 1.4.1, we nd
q(t) = dS = 4a 2 vn (t),
S
q(t)
, r > a.
4r
Fig. 1.4.1.
(1.4.3)
(1.4.4)
A
r
for r > 0.
(1.4.5)
dS
S
A
R2
(4 R 2 ) = q(t).
= lim
0
q(t)
4(r 2 + 2 )
1
2
> 0,
0
3 2 q(t)
5
4(r 2 + 2 ) 2
10
1 Introduction
1
4r
of
2 = (x)
(1.4.6)
(1.4.7)
where
1
1
3 2
2
2
= lim
= lim
(1.4.8)
1
5 = (x).
0
0 4 (r 2 + 2 ) 2
4r
4 (r 2 + 2 ) 2
= (x)(t).
(1.5.1)
c02 t 2
The source exists only for an innitesimal instant of time at t = 0; therefore at
earlier times (x, t) = 0 everywhere.
It is evident that the solution is radially symmetric, and that for r = x > 0
we have to solve
1
1 2
2
r
= 0, r > 0.
(1.5.2)
r 2 r
r
c02 t 2
The identity
1
r 2 r
1 2
2
(r )
r
r
r r 2
(1.5.3)
11
(r ) = 0, r > 0.
r 2
c02 t 2
(1.5.4)
t
r
c0
+
t+
r
c0
, r > 0.
(1.5.5)
The rst term on the right represents a spherically symmetric disturbance that
propagates in the direction of increasing values of r at the speed of sound c0 as t
increases, whereas the second represents an incoming wave converging toward
x = 0. We must therefore set = 0, since it represents sound waves generated
at r = that approach the source rather than sound waves generated by the
source and radiating away from the source. This is a causality or radiation
condition, that (in the absence of boundaries) sound produced by a source
must radiate away from the source. It is also consistent with the Second Law
of Thermodynamics, which requires natural systems to change in the more
probable direction. An event in which sound waves converge on a point from
all directions at innity is so unlikely as to be impossible in practice; it would be
the acoustic analogue of the farscattered pieces of a broken cup spontaneously
reassembling.
To complete the solution it remains to determine the function . We do this
by extending the solution down to the source at r = 0 by writing (c.f., (1.4.7))
=
t
r
r
c0
= lim
0
t
r
c0
1
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
, r 0.
(1.5.6)
Let us substitute this into Equation (1.5.1) and examine what happens as 0.
By direct calculation we nd
2 =
+
5
3
1
r r 2
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
c0r (r 2 + 2 ) 2
c02 (r 2 + 2 ) 2
1 2
(t r/c0 )
=
1
c02 t 2
c02 (r 2 + 2 ) 2
12
1 Introduction
Therefore,
1 2
3 2 (t r/c0 ) 2 2 (t r/c0 )
2
=
+
5
3
c02 t 2
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
c0r (r 2 + 2 ) 2
4 (t)(x) + 0
as 0,
(1.5.7)
where the function in the last line follows from (1.4.8), and the + 0 is
obtained by noting that for any smoothly varying test function f (x) and any
volume V enclosing the origin
2 2 f (x) d 3 x
2 2 d 3 x
f
(0)
3
3
r (r 2 + 2 ) 2
V r (r 2 + 2 ) 2
8 2r dr
= f (0)
as 0.
3 = 8 f (0) 0
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
0
Hence, comparing (1.5.7) with the inhomogeneous wave equation (1.5.1),
we nd
(t) =
1
(t),
4
.
4r
c0
4x
c0
(1.5.8)
This represents a spherical pulse that is nonzero only on the surface of the
sphere r = c0 t > 0, whose radius increases at the speed of sound c0 ; it vanishes
everywhere for t < 0, before the impulsive source is triggered.
1.6 FreeSpace Greens Function
The freespace Greens function G(x, y, t ) is the causal solution of the wave
equation generated by the impulsive point source (x y)(t ), located at
the point x = y at time t = . The formula for G is obtained from the solution
(1.5.8) for a source at x = 0 at t = 0 simply by replacing x by x y and t by
t . In other words, if
1 2
2
G = (x y)(t ), where G = 0
for t < , (1.6.1)
c02 t 2
then
x y
1
.
t
G(x, y, t ) =
4x y
c0
(1.6.2)
13
1 2
2
c02 t 2
p = F(x, t),
(1.6.3)
is
F(y, )G(x, y, t ) d 3 y d,
(1.6.4)
x y
F(y, )
d 3 y d (1.6.5)
t
c0
x y
F y, t xy
1
c0
d 3 y.
(1.6.6)
i.e., p(x, t) =
4
x y
1
=
4
14
1 Introduction
c02 t 2
The solution can be written down by analogy with the Solution (1.6.6) of
Equation (1.6.3) for the acoustic pressure. Replace p by in (1.6.6) and set
F(y, ) = q( )(y). Then,
q t cr0
q t x
c0
(x, t) =
.
(1.7.2)
4 x
4r
This differs from the corresponding solution (1.4.3) for a pulsating sphere
or volume point source in an incompressible uid by the dependence on the
retarded time t cr0 . This is physically more realistic; any effects associated
with changes in the motion of the sphere (i.e., in the value of the volume outow rate q(t)) are now communicated to a uid element at distance r after
an appropriate time delay r/c0 required for sound to travel outward from the
source.
( f j (t)(x))
x j
(1.7.3)
1
c0
d 3 y d.
( f j ( )(y))
p(x, t) =
4 y j
x y
Integrate by parts with respect to each y j (recalling that (y) = 0 at y j = ),
and note that
xy
xy
t c0
t c0
=
.
yj
x y
x j
x y
15
Then,
1
p(x, t) =
4
1
=
4 x j
f j ( )(y)
x j
t
xy
c0
x y
d 3 y d
t xy
c0
d 3 y d.
f j ( )(y)
x y
Thus,
p(x, t) =
x j
fj t
x
c0
4 x
.
(1.7.4)
The same procedure shows that for a distributed dipole source of the type
F(x, t) = div f(x, t) on the right of Equation (1.6.3), the acoustic pressure
becomes
f y, t xy
j
1
c0
d 3 y.
(1.7.5)
p(x, t) =
4 x j
x y
A point dipole at the origin orientated in the direction of a unit vector n
is entirely equivalent to two point monopoles of equal but opposite strengths
placed a short distance apart (much smaller than the acoustic wavelength) on
opposite sides of the origin on a line through the origin parallel to n. For
example, if n is parallel to the x axis, and the sources are distance apart, the
two monopoles would be
(y)(z) q(t) x +
(y)(z)
q(t) x
2
2
( q(t)(x)),
x
1.7.2 Quadrupoles
A source distribution involving two space derivatives is equivalent to a combination of four monopole sources (whose net volume source strength is zero),
16
1 Introduction
2 Ti j
(x, t)
xi x j
(1.7.6)
2
1
4 xi x j
Ti j (y, t x y/c0 ) 3
d y.
x y
(1.7.7)
Fig. 1.7.1.
17
by the solution of
1 2
2
=
(2a 3 U (t)(x)).
x1
c02 t 2
x
c0
(1.7.8)
.
(1.7.9)
Now,
xj
.
x =
x j
x
(1.7.10)
.
=
U t
t
2r 2
c0
2c0r t
c0
near eld
far eld
The neareld term is dominant at sufciently small distances r from the origin
such that
1 1 U
f
1
,
r
c0 U t
c0
where f is the characteristic frequency of the oscillations of the sphere. But,
sound of frequency f travels a distance
c0 / f = one acoustic wavelength
in one period of oscillation 1/ f . Hence, the neareld term is dominant when
r .
The motion becomes incompressible when c0 . In this limit the solution
reduces entirely to the neareld term, which is also called the hydrodynamic
near eld; it decreases in amplitude like 1/r 2 as r .
The far eld is the acoustic region that only exists when the uid is compressible. It consists of propagating sound waves, carrying energy away from
the sphere, and takes over from the near eld when r
. There is an intermediate zone where r in which the solution is in a state of transition from the
near to the far eld. The analytical model (1.7.8), in which the sphere is replaced
by a point dipole at its center, involves the implicit assumption that the motion
18
1 Introduction
close to the sphere is essentially the same as if the uid is incompressible. It follows from what we have just said that a , that is, the diameter of the sphere
is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. In general, a body is said to be
acoustically compact when its characteristic dimension is small compared to
the wavelengths of the sound waves it is producing or with which it interacts.
The intensity of the sound generated by the sphere in the far eld is proportional to 2 :
2
U
r
a6
2
t
2 2
cos2 .
t
c0
4c0 r
The dependence on determines the directivity of the sound. For the dipole it
has the gure of eight pattern illustrated in Fig. 1.7.1b, with peaks in directions
parallel to the dipole axis ( = 0, ); there are radiation nulls at = 2 (the
curve should be imagined to be rotated about the x1 axis).
1.8 Acoustic Energy Flux
At large distances r from a source region we generally have
0 , , t cr0
p(x, t)
, r ,
r
(1.8.1)
where the function depends on the nature of the source distribution, and
and are polar angles determining the directivity of the sound. From the radial
component of the linearized momentum equation
1 p
vr
=
t
0 r
1
1
r
r
+
.
, , t
2 , , t
r
c0
c0r t
c0
(1.8.2)
The rst term in the second line can be neglected when r , and therefore
r
1
p
vr
, , t
.
(1.8.3)
c0 r
c0
0 c0
By considering the and components of the momentum equation we can show
that the corresponding velocity components v , v , say, decrease faster than 1/r
as r . We therefore conclude from this and (1.8.3) that the acoustic particle
velocity is normal to the acoustic wavefronts (the spherical surfaces r = c0 t).
In other words, sound consists of longitudinal waves in which the uid particles
oscillate backwards and forwards along the local direction of propagation of
the sound.
19
p2
=
pvr d S =
d S,
(1.8.4)
S
S 0 c0
where the integration is over the surface S of a large sphere of radius r centered
on the source region. Because the surface area = 4r 2 , we only need to know
the pressure and velocity correct to order 1/r on S in order to evaluate the
integral. Smaller contributions (such as that determined by the rst term in
the second line of (1.8.2)) decrease too fast as r increases to supply a nite
contribution to the integral as r .
In acoustic problems we are therefore usually satised if we can calculate
the pressure and velocity in the acoustic far eld correct to order 1/r ; this will
always enable us to determine the radiated sound power. The formula vr =
p/0 c0 is applicable at large distances from the sources, where the wavefronts
can be regarded as locally plane, but it is true identically for plane sound waves.
In the latter case, and for spherical waves on the surface of the large sphere of
Fig. 1.8.1, the quantity
I = pvr =
p2
0 c0
(1.8.5)
Fig. 1.8.1.
20
1 Introduction
Fig. 1.9.1.
F y, t
xy
c0
x y
d 3 y.
(1.9.1)
We assume that F(x, t) = 0 only within a nite source region (Fig. 1.9.1), and
take the coordinate origin O within the region.
When x and y lies within the source region (so that x
y)
1
2x y y2 2
+ 2
x y (x 2x y + y ) = x 1
x2
x
2
y
xy
x 1 2 + O
x
x2
2
1
2
Then,
x y x
xy
x
when
y
1.
x
(1.9.2)
Also,
1
1
x y
x
Therefore,
1
xy
1+ 2
xy
x
x
x
1
xy
1
+ 3
x y
x
x
when
y
1.
x
(1.9.3)
The Approximation (1.9.3) shows that, in order to obtain the fareld approximation of the Solution (1.9.1) that behaves like 1/r = 1/x as x , it is
sufcient to replace x y in the denominator of the integrand by x. However,
in the argument of the source strength F it is important to retain possible phase
21
xy
1
x
f j y, t
+
d 3 y, x , (1.9.5)
4x x j
c0
c0 x
because the differential operator / x j need not be applied to 1/x as this would
give a contribution decreasing like 1/r 2 at large distances from the dipole.
However, it is useful to make a further transformation that replaces / x j by
the time derivative /t, which is usually more easily estimated in applications.
To do this, we observe that
fj
xy
x
+
y, t
x j
c0
c0 x
fj
xy
xy
x
x
+
+
t
=
y, t
t
c0
c0 x x j
c0
c0 x
yj
(x y)x j
fj
xj
xy
x
+
+
=
y, t
t
c0
c0 x
c0 x c0 x
c0 x3
xj fj
xy
x
+
y, t
as x .
c0 x t
c0
c0 x
22
1 Introduction
Hence, the far eld of a distribution of dipoles F(x, t) = div f(x, t) is given by
x j
x
xy
p(x, t) =
y,
t
d 3 y.
f
+
(1.9.6)
j
4 c0 x2 t
c0
c0 x
Note that
xj
xj 1
,
=
x2
x x
where x j /x is the jth component of the unit vector x/x. Thus, the additional
factor of x j /x in (1.9.6) does not change the rate of decay of the sound with
distance from the source (which is still like 1/r ), but it does have an inuence
on the acoustic directivity.
A comparison of (1.9.5) and (1.9.6) leads to the following rule for interchanging space and time derivatives in the acoustic far eld:
1 xj
.
x j
c0 x t
(1.9.7)
2 Ti j
(x, t),
xi x j
and
p(x, t) =
2
1
4 xi x j
Ti j (y, t x y/c0 ) 3
d y.
x y
By applying (1.9.4) and the rule (1.9.7), we nd that the acoustic far eld is
given by
xi x j 2
xy
x
Ti j y, t
+
p(x, t)
d 3 y, x .
c0
c0 x
4 c02 x3 t 2
(1.9.8)
1.9.3 Example
For the (1, 2) point quadrupole
F(x, t) =
2
(T (t)(x))
x1 x2
Problems 1
23
Fig. 1.9.2.
x1 x2 2 T
4 c02 x3 t 2
t
x
, x .
c0
x2 = r sin cos ,
x3 = r sin sin ,
sin 2 cos 2 T
8 c02 x t 2
t
x
, x .
c0
Problems 1
1. A plane sound wave propagating parallel to the x axis satises the equation
1 2
2
= 0,
x2
c02 t 2
24
1 Introduction
with general solution
x
x
= t
+ t +
,
c0
c0
where and are arbitrary functions respectively representing waves propagating in the positive and negative x directions.
Show that for a wave propagating in the positive x direction in an ideal gas
v=
p
,
0 c0
p
,
c02
T =
p
,
0 cp
= q0 (t)(x Ut).
c02 t 2
Show that
(x, t) =
q0 (t R/c0 )
,
4 R(1 M cos )
M=
U
,
c0
where R is the distance of the reception point x from the source position at
the time of emission of the sound received at x at time t, and is the angle
between U and the direction of propagation of this sound.
2
Lighthills Theory
25
26
2 Lighthills Theory
Fig. 2.1.1.
To do this, body forces are neglected, and the ith component of the momentum
equation (1.2.3) is cast in the form
i j
vi
vi
p
+ v j
=
+
( pi j i j ).
t
x j
xi
x j
x j
(2.1.1)
(2.1.2)
where
ei j =
v j
1 vi
+
2 x j
xi
(2.1.3)
27
is the rate of strain tensor. Next multiply the continuity equation (1.2.1) by vi :
vi
(v j )
+ vi
= 0.
t
x j
By adding this to Equation (2.1.1), we obtain the Reynolds form of the momentum equation
i j
(vi )
=
,
t
x j
(2.1.4)
i j = vi v j + ( p p0 )i j i j ,
(2.1.5)
where
(2.1.6)
(2.1.7)
(vi )
( 0 ) +
= 0,
t
xi
(2.1.8)
(2.1.9)
2 t 2
c0
Because the turbulence is neglected in this approximation, and there are no
externally applied forces or moving boundaries, the unique solution of this
equation that satises the radiation condition of outgoing wave behavior is
simply 0 = 0.
It can now be asserted that the sound generated by the turbulence in the
real uid is exactly equivalent to that produced in the ideal, stationary acoustic
28
2 Lighthills Theory
= vi v j + ( p p0 ) c02 ( 0 ) i j i j ,
(2.1.10)
or
Ti j
2
(vi )
+
c ( 0 ) =
.
t
xi 0
x j
(2.1.11)
.
(2.1.12)
2 t 2
xi x j
c0
This is the exact, nonlinear counterpart of (2.1.9). The problem of calculating
the turbulence generated sound is therefore equivalent to solving this equation
for the radiation into a stationary, ideal uid produced by a distribution of
quadrupole sources whose strength per unit volume is the Lighthill stress tensor
Ti j . The quadrupole character of the turbulence sources is one of the most
important conclusions of Lighthills theory; it implies (see Section 2.2) that
freeeld turbulence is an extremely weak sound source, and that in a typical
low Mach number ow only a tiny fraction of the available ow energy is
converted into sound.
In the denition (2.1.10) of Ti j , the term vi v j is called the Reynolds stress.
For the simplied problem of Fig. 2.1.1b it is a nonlinear quantity that can be
neglected except where the motion is turbulent. The second term represents
the excess of momentum transfer by the pressure over that in the ideal (linear)
uid of density 0 and sound speed c0 . This is produced by wave amplitude
nonlinearity, and by mean density variations in the source ow. The viscous
29
2
1
4 xi x j
Ti j (y, t x y/c0 ) 3
d y.
x y
(2.2.1)
30
2 Lighthills Theory
(2.2.2)
0 vi v j (y, t x y/c0 ) 3
d y
4 x y
xi x j 2
x
xy
d 3 y,
0 vi v j y, t
+
c0
c0 x
4c02 x3 t 2
2
p(x, t)
xi x j
x ,
(2.2.3)
where in the second line we have used the formula (1.9.8) for the far eld
of a quadrupole distribution. Quantitative predictions can be made from this
formula provided the behavior of the Reynolds stress 0 vi v j is known.
To determine the order of magnitude of p, we introduce a characteristic
velocity v and length scale (of the energycontaining eddies) of the turbulence
sources. The value of depends on the mechanism responsible for turbulence
production, such as the width of a jet mixing layer. Fluctuations in vi v j occurring
in different regions of the turbulent ow separated by distances >O() will tend
to be statistically independent, and the sound may be considered to be generated
by a collection of V0 /3 independent eddies, where V0 is the volume occupied
by the turbulence (Fig. 2.2.1). The characteristic frequency of the turbulent
uctuations f v/, so that the wavelength (c0 / f ) of the sound /M
(because M = v/c0 1). Hence, we arrive at the important conclusion that
the turbulence eddies are each acoustically compact. This means that when
the integral in (2.2.3) is conned to a single eddy, the retarded time variations
x y/c0 x across that eddy can be neglected; that is, if the coordinate origin
is temporarily placed at O within the eddy, we can set x y/c0 x = 0 in the
integration over that eddy. The value of the integral over the eddy then may be
estimated to be of order 0 v 2 3 .
31
Fig. 2.2.1.
The order of magnitude of the time derivative for changes in the source region
is
v
.
t
Therefore, it follows from (2.2.3) that, for one eddy, the fareld acoustic pressure satises
p
0 v 4
0 v 2 M 2 .
=
x c02
x
(2.2.4)
The acoustic power radiated by the eddy is determined by the surface integral (1.8.4) taken over a large sphere centered on the eddy. Thus, in order of
magnitude,
acoustic power radiated by one eddy 4x2
p2
2 0 v 8
= 2 0 v 3 M 5 .
0 c0
c05
(2.2.5)
V0
v
(2 0 v 3 M 5 ) = 0 v 2 M 5 V0 .
3
32
2 Lighthills Theory
Dimensional arguments and experiment indicate that the rate 0 , say, at which
energy must be supplied by the action of external forces to maintain the kinetic
energy of a statistically steady turbulent eld occupying a volume V0 is given
in order of magnitude by
0
v
0 v 2 V0 .
(2.2.6)
This is smaller than about 0.01 for Mach numbers M < 0.4, conrming
Lighthills hypothesis that the ow generated sound is an innitesimal byproduct of the turbulent motion.
2.3 Curles Theory
In most applications of Lighthills theory it is necessary to generalize the solution (2.2.1) to account for the presence of solid bodies in the ow. Indeed,
turbulence is frequently generated in the boundary layers and wakes of ow
past such bodies (airfoils, ow control surfaces, etc.), and the unsteady surface
forces (dipoles) that arise are likely to make a signicant contribution to the
production of sound. The procedure in such cases is to introduce a system of
mathematical control surfaces that can be deformed to coincide with the surfaces of the different moving or stationary bodies, although for the moment
we shall discuss only cases involving stationary bodies. Before doing this we
establish an integral transformation formula that is used repeatedly in problems
of this kind.
2.3.1 Volume and Surface Integrals
Let V be the uid outside a closed control surface S (Fig. 2.3.1) dened by the
equation
f (x) > 0 for x in V,
f (x) = 0, where
(2.3.1)
f (x) < 0 for x within S,
and consider the Heaviside unit function
1 for x in V,
H( f ) =
0 for x within S.
33
Fig. 2.3.1.
or
(x) H d x =
(x) n d S
H 3
(x)
d x=
x j
(x) dS,
S
(x) n j d S
S
(2.3.2)
(x) d S j ,
(2.3.3)
(2.3.4)
34
2 Lighthills Theory
Therefore,
( f ) = ( f s )
(s )
.
 f 
Hence,
(x) H d x
(x) f ( f ) d x =
3
(x)
f
.
 f 
f
(s ) ds d S
 f 
(vi H ) +
H c0 ( 0 ) =
(H Ti j ) + (vi v j + pi j )
,
t
xi
x j
x j
(2.3.5)
Fig. 2.3.2.
35
where
pi j = ( p p0 )i j i j
(2.3.6)
is the compressive stress tensor. Repeat this operation for the continuity equation
(2.1.8):
(H ( 0 )) +
(Hvi ) = (vi )
.
t
xi
xi
(2.3.7)
2 t 2
c0
2 (H Ti j )
H
H
=
(vi v j + pi j )
+
. (2.3.8)
v j
xi x j
xi
x j
t
x j
The equation is valid throughout all space, including the region enclosed by
S where H ( f ) vanishes. The second and third terms on the righthand side
respectively represent dipole and monopole sources distributed over S. They
have the following interpretations:
1. If S is merely an articial control surface it will enclose uid, possibly also
solid bodies, and may or may not contain turbulence; the surface dipole and
monopole sources then represent the inuence of this region on the sound
radiated in V ; in other words the aggregate effect of the dipole and monopole
sources accounts for the presence of solid bodies and turbulence within S
(when Ti j = 0 in S) and also for the interaction of sound generated outside
S with the uid and solid bodies in S.
2. If S is the boundary of a solid body, the surface dipole represents the production of sound by the unsteady surface force that the body exerts on the
exterior uid, whereas the monopole is responsible for the sound produced
by volume pulsations (if any) of the body.
Because Curles form of Lighthills equation is valid throughout all space, the
outgoing wave solution is found from the general solution (1.6.6) of the wave
36
2 Lighthills Theory
equation (1.6.3), as before, using the special form (1.7.5) for dipole sources.
When account is taken of the transformation formula (2.3.3) this yields Curles
equation
d S j (y)
2
d 3y
2
[Ti j ]
[vi v j + pi j ]
H c0 ( 0 ) =
xi x j V
4x y xi S
4 x y
d S j (y)
,
(2.3.9)
[v j ]
+
t S
4 x y
where the square bracket notation such as [Ti j ] Ti j (y, t x y/c0 ) implies
evaluation at the retarded time. Note that, because H ( f ) 0 inside S, the sum
of the three integrals on the righthand side must also vanish when the eld
point x is within S.
d S j (y)
2
d 3y
2
. (2.4.1)
[Ti j ]
[ p ]
H c0 ( 0 ) =
xi x j V
4 x y xi S i j 4 x y
We now use this solution to determine the order of magnitude of the sound generated by an acoustically compact body within a turbulent ow. Compactness
usually requires the Mach number M v/c0 1, and we shall assume this to
be the case in the following.
The contribution from the quadrupole integral in (2.4.1) is estimated as in
Section 2.2. To deal with the surface dipole, note rst that for turbulence of
velocity v and correlation scale , the orders of magnitude of the pressure and
viscous components of the compressive stress tensor
pi j = ( p p0 )i j i j
are
( p p0 ) 0 v 2 ,
v
;
that is,
( p p0 )
0 v
v
=
,
37
In the far eld the pressure p(x, t) = c02 ( 0 )(x, t), and H ( f ) = 1. Thus,
applying the fareld dipole approximation (1.9.6), and neglecting retarded time
variations x y/c0 x because S is compact, the dipole sound pressure pd , say,
can be written
x
d Fi
xi
x
xi
d
S
,
t
(
p
p
)
y,
t
=
pd
0
i
4 c0 x2 t S
c0
4 c0 x2 dt
c0
x , (2.4.2)
where F(t) is the unsteady force exerted on the uid by the body. The contribution to pd from a surface element of diameter within which the turbulence
surface pressure uctuations are correlated is evidently of order
1 v
(0 v 2 2 ) =
0 v 2 M,
c0 x
x
which exceeds by an order of magnitude (1/M
1) the sound pressure (2.2.4)
produced by a quadrupole in V of length scale . If A is the total surface area
wetted by the turbulent ow, there are A/2 independently radiating surface
elements, and the total power radiated by the dipoles is
d 4 x2
pd2
A0 v 3 M 3 .
0 c0
(2.4.3)
38
2 Lighthills Theory
Fig. 2.5.1.
x2
x x1 y1 + x3 y3
+
dy1 dy3 ,
( p p0 ) y, t
+
4c0 x2 t y2 =0
c0
c0 x
xi x j 2
p(x, t)
4c02 x3 t 2
x .
(2.5.1)
Retarded time variations have been neglected in the integral over the volume
of the compact turbulent eddy. We have not done this in the surface pressure
integral, because this tends to extend over a larger region than the Reynolds
stress uctuations responsible for it (indeed, the acoustic component of the
pressure, as opposed to the near eld hydrodynamic pressure, extends out to
innity on the wall, decaying only very slowly like 1/x).
The value of the surface integral cannot be estimated by a naive orderofmagnitude calculation of the kind performed in Section 2.4 for a compact body,
because for an innite plane wall the domain of integration includes the acoustic
region, and therefore involves an unknown and possibly important contribution
from the acoustic pressure that we are trying to calculate! The difculty was
resolved by Powell (1960) by the ingenious device of applying Curles solution
Problems 2
39
(2.4.1) at the image x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) in the wall of the far eld observation
point x. At the image point H ( f ) = H (x2 ) 0, and therefore
x i x j 2
x
d 3y
Ti j y, t
0
c0
4c02 x3 t 2
x x1 y1 + x3 y3
x2
(
p
p
)
y,
t
dy1 dy3 ,
0
4 c0 x2 t y2 =0
c0
c0 x
x .
(2.5.2)
The surface integral term in this formula is equal but opposite in sign to that
in the original solution (2.5.1), which is now seen to exactly represent the
quadrupole sound generated by a system of image quadrupoles in the wall!
Adding (2.5.1) and (2.5.2), we nd
(xi x j + x i x j ) 2
x
d 3y
Ti j y, t
p(x, t)
c0
4 c02 x3 t 2
(xi x j + x i x j ) 2
x
y,
t
d 3 y, x . (2.5.3)
v
v
0 i j
c0
4 c02 x3 t 2
Therefore, the apparently strong contribution from the surface pressure dipoles actually integrates to a term of quadrupole strength. This is a consequence
of the KraichnanPhillips theorem (see Howe, 1998a), according to which the
net unsteady component of the normal force between an innite plane wall and
an incompressible uid must vanish identically
Thus, extreme care must be exercised when using Curles equation to estimate
the sound produced by turbulence interacting with large surfaces. As a general
rule, the surface contribution will be comparable to that from the turbulence
quadrupoles whenever the characteristic wavelength of the sound is smaller
than the radius of curvature of the surface.
Problems 2
1. Show that the acoustic efciency of a compact sphere of radius R executing
small amplitude translational oscillations at velocity U = U0 sin(t) is
a
0
R
c0
3
,
40
2 Lighthills Theory
where
a =
R3
0 U02
6
R
c0
3
,
0 =
2 R 3
0 U02
3
are respectively the average acoustic and hydrodynamic powers fed into the
uid during the quarter cycle 0 < t < /2.
Explain the signicance of averaging only over 0 < t < /2.
2. What is the efciency in Problem 1 when the sphere pulsates with small
amplitude normal velocity vn = U0 sin(t)?
3. The wake behind a bluff body xed in a nominally steady, low Mach number
ow at speed U produces a drag force equal to CD A 12 0 U 2 , where CD
is the drag coefcient (which may be regarded as constant), and A is the
projected crosssectional area of the body in the ow direction. Derive an
approximate formula for the fareld acoustic pressure radiated by the body
when U contains a small amplitude, timeharmonic component such that
U = U0 + u cos(t), where U0 and u are constant and u U0 .
4. Show that Powells solution (2.5.3) for the sound generated by turbulence
adjacent to a rigid plane wall is identical with the solution of Curles differential equation (2.3.8) determined by the modied Greens function
1
x y
t
G(x, y, t ) =
4 x y
c0
1
x y
,
t
+
4 x y
c0
where x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ). G(x, y, t ) is the solution of what problem of
linear acoustics?
3
The Compact Greens Function
c02 t 2
for the velocity potential, but our conclusions will be applicable quite generally.
This equation determines in terms of a specied source distribution q(x, t). In
the absence of solid boundaries (in free space) the results of Section 1.6 enable
us to represent in the form
(x, t) =
q(y, )G(x, y, t ) d 3 y d,
(3.1.2)
(3.1.3)
1 2
2
G = (xy)(t ), where G = 0
c02 t 2
for t < .
(3.1.4)
42
Fig. 3.1.1.
equation was derived by using the retarded potential formula (1.6.6), obtained
by use of the free space Greens function (3.1.3). A similar representation involving surface distributions of dipoles and monopoles is obtained for when
we attempt to solve Equation (3.1.1) using Greens function (3.1.3) in the situation illustrated in Fig. 3.1.1, where the source distribution q(x, t) is adjacent
to a rigid boundary S on which the normal derivative / xn = 0.
It would be very convenient if we could modify the functional form of
G(x, y, t ) so that it automatically takes account of the contributions from
the dipole and monopole sources on S, inasmuch that no surface integrals occur
in the nal solution. To do this, we must nd a solution of Greens function
equation (3.1.4) that satises appropriate boundary conditions on S. The solution of (3.1.1) is then once again given by Formula (3.1.2) in terms of
the modied Greens function, there being no additional surface integrals to
evaluate.
The main practical difculty is the calculation of the modied Greens function. Although it is always possible in principle, exact analytical representations
are known only for solid bodies of very simple shapes (such as spheres, circular
cylinders, and halfplanes). However, it turns out that a relatively simple and
general approximate formula can be found for the modied Greens function
for those problems where it is known that the typical wavelength of the sound
produced by the source distribution q(x, t) is large compared to one or more
principal dimensions of the solid body S. This is called the compact Greens
function.
43
1
2
ei(t ) d,
(3.1.5)
which expresses the function as a linear combination of timeharmonic oscillations of frequency . The formula is proved by observing that no real
system can oscillate at innitely large frequencies, and therefore in all practical
problems ei(t ) can be replaced by ei(t ) for arbitrarily small > 0.
Then,
1
1
ei(t ) d lim
ei(t ) d
+0 2
2
.
= lim
2
+0 [ + (t )2 ]
The nal term on the right is the usual denition of (t ) as the limit of an
sequence (Lighthill, 1958).
If we now put
G(x, y, t ) =
1
2
G(x,
y, )ei(t ) d,
(3.1.6)
then the substitution of this and (3.1.5) into the Greens function equation (3.1.4)
2 + 02 G(x,
y, ) = (x y),
(3.1.7)
2
.
0
(3.1.8)
This condition will be used below in Section 3.4 to calculate the compact
Greens function.
44
The equations
2 + 02 = 0,
)
2 + 02 = q(x,
(3.2.1)
)e
d
=
2 (x,
)eit d
c02 t 2
c02
02 (x,
)eit d,
and therefore
Aei0 r
Bei0 r
G =
+
,
r
r
where A, B remain to be determined.
(3.2.5)
45
To do this recall that our solution represents one component of a timedependent acoustic problem of frequency . Since the time factor is eit ,
the two terms on the righthand side of (3.2.5) correspond to propagating sound
waves of the form
i t cr
i(t+ cr )
0
0
Ae
Be
+
,
r
r
the second of which represents waves converging on the source from innity,
and must therefore be rejected because of the radiation condition. Hence, B = 0.
The value of the remaining constant A is found by extending the solution to
include the region occupied by the source at r = 0 by writing
G = lim
0
Aei0 r
1
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
By substituting the solution into (3.2.4) and using the Formula (1.4.8) we nd
A = 1/4 .
The free space Greens function for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation
(the solution of (3.1.7)) is now obtained by replacing r = x by x y
ei0 xy
G(x,
y, ) =
.
4 x y
(3.2.6)
the solution of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in an unbounded medium can be written
)ei0 xy 3
1 q(y,
) d 3 y
d y.
(x, ) =
G(x,
y, )q(y,
4
x y
(3.2.7)
3.2.2 Dipole and Quadrupole Sources
The method of integration by parts described in Section 1.7 can be used to show
that the corresponding solutions for the dipole and quadrupole sources
) =
q(x,
fj
(x, )
x j
) =
and q(x,
2 Ti j
(x, )
xi x j
(3.2.8)
46
are respectively
1
(x,
) =
4 x j
and
1 2
(x,
) =
4 xi x j
(3.2.9)
( f 1 (x)).
x1
Therefore,
(x,
) =
1
4 x1
f 1 (y)ei0 xy 3
i0 x1 f 1 ei0 x
d y
, x .
x y
4 x2
(3.2.10)
t ) and G(x,
y, ), respectively, for the wave equation and the inhomogeneous
Helmholtz equation in the special case in which there are no solid boundaries.
According to this formula we nd, using the expression (3.2.6) for the free
47
Fig. 3.3.1.
this very general theorem of mechanics, which was rst used with great effect
in acoustics by Lord Rayleigh (1945).
Consider the two acoustic problems indicated in Fig. 3.3.1, in which sound
of frequency is generated by two unit point sources at x = x A and x = x B in
the presence of a solid body S. We denote the functional forms of the respective
x B , ),
velocity potentials generated by these sources by G(x,
x A , ) and G(x,
where
x A , ) = (x x A ),
2 + 02 G(x,
2
x B , ) = (x x B ).
+ 02 G(x,
(3.3.1)
(3.3.2)
In addition G(x,
x A , ) and G(x,
x B , ) must satisfy appropriate mechanical boundary conditions on S. We take these to have the same general linear
form
G(x,
x A , )
G
,
(x, x A , ) =
xn
Z(x, )
G
G(x,
x B , )
,
(x, x B , ) =
xn
Z(x, )
for x on S, (3.3.3)
48
where xn is measured in the normal direction from S into the uid and Z(x, )
is the surface impedance. For a rigid surface, Z(x, ) = .
At large distances from S, in the acoustic far eld, both solutions are assumed
to exhibit the characteristics of outgoing sound waves, such that (with implicit
time dependence eit )
f A (, )ei0 r
G(x,
x A , )
,
r
f B (, )ei0 r
G(x,
x B , )
,
r
r x , (3.3.4)
(3.3.5)
That is, the potential at x A produced by the point source at x B is equal to the
potential at x B produced by an equal point source at x A .
G(x,
x A , ), subtract the resulting equations and integrate over the volume
bounded by the surface S and by a large surface in the acoustic far eld.
Greens identity
x A , ) G(x,
x B , )
x A , ) 2 G(x,
G(x,
x B , ) 2 G(x,
= div(G(x,
x B , ) G(x,
x A , ) G(x,
x A , ) G(x,
x B , )),
and the divergence theorem permit the volume integral of the term obtained
from the lefthand sides to be expressed as surface integrals over S and ,
whereas the integrals involving the functions can be evaluated explicitly. This
procedure gives
S+
(x, x B , ) G(x,
x B , )
(x, x A , ) dS
G(x,
x A , )
xn
xn
A , x B , ).
B , x A , ) G(x
= G(x
49
G
i0 ei0 r
(x, x B , ) f B (, )
xn
r
r
,
xn
r
, as r .
xn
G(x,
y, ) = G(y,
x, ).
(3.3.6)
y, ) = (x y),
2 + 02 G(x,
G
=0
xn
on S,
(3.4.1)
Fig. 3.4.1.
50
and 0 y 1.
2
2
2
2
x, ) = (y x),
+ 2 + 2 + 0 G(y,
y12
y2
y3
G
=0
yn
on S,
(3.4.2)
G(y,
x, ) produced at the neareld point y by an equal point source at the
fareld point x).
To solve (3.4.2), we put
G(y,
x, ) = G 0 (y, x, ) + G (y, x, )
ei0 xy
+ G (y, x, )
4 x y
x j yj
xy
x
x
x
and
1
1
xy
1
+
x y
x
x3
x
51
e x
4 x y
4 x
i0 x
i0 x j y j
e
1
+ O(0 )2
4 x
x
(3.4.3)
The linear dependence on y j in the second line of this formula represents the rst
approximation (of order 0 ) in a power series expansion of rapidly decreasing
terms that describes the variation of the incident spherical wave close to the
body. Thus, regarded as a function of y, the terms shown explicitly in
ei0 x i0 x j y j
ei0 x
+
+ constant + U j y j + ,
G 0 (y, x, ) =
4x
4 x x
where U j =
ei0 x i0 x j
,
4x x
(3.4.4)
can be regarded as the velocity potential of a uniform ow at velocity U j impinging on the solid.
At distances y
from S, the distortion of this ow produced by the body
must be small. Let it be represented by the velocity potential
G (y, x, ) = U j j (y) + O(0 )2 ,
where j (y) 0
when y
.
+ U j (y j j (y)) + ,
G(y,
x, ) = G 0 (y, x, ) + G (y, x, ) =
4x
(3.4.5)
where the terms shown explicitly represent a potential ow past the body.
i.e. 2 j (y) = 0,
52
(y j j (y)) = 0 on S.
yn
(3.4.6)
1
(y j j (y)) + O(0 ) ,
G(x, y, ) =
4 x
x
y O(), x . (3.4.7)
The rst term in the large brackets represents the contribution from the spherical
wave G 0 (x, y, ) evaluated at y = 0. The next term is O(0 ) and includes a component i0 x j y j /x from the incident wave plus a correction i0 x j j (y)/x
produced by S.
The vector eld
Y(y) y (y)
(3.4.8)
is called the Kirchhoff vector for the body; the jth component
Y j (y) y j j (y)
satises Laplaces equation 2 Y j = 0 with Y j / yn = 0 on S, and can be
interpreted as the velocity potential of an incompressible ow past S that has
unit speed in the j direction at large distances from S. The function j (y) decays
with distance from S, and satises
j
yn
(y) = n j
on S,
(3.4.9)
because y j / yn n i y j / yi = n i i j = n j . Hence, j (y) is just the instantaneous velocity potential of the motion that would be produced by translational
motion of S as a rigid body at unit speed in the j direction.
Denition
ei0 x
G(x,
y, ) =
4x
1
i0 x j
(y j j (y)) , y O(), x ,
x
(3.4.10)
is called the compact Greens function for source points y near the body and
observer positions x in the acoustic far eld.
53
for j = 1, 2, 3
at r = a.
(3.5.1)
2
r
+ 2
sin
(r ) cos = 0,
r 2 r
r
r sin
Fig. 3.5.1.
54
provided that
r2
d 2
d
2 = 0.
+ 2r
dr 2
dr
B
= r cos Ar + 2
r
cos ,
, y O(a),
G(x,
y, ) =
1
1+
4 x
x
2y3
x .
(3.5.2)
55
Fig. 3.5.2.
wavelength. With the origin at the center of the sphere, we consider the outgoing
wave solution of
2 + 02 = f 1
{(x1 L)(x2 )(x3 )}, where
=0
x1
xn
on x = a.
The dipole is orientated in the x1 direction and lies on the x1 axis at (L , 0, 0),
as in Fig. 3.5.2. The solution is given by
Thus far the calculation is exact. To determine the solution in the far eld
given that the sphere is acoustically compact we use the compact approxima
tion (3.5.2) for G(x,
y, ). We see immediately that the differentiation with
respect to y1 will be applied only to the small second term in the braces
56
of (3.5.2), giving
a3
yj 1 +
y1
2y3
y=(L ,0,0)
i0 f 1 x1 ei0 x
a3
=
1 3
2
4 x
L
a3
i0 f 1 cos ei0 x
=
1 3 , x , 0 a 1,
4 x
L
i0 f 1 x j ei0 x
(x,
) =
4x2
where is the angle between the x1 axis and the x direction (so that x1 =
x cos ).
By setting a = 0 in this formula, we recover the far eld (3.2.10) of a dipole
source in the absence of the sphere. The presence of the sphere accordingly
reduces the amplitude of the sound relative to that produced by a freeeld
dipole. The amplitude is zero when L a, because in this limit the surface
of the sphere is effectively plane in the vicinity of the dipole and an equal and
opposite image dipole is formed in the sphere. The net radiation is therefore
equivalent to that produced by a quadrupole source, and to calculate the sound
in this case it would be necessary to use a more accurate approximation to
G(x,
y, ). This conclusion applies only to dipoles orientated radially with
respect to the sphere (see Problem 1), but it is also true for any compact rigid
surface when a dipole orientated in the direction of the local surface normal
approaches the surface.
Fig. 3.5.3.
57
) in
assumed to be stationary (rigid). The corresponding source strength q(x,
the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation (3.2.1) is
) = vn (x, )(s ), ( +0),
q(x,
where s is distance measured in the normal direction from S into the uid,
and > 0 places the sources just within the uid adjacent to S. The velocity
potential (x,
) is therefore
(x,
) =
vn (y, )(s )G(x,
y, ) d 3 y ( +0)
uid
vn (y, )G(x,
y, ) d S(y)
where
G
(x, y, ) = 0 on S.
xn
(3.5.4)
Consider the sound produced when the sphere of Fig. 3.5.1 vibrates with
small amplitude about its undisturbed position centred at the origin with velocity
U ()eit along the x1 axis. Then,
vn (y, ) = U () cos .
If the vibrations are at sufciently low frequency, the sphere will be compact,
and when the observer at x is in the acoustic far eld the integral in (3.5.4) can
ei0 x
4 x
vn (y, ) d S(y)
S
i0 x j
x
a3
yj 1 +
(y,
)
d
S(y)
.
v
n
2y3
The rst integral represents the net volume ux through S and vanishes identically for rigid body translational motion. The second integral is nonzero only
for j = 1, when y1 = a cos and y = a on S, and we can take d S = 2a 2
2x2
2c0 x
where is the angle between the x1 axis and the radiation direction x (see
Fig. 1.7.1).
The solution for a sphere oscillating at an arbitrary time dependent velocity
U (t) can be derived from this result provided the sphere remains compact. This
58
U (t) =
U ()eit d,
a 3 cos U
(t x/c0 ),
2c0 x t
x .
This agrees with the fareld result obtained in Section 1.7, and conrms the
model used there in which the vibrating sphere was replaced by a point dipole
of strength 2a 3 U (t) at its center.
3.6 Compact Greens Function for Cylindrical Bodies
The reciprocal calculation of the Greens function described in Section 3.4 for
the compact body in Fig. 3.4.1 can be immediately extended to the case of a
cylindrical body of compact cross section.
Figure 3.6.1 illustrates the situation for an innite circular cylinder of radius
a whose axis lies along the y3 axis, and whose diameter 2a is acoustically
compact. The source point y is adjacent to the cylinder and for the moment
(see Section 3.7) is assumed to be within an axial distance y3  from
the coordinate origin O. In this region the Expansion (3.4.7) remains valid
with 3 (y) 0, because the impinging ow described by the velocity potential
(3.4.4) for j = 3 is unaffected by the cylinder. Hence, we can take
i0 x j Y j
ei0 x
1
, y O(), x , (3.6.1)
G(x,
y, ) =
4 x
x
where the Kirchhoff vector Y has the components
Y1 = y1 1 (y),
Y2 = y2 2 (y),
Y3 = y3 .
(3.6.2)
2 (y)
59
Fig. 3.6.1.
at r = a.
Fig. 3.6.2.
(3.6.3)
60
1 2
(r ) cos = 0,
r
+ 2
r r
r
r 2
provided that
r2
d 2
d
= 0.
+r
dr 2
dr
B
cos ,
r
a2
1+ 2
r
.
Hence, the compact Greens function for a circular cylinder, with source
near the origin, is
i0 x j Y j
ei0 x
1
, y O(), x , (3.6.4)
G(x,
y, ) =
4 x
x
where
Yj = yj 1 +
a2
y12 + y22
,
j = 1, 2; Y3 = y3 .
(3.6.5)
61
Fig. 3.6.3.
The potential 2 (y) 2 (y1 , y2 ) can be determined by the method of conformal transformation. (Readers unfamiliar with this procedure should consult
Section 4.5.) If z = y1 + i y2 , the cross section of the airfoil in the z plane is
mapped onto the circular cylinder Z  = a in the Z plane by the transformation
Z = z + z2 a2.
Because Z 2z as z a uniform ow at unit speed in the y2 direction
in the z plane at large distances from the airfoil corresponds to a uniform
ow at speed 12 in the direction of the imaginary Z axis at large distances
from the cylinder. This ow can be found by the method discussed above
for the circular cylinder (or see Example 3 of Section 4.5), and determines
Y2 = y2 2 (y1 , y2 ) = Re[w(z)], where w is the complex potential
i
a2
w(z) =
Z
2
Z
a2
i
=
z + z2 a2
2
z + z2 a2
= i z 2 a 2 .
Thus, the compact Greens function for a strip, with source near the origin,
is given by
i0 x j Y j
ei0 x
G(x,
y, ) =
1
, y O(a), x , (3.6.6)
4 x
x
where the components of the Kirchhoff vector are
Y2 = Re(i z 2 a 2 ), Y3 = y3 ,
Y1 = y1 ,
z = y1 + i y2 .
(3.6.7)
62
Fig. 3.6.4.
Figure 3.6.4 depicts the streamline pattern of the ow past the strip dened
by the velocity potential Y2 (y). The streamlines crowd together and change very
rapidly near the sharp edges. This is an indication that edges can be important
sources of noise when located in the near eld of a dipole or quadrupole (or
any higher order multipole) source, because Y2 becomes very large there.
Example Calculate the fareld velocity potential when
2
+ 02 = f 2
[(x1 L)(x2 )(x3 )] , L > a, 0 L 1,
x2
= 0 on the airfoil a < x1 < a, x2 = 0, < x3 < .
where
x2
The dipole source is orientated in the x2 direction and is positioned just to the
right of the edge at y1 = a in Fig. 3.6.3. The solution is given by the following
form of Equation (3.5.3)
G
i f 2 0 x2 ei0 x Y2
(x, y, )
(x,
) = f 2
y2
4x2
y2 y=(L ,0,0)
y=(L ,0,0)
z = y1 + i y2
63
Therefore,
(x,
)
=
L
i f 2 0 x2 ei0 x
2
2
4 x
L a2
i f 2 0 L cos ei0 x
,
4x L 2 a 2
x ,
where = cos1 (x2 /x) is the angle between the normal to the strip and the
radiation direction (x/x) indicated in Fig. 3.6.3.
G(x,
y, )
4 x
i0 x j Y j
ei0 x
i0 x Y
1
=
1
x
4 x
x
1 i0 x i0xxY
e
,
4 x
ei0 xY
, Y O(), x ,
4 x
(3.7.1)
where on the last line we have used the usual fareld approximation (1.9.2)
x Y x
xY
, x .
x
Now let X(x) denote the Kirchhoff vector for the body expressed in terms of x,
i.e., let
X j (x) = x j j (x).
(3.7.2)
64
xY
X Y x
x
when x .
(3.7.3)
1
xY
1
1
X Y
x
x3
x
Thus, to the same approximation, (3.7.1) can be written
ei0 XY
G(x,
y, )
,
4 X Y
Y O(), x .
G(x,
y, ) =
,
4 X Y
(3.7.4)
where X = x (x), Y = y (y) are the Kirchhoff vectors for the body
expressed respectively in terms of x and y. The components X j and Y j are the
velocity potential of incompressible ow past the body having unit speed in
the j direction at large distances from the body; j is the velocity potential of
the incompressible ow that would be produced by rigid body motion of S at
unit speed in the j direction.
Our generalized denition clearly satises the reciprocal theorem. Also, because of the symmetrical way in which x and y enter this formula we may now
remove any restriction on the position of the coordinate origin. The approximation is valid for arbitrary source and observer locations provided that at least
one of them lies in the far eld of the body. When both x and y are in the far
eld (so that X x and Y y) predictions made with the compact Greens
function will be the same as when the body is absent. This is because for distant sources the amplitude of the sound scattered by a compact rigid object is
O((0 )2 ) smaller than the incident sound, that is, is of quadrupole intensity
(Lighthill 1978; Howe 1998a). When x is close to the body the source must be
65
by neighboring sources in the uid. In practice this means that when used in
calculations G(x,
y, ) will normally be expanded only to rst order in the
Kirchhoff source vector Y(y).
We can go further and use the formula (3.1.6) relating Greens functions for
the wave equation and the Helmholtz equation to derive the compact approximation for Greens function of the wave equation:
1
G(x, y, )ei(t ) d
G(x, y, t ) =
2
1
i(t XY
c0 )
d
e
2
8 X Y
1
X Y
=
t
.
4X Y
c0
This remarkable result is formally identical with the classical free space Greens
function (1.6.2) with X, Y substituted for x, y. However, its use is subject
to the same restrictions as (3.7.4), and it will be valid only when applied to
timedependent source terms producing sound whose wavelength is large compared to the characteristic body dimension . With this understanding we can
dene the
Compact Greens Function for the Wave Equation
G(x, y, t ) =
X Y
1
t
,
4 X Y
c0
(3.7.5)
where X = x (x), Y = y (y) are Kirchhoff vectors for the body. The
components X j and Y j are the velocity potential of incompressible ow past
the body having unit speed in the j direction at large distances from the body;
j is the velocity potential of the incompressible ow that would be produced
by rigid body motion of S at unit speed in the j direction.
66
Fig. 3.8.1.
Let the closed surface S (Fig. 3.8.1) vibrate with normal velocity vn (x, t). As
before, the velocity potential in the uid (governed by Equation (3.1.1)) is the
same as that generated by the distribution of volume sources
q(x, t) = vn (x, t)(s )
( +0)
(3.8.1)
uid
where
G
(x, y, t ) = 0
xn
on S.
(3.8.2)
x x Y
1
vn (y, ) t
+
d S(y) d
=
4 x S
c0
c0 x
(X x as x )
x
1
=
vn (y, ) t
4x S
c0
x x j Y j
+ t
d S(y) d,
c0 c0 x
67
where the prime denotes differentiation with respect to time. Performing the
integration with respect to :
x
vn y, t
d S(y)
c0
S
xj
x
v
y,
t
Y j (y) d S(y).
n
4 c0 x2 t S
c0
1
(x, t)
4 x
xj
Ui
4c0 x2 t
xj
Ui
4c0 x2 t
t
t
x
c0
x
c0
(3.8.3)
[n i y j n i j ] dS, x .
(3.8.4)
68
Fig. 3.8.2.
Therefore,
3a
a3
(cos , sin cos , sin sin )
=
Yy 1+
2y3
2
on the sphere and n 1 = cos
Hence,
3a 3
n1Y j d S =
(cos , sin cos , sin sin ) cos sin d d
2 S
S
2a 3 , j = 1,
=
0, j = 2, 3
and, therefore, (3.8.3) becomes
(x, t)
a 3 cos U
(t x/c0 ), x ,
2c0 x t
and
x1
= cos ,
x
(3.8.5)
which is the result already obtained in Section 3.5 using the solution derived
from the Helmholtz equation.
Mi j = 0 n i j d S.
S
69
j
i
Mi j = 0 n i j d S = 0
j d S 0 i
d S = M ji .
yn
S
S yn
S
(3.8.6)
The nal integral is deduced from the second by referring to Fig. 3.3.1, recalling
that 2 j = 2 i = 0, and applying the divergence theorem as follows:
S+
j
i
j i
yn
yn
dS =
uid
(i 2 j j 2 i ) d 3 y 0.
(mi j + Mi j )
dU j
= Fi .
dt
The added mass tensor determines the effective mass of uid dragged along by
the body in its accelerated motion. The inertia of this uid, in addition to that
of the body, must also be overcome by the force F when the body accelerates.
In general, however, a couple must also be applied to the translating body to
counter a rotational torque also exerted on the body by the uid (see Batchelor
(1967) for further discussion).
Let us now apply these concepts to determine from (3.8.4) the sound pressure produced by a rigid compact body executing small amplitude translational
oscillations at velocity U(t). The acoustic pressure is given in the far eld by
p = 0 /t (see Section 1.3), and therefore
xj
2 Ui
x
n
y
d
S
d
S
,
p(x, t) =
t
0
i j
0
i j
4c0 x2 t 2
c0
S
S
x . (3.8.8)
70
The rst integral is evaluated by applying the divergence theorem, which transforms it into an integral over the volume Vs of the body:
yj 3
0 n i y j dS = 0
d y = 0 Vs i j m 0 i j ,
(3.8.9)
S
Vs yi
where m 0 is the mass of the uid displaced by the body. The second term in the
brace brackets of (3.8.8) is just the added mass tensor Mi j .
Thus, the acoustic pressure can be expressed in either of the forms
2U j
x
xi
t
(m
+
M
)
p(x, t)
0 ij
ij
4 c0 x2
t 2
c0
2
x
Ui
xi
Fi
m0 2 +
, x , (3.8.10)
t
=
4 c0 x2
t
t
c0
where the second line follows from (3.8.7), where Fi is the force exerted by the
body on the uid in the i direction.
For a sphere of radius a oscillating at speed U (t) in the x1 direction
m 0 = 43 a 3 0
and
Mi j = 12 m 0 i j
Therefore,
2U
xi
1
x
j
m
m
, x .
0
i
j
0
i
j
4 c0 x2
2
t 2
c0
0 a 3 cos 2 U
x
=
t
,
2c0 x t 2
c0
p(x, t)
G(x, y, t ) =
The vector components X j (x) and Y j (y) are the velocity potentials of
71
X1
X2
X3
a
x1 1 + 2x
3
2
x1 1 + x 2a+x 2
a
x2 1 + 2x
3
2
x2 1 + x 2a+x 2
x1
Re(i z 2 a 2 )
z = x1 + i x2
x3 1 +
a3
2x3
x3
x3
incompressible ow past the body having unit speed in the j direction at large
distances from the body (special cases are listed in Table 3.9.1); j is the velocity potential of the incompressible ow that would be produced by rigid body
motion of S at unit speed in the j direction. For a cylindrical body of compact
cross section parallel to the x3 direction, we take
X 3 = x3 ,
Y3 = y3 .
Fig. 3.9.1.
72
Y2 =
Re i z 2 a(y3 )2 , y3  < 12 L
,
y3  > 12 L
y2 ,
Y3 = y3 ,
z = y1 + i y2 .
(3.9.2)
This model has been found to give predictions within a few percent of those
based on the exact value of Y2 (y) in the case of an airfoil of elliptic planform
whose
aspect ratio =
airfoil span
> 5.
midchord
Fig. 3.9.2.
73
+
+
t
+ t
4x
c0
c0 x
c0
c0 x
1
2(x1 y1 + x3 y3 )
x
x
t
+
.
2 t
4x
c0
c0 x
c0
We require a corrected expression that has vanishing normal derivative (as a
function of y) on the wall and on the projection. By inspection, this is obtained
simply by replacing the factor
2(x1 y1 + x3 y3 )
c0 x
by
2(x1 Y1 + x3 Y3 )
,
c0 x
where Y1 = y1 1 (y), Y3 = y3 3 (y) are the velocity potentials of horizontal ows past the projection that are parallel to the wall and have unit speeds
respectively in the y1 and y3 directions as y .
It may now be veried that (in the usual notation) the required compact
Greens function is
X Y
1
t
G(x, y, t ) =
4 X Y
c0
Y
X
1
t
+
,
(3.9.3)
Y
c0
4 X
where
Y1 = y1 1 (y),
Y2 = y2 ,
Y3 = y3 3 (y)
X 1 = x1 1 (x),
X 2 = x2 ,
X 3 = x3 3 (x)
(3.9.4)
= (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ).
and X
These formulae can be used also for a twodimensional projection or cavity
that is uniform, say, in the x3 direction simply by setting Y3 = y3 , X 3 = x3 .
To complete this discussion of compact Greens function, we now give without proofs a selection of useful examples.
74
Fig. 3.9.3.
G(x,
y, ) = G 0 (x, y, ) + G 1 (x, y, ) + ,
where, for x y3 i3  and 0 y12 + y22 1,
1
ei0 xy3 i3  ,
4 x y3 i3
G 1 (x, y, ) =
e
,
2i x y3 i3 3/2
(3.9.5)
G 0 (x, y, ) =
(3.9.6)
and
(x) =
r sin(/2),
(y) =
r0 sin(0 /2).
(3.9.7)
75
(x) is a velocity potential of incompressible ow around the edge of the halfplane expressed in terms of polar coordinates (x1 , x2 ) = r (cos , sin ) (and
similarly for (y)). The component G 0 of G represents the radiation from a
point source at y when scattering is neglected; G 1 is the rst correction due to
presence of the halfplane.
for t < .
(3.9.8)
(x) (y)
(t x/c0 ), x ,
x
(3.9.9)
c0 sgn(x1 ) (t x/c0 )
Z2
Z
Re ln
1 ,
+
G(x, y, t )
a
a2
t x/c0
2 x
Z = y2 + i y1 ,
(3.9.10)
76
Fig. 3.9.4.
where
(t) = H (t)
0
x1 y1
c0
H t
G(x, y, t ) =
, x y
A, (3.9.11)
2A
c0
where H is the Heaviside step function. For a uniform duct with an acoustically
77
Fig. 3.9.5.
compact section of variable cross section, such as the neck in Fig. 3.9.5b, the
compact Greens function becomes
G(x, y, t ) =
X 1 Y1 
c0
, x y
A, (3.9.12)
H t
2A
c0
where X 1 (x) and Y1 (y) are the velocity potential of incompressible ow in the
duct having unit speed at large distances from the neck.
78
Fig. 3.9.6.
(x) + (y)
H t +
,
(3.9.13)
c0
where the velocity potential (y) describes incompressible ow from the duct,
and satises
when x1 
A within the duct,
(x) x1
Problems 3
79
with distance x1  or y1  into the duct). The terms (x), (y) account for the
additional, weak monopole sound generated by a source near the duct entrance;
the source compresses the uid in the duct mouth producing a sound wave in the
duct whose reaction on the mouth causes a volume ux equal to the monopole
source strength. The amplitude of this monopole is of the same order as the
usual dipole sound determined by the compact Greens function.
For a uniform, thinwalled cylindrical duct we can take
X(x) (x1 (x), X 2 (x), X 3 (x)),
1
(t (x y1 )/c0 ), x .
4x
(3.9.16)
This represents a monopole wave centered on the duct entrance. This limiting
form of G can be used to calculate the lowfrequency free space radiation
generated by internal sources far from the entrance.
Problems 3
1. Use the compact Greens function to solve
2 + 02 = f 2
[(x1 L)(x2 )(x3 )] ,
x2
where
=0
xn
on x = a.
2 + 02 = f 1
[(x1 L)(x2 )(x3 )],
x1
where
=0
xn
on
x12 + x22
12
= a.
80
f3
f 2 = constant
f 2 Ma 2
2x(h 2 + U 2 [t]2 )3
x1 h
x2 U [t]
(3U 2 [t]2 h 2 ) +
(3h 2 U 2 [t]2 ) ,
x
x
where
[t] = t
x
.
c0
x1
X1 = A
0
d
,
S( )
Y1 = A
0
y1
d
,
S( )
to calculate the acoustic pressure radiated from the neck during the passage
of the source.
7. In incompressible ow the velocity potential generated by a distribution of
sources q(x, t) near a rigid body is determined by the solution of
2 = q(x, t).
Problems 3
81
Show that the monopole and dipole components of the solution at large
distances from the body (in the hydrodynamic far eld) can be calculated
using the following incompressible limit of the compact Greens function
G(x, y, t ) =
(t )
.
4 X Y
(x)
=
(2/
)
a 2 x22 x32 on the
1
faces x1 = 0, x22 + x32 < a of the disc, show that the acoustic pressure
generated by the motion is given by
p(x, t)
20 a 3 cos 2 U
(t x/c0 ), x ,
3 c0 x t 2
cos =
x1
.
x
4
Vorticity
= Un
xn
on S,
1
1
d S 0 Un d S,
(4.1.1)
= 0
2
2
S xn
S
where the divergence theorem has been used to obtain the second line (there
is no contribution from the surface at innity in Fig. 4.1.1, where
O(1/x2 )). This formula implies that if S is suddenly brought to rest
(Un 0)
the motion everywhere in the uid ceases instantaneously, because V ()2 d 3 x
82
83
Fig. 4.1.1.
1
2
2
3
= 0 (() + u ) d x 0 u n d S
2
V
S
1
1
1
2 3
u d x T0 + 0
u 2 d 3 x. (4.1.2)
= 0 Un d S + 0
2
2
2
S
V
V
84
4 Vorticity
When the surface motion is arrested, the ow described by the velocity potential stops instantaneously, but that associated with the rotational velocity u
persists. The crucial difference between rotational and irrotational ows is that,
once established, vortical motions proceed irrespective of whether or not the
uid continues to be driven by moving boundaries or other external agencies.
Equation (4.1.2) also establishes Kelvins theorem that T T0 : the kinetic
energy of the real ow (for which u = 0) always exceeds that of the corresponding ideal, irrotational ow. In other words, the irrotational motion represents
the least possible disturbance that can be produced in the uid by the moving
boundary.
85
(4.2.1)
3
By using the vector identity
(v )v = v +
1
2
v2 ,
B=
dp 1 2
+ v
(4.2.2)
(4.2.3)
(4.2.4)
(4.2.5)
86
4 Vorticity
The curl of (4.2.3) and the relation curl curl 2 yield the vorticity
equation for a Stokesian uid of constant shear viscosity:
+ curl( v) = 2 .
t
(4.2.6)
(4.2.7)
The terms on the right represent the mechanisms that change the vorticity of a
moving uid particle in incompressible ow:
(i) ( )v.
Consider a uid particle at A in Fig. 4.2.1 with velocity v at time t. Let the
vorticity at A be = n, where n is a unit vector, and consider a neighboring
particle at B a small distance s from A in the direction n; that is, sn is the position
of B relative to A. At time t the points A and B lie on the vortex line through
A, and the velocity at B is v + s(n )v. After a short time t, A has moved a
vector distance v t to A and B has moved to B whose position relative to A
is s(n+(n )v t). During this time, the term ( )v in the vorticity equation
causes the vorticity of the uid particle initially at A to change from n at A to
(n + (n )v t) at A . Thus, the vortex line through A lies along the relative
vector s(n + (n )v t) from A to B . Therefore, the uid particles and the
vortex line through A and B have deformed and convected in the ow in the
Fig. 4.2.1.
87
same way; in their new positions A and B continue to lie on the same vortex
line. In the absence of viscosity (when 2 does not appear on the right of
(4.2.7)) vortex lines are therefore said to move with the uid; they are rotated
and stretched in a manner determined entirely by the relative motions of A and
B. The magnitude of increases in direct proportion to the stretching of vortex
lines. When a vortex tube is stretched, the crosssectional area S decreases and
therefore must increase to preserve the strength of the tube.
(ii) 2 : Molecular Diffusion of Vorticity
This term is important only in regions of high shear, in particular near solid
boundaries. Very close to a stationary wall the velocity becomes small and nonlinear terms in the vorticity equation (4.2.7) can be neglected. The equation then
reduces to the classical diffusion equation
= 2 .
t
Vorticity is generated at solid boundaries, and viscosity is responsible for its
diffusion into the body of the uid, where it can subsequently be convected by
the ow.
It should be understood that viscosity merely serves to diffuse the vorticity
into the uid from the surface, and does not generate the vorticity. In an ideal
uid the slipping of the ow over the surface creates a singular layer of vorticity
at the surface called a vortex sheet whose strength is determined by the tangential velocity difference between the surface and the ideal exterior ow. This
vorticity stays on the surface; it would start to diffuse into the uid if the uid
were suddenly endowed with viscosity. The rate of diffusion would depend on
the value of , but the amount of the vorticity available for diffusion from the
surface is independent of .
The circulation with respect to a closed material contour C is dened by
v dx =
curl v dS
dS,
=
C
S
S
D
D
dp 1 2
=
+ v dx 0. (4.2.8)
v dx =
Dt
Dt C
2
C
This is Kelvins circulation theorem. It follows that vorticity can neither be
created nor destroyed in a body of inviscid and homentropic uid.
88
4 Vorticity
Fig. 4.2.2.
(4.2.9)
(4.2.10)
89
and curl (using the formula curl curl A = grad div A 2 A):
2 = div v,
2 A = curl v .
We can take = 0 for incompressible, unbounded ow which is at rest at innity. To nd A we use the Greens function for Laplaces equation determined
by (1.4.6) (i.e., by the incompressible limit of (3.2.6), when 0 = 0) to obtain
(y, t) d 3 y
.
A=
4 x y
The velocity is then given by the BiotSavart formula
(y, t) d 3 y
v(x, t) = curl
.
4 x y
(4.3.1)
i (y, t) d 3 y =
yi j (y, t)n j d S(y) 0,
where the surface (with inward normal n) is large enough to contain all the
vorticity. By using this result and the expansion (1.9.3) for x we derive
from (4.3.1) the following approximation in the hydrodynamic far eld:
xj
1
3
, x . (4.3.2)
y j (y, t) d y O
v(x, t) curl
4 x3
x3
Furthermore, the divergence theorem also implies that
div(yi y j (y, t)) d 3 y = 0,
and therefore that
(yi j (y, t) + y j i (y, t)) d 3 y = 0.
This can be used to express (4.3.2) in either of the following equivalent forms
I
I
v(x, t) curl curl
= grad div
, x ,
4 x
4 x
1
where I =
y (y, t) d 3 y, (4.3.3)
2
90
4 Vorticity
(see Question 2 of Problems 4). The vector I is called the impulse of the vortex
system, and is an absolute constant in an unbounded ow (see Section 4.4).
These formulae supply alternative representations of v in the hydrodynamic far
eld (where the motion is entirely irrotational) in terms of either the vector potential A = curl (I/4x) or the scalar potential = div (I/4x). (Batchelor
(1967) denotes I by P/0 ; Lighthill (1978, 1986) uses G.)
4.3.1 Kinetic Energy
Using the BiotSavart formula it can be veried that the kinetic energy of an
unbounded (threedimensional) incompressible ow is given in terms of the
vorticity by
T =
0
8
(x, t) (y, t) 3 3
d x d y.
x y
(4.3.4)
x ( v)(x, t) d 3 x.
(4.3.5)
(4.3.6)
where U0 = dx0 /dt is the velocity of its center of volume x0 (t), and (t) is its
angular velocity.
In the usual way let f (x, t) vanish on S, with f > 0 in the uid. Then H ( f )v +
H ( f )U is the velocity everywhere, in both the uid and solid (where it equals
U(x, t)). But
H ( f )v + H ( f )U = + curl A, (div A = 0).
The body has constant volume (div U = 0), but curl U = 2. Now, the noslip
condition on S implies that
div(H ( f )v + H ( f )U) = H ( f ) (v U) 0
curl(H ( f )v + H ( f )U) = H ( f ) + H ( f )2.
91
Hence, 0, and the velocity everywhere is given by the following modication of the BiotSavart formula (4.3.1):
v(x, t) = curl
V
(y, t) d 3 y
+ curl
4 x y
2(t) d 3 y
,
4 x y
(4.3.7)
where V is the volume occupied by the uid. This formula predicts that v =
U when x lies in the region occupied by the body. Vortex lines may be
imagined
to continue into the solid. As for an unbounded ow, the identity
curl (H ( f )v + H ( f )U) d 3 x = 0 implies that v O(1/x3 ) as x .
Similarly, the asymptotic representations (4.3.3) remain valid provided the integration includes the region occupied by the body (where = 2). The formula
is also applicable in inviscid ow, but the contribution from the bound vorticity
in the vortex sheet on the surface of the body must be included in the integrals.
Fig. 4.3.1.
92
4 Vorticity
V R2
,
4r
V R2
.
4 2
In reality, vorticity is generated at the tube wall. The air leaves the tube in the
form of a jet, and the exiting uid is initially contained within a cylindrical slug
of air of length L, whose displacement from the tube forces the potential ow
. In addition, however, vorticity leaves the tube within a circular cylindrical
vortex sheet at the periphery of the slug, across which the axial velocity changes
from V within the jet to 0 outside. The sheet may be pictured as a succession
of vortex rings of radius R and innitesimal core radii. The circulation of these
rings per unit length of the jet is V , and they translate at the local mean air
velocity on the sheet equal to 12 V . The total circulation ejected from the tube
during the time L/V in which the piston moves is therefore = 12 L V .
Shortly after leaving the tube the cylindrical vortex rolls up to form a vortex
ring of circulation which translates by selfinduction (as determined by the
BiotSavart law (4.3.1)) at speed estimated by Kelvin to equal
8R0
8R0
1
VL
1
ln
ln
,
Vt
4 R0
4
8 R0
4
where R0 1.2R is the radius of the vortex ring and 0.2R0 is the radius of
its core (assumed to be of circular cross section). The ring arrives at the ame
after a time t /Vt .
The air on the axis of the vortex ring at its center forms a localized jet with
velocity on the centerline equal to
Vj
VL
.
4R0
If the ame is extinguished it is because the vortex jet blows away the hot
combusting gases from newly vaporized wax.
According to this sequence of events, the candle is only blown out because of
the presence of the vortex. In its absence the ame would barely icker under the
inuence of blowing by the potential velocity eld V . The following numerical estimates conrm this conclusion. Take V = 10 m/s, L = 1 cm, R = 0.5 cm,
and = 0.3 m. Then, R0 0.6 cm, 0.12 cm, V 0.0007 m/s, Vt 2.4 m/s,
Vj 4.2 m/s, and t 0.13 s.
93
(4.4.1)
F + m0
x (x, t) d 3 x,
dt
dt
2 dt
where I is the impulse dened by the integral in (4.3.3), including any contributions from bound vorticity within S, and m 0 is the mass of uid displaced by
the body.
With reference to Fig. 4.1.1, let
F = external force applied to the body to maintain its motion,
m = mass of the body.
The uid is assumed to be at rest at innity. Let V denote the uid between a
large closed surface containing all of the vorticity and the surface S of the
body, and let V+ denote the interior of including the volume of the body.
The center of volume of the body is assumed to be in motion at velocity U0 (t),
but in general the body may also be rotating at some time dependent angular
velocity . The global equations of motion are
d
dU
+ 0
m
v(x, t) d 3 x = F +
p(x, t) dS
dt
dt V
m
dU
= F F
dt
where U is the velocity of the centre of mass of the body. Subtracting these
equations and extending the
volume integral to include the volume occupied
by the rigid body (where v d 3 x = U0 ), we can also write
F + m0
dU0
d
= 0
dt
dt
v(x, t) d 3 x
V+
p(x, t) dS.
(4.4.2)
Now let v(x, t) = curl A, where the vector potential A(x, t) is dened by the
BiotSavart integral (4.3.1) taken over V+ , which includes the region occupied
by the body. Then, (4.3.3) implies that A = curl(I(t)/4x) on , so that
I(t)
v(x, t) d 3 x =
curl A d 3 x = n A d S n curl
d S.
4 x
V+
V+
94
4 Vorticity
p(x, t) dS 0
d
dt
n d S = 0
d
dt
n div
I(t)
d S.
4 x
d
dt
n curl
I(t)
4 x
+ n div
I(t)
4 x
d S.
By the divergence theorem, the integral in this expression over the large, but
arbitrary surface can be replaced by an integration over the surface of a large
sphere x = R, because
{curl curl div}(I(t)/4x) = 2 (I(t)/4 x) 0
On the sphere n = x/x, and the integrand equals I(t)/4 R 2 ; the integral is
therefore just equal to I(t). Thus, (4.4.2) reduces to the desired representation
(4.4.1).
dU j
,
dt
Fig. 4.4.1.
95
where Mi j is the added mass tensor (3.8.6). This result will now be derived
from the integral formula (4.4.1).
There is no vorticity in the uid, but the slipping of the ideal ow over S
generates a singular distribution (a vortex sheet) of bound vorticity that must
be used to evaluate the integral. To calculate the bound vorticity we need an
expression for the velocity everywhere in space, including the region occupied
by the body, where v U.
In the uid, we can take
v = U j j .
Therefore, by introducing a control surface f (x, t) = 0 that coincides with the
surface S of the body, with f > 0 in the uid and f < 0 within S, the required
formula for the velocity is
v = U j H ( f ) j + U j H ( f )x j ,
and the vorticity is
= curl{U j H ( f ) j + U j H ( f )x j }
= U j H (x j j )
curl {U j (x j
(where H = H ( f ) = H ( f ))
j ) H }.
x curl A = 2A + (x A)
(x j A),
() H d 3 x = () dS
x j
S
(4.4.3)
therefore imply that
dUi
d
H 3
+ 0
d x
U j (x j j )
dt
dt
xi
dUi
d
+ 0
= m 0
U j (x j j )n i d S.
dt
dt S
Fi = m 0
But
x j n i d S = 0 i j m 0 i j ,
S
96
4 Vorticity
j n i d S = Mi j ,
0
S
where Mi j is the added mass tensor (3.8.8). Therefore, force on uid in irrotadU
tional ow Fi = Mi j dt j .
4.4.2 Force Exerted on an Incompressible Fluid by a Moving Body
The integral in (4.4.1) dening the value of dI/dt can be transformed to remove
the strong dependence of the integrand on the bound vorticity on S. This vorticity
is produced both by motion of S and by relative motion between S and the uid
induced by free vorticity in the ow. Thus, any attempt to recast dI/dt must
be strongly inuenced by both the shape and motion of S. We consider only
the important special case of a body in translational motion without rotation at
velocity U(t), and show that the ith component of the force F exerted on the
uid can also be written
dU j
0
X i vrel d 3 x X i dS, vrel = v U,
Fi = Mi j
dt
V
S
(4.4.4)
where vrel is the uid velocity relative to the translational velocity of S, X i =
of the
xi i (x, t) is the Kirchhoff vector already encountered in the denition
compact Greens function (Section 3.4), and Mi j = M ji = 0 S n j i d S is
the added mass tensor. X i represents the velocity potential of an ideal ow past
S that has unit speed in the i direction at large distances from S (it depends on
t because a xed coordinate system is being used).
The rst term on the right of (4.4.4) represents the inviscid component of the
force, associated with the added mass. The contribution from free vorticity is
furnished by the volume integral; the nal term arises from frictional effects on
S, which are relatively small at large Reynolds numbers. Now vrel = 0 on S,
and therefore the contribution to the volume integral from vorticity close to and
on S is negligible; indeed, even in the inviscid limit there is no contribution to
the integral from the surface vortex sheet forming the bound vorticity, because
X i and the relative Lamb vector vrel are orthogonal on S.
To derive this formula from (4.4.1) we introduce the usual control surface
f (x, t) = 0 enclosing S, with f > 0 in the outer uid region, multiply Croccos
homentropic momentum equation (4.2.5) by H H ( f ), and take the curl of
the resulting equation. Using the formula
H
DH
+ v H = 0,
Dt
t
97
(H ) = ( H U) curl(( H U)U) H B
t
t
curl(H v) curl(H curl ).
Then, because = 0 within S,
d
d
3
3
x (x, t) d x =
x (H ) d x = x (H ) d 3 x
dt
dt
t
= x ( H U) d 3 x x curl (( H U)U) d 3 x
t
x ( H B) d 3 x x curl (H v) d 3 x
x curl (H curl ) d 3 x
dU
+0+2
= 2
dt
B dS 2
S
v d x 2
dS,
where the last line follows by use of the identities (4.4.3). Thus, adopting sufx
notation,
d Ii
1 d
dUi
+ Bn i d S
xi ( v) d 3 x
(x )i d 3 x =
dt
2 dt
dt
S
V
xi dS.
(4.4.5)
S
2 i = 0,
on S.
v
3
Bn i d S =
div i
i v d 3 x
d x+
t
V
V
div(i ) d 3 x.
The rst and last integrals on the right are transformed further by the divergence
98
4 Vorticity
where Mi j = M ji
For the last
div(i ) d 3 x =
i dS.
Bn i d S in (4.4.5), we nd
d Ii
dUi Mi j dU j
=
+
X i v d 3 x X i dS.
dt
dt
0 dt
V
S
S
(4.4.6)
d Ii
dUi Mi j dU j
=
+
X i vrel d 3 x X i dS (4.4.7)
dt
dt
0 dt
V
S
where vrel = v U.
Equation (4.4.4) is now obtained by substituting from (4.4.7) into (4.4.1)
(recalling that m 0 = 0 ).
4.4.3 Stokes Drag on a Sphere
The rst term on the righthand side of (4.4.4) is the force necessary to accelerate
the added mass of the body.
The ith component of the viscous skin friction is
S ( dS)i S xi dS. Thus, (because X i = xi i ) the net
contribution of the normal pressure forces on S is represented in (4.4.4) by the
terms
X i vrel d 3 x + i dS.
0
V
99
(4.4.8)
in a reference frame moving with the sphere. Both the pressure and the vorticity
therefore satisfy Laplaces equation 2 p = 0, 2 = 0. By symmetry p must
vary linearly with and U x, and the condition that p should vanish at large
distances from the sphere supplies the dipole solution
U
Ux
p = C 3 C div
, x > a,
x
x
where C is a constant.
Similarly, must be a linear function of U x: the identity curl curl(U/
x) = grad div(U/x) and Equation (4.4.8) imply that = C curl (U/x)
C(U x)/x3 (x > a). The value of C is most easily found by substituting
this expression for into the BiotSavart formula (4.3.1) and evaluating the
righthand side at the centre x = 0 of the sphere, where v U. This yields
C = 3a/2, and therefore
3aU
, x > a.
(4.4.9)
= curl
2x
The net force F1 on the uid is in the x1 direction, and is given by the nal
integral on the right of (4.4.4). It is equal in magnitude to Ds + Dp , where
Ds and Dp are the respective components of the Stokes drag on the sphere
produced by the skin friction and the viscous surface pressure. For the sphere
1 = a 3 x1 /2x3 , and we readily calculate F1 = 6 U a, and
Ds = ( dS)1 = 4 U a,
Dp = 1 dS = 2 U a.
S
Dp = pn 1 d S p1 dS =
p 1 d 3 x
S
=
V
curl 1 d 3 x =
1 dS,
100
4 Vorticity
where (4.4.8) and the identity div(A B) = curl A B A curl B have been
used on the second line.
z = x + iy
is regular (analytic) in a region D of the zplane. The real and imaginary parts
(x, y) and (x, y) are solutions of Laplaces equation.
2
2
+ 2 = 0,
2
x
y
2
2
+
=0
2
x
y2
in D.
2
2
+
=0
X2
Y 2
in D .
101
=
,
x
y
=
,
y
x
which imply that = 0, i.e., that the streamlines intersect the equipotentials = constant at right angles. If v = (u, v), then the complex velocity
w (z) =
i
u iv
x
y
is also regular.
The fact that w(z) is a regular function of z can greatly simplify the solution
of many problems. This will be illustrated by consideration of two methods
based on the theory of complex variables.
Method 1 The real and imaginary parts of every regular function w(z) determine the velocity potential and stream function of a possible ow. A catalog
of ows can therefore be constructed by studying the properties of arbitrarily
selected w(z).
Example 1 w = U z, U = real constant:
= U x,
= U y.
102
4 Vorticity
(4.5.1)
At large distances from the origin w U z, and the motion becomes uniform
at speed U parallel to the x axis. In terms of the polar form z = r ei ,
a2
a2
w = U r ei + ei . Thus, = U cos r +
.
r
r
The radial component of velocity
a2
= U cos 1 2
r
r
vanishes at r = a. The motion therefore represents steady ow in the x direction past a rigid cylinder of radius a with centre at the origin (Fig. 4.5.1; c.f.,
Section 3.6).
Example 3
a2
w = iU z
z
, U = real constant, z > a > 0,
a2
, (4.5.2)
= U sin r +
r
Fig. 4.5.1.
103
1
ln z,
2
1
=
ln r, =
, z = r ei ,
2
2
r d = 1.
n ds =
r
0
C
The origin is therefore a simple source of unit strength. When the source is
situated at z 0 = x0 + i y0
1
1
1
ln(zz 0 ),
ln z z 0  =
ln (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 .
w=
=
2
2
2
Example 5 The function
w=
i
ln z,
2
=
, =
ln r, z = r ei ,
2
2
i
ln(z z 0 ).
2
1
(ln(z z 0 ) + ln(z z 0 )),
2
1
(ln r1 + ln r2 ) ,
=
2
104
4 Vorticity
Fig. 4.5.2.
i
i
ln(z z 0 ) +
ln(z z 0 ),
2
2
Fig. 4.5.3.
105
conditions, thereby permitting the solution in the Z plane to be found in a relatively straightforward manner. Point source and vortex singularities of the ow
are preserved under the transformation. Indeed, if Z = Z 0 is the image of a
vortex of strength at z = z 0 , the complex potential in the neighborhood of
Z 0 (where Z Z 0 f (z 0 )(z z 0 )) is determined by
i
ln(z z 0 ) + terms nite at z 0
2
Z Z0
i
ln
=
+ terms nite at Z 0
2
f (z 0 )
W(Z ) = w(z) =
i
ln(Z Z 0 ) + terms nite at Z 0 .
2
The vortex in the z plane therefore maps into an equal vortex at the image point
in the Z plane.
Example 8 Derive the following formula for the velocity potential of irrotational ow around the edge of the rigid halfplane x < 0, y = 0 in terms of
polar coordinates (r, ):
= r sin ,
2
= a real constant,
The transformation Z = i z maps the z plane cut along the negative real
axis (so that < arg z < ) onto the upper half of the Z plane. The complex
potential of ow in the positive X direction parallel to the boundary Y = 0 in the
Z plane corresponds to ow around the edge of the halfplane in the clockwise
sense, and has the general representation W = U Z , where U is real. In the z
plane this becomes
w = iU z U r sin
+ iU r cos
,
< < .
2
2
The polar representation of the velocity is therefore
1
U
,
v = (vr , v ) =
= sin , cos
.
r r
2
2
2 r
This satises the rigid wall condition on the halfplane because the component
of velocity normal to the wall is v , which vanishes at = . The streamlines
of the ow are the parabolas
x
r cos
= constant, i.e., y = 2 1 ,
2
106
4 Vorticity
Fig. 4.5.4.
where x < , being a positive constant, as shown in Fig. 4.5.4. When U > 0
uid particles travel along the parabolic streamlines around the edge in the
clockwise direction. The streamline for = 0 corresponds to the upper and
lower surfaces of the halfplane, which maps into the streamline Y = 0 on the
surface of the wall in the Z plane. The ow velocity becomes innite like 1/ r
as r 0 at the sharp edge.
107
i
ln(z z 0 ).
2
But the rotational ow around the core induced by the vortex cannot induce
motion in itself, and this potential must be removed from the complex potential
w(z) before calculating the convection velocity of the vortex.
In applications the complex potential w(z) usually arises in the form
w(z) =
i
ln( (z) (z 0 )) + F(z),
2
(4.6.1)
where (z), F(z) are regular functions of z in the neighborhood of the vortex
core at z = z 0 . In particular, when z z 0  is small we have
(z) = (z 0 ) + (z z 0 ) (z 0 ) +
(z z 0 )2
(z 0 ) + ,
2
where the primes denote differentiation with respect to z. Thus, subtracting the
selfpotential from w(z) we nd, near the vortex,
W (z) = w(z) +
i
ln(z z 0 )
2
i
i
ln( (z) (z 0 )) +
ln(z z 0 ) + F(z)
2
2
i
1
ln (z 0 ) + (z 0 )(z z 0 ) + F(z).
2
2
(4.6.2)
i
= W (z 0 ).
dt
dt
dt
Using (4.6.2) this becomes
d x02
i (z 0 )
d x01
i
=
+ F (z 0 ).
dt
dt
4 (z 0 )
(4.6.3)
The real and imaginary parts of this equation supply two nonlinear rstorder
ordinary differential equations for the position (x01 (t), x02 (t)) of the vortex at
time t.
108
4 Vorticity
4.6.1 Numerical Integration of the Vortex Path Equation
n
k1 = h f z 0 ,
k3 = h f z 0 + k2 ,
k2 = h f z 0 + k1 ,
2
2
n
k4 = h f z 0 + k3 ,
and then nd
z 0n+1 = z 0n + 16 (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 ).
Example 1 Calculate the trajectory of a line vortex of strength > 0 adjacent to
a rigid halfplane lying along the negative real axis (x1 < 0, x2 = 0; Fig. 4.6.1a).
The transformation
= i z,
z = x1 + i x2 ,
(4.6.4)
maps the uid region < arg z < into the upper half Im > 0 of the plane
(Fig. 4.6.1b). Let the vortex at z 0 (t) map into a vortex at = 0 (t). The velocity
potential w( ) of the motion in the plane is found by introducing an image
vortex of strength at = 0 (t), as described in Example 7 of Section 4.5,
in which case
w=
i
i
ln( 0 ) +
ln( 0 ).
2
2
i
i
ln( (z) (z 0 )) +
ln( (z) (z 0 )),
2
2
109
Fig. 4.6.1.
which is of the form (4.6.1). Hence, the equation of motion (4.6.3) becomes
d x02
i
d x01
i
i
=
.
+
dt
dt
8 z 0
4 z 0 [ z 0 + ( z 0 ) ]
This can be integrated in closed form. Let z 0 = r ei . Then the real and imaginary parts of the equation are
dr
d
d x01
cos
r sin
=
sin + tan
,
dt
dt
dt
8r
2
dr
d
d x02
sin
+ r cos
=
(cos + 1).
dt
dt
dt
8r
Therefore,
dr
=
tan ,
dt
8r
2
d
=
dt
4r 2
that is,
r
1
d
= 2 cot
dr
2
(4.6.5)
110
4 Vorticity
Fig. 4.6.2.
Thus,
1
r = sec ,
2
= constant.
(4.6.6)
This is the polar equation of the trajectory plotted in Fig. 4.6.2. The constant
length is equal to the distance of closest approach of the vortex to the edge
of the halfplane, which occurs at = 0. Substituting for r in the second of
equations (4.6.5), we nd
sec
d
=
.
dt
4 2
Thus, = 2 tan
t
8 2
,
Ut
2
,
x01
1 (U t/)2
=
,
1 + (U t/)2
= 2 tan
Ut
;
2U t/
x02
=
,
1 + (U t/)2
(4.6.7)
where U = 8
. Thus, (for > 0) the vortex starts above the halfplane at
t = at x01 = , x02 = 2 and translates towards the edge, initially at
speed U parallel to the plane. It crosses the x1 axis at t = 0 at x01 = , and
proceeds along a symmetrical path below the halfplane.
111
Fig. 4.6.3.
dt
2 (r 2 a 2 ) 2 z 0
2 z 0 (r 2 a 2 )
By multiplying by z 0 and adding the complex conjugate equation we see that
r = constant, and
r
ia 2 ei
d
d i
e
=
.
ir ei
dt
dt
2r (r 2 a 2 )
Therefore,
a 2
d
=
,
dt
2r 2 (r 2 a 2 )
and (for > 0) the vortex trajectory is a circle traversed in the clockwise direction at speed
v0 =
a 2
.
2r (r 2 a 2 )
(4.6.8)
112
4 Vorticity
Problems 4
D
v.
=
Dt
2. Use the relation (yi j (y, t) + y j i (y, t)) d 3 y = 0 to show that
1
1
1
3
3
(x
y)(y,
t)
d
y
=
y
.
y
(y,
t)
d
4x3
4 x
2
Deduce the formulae (4.3.3).
3. Calculate the added mass coefcients Mi j for an innite, rigid strip of width
2a.
4. Calculate the added mass coefcients Mi j for an innite, rigid cylinder of
radius a.
5. Calculate the unsteady lift and drag exerted on a rigid circular cylinder of
radius a produced by a parallel line vortex of circulation in the presence
of a uniform mean ow normal to the cylinder. Assume the motion is ideal
and that the net circulation around the cylinder vanishes.
6. Repeat Question 5 under the assumption that the vortex is convected solely
by the mean ow (i.e., when the induced component of the motion of
produced by image vortices in the cylinder is neglected).
7. A rigid sphere of radius a translates at constant velocity U = (U, 0, 0),
U > 0, along the x1 axis. Use the creeping ow approximation = curl
(3aU/2x), where the coordinate origin is taken at the center of the sphere,
to deduce the Stokes drag formula D = 6 U a.
8. A gas bubble in water is set into translational motion at velocity U(t) by
sound whose wavelength greatly exceeds the bubble radius. If the acoustic
particle velocity near the bubble would equal V(t) in the absence of the
bubble, show that U = 3V when the mass of the air within the bubble is
neglected.
9. Calculate the path of a line vortex of strength that is parallel to a rigid strip
occupying a < x1 < a, x2 = 0, < x3 < . Assume the uid is at rest
at innity and that there is no net circulation around the strip. Determine
the unsteady force on the strip.
10. Calculate the path of a line vortex of strength that is parallel to a rigid
elliptic cylinder of semimajor and minor axes respectively equal to a and
b. Assume the uid is at rest at innity and that there is no net circulation
around the cylinder.
Problems 4
113
5
Vortex Sound
u(x, t) = curl
(y, t) d 3 y
.
4 x y
(5.1.1)
1 D
= 0.
Dt
. Hence,
= 2
M 2,
Dt
Dt
c Dt
M=
u
.
c0
(5.1.2)
1 2
u
2
115
(5.1.3)
(5.1.4)
(5.1.5)
yi ( u) j
x
0 u 2 M 2 ,
y, t
d 3y
c0
x
x .
(5.1.6)
2
t
Take the scalar product with u
1 2
d p 1 2
u + div u
+ v +
t 2
2
t
= u u curl
= u + (div (u ) 2 )
116
5 Vortex Sound
1 2
u (y, t) d 3 y = (u + 2 )(y, t) d 3 y 2 u 3 M 2 +
,
t
2
Re
(5.1.7)
where Re = u/ typically exceeds 104 in turbulent ow. The two terms on
the righthand side nominally represent the dissipation of the turbulent motions
respectively by acoustic radiation and by viscous damping. (We have already
seen, however, in Chapter 2, Equation (2.2.5) that a more accurate estimate of
the radiation damping is 2 u 3 M 5 .)
Thus, when retarded time variations are neglected in (5.1.5), we nd
p2 (x, t)
0 u 2 M 2
0 u 2 M 4 +
,
x
x Re
2 (0 vi v j )
xi x j
2
as the independent acoustic variable, in place of Lighthills c02 ( 0 ). The total
enthalpy occurs naturally in Croccos form (4.2.3) of the momentum equation.
In the following we shall actually use the Approximation (4.2.5) of this equation,
in which the viscous term 43 (div v) is neglected. Indeed, the principal effect of
this term is to attenuate the sound once it has been generated and is propagating
to a distant observer in the sourcefree region of the ow. This attenuation can be
signicant in applications, but is of no particular interest when studying sound
generation mechanisms. All viscous stresses can be ignored in a high Reynolds
number source ow except possibly within surface boundary layers on bodies
117
immersed in the ow. But surface friction is dominated by the vorticity term
curl , which is retained in (4.2.5).
In irrotational ow Croccos equation (4.2.5) reduces to
v
= B.
t
In other words,
B=
in regions where = 0,
(5.2.1)
where (x, t) is the velocity potential that determines the whole motion in the irrotational regions of the uid. B is therefore constant in steady irrotational ow,
and at large distances from the acoustic sources perturbations in B represent
acoustic waves.
If the mean ow is at rest in the far eld, the acoustic pressure is given by
p = 0 B 0
.
t
(5.2.2)
2
Differentiating with respect to time and using Croccos equation (4.2.5), we have
B
v
1 p
=
v
t
t
t
B
v ( B v curl )
=
t
DB
+ v curl .
=
Dt
The small viscous correction can be ignored in high Reynolds number source
ows, where p and B can be taken to be related by
1 p
DB
=
.
t
Dt
(5.2.3)
118
5 Vortex Sound
The rst term on the left is expressed in terms of B by using the continuity
equation in the form
div v =
1 D
,
Dt
and writing
v
v
div
+ div v
=
t
t
t
1 D
v
=
t
t Dt
1
1
v
v
=
t
t t
t
t
D 1
=
Dt t
1 p
D
=
Dt c2 t
D 1 DB
,
=
Dt c2 Dt
where Equation (5.2.3) has been used on the last line. Substituting into (5.2.4)
and dividing by , we obtain the desired vortex sound equation for homentropic ow
D 1 D
1
1
()
B = div( v).
(5.2.5)
Dt c2 Dt
119
can vary with position only if the uid is bounded, either internally by an airfoil,
say, or externally by the walls of a duct of variable cross section (0 (x) can be
multiplevalued if the boundaries are multiply connected, but the mean velocity
is always singlevalued).
Consider an irrotational disturbance (x, t), and set
(x, t) = 0 (x) + (x, t).
It can be shown that the general, nonlinear equation satised by is
1 2
1 D
+ 2
2
2
c t
c Dt
1 1
1
2
2
() + 2
() 2 = 0.
2
c t 2
The linearized version of this equation describes the propagation of small amplitude sound waves determined by (x, t). However, when = 0 the linearized
equation for B = /t is more easily derived from (5.2.5), which
becomes
1
D 1 D
()
= 0.
(5.2.6)
Dt c2 Dt
+ U .
Dt
t
Furthermore, because the mean ow does not depend on time, we can take the
perturbation potential , rather than ,
as the acoustic variable. The linearized
equation then becomes
1
1
+ U
+
U
()
= 0,
t
c2 t
where c c(x) and (x) are the local sound speed and density in the steady
ow.
120
5 Vortex Sound
1 + O(M 2 ).
0
The vortex sound equation (5.2.5) can therefore be simplied by (a) taking
c = c0 , and = 0 , and (b) by neglecting nonlinear effects of propagation and
the scattering of sound by the vorticity. The production of sound is then governed
by the simpler equation
1 2
2
B = div( v),
(5.2.7)
c02 t 2
and in the far eld the acoustic pressure is given by the linearized approximation
p(x, t) 0 B(x, t).
(5.2.8)
Fig. 5.2.1.
121
at
x = s(t), where U = ! c0 .
Hence, because k (k s) = s,
v = !s(t)[(x s) (x + s)].
If this is expanded in powers of the radius of the circular orbit (and it can be
veried that this is equivalent to expanding the acoustic pressure in powers of
M = U/c0 1) the ith component of the rst nonzero term is
( v)i
2
(2!si (t)s j (t)(x)).
x i x j
The solution of the vortex sound equation (5.2.7) for this quadrupole source
is (c.f., (2.2.1))
2
1
x y (y) d 3 y
, y = (y1 , y2 ).
2! (si s j ) t
B=
4 x i x j
c0
x y
In the acoustic far eld, we use (1.9.7):
x j
1
2
2
x j
t
2
c0 (r + (x3 y3 ) )
1
where r = (x12 + x22 ) 2 is the perpendicular distance from the centroid of the
vortices (the x3 axis). Thus, by setting = y3 x3 , we can write in the acoustic
far eld, where B p/0 ,
1
0 !x i x j 2
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
d
(si s j ) t
r .
p
3 ,
2
2
2
c0
2 c0 t
(r + 2 ) 2
(5.2.9)
122
5 Vortex Sound
In this formula
2
(si s j )(t) =
2
1 + cos 2!t
sin 2!t
sin 2!t
,
1 cos 2!t
but the constant terms in the matrix can be omitted because of the time derivatives in (5.2.9). The integration in (5.2.9) can now be performed by the approximate method described below in Example 2 in the limit that !r/c0 ,
i.e., in the limit in which the radial distance r greatly exceeds the acoustic
wavelength
1
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
d
(si s j ) t
3
2
c
0
(r + 2 ) 2
sin 2![t] 4
2 c0 12 cos 2![t] 4
2
,
2r
!r
sin 2![t]
cos 2![t]
4
sin 2![t] 4
2 c0 12 cos 2![t] 4
x i x j 2
2r
!r
sin 2![t] 4 cos 2![t] 4 i j
cos 2![t] 4
sin 2![t] 4
2 c0 12
cos
=
(cos , sin )
sin
2 !r
sin 2![t] cos 2![t]
c0 12
,
cos 2 2![t] +
=
2 !r
4
r
cos
2
2!
t
+
!r
c0
4
c02
r
+
0 U 2 M 3/2 cos 2 2! t
= 4
,
r
c0
4
!r
.
c0
(5.2.10)
The amplitude of the sound decreases like 1/ r (instead of 1/r ) because the
waves are spreading cylindrically in two dimensions. The sound power must
now be calculated by considering the integral
p2
dS
0 c0
over the surface of a large circular cylinder r = constant. Taking the time
123
average, we can show that the acoustic power per unit length of the vortices
0 U 3 M 4 . This differs by a factor of the Mach number M from the power
radiated by a compact body of threedimensional turbulence, and is characteristic of the acoustic power produced by twodimensional regions of turbulence
in an unbounded uid.
5.2.5 Example 2
Show that
1
2 2
2 2 i (0 r + )
4 ,
ei0 r + d r f (0)
f
e
r
0 r
0r .
(5.2.11)
Put = r , then
2 2
2
ei0 r + d = r
I
f
f ()ei0 r 1+ d.
r
f ()ei0 r
= r f (0)ei0 r
2
0 r
1+2
12
d r f (0)ei0 r
ei0 r /2 d
2
e4,
d
i 2! r 2 + 2
2i!t
=e
e c0
3
2
(r + 2 ) 2
!r
1 c0 12 i [2!(t cr ) 4 ]
0
,
2
e
.
r
!r
c0
124
5 Vortex Sound
Hence,
1
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
d
cos 2! t
3
2
c
0
(r + 2 ) 2
1 c0 12
r
2
cos 2! t
r
!r
c0
4
1
(r 2 + 2 ) 2
d
sin 2! t
3
2
c
0
(r + 2 ) 2
1 c0 12
r
2
sin 2! t
.
r
!r
c0
4
Fig. 5.3.1.
125
form the inhomogeneous wave equation for the new variable H B. We use the
transformations
H 2 B H div ( B) = div(H B) H B
= 2 (H B) div(B H ) H B,
and H div( v) = div(H v) H v.
(5.3.1)
(5.3.2)
v
+ div( H ).
t
(5.3.3)
The sources on the right of this equation are either concentrated on the control
surface S+ or lie in the uid outside S+ ; they completely determine B outside
this control surface. The solution in this region can therefore be found by using
any Greens function G(x, y, t ) that satises
1 2
2
G = (x y)(t ), where G = 0 for t <
c02 t 2
for x and y anywhere within the uid. In Fig. 5.3.1 the uid occupies the region
V outside the surface S of the solid body; the control surface S+ ( f (x) = 0)
therefore lies within V .
126
5 Vortex Sound
V
div( H ) d 3 y d,
where all of the source terms within the brace brackets are functions of y and .
Those involving H vanish except on the control surface S+ . The divergence
terms are removed by application of the divergence theorem, and then using the
formula
3
() H d y =
() dS
V
S+
(see Section 2.3). Let us illustrate the procedure for the rst term in the brace
brackets of the integrand
G{div(B H )} d 3 y = {div(G B H ) BG H } d 3 y
V
G B H dS +
=
S+
BG H d 3 y
V
BG dS
= 0+
S+
B(y, )
S+
G
(x, y, t ) d S(y),
yn
where all vector operators are with respect to the y dependence, and is a
large, closed surface at innity where = 0. There are no contributions from
S and because H = 0 everywhere except on S+ .
The general solution in the region f > 0 outside S+ accordingly becomes
vn
G
(y, ) dS(y) d
B(x, t) =
(x, y, t ) + G(x, y, t )
B(y, )
yn
S+
G
(x, y, t ) d 3 y d
H ( f (y))( v)(y, )
y
V
G
(x, y, t ) dS(y) d,
(5.3.4)
(y, )
+
y
S+
where for brevity we have omitted the integration sign for , which is understood
to vary over the range < < .
127
G
3
B(x, t) = ( v)(y, )
(x, y, t ) d y d + (y, )
y
V
S
G
vn
(x, y, t ) dS(y) d + G(x, y, t )
(y, ) dS(y) d,
S
G
where
(x, y, t ) = 0 on S. (5.3.5)
yn
In the acoustic far eld (x ) we can replace B(x, t) by p(x, t)/0 .
The rst integral represents the production of sound by vortex sources distributed within the uid. Greens function takes full account of the inuence
of the body on the efciency with which these sources generate sound. The
second, surface integral involving the surface vorticity is the contribution from
frictional forces on S. To interpret the nal term, recall that the control surface
S+ was taken to be xed in space. This means that uid can ow through the
surface. When S+ shrinks down to S the implication is that S is also xed in
space. However, the normal velocity vn can still be nonzero if the surface of the
body is vibrating at small amplitude, and this term in the solution is actually
identical with that given previously in (3.8.2) for a vibrating body in the absence
of vortex sources.
In connection with this, it should also be noted that the reciprocal theorem
implies that the normal derivative conditions
G
(x, y, t ) = 0,
yn
G
(x, y, t ) = 0
xn
respectively for y, x on S,
relative to the contribution from the volume vorticity (the rst integral), where
is the characteristic length scale of the turbulence or body and v is a typical
velocity. At high Reynolds numbers the surface term can therefore be discarded,
and in the important case in which the body does not vibrate the acoustic far
128
5 Vortex Sound
( v)(y, )
V
G
(x, y, t ) d 3 y d.
y
(5.3.6)
+
t
,
4 x
c0
4c0 x2
c0
x ,
where the prime denotes differentiation with respect to t. The rst term in this
approximation, which is independent of y, clearly makes no contribution to the
rst two integrals in (5.3.5). It makes a contribution to the nal surface integral
only if the volume of the body is pulsating. When this happens the resulting
monopole radiation from the body is usually large compared to all other sources.
We shall, therefore, ignore this possibility, and consider only surface vibrations
for which the volume of S is constant; in particular we shall assume that S
vibrates as a rigid body. In this case, therefore, the rst approximation in the
Greens function expansion can again be discarded.
Substituting into (5.3.5) and performing the integrations with respect to ,
we nd in the acoustic far eld (where B = p/0 )
0 x j
p(x, t)
4 c0 x2 t
( v) Y j d y
Y j dS(y)
Un
Y j d S(y) ,
t
(5.4.1)
where the large square brackets ([ ]) denote that the enclosed quantity is to be
evaluated at the retarded time t x/c0 , and Un is the normal component of
velocity of vibration of S.
129
Un
dUi
(n i y j n i j ) d S
0
Y j d S = 0
dt S
S t
dUi
,
= (m 0 i j + Mi j )
dt
where if the body has volume , then m 0 = 0 is the mass of uid displaced
by the body, and Mi j is the added mass tensor of the body (see (3.8.6)).
The solution (5.4.1) can therefore be written
x j
3
(
v)
Y
d
y
Y j dS(y)
p(x, t)
0
j
4c0 x2 t
S
dUi
.
(5.4.2)
(m 0 i j + Mi j )
dt
Reference to Equation (4.4.4) shows that this can also be written
xj
Fj
p(x, t)
4c0 x2 t
m 0 x j 2U j
x
x
t
+
t
,
c0
4 c0 x2 t 2
c0
x ,
(5.4.3)
where F(t) is the unsteady force exerted on the uid by the body. This is just
our earlier conclusion (2.4.2) derived from Curles equation, with the addition
of the uiddisplacement effect of the vibrating body, and is equivalent to the
solution (3.8.10) obtained in the absence of vorticity.
The relative contributions from the volume and surface distributions of vorticity in (5.4.2) (respectively the rst and second integrals) for turbulence of
length scale and velocity v are estimated respectively by
0 v 2 M
x
and 0 v 2 M
v
1
, Re =
.
x Re
Thus, in high Reynolds number turbulent ows the surface frictional contribution to the dipole force F can usually be neglected. For a nonvibrating compact
body the principal component of the acoustic pressure in the far eld is therefore
130
5 Vortex Sound
given by
p(x, t)
0 x j
4 c0 x2 t
x
( v) y, t
Y j (y) d 3 y, x .
c0
(5.4.4)
(5.5.1)
4 x ky3 
c0
x j Y j
x ky3 
t
+
4 c0 x ky3 2
c0
x ky3 
1
t
4 x
c0
x j Y j
x ky3 
+
t
, x . (5.5.2)
4 c0 x2
c0
For example, when a stationary cylindrical body interacts with high Reynolds
number ow at low Mach number, the monopole term in (5.5.2) can be discarded
as before, and the acoustic pressure given by (5.3.6) becomes
0 x j
x ky3 
(
v)
y,
t
Y j (y) d 3 y, x .
p(x, t)
4 c0 x2 t
c0
(5.5.3)
The sound is produced by dipole sources orientated in the lift and drag directions
131
when x
,
where is the length scale of the interaction region (the body), and
(x, t) = div
I(t)
4 x
where I(t) =
1
2
y (y, t) d 3 y.
(5.6.1)
This expression for (x, t) denes the incompressible motion in the irrotational region far from the body. It is the velocity potential of a hydrodynamic
dipole that will be recognized as the acoustic near eld of an outgoing acoustic
dipole representing sound production by the ow (see Equations (1.7.4) and
(1.7.9)). The acoustic dipole is found simply by replacing I(t) in (5.6.1) by
I(t x/c0 ). At large distances from the body (where the undisturbed uid is
stationary) the pressure p(x, t) = 0 /t, and this procedure therefore leads
to the following formula for the sound in terms of the vorticity:
1 Ij
(t x/c0 )
4 x t
0 x j 2 I j
x
, x
4c0 x2 t 2
c0
0 x j 2
x
(y
)
=
y,
t
d 3 y.
j
8c0 x2 t 2
c0
p(x, t) 0
x j
(5.6.2)
132
5 Vortex Sound
The impulse I is constant for vorticity in an unbounded uid (when compressibility is ignored). We know that the sound is now generated by quadrupole
sources and that it can be represented in terms of the vorticity as in (5.1.6).
Mohring (1978) has shown that it is also possible to express the quadrupole
sound as a thirdorder time derivative of a secondorder moment of the vorticity, analogous to the rst order moment in (5.6.2) (see Problems 5),
namely
p(x, t)
0 x i x j 3
12c02 x3 t 3
yi (y ) j (y, t x/c0 ) d 3 y,
x .
(5.6.3)
Problems 5
1. Kirchhoffs spinning vortex: A columnar vortex parallel to the x3 axis
has elliptic cross section dened by the polar equation r = a{1 + cos(2
!t/2)}, where 1 and ! is the uniform vorticity in the core. The ellipse
rotates at angular velocity 14 !, and the velocity distribution within the core
is given by
1
v = (v1 , v2 ) = !r (sin + sin( !t/2), cos + cos( !t/2)).
2
2
(Ti j (x1 )(x2 )), i, j = 1, 2
xi x j
Problems 5
where
!2 a 4
Ti j =
8
cos(!t/2)
sin(!t/2)
133
sin(!t/2)
cos(!t/2)
r
2 3/2
0 U M cos 2
p
+
t
,
8
r
2
c0
4
!r
,
c0
3
d S
0
2
p
(3 cos 1)
,
dt 3
12c02 x
"
where S(t) = n n Rn2 X n .
x ,
134
5 Vortex Sound
0 U 2 M 2 R(3 cos2 1)
8 3
x
ab
2
x
t
,
cos
a+b
(a + b)2
c0
where U =
,
a+b
M=
U
.
c0
(y j A)
yj
1 2
2
for t < ,
Problems 5
135
Deduce that
G(x, y, t ) =
H (t x y/c0 )
, x = (x1 , x2 ), y = (y1 , y2 ),
2 (t )2 (x y)2 c02
H (t x y/c0 )
.
6. Consider sound production by a compact distribution of vorticity in an unbounded twodimensional ow (independent of x3 ), where the vorticity
is parallel to the k direction (the x3 axis). Show that
1
yi ( v) j dy1 dy2
yi (y ) j dy1 dy2 , where i, j = 1, 2.
2 t
Deduce Mohrings (1980) twodimensional representation
0 xi x j 3
p(x, t)
4 c02 x2 t 3
0 x i x j
4 c02 x2
dy1 dy2
c0 3
2x t 3
tx/c0
dy1 dy2
yi (y ) j (y, ) d
(t )2 x2 c02
tx/c0
yi (y ) j (y, ) d
,
t x/c0
x .
7. Use the result of Problem 6 to derive the Solution (5.2.10) for the sound
produced by a spinning vortex pair.
8. Use the result of Problem 6 to solve Problem 1.
6
VortexSurface Interaction Noise
in Two Dimensions
for t < ,
(6.1.3)
137
Similarly, the compact Greens function for a cylindrical body (with generators parallel to x3 )
X Y
1
t
,
G(x, y, t ) =
4 X Y
c0
H (t x/c0 )
x Y
=
2 c0 t
(x2 + 2 ) x2 + 2
2
c
2
2
0
x Y
H (t x/c0 )
.
=
2 c0 t (t ) c2 (t )2 x2
0
c0 (t ) x
138
We shall henceforth in this chapter regard all space vectors as twodimensional, such as x = (x1 , x2 ), y = (y1 , y2 ), and drop the overbar on x and the
subscript 2 on G 2 and soforth. The dipole component of the twodimensional
compact Greens function then becomes
xY
H (t x/c0 )
G(x, y, t )
, x .
2 c0 t (t ) c2 (t )2 x2
0
(6.1.4)
In contrast to the threedimensional Greens function, which is nonzero only
on a spherically expanding wavefront, G has an innite peak at the wavefront
where t x/c0 = 0 followed by a slowly decaying tail. At any point x
in the far eld the rst sound arrives from the nearest point on the line source
of (6.1.3), after propagating along a ray perpendicular to the source over a
distance equal to x, and therefore after a time delay x/c0 ; but the observer at x
receives sound continuously after the passage of this wavefront, generated at
more distant sections of the innitely long line source; the wavefront arrives at
time + x/c0 , and at a later time t sound is received from those source points
whose distance from x is equal to c0 (t ).
The fareld representation (6.1.4) can be approximated further by expanding
about the wavefront (where t = x/c0 ), which contains most of the acoustic
energy. Just to the rear of the wavefront
(t ) c02 (t )2 x2 (t ) c0 (t ) + x c0 (t ) x
x
x
xY
3
2 2c0 x 2 t
H (t x/c0 )
, x , (6.1.5)
t x/c0
3
t x/c0
2c0 x 2 t
139
tx/c0
0 x j
3
t x/c0
2 2c0 x 2 t
( v Y j )(y, ) dy1 dy2 , x .
(6.2.1)
p(x, t)
3
2 2c0 x 2 t
xj
tx/c0
F j ( ) d
, x ,
t x/c0
(6.2.2)
where F j is the force per unit length of the cylinder exerted on the uid in the
j direction.
In these twodimensional problems the vorticity is directed along the x3
axis, out of the plane of the paper in Fig. 6.2.1 and parallel to the generators of
the cylinder. Let k be a unit vector in this direction and consider a line vortex
of strength whose position and translational velocity are
x = x0 (t),
v=
dx0
(t).
dt
140
Fig. 6.2.1.
so that
v = k v(x x0 (t)) k
dx0
(t)(x x0 (t)),
dt
(6.2.3)
and (6.2.1) yields the following general formula for the acoustic pressure as
x :
p(x, t)
dx0
d
( ) Y j (x0 ( ))
k
d
t x/c0
tx/c0
0 x j
d x01 Y j
d
d x02 Y j
=
3
d y2
d y1 x0 ( ) t x/c0
2 2c0 x 2 t
(6.2.4)
0 x j
3
2 2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
141
Fig. 6.2.2.
clockwise direction in Fig. 6.2.2 at the speed given by (4.6.8) when r is replaced
by r0 . Then,
v=
dx0
(t) = !k x0 (t),
dt
!=
a 2
,
2r02 r02 a 2
dx0
= !k (k x0 ) = !x0 .
dt
3
2 2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
Y j
d
(x0 ( ))
,
r
t x/c0
(6.2.5)
where r = y12 + y22 is the radial distance from the cylinder axis.
Table 3.9.1 supplies the components of the twodimensional Kirchhoff vector
for the cylinder:
a2
,
Y1 = cos r +
r
a2
Y2 = sin r +
,
r
142
we nd
so that
xj
Y j
a2
(x0 ( )) = x 1 2 cos( ! ),
r
r0
0 !r0
2 (2c0 x)
1
2
a2
r02
tx/c0
cos( ! ) d
.
t x/c0
tx/c0
cos( ! ) d
=
t x/c0
!
12
x
cos ! t
c0
4
sin
!
t
1
c0
4
2(2 c0 x) 2
2
r0 r0 2
x
a2
2
= 0 U M
1 2 sin ! t
,
2x a
c0
4
r0
3
p(x, t)
0 ! 2 r0
a2
r02
x ,
(6.2.6)
The acoustic waves decay like 1/ x with distance, which is appropriate
for energy spreading two dimensionally in cylindrically diverging
waves, and
have the characteristic dipole amplitude proportional to 0 U 2 M. In three
2
dimensions
the pressure would be proportional to 0 U M, which is smaller by
a factor M when M 1. The increased amplitude in two dimensions is a
consequence of the innite extent of the vortex source parallel to the cylinder.
At any particular retarded time t x/c0 , the acoustic amplitude has the doublelobed directivity pattern illustrated in Fig. 1.7.1b for a dipole. Because ! < 0,
the peaks of these lobes at a xed distance x from the cylinder rotate in the
clockwise direction at angular velocity ! following the orbiting vortex, but
with a phase lag of /4 radians. The reader can conrm that the instantaneous
force exerted on the uid by the cylinder lies in the direction of the vector x0 (t)
143
joining the center of the cylinder to the vortex. The radiation peak therefore
also lags by /4 the peak in the retarded surface force.
sin(/2) (y)
x
, x ,
t
c0
x
where x = x(cos , sin ), the coordinates being dened as in Fig. 4.6.2. This
is applicable when the distance r0 from the edge of the source at (y1 , y2 ) =
r0 (cos 0 , sin 0 ) is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. For a line vortex
at (r0 , 0 ) the characteristic frequency v/r0 , where v is the vortex translational
velocity. The wavelength is therefore of order
r0
r0
c0 =
r0
v
M
for M =
v
1,
c0
so that low Mach number motion is sufcient to ensure that the wavelength of
the sound is much larger than the vortex distance from the edge.
Thus, adopting the notation of (6.2.3) and applying (6.1.1) in two dimensions
(Greens function being given by (6.2.7)), we nd
dx0
0 sin(/2)
( ) (y)(y x0 ( ))
k
p(x, t)
d
x
x
dy1 dy2 d
t
c0
0 sin(/2)
dx0
, x ,
(6.2.8)
=
k
dt
x
where on the second line the term in the square brackets is evaluated at the
retarded position x0 (t x/c0 ) of the vortex.
Now is the velocity potential of an ideal ow around the edge of the
halfplane in the anticlockwise sense (with streamlines as in Fig. 6.2.3). It is
144
Fig. 6.2.3.
w = + i = i z,
z = y1 + i y2 ,
=
.
y2
y1
dt
Dt
x
x
(6.2.9)
where [D /Dt] is evaluated at the retarded position of the vortex.
145
Fig. 6.2.4.
0
.
= r0 cos
2
Therefore,
r0
0
0 d0
1 dr0
D
=
cos
sin
,
+
Dt
2 r0 dt
2
2
2 dt
where r0 , 0 are given by (4.6.7) (in which r is replaced by r0 and by 0 ).
Performing the calculations we nd (see Fig. 6.2.4)
0 2
p(x, t)
(4 )2
x
12
t/8 2
sin
, x ,
2
[1 + (t/8 2 )2 ]5/4 tx/c0
where is the distance of closest approach of the vortex to the edge (where it
crosses the x1 axis at time t = 0 in Fig. 4.6.2).
146
Fig. 6.2.3 be in the indicated anticlockwise sense, so that uid near the edge
is induced to ow in a clockwise direction around the edge, as implied by
the dashed curve in the gure. When the Reynolds number is large, inertial
forces actually cause the ow to separate from the edge, resulting in the release
of vorticity of opposite sign from the edge into the wake. Let us assume for
simplicity that this shed vorticity rolls up into a concentrated core of strength
s . Equation (6.2.9) then supplies the following prediction for the net acoustic
pressure
D
0 sin(/2)
D
+ s
p(x, t)
, x ,
Dt
Dt s
x
where the derivatives are evaluated at the retarded positions of and s respectively. Both vortices translate across the curves = constant in the direction
of decreasing , and the derivatives therefore have the same sign. Hence, because and s have opposite signs, sound produced by the shed vortex will
tend to cancel the edgegenerated sound attributable to the incident vortex
alone.
This conclusion is applicable to a wide range of uidstructure interactions. A
typical interaction involves a bounded region of vorticity, called a gust, swept
along in a nominally steady mean ow. The localized velocity eld of the gust
is determined by the BiotSavart formula (4.3.1). At high mean ow speeds
it is sometimes permissible to neglect changes in the relative conguration
of the vorticity distribution during its convection past an observation point,
the vorticity is then said to be frozen (at least temporarily) and the induced
velocity is steady in a frame translating with the gust. If the mean ow carries
the gust past the surface S of a stationary body, the free eld induced velocity
determined by the BiotSavart integral is said to produce an upwash velocity on
S; the actual velocity consists of the upwash velocity augmented by the velocity
eld required to satisfy the noslip condition on S. (In an ideal uid only the
normal component of the upwash velocity is cancelled on S.)
When a gust convects past a stationary airfoil the high Reynolds number
surface force (responsible for the sound) is given by (see (4.4.4))
Yi (y) ( v)(y, t) d 3 y, Yi = yi i (y).
(6.3.1)
Fi = 0
V
The vector Yi is the velocity of an ideal ow past the airfoil that has unit
speed in the i direction at large distances from the airfoil. It is singular (or very
large) at the edges of the airfoil. These singularities have the following signicance, when the vorticity length scale is small compared to the airfoil chord the
147
(6.3.3)
148
Fig. 6.3.1.
sheet of vorticity
I = k(x2 h)ei(tx1 /U ) ,
h > 0,
> 0,
is convected past the airfoil at perpendicular distance h, where is the circulation per unit length of the sheet. The vortex sheet can be regarded as an
elementary model of a periodic wake behind a small diameter circular cylinder upstream of the airfoil. The gust upwash velocity induces the shedding of
vorticity S from the trailing edge of the airfoil. When the reduced frequency
a/U is large the hydrodynamic wavelength 2U/ of the gust and wake is
much smaller than the airfoil chord, and the surface force is produced primarily
by the gust interaction with the leading edge at x1 = a.
The net force F2 (per unit span) on the uid in the x2 direction can therefore
be calculated from (6.3.1) by setting = I , where
I v = U j(x2 h)ei(tx1 /U ) ,
(j being a unit vector in the x2 direction) and by replacing Y2 by the righthand
side of (6.3.3):
Y2
(y)(y2 h)ei(ty1 /U ) dy1 dy2
F2 = 0 U
y
2
i
0 U 2a
Re
ei(ty1 /U ) dy1
2 y1 + i h + a
1
U 2 h/U i(t+a/U )
= 0 U a
e
.
(6.3.4)
2ia
The force can also be calculated exactly from linearized thin airfoil theory
with proper account taken of vortex shedding. This is the gust loading problem
149
2
H0(1) (x)
.
+ i H1(1) (x)
(6.3.6)
a
U
iU
2 a
12
eia/U ,
and the substitution of this into (6.3.5) yields the prediction (6.3.4) determined
by the leading edge singularity of Y2 . The plots in Fig. 6.3.2 of the real and
imaginary parts of S(a/U ) and its asymptotic limit show that the approximation (6.3.4) and the exact value (6.3.5) of the surface force agree when
a/U > 1.
Fig. 6.3.2.
150
Linear theory does not permit the corresponding force component at the
leading edge to be removed by vorticity production at the edge, because it requires vorticity shed there to be swept over the rigid surface of the airfoil on
which it cannot inuence the force because v Y2 0.
v = U i.
Hence,
v = U j(x1 U t)(x2 h),
(6.4.1)
where i and j are unit vectors in the x1 and x2 directions. The acoustic pressure
Fig. 6.4.1.
151
Y1 = y1 ,
z = y1 + i y2 .
0 U x2
3
2 2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
0 U cos
=
1
2 2c0 x 2 t
Y2
d
(U , h)
,
y2
t x/c0
tx/c0
Y2
d
(U , h)
,
y2
t x/c0
x ,
(6.4.2)
where = cos1 (x2 /x) is the angle between the radiation direction x and
the normal to the airfoil (the x2 axis). The sound can be attributed to a dipole
source orientated in the x2 direction.
The radiation produced when a vortex passes very close to the airfoil (so that
h a) is likely to be particularly intense. The dominant interactions occur as
the vortex passes the edges, where the time scales of the motions h/U . Thus,
the characteristic frequency
U
h
a
a
1.
U
h
We may therefore regard the leading and trailing edges as independent sources
of sound, and calculate their individual contributions by using the local approximation (6.3.2). For the acoustic pressure pLE , say, produced at the leading edge
(x1 = a) we take
Y2 Re ( 2a z + a),
so that (6.4.2) becomes
pLE
0 U cos
1
2 2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
Re
i 2a
1
2(U + i h + a) 2
d
, x .
t x/c0
t x/c0 and
152
!
1
0 U cos a 2
i
Re
d
1
2 c0
x
t 0
(U [t] + i h + a U 2 ) 2
!
1
i
0 U 2 cos a 2
=
Re
d,
3
4 c0
x
(U [t] + i h + a U 2 ) 2
0
where
[t] = t
x
.
c0
The additional substitution = 1/ transforms the integrand into an exact differential, leading nally to
!
1
i
0 U 2 cos a 2
Re
d
pLE
3
4 c0
x
[(U [t] + i h + a) 2 U ] 2
0
U [t]
1
+1
0 U M cos a 2
a
=
U [t]
2 2 , x , (6.4.3)
4a
x
+1 + h
a
where M = U/c0 .
The corresponding nondimensional pressure signature
&
1
0 U M cos a 2
pLE
4a
x
is plotted in Fig. 6.4.2 as the solid curve when h/a = 0.2. The pressure eld
Fig. 6.4.2.
153
is generated predominantly as the vortex passes the leading edge of the airfoil at the retarded time [t] = a/U , with characteristic frequency U/ h.
According to Section 6.3, at high reduced frequencies the sound pressure pTE ,
say, generated by the potential ow interaction of the vortex with the trailing
edge is cancelled by that produced by the wake vorticity; the solid curve in
Fig. 6.4.2 is therefore representative of the whole of the radiation produced by
the bladevortex interaction.
To determine pTE the calculation described above for pLE is repeated after
setting
Y2 = Re(i 2a z a)
in (6.4.2), leading to
pTE
0 U cos
4 c0
a
x
12
tx/c0
Re
1
1
(U + i h a) 2
d
t x/c0
h
1
0 U M cos a 2
a
=
2 h 2 ,
U [t]
4a
x
1
+ a
a
x .
(6.4.4)
This is large at the retarded times during which the vortex is close to the trailing
edge. Thus, when the contribution from the wake is ignored (which is equal
and opposite to pTE ) the overall acoustic pressure signature is given nondimensionally by
&
( pLE + pTE )
0 U
M cos
4a
a
x
12
154
x2 + 2
c0
d
,
(x2 + 2 )
derive the fareld approximation (6.1.5) for the dipole component of the
twodimensional compact Greens function by writing
2 2
x2 + 2
1
i(t xc + )
0
d,
e
t
=
c0
2
and applying Formula (5.2.11).
2. Investigate the production of sound by the low Mach number motion of a
line vortex of strength that is parallel to a rigid circular cylinder of radius a
whose axis coincides with the x3 coordinate axis (c.f., Section 4.6, Example
2). Assume that there is no net circulation around the cylinder, and that there
is a mean ow past the cylinder which has speed U in the x1 direction when
x1 
a. If the vortex is initially far upstream of the cylinder at a distance
h from the x1 axis, examine the production of sound for different values of
the nondimensional parameter /U h.
3. A line vortex of strength is parallel to a rigid airfoil occupying a < x1 < a,
x2 = 0, < x3 < , in the presence of a mean ow at speed U in the
x1 direction. The vortex is initially far upstream of the airfoil at a vertical
standoff distance h above the plane of the airfoil. There is no net circulation
around the airfoil. If the motion occurs at very small Mach number, calculate
the sound produced when the vortex passes the airfoil for different values
of the nondimensional velocity ratio /U h. When U
/ h, estimate the
inuence on the sound of vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the airfoil.
4. A line vortex of strength is parallel to a rigid airfoil occupying
a < x1 < a,
x2 = 0,
< x3 <
in uid at rest at innity. The vortex is in periodic motion around the airfoil
under the inuence of image vortices in the absence of a mean circulation
around the airfoil. Calculate the sound produced when the motion occurs at
a very small Mach number, and show that it can be attributed to two dipole
sources orientated in the x1 and x2 directions. Explain the signicance of
these sources in terms of the corresponding components of the unsteady
force between the uid and airfoil.
Problems 6
155
7
Problems in Three Dimensions
1 2
2
B = div( U),
c02 t 2
156
(7.1.1)
157
Fig. 7.1.1.
with solution
p(x, t)
B(x, t) =
( U)(y, )
G
(x, y, t ) d 3 y d , x ,
y
(7.1.2)
where G/ y2 = 0 on both sides (y2 = 0) of the projection of the airfoil planform onto the y1 , y3 plane. At sufciently small Mach numbers G may be
approximated by Greens function for an airfoil of compact chord.
The sound produced when a localized, high Reynolds number frozen gust
(xUt) (x1 U t, x2 , x3 ) is swept past the airfoil of Fig. 7.1.1 is therefore
given by (5.4.4) with the convection velocity v replaced by U, and the Kirchhoff
vector Y by
Y1 = y1 ,
Thus, because
p(x, t)
Y2 = y2 2 (y),
Y3 = y3 .
0 U cos
4c0 x t
3
Y2
Y2
2
y2
y3
d 3 y, x ,
tx/c0
(7.1.3)
where = cos1 (x2 /x) is the angle between the radiation direction and the
normal to the airfoil, and the origin is taken in the airfoil within the interaction
region.
Let the interaction occur at an inboard location where the chord may be
regarded as constant, with both the leading and trailing edges at right angles to
the mean ow (so that Y2 / y3 Y2 / y2 ). The planform in the interaction
158
Fig. 7.2.1.
region is then locally the same as that of the twodimensional airfoil of Fig. 7.2.1,
and Y2 can be approximated as in (3.9.2) for constant a a(y3 ), such that 2a
is equal to the local chord of the airfoil. Then, (7.1.3) becomes
p(x, t)
0 U cos
4 c0 x t
3
Y2
y2
d 3 y, x ,
(7.1.4)
tx/c0
which reveals that only the spanwise component of vorticity contributes to the
production of sound.
According to Equation (5.4.3) (in which dU j /dt = 0 for a stationary airfoil),
this result can also be expressed in the form
cos F2
x
p(x, t)
, x ,
t
4c0 x t
c0
Y2
F2 (t) = 0 U 3 (y, t)
(y) d 3 y,
y2
(7.2.5)
where F2 is the unsteady airfoil lift during the interaction when the motion
is regarded as incompressible, and the vorticity 3 includes contributions from
the impinging gust together with any shed into the vortex sheet wake.
159
form
x = (U t, 0, 0) + sn,
< s < ,
(7.2.1)
where s is distance measured along the vortex from its point of intersection
with the plane of the airfoil. Then, if s denotes vector distance measured in
the normal direction from the vortex axis,
= n(s ),
where the polar angles , in Figure 7.2.1 dene the orientation of the unit
vector
n = (sin cos , sin sin , cos ), 0 < < , 0 < < 2.
Because of vortex shedding from the trailing edge, most of the sound is
generated when the vortex is cut by the leading edge. The inuence of the shed
vorticity can be formally included by the procedure described in Sections 6.3
and 6.4 by expanding Y2 about its singularity at the leading edge, that is, by
setting
Y2 Re( 2a z + a), z = y1 + i y2 ,
with the branch cut for the square root taken along the z axis from z = a to
z = +. Thus, by recalling the Relation (7.2.1), Equation (7.1.4) becomes
!
i 2a
n 3 0 U cos
p(x, t)
Re
(s )
d 2 s ds
4 c0 x
t
2 y1 + i y2 + a
tx/c0
i a
n 3 0 U cos
=
Re
ds
U [t] + s(n 1 + in 2 ) + a
4 2c0 x t
i a
n 3 0 U 2 cos
Re
=
ds
3
8 2 c0 x
(U [t] + s(n 1 + in 2 ) + a) 2
i a
n 3 0 U 2 cos
Re
,
=
1
4 2c0 x
(U [t] + s(n 1 + in 2 ) + a) 2 (n 1 + in 2 )
(7.2.2)
160
Fig. 7.2.2.
before the vortex is cut by the leading edge of the airfoil. At later times the
integration along the vortex axis over the innite range < s < must be
split, as indicated in the gure, into the two parts < s < 0, +0 < s < ,
because the square root in the last line of (7.2.2) is discontinuous across the
airfoil; for example, when n 2 > 0 the square root is real and positive on the
upper surface (s = +0) and real and negative at s = 0. Hence, the acoustic
pressure becomes
U [t]
0 U M cos sin H a + 1
.
(7.2.3)
p(x, t)
3
tan
U [t]
2 2 x
+1
a
The pressure pulse accordingly begins with a singular peak at the instant at
which the vortex is severed by the leading edge of the airfoil at the retarded time
U [t]/a = 1. The waveform is illustrated by the dotted curve in Fig. 7.2.3,
which is a plot of
U [t]
sin H a + 1
p(x, t)
= 3
for = 85 , = 90 .
(0 U M cos /x)
U
[t]
2
2 tan
+1
a
as a function of distance s from the vortex axis, the acoustic pressure is found
161
Fig. 7.2.3.
(0 U M cos /x)
8 tan R
(7.2.4)
where
2
2
1
2
() =  2 I 14
+ sgn()I 14
e /8 ,
8
8
2a sin 
,
R Ua[t] + 1
and I 14 are modied Bessel functions of the rst kind. The pressure signature
predicted by (7.2.4) for
R = 0.1a,
= 85 ,
= 90
is plotted as the solid curve in Fig. 7.2.3, and differs negligibly from the line
vortex prediction when U [t]/a > 1.
The brokenline curve in Fig. 7.2.3 represents the pressure signature produced
by the potential ow interaction between the nite core vortex and airfoil (i.e.,
when vortex shedding is ignored). It is an odd function of the retarded time
[t]. The large negative peak produced as the vortex crosses the trailing edge (at
U [t]/a = 1) is cancelled by an equal and opposite contribution generated by the
wake. The reader can easily show that, when the nite size of the vortex core is
162
ignored, the potential ow, trailing edge generated pressure pulse is given by
U [t]
0 U M cos sin H 1 a
p(x, t)
.
3
tan
2 2 x
1 U [t]
a
(7.3.1)
where X 1 (x) is the x1 component of the Kirchhoff vector for the sphere, which
has the general form (Table 3.9.1)
a3
X i = xi 1 +
.
2x3
(7.3.2)
X1
d x2
=U
(x),
dt
x2
X1
d x3
=U
(x),
dt
x3
163
Fig. 7.3.1.
for each element of the vortex. If the undistorted parts of the vortex (at x3 
a)
are assumed to convect across the plane x1 = 0 at time t = 0, these equations
are to be integrated subject to the initial conditions
x1 = U t,
x2 = h,
x3 = x30
t ,
Ut
,
a
x =
x
,
a
3x 1 x 2
d x 2
=
5 ,
dT
2 x 12 + x 22 + x 32 2
3x 1 x 3
d x 3
=
5 .
dT
2
2 x 1 + x 22 + x 32 2
These are solved (for example, by the RungeKutta method described in
Section 4.6) by starting the integration at T = 10, say. It can be safely assumed
that the sphere has no perceptible inuence on vortex elements initially located
at x 3  > 10. Because the motion is symmetric about x 3 = 0 the solutions are
required only for the N + 1 vortex elements with respective the initial positions
x 1 = T ,
x 2 =
h
,
a
x 3 = x 3n at T = 10,
164
Fig. 7.3.2.
Figure 7.3.2 illustrates successive calculated positions of the vortex with increasing values of the time T = U t/a for the case h/a = 0.2. The distortion of
the vortex rst becomes evident at about T = 2. The hairpin loop is formed
because the translation velocities of vortex elements close to the sphere are small
in the neighborhood of the stagnation points just in front and just to the rear of the
sphere; the accelerated motion over the upper surface of the sphere is insufcient
to counteract the formation of the loop. In reality, of course, the motion would
be strongly inuenced by large selfinduced velocities, by image vorticity in
the sphere, and by viscous diffusion of vorticity from the vortex and from the
surface of the sphere, none of which is accounted for in the present calculation.
The sound generated during this potential ow interaction can be calculated
using the Formula (5.4.4) when the sphere is compact:
0 x j
p(x, t)
4c0 x2 t
x
( v) y, t
Y j (y) d 3 y, x ,
c0
(7.3.3)
where
v = U Y1 (y).
165
x
d 3 y, x ,
( Y1 Y2 ) y, t
c0
(7.3.4)
where = cos1 (x2 /x) is the angle between the observer direction x and the
x2 axis.
To evaluate the integral, write
= (s )s,
d 3 y = d 2 s ds,
p(x, t)
=
0 U M cos /4 x
T
[s Y1 Y2 ] d s,
s =
s
,
a
U
,
c0
(7.3.5)
M=
where the integrand is evaluated at the retarded position of the distorted vortex.
Now the integral in (7.3.5) is divergent, because s Y1 Y2 1 as
s . The divergence is not real, however, but a consequence of the formal
operations used in the application of the compact Greens function. The innite
contributions to the integral from large values of s are equal at successive
retarded locations of the vortex, and disappear on differentiation with respect
to T . The integral can therefore be evaluated numerically by restricting the range
of integration to a nite interval, say, 10 < s < 10, because the contributions
at larger values of s are the same for all retarded times, and give no contribution
to the sound when differentiated.
Typical plots of the calculated nondimensional pressure (7.3.5) are shown in
Fig. 7.3.3 for two values of h/a; they illustrate how the sound level decreases
as the initial standoff distance h of the vortex increases relative to the radius a
of the sphere.
166
Fig. 7.3.3.
Fig. 7.4.1.
167
Fig. 7.4.2.
about 200 km/h (125 mi/h), when in particular the micropressure wave and the
infrasound can cause vibrations and annoying structural rattles in neighboring
buildings.
The formation of the compression wave can be studied in terms of the simpler
problem involving an axisymmetric train entering axisymmetrically a semiinnite, circular cylindrical duct of radius R and crosssectional area A = R 2
(Fig. 7.4.2). Let the train be travelling at constant speed U in the negative x1
direction, where the origin O is at the center of the tunnel entrance plane, so that
the x1 axis coincides with the axis of the tunnel. Denote the pressure, density,
and speed of sound in the air respectively by p , and c. They vary with position
and time within the tunnel, and their corresponding undisturbed values are
p 0 , 0 , c0 .
The cross section of the train is assumed to become uniform with constant
area A 0 = h 2 at a distance L from the nose of the train, where h is the uniform
maximum train radius. The aspect ratio h/L of the nose is taken to be sufciently
small, and the train prole sufciently streamlined, to ensure that ow separation
does not occur. In practice the Mach number M = U/c0 does not exceed 0.4,
and the blockage A0 /A 0.2. If heat transfer and frictional losses are neglected
during the initial stages of wave formation, the air ow may be regarded as
homentropic, and the compression wave can be calculated using the vortex
sound equation (5.2.5)
1
D 1 D
1
()
B = div( v).
(7.4.1)
2
Dt c Dt
The air in the compression wave region ahead of the train may be regarded as
linearly perturbed from its mean state, with B p/0 ( p p0 )/0 . In this
168
simple model the vorticity vanishes everywhere except within the outer shear
layer of the exit ow of the air displaced when the train enters the tunnel (see
Fig. 7.4.2).
Let f f (x1 + U t, x2 , x3 ) = 0 be a control surface S contained within the
uid that just encloses the moving train, with f < 0 inside S (in the region occupied by the train) and f > 0 outside. The surface is xed relative to the train,
and the inuence of the train on its surroundings can be represented in terms
of monopole and dipole sources on S. In the usual way, multiply (7.4.1) by
H H ( f ) and rearrange (noting that D H/Dt = 0) to obtain
D
Dt
=
1 D
c2 Dt
1
() (H B)
1
1
div(H v) ( B + v) H div( B H ).
(7.4.2)
This is a generalization of Equation (5.3.3). The two terms on the righthand side
involving H respectively represent monopole and dipole sources distributed
over the moving surface f (x1 + U t, x2 , x3 ) = 0.
When frictional losses are neglected Croccos equation (4.2.5) reduces to
v/t = B v, so that the source terms can be written
1
1
H
(U H ) v
div ( B H ) + div(H v),
t
t
where U = (U, 0, 0). The compressibility of the air adjacent to S and within
the very low Mach number exterior ow from the tunnel portal can be neglected
when M(A 0 /A)2 1 (Howe et al. 2000), and the source approximated further
by
(U H ) + div (v U H ) div
t
p
1 2
+ v H + div(H v),
0
2
1 2
2
(U H ) + div (v U H )
(H B) =
2 t 2
t
c0
p
1 2
div
+ v H + div(H v). (7.4.3)
0
2
169
Fig. 7.4.3.
where AT (s) = f2 (s) is the crosssectional area of the train at distance s from
the nose, and the nose is assumed to cross the tunnel entrance plane (x1 = 0)
at t = 0. As the train moves (to the left in Fig. 7.4.3) the rate at which air is
displaced by a section of the train of length d x1 is
f
(x1 + U t) d x1
U 2 f(x1 + U t) d f(x1 + U t) = U 2 f(x1 + U t)
x1
AT
U
(x1 + U t) d x1 .
x1
Thus,
U
AT
(x1 + U t) = monopole source strength per unit length of the train.
x1
When h/L 1, we can collapse the monopole source distribution over the
surface of the train into a line source concentrated on its axis, and approximate
the monopole on the righthand side of Equation (7.4.3) by
AT
(U H ) (x, t)
(x1 + U t)(x2 )(x3 ) .
U
t
t
x1
170
The source strength is proportional to the rate at which the train cross section
changes with distance along the train, and is nonzero only in the vicinity of the
train nose (and also the tail).
The corresponding approximation of Equation (7.4.3) is therefore
AT
1 2
2
U
(H B) =
(x1 + U t)(x2 )(x3 ) ,
t
x1
c02 t 2
(7.4.4)
(x) + (y)
H t +
,
c0
where (x) is the velocity potential of a uniform incompressible ow out of
the tunnel portal that has unit speed far inside the tunnel (see (3.9.14)).
Thus, at x within the tunnel, ahead of the train where B = p/0 , we have
x1
AT
p p t+
U
(y1 + U )G(x, y1 , 0, 0; t ) dy1 d
0
c0
t y1
0 U c0
=
{A (y1 M (y1 , 0, 0) + U [t])
2A T
AT (y1 + M (y1 , 0, 0) + U [t])} dy1 ,
(7.4.5)
171
The main contributions to the Integral (7.4.5) are from the vicinities of the
nose and tail of the train, where the crosssectional area AT is changing. The
compression wave is generated as the nose enters the tunnel, and may be calculated by temporarily considering a train of semiinnite length. During the
formation of the wave, and in the particular case in which the Mach number is
small enough that terms O(M 2 ) are negligible, the term M in the arguments
of AT in (7.4.5) is small, and we then nd, by expanding to rst order in M
and integrating by parts, that
p
0 U 2
A
AT
(y1 + U [t])
(y1 , 0, 0) dy1 ,
y1
y1
M 2 1.
(7.4.6)
After the nose has passed into the tunnel, / y1 = 1 in the region occupied
by the nose, and (7.4.6) predicts the overall (linear theory) pressure rise to be
p 0 U 2 A 0 /A. But the linear theory, asymptotic pressure rise can also be
calculated exactly, with no restriction on Mach number, to be
p =
0 U 2 A0
,
A(1 M 2 )
0 U 2
A(1 M 2 )
AT
(y1 + U [t])
(y1 , 0, 0) dy1 .
y1
y1
(7.4.7)
172
Fig. 7.4.4.
nose proles. The solid curves are predictions of Equation (7.4.7), evaluated
using the following formulae for / y1 (Howe 1998b):
1
(
' y
r
1
2K 1 ( ) 2
1
1
+ Z( ) d,
(y) =
I0
sin
y1
2 2 0
R
I1 ( )
R
1
K 1 ()I1 ()
d
Z( ) =
ln
,
0
K 1 ( )I1 ( ) 2 2
where r = y22 + y32 < R and I0 , I1 , and K 1 are modied Bessel functions.
The linear theory underpredicts the maximum observed pressure gradients
by about 8%. The agreement with experiment can be greatly improved by including contributions from the surface dipoles in Equation (7.4.3) (which in a
rst approximation are determined by the drag force exerted on the nose of the
train by the linear theory pressure rise) and, to a lesser extent, by including the
vortex sound generated by the tunnel exitow vorticity (the nal source term
on the right of (7.4.3)).
Problems 7
1. The term 2 Y2 / y3 in the Representation (7.1.3) of the sound produced by
a gust interacting with a thin airfoil accounts for the inuence of changes in
Problems 7
173
the airfoil chord 2a(y3 ) over the interaction region. Show that when
da
(y3 ) 1
dy3
the Formula (7.2.3) for the sound produced by a line vortex is given in a rst
approximation by
p(x, t)
0 U M cos sin
3
sin
2 2 x
U [t]
H a +1
da
,
cos sin cos
dy3 0
U [t]
+1
a
2 2 2ic0 x y3 i3 3/2
where is dened as in (3.9.6), to calculate the sound produced as the
vortex passes the edge when the inuence of the halfplane on the motion
of the ring is ignored.
3. Calculate the sound produced within and outside a seminite circular cylindrical rigid pipe when a vortex ring exhausts axisymmetrically from the open
end. Neglect the inuence of the pipe walls on the motion of the vortex and
ignore any change in the vortex radius at the exit.
4. Determine the (quadrupole) sound produced by the headon collision of
two equal ring vortices. Estimate the sound generated when a ring vortex is
incident normally on a plane wall.
174
5. Use the Greens function (3.9.15) and Equation (7.4.4) to determine the
infrasound generated by a train entering a tunnel modeled by the unanged,
circular cylindrical duct in Fig. 3.9.6b. Assume that the train travels along
the axis of the duct and show that the acoustic pressure at the far eld point
x outside the tunnel is given approximately by
x1
0 U 2 M
1
p(x, t)
4 x
x
AT
2
(y1 + U [t]) 2 (y1 , 0, 0) dy1 , x ,
y1
y1
where [t] = t x/c0 .
8
Further Worked Examples
dx0
(t).
dt
z2
1
a2
(8.1.1)
maps the uid region in the z plane of the airfoil into the region   > 1 in
the plane. The upper and lower faces of the airfoil (x2 = 0) respectively
transform into the upper and lower halves of the unit circular cylinder   = 1,
and the vortex maps into an equal vortex at = 0 (Fig. 8.1.2). In the absence
of mean ow (U = 0), and when there is no mean circulation about the cylinder (and therefore about the airfoil), the complex potential of the motion is obtained by placing an image vortex at the inverse point = 1/0 together with
175
176
Fig. 8.1.1.
a vortex + at the center of the cylinder. The two interior vortices ensure that
the total circulation around the cylinder vanishes. Then,
w( ) =
1
i
i
i
ln( 0 ) +
ln
ln .
2
2
0
2
The velocity potential of the motion in the z plane is given by setting = (z).
Because a mean ow in the x1 direction is unaffected by the airfoil, we can
include its contribution by adding the complex potential U z. Then,
i
ln( (z) (z 0 )) + F(z),
2
i
1
i
ln (z)
ln (z) + U z.
F(z) =
2
(z 0 )
2
w(z) =
where
This is of the form given in (4.6.1), so that the corresponding equation of motion
Fig. 8.1.2.
177
i
=
+ F (z 0 ),
dt
dt
dt
4 (z 0 )
i
dz 0
Z
2
=
that is
1+
+ U, (8.1.2)
dt
0 2 1
4a Z 2 1
Z2 1
z0
0 = Z + Z 2 1.
where Z = ,
a
Equation (8.1.2) takes no account of the inuence of vortex shedding. In a
linearized calculation (in which image effects in the airfoil are neglected) this
could be done by assuming shed vorticity to lie in a thin vortex sheet downstream
of the trailing edge at x1 = a, as in Section 6.3. This would lead to a solution in
terms of the Sears function (6.3.6), but we shall not do this, because it limits the
discussion to linearized motions. Instead, we shall apply the method discussed
in Section 6.4, where the effects of vortex shedding are modelled by deleting
singularities from the compact Greens function.
p(x, t)
3
d y2
d y1 x0 ( )
2 2c0 x 2 t
d
,
t x/c0
(8.1.3)
where the Kirchhoff vector for the strip airfoil has the components (Table 3.9.1)
Y1 = y1 ,
Y2 = Re(i z 2 a 2 ),
z = y1 + i y2 .
(8.1.4)
By dening the radiation angle for an observer at x in the far eld as in
Fig. 8.1.1, we can write
tx/c0
0 sin
d
d x02
0 cos
( )
p(x, t)
d
t x/c0
2 2c0 x t
2 2c0 x
tx/c0
d x01 Y2
d
d x02 Y2
t
d y2
d y1 x0 ( ) t x/c0
The two integrals in this formula represent the acoustic elds of dipole sources.
According to Curles theory (Section 2.3) and the Formula (6.2.2), the strengths
178
of these dipoles are determined by the unsteady force (F1 , F2 ) exerted on the
uid (per unit span) by the airfoil. The rst is aligned with the airfoil chord
(the mean ow direction) and represents the inuence of suction forces at the
leading and trailing edges (Batchelor 1967); the second component F2 is equal
and opposite to the unsteady lift experienced by the airfoil during the interaction.
In general the integrals must be evaluated numerically using the solution of
the equation of motion (8.1.2). Introduce the shorthand notation
W=
i Z
d
(i z 2 a 2 ) =
dz
Z2 1
(8.1.5)
a Im W(Z )
,
d y2
d y1 x0 ( )
d
and the acoustic pressure becomes
[t]
dZ
d
0 a
p(x, t)
Im
sin
d
2 2c0 x t
[t]
[t]
d
dZ
, (8.1.6)
+ cos
Im W(Z )
d
[t]
179
contribution from the trailing edge we are asserting that all of the sound is
produced by the interaction of the vortex with the leading edge. Near this edge
1
W(Z )
,
2 Z +1
(8.1.7)
where the branch cut for Z + 1 runs along the real axis from Z = 1 to Z =
+. Making this substitution in (8.1.6), measuring time from the instant that the
vortex crosses the midchord x1 = 0 of the airfoil, so that Z = U /a + i h/a, and
2 h 2 , x . (8.1.8)
1
U [t]
0 U M cos (a/x) 2 4a
+
1
+ a
a
The nondimensional acoustic pressure signature (the righthand side of
(8.1.8)) is plotted as the solid curves in Fig. 8.1.3 for h/a = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0.
Fig. 8.1.3.
180
It was pointed out in Section 6.3 that the linearized problem of determining the
unsteady force F2 exerted on the uid when an incompressible, sinusoidal gust
convects past the airfoil can be solved exactly with full account taken of vortex
shedding, in terms of the Sears function (6.3.6). This force also determines
the low Mach number acoustic radiation by Equation (6.2.2) (because F1 0),
which in the present case can be shown to predict that
0 U
p(x, t)
M cos (a/x)
1
2
4a
2 Re
x .
(8.1.9)
,
4aU
T =
Ut
,
a
dT
0 2 1
Z2 1
Z2 1
(8.1.10)
h
= 0.2,
a
181
Fig. 8.1.4.
where time is measured from the instant that the vortex passes the midchord
of the airfoil. The nonlinear inuence of the image vorticity is to shift the
initially rectilinear trajectory of the vortex away from the airfoil in the direction
of the vortex force U (U = U i). The vortex is closest to the airfoil at
U t/a = 0, where x02 0.28a, and where convection by the images increases
the translation speed of the vortex from U to approximately
U+
0.2
U
U 1+
=U+
= 1.71U.
4 x02
x02 /a
0.28
The sound generated as the vortex passes the airfoil is given by (8.1.6). The
inuence of vortex shedding into the wake is included by using the approximation (8.1.7) for W(Z ). The integrals must be evaluated numerically, and this
is done by dening a dimensionless vortex convection velocity (u(T ), v(T ))
by
dZ
= u(T ) + iv(T ),
d T
U
.
where T =
a
182
Then,
p(x, t)
1
M(a/x) 2 4a
[T ]
[T ]
v(T ) d T
Im(W(Z )(u + iv))(T ) d T
1 d
22
+ cos
sin
dT
[T ] T
[T ] T
d
3
= 2 2 sin
v([T ] 2 ) d
dT 0
d
3
+ 2 2 cos
Im(W(Z )(u + iv))([T ] 2 ) d
dT 0
p1 (x, t)
p2 (x, t)
+
,
(8.1.11)
1
1
0 U M(a/x) 2 4a
0 U M(a/x) 2 4a
0 U
where T = U t/a,
[T ] = U [t]/a, and the integration variable T has been replaced by = [T ] T . The nal integrals are easily evaluated numerically
when the path of the vortex has been determined. The upper limit of integration is actually nite, because the source terms must be set to equal zero as
soon as [T ] 2 reduces to the nondimensional time at which the computation
of the vortex path begins (where the vortex is sufciently far upstream that it
effectively produces no sound by interaction with the airfoil).
The components p1 (x, t), p2 (x, t) of (8.1.11) correspond respectively to the
dipole sound produced by the unsteady suction and lift forces; their nondimensional forms
0 U
p1 (x, t)
M sin (a/x) 4a
1
2
and
0 U
p2 (x, t)
1
M cos (a/x) 2 4a
are plotted in Fig. 8.1.4. Vortex shedding should smooth out the pressure signatures at the retarded times when the vortex is close to the trailing edge. But the
calculated pressures exhibit blips shown as dotted curves in the gure. These
arise because, although our calculation has accounted for vortex shedding in
evaluating the dipole source strengths (by means of the approximation (8.1.7)),
the effect of shedding was not included in the calculation of the vortex trajectory. However, the smoothing inuence of shedding at a sharp edge acts
to remove the blips, and the pressure signatures have proles similar to those
depicted by the solid curves in the gure, obtained by interpolating smoothly
between the calculated pressures on either side of the blips.
An interesting nonlinear interaction occurs when the initial standoff distance
of the vortex h = 0 (Fig. 8.1.5). In the linearized approximation, the vortex
would strike the leading edge of the airfoil at U [t]/a = 1, at which time the
183
Fig. 8.1.5.
linear theory acoustic pressure (8.1.8) is innite. This singular event does not
occur because the vortex trajectory is deected around the airfoil by the image
vorticity (for a rounded nose the possibility of additional vortex shedding from
the leading edge may be ignored). The upper part of Fig. 8.1.5 illustrates this
for the same value of the velocity ratio = /4aU = 0.2 considered above.
The maximum convection velocity of the vortex (at U t/a = 0) is now more
than twice the mean stream velocity:
0.2
=U 1+
= 2.3U.
U+
4(0.15a)
0.15
The corresponding suction and liftdipole acoustic pressures p1 and p2 shown
in the gure are also greatly increased.
8.1.5 Periodic Vortex Motion
When there is no mean ow (U = 0) the characteristic velocity and dimensionless time become
V =
,
4a
T =
Vt
,
a
184
Fig. 8.1.6.
Z
Z2 1
1+
2
0 2 1
.
The solutions are closed trajectories orbiting the airfoil periodically. A typical
orbit is plotted in the upper half of Fig. 8.1.6 for > 0, for the case where the
trajectory passes through the point labelled 0, where x01 = 2a, x02 = 0. The
calculated period is T0 V t0 /a 35.84.
An orbiting vortex motion of this kind cannot be realized in practice (because
of diffusion from the vortex core and the continual shedding of additional
vorticity from the airfoil), but it is still instructive to calculate the sound produced
by the motion. By writing
V
T =
a
and
dZ
= u(T ) + iv(T )
d T
in the general formula (8.1.6) for the acoustic pressure, the nondimensional
185
suction and lift acoustic pressures are found to be given by the following modied form of (8.1.11)
p2 (x, t)
p1 (x, t)
1 +
1
2
0
M(a/x) 2
0 V M(a/x) 2
[T ]
[T ]
v(T ) d T
Im(W(Z )(u + iv))(T ) d T
1 d
22
+ cos
,
sin
dT
[T ] T
[T ] T
(8.1.12)
V2
where M = V /c0 .
The function W(Z ) in the integrand is given by (8.1.5) in the absence of
vortex shedding. It follows by inspection and from the numerical solution, that
when T is measured from Z = 2, as indicated in Fig. 8.1.6, the suction and
dipole source strengths have period T0 , and possess Fourier series expansions
of the form
2 nT
2nT
, Im(W(Z )(u+iv))(T ) =
,
v(T ) =
an cos
bn sin
T0
T0
n=1
n=1
where the coefcients an , bn can be calculated by using the numerical solution
for the orbit to evaluate
T0
2 nT
2
v(T ) cos
an =
dT,
T0 0
T0
T0
2nT
2
Im(W(Z )(u + iv))(T ) sin
bn =
dT.
T0 0
T0
By making the change of integration variable =
hand side of (8.1.12) now becomes
[T ] T / T0 , the right
4 2
[T ]
2
an n sin
d
sin 2n
T0
T0 n=1
0
[T ]
+ bn n cos
cos 2n
2 d .
T0
0
The integrals are evaluated from the real and imaginary parts of
0
1
1
2
e2in{[T ]/T0 } d = e{2n[T ]/T0 4 }i .
2 2n
186
Hence, the suction and lift force dipole elds are given respectively by
2nt
2
a
n
sin
n
1
t0
4
T0 n=1
0 V 2 M sin (a/x) 2
p2 (x, t)
2nt
2
, x ,
bn n cos
1
t0
4
T0 n=1
0 V 2 M cos (a/x) 2
p1 (x, t)
Fig. 8.2.1.
187
the airfoil chord can be regarded as compact. The general solution is applicable
to airfoils of arbitrary span, but we shall consider only the case where the span
is compact; predictions for a noncompact span will be intermediate between
those discussed here and those in Section 8.1.
Consider a planar airfoil of either rectangular or elliptic planform, orientated
as illustrated in Fig. 8.2.1 at zero angle of attack to a mean ow at speed U in
the x1 direction. A spanwise line vortex of strength is swept past the airfoil
at an initial standoff distance h above the airfoil, as indicated in the side view
of Fig. 8.2.1b. When h = 0 it will be necessary to take account of nonlinear
interactions with the airfoil.
For an airfoil of compact chord and span the acoustic pressure produced by
the interaction is given by Equation (5.4.4):
0 x j
x
Y j (y) d 3 y, x .
p(x, t)
y,
t
v)
4c0 x2 t
c0
(8.2.1)
It is assumed that the section of the line vortex that interacts with the airfoil
remains rectilinear, with the representation
= k(x1 x01 (t))(x2 x02 (t)),
For an elliptic airfoil of span L (between 12 L < x3 < 12 L), the Kirchhoff vector
Y has the components
Y1 = y1 ,
3 )2 ), y3  < 12 L
Re(i z 2 a(y
Y2 =
,
y3  > 12 L
y2 ,
Y3 = y3 ,
z = y1 + i y2 ,
188
y3  <
1
L.
2
4c0 x t L2 dt
4 2 c0 x
L
2
3)
dz 0
a(y
Im
dy3 x , (8.2.3)
t L2
dt z 0 (t) + a(y
3)
where , are respectively the angles shown in Fig. 8.2.1a between the x1 and
x2 directions and the radiation direction, z 0 (t) = x01 (t) + i x02 (t), and quantities
in square braces are evaluated at the retarded time [t] = t x/c0 .
The rst term on the right is the suction force dipole, aligned with the airfoil
chord, whose strength is determined by the x2 component of the vortex convection velocity. It is assumed to be nonzero only over the section 12 L < y3 < 12 L
of the vortex, where d x02 /dt = 0 because of nonlinear interactions with the airfoil. The second term is the conventional lift dipole radiation. Note that innite
contributions to the integrals from y3  > L/2 are constant because v is
constant for y3  > L/2, and have been discarded (c.f., Section 7.3).
d x01
= U,
dt
The radiation is produced entirely by the lift dipole, and if the vortex crosses
the midchord of the airfoil at time t = 0 (8.2.3) reduces to
p2 (x, t)
1
3
0 U M cos (L/x)/4a
22
1
2
12
Im
U [t]
a
a
a
a
a
+ i ah
32
d y 3 ,
(8.2.4)
189
Fig. 8.2.2.
U [t]
h
+1+i
a
a
32
The acoustic pressure signatures (the lefthand side of (8.2.4)) for the rectangular and elliptic airfoils are plotted in Fig. 8.2.2 for a vortex standoff distance
h = 0.2a. The proles are qualitatively similar to the corresponding plot in
Fig. 8.1.3 for an airfoil of innite span, although in three dimensions the amplitude decreases much more rapidly with increasing retarded distance of the
vortex from the leading edge. The peak amplitude is larger and the acoustic
pulse is of smaller duration h/U for the rectangular airfoil because different
sections of the vortex interact with the leading edge of the elliptic airfoil at
different times during a total interaction time a/U > h/U .
190
Let
=
,
4aU
T =
Ut
,
a
Z=
z0
,
a
dZ
= u(T ) + iv(T ),
dT
1
W(Z ) =
.
2 Z +1
Then, the motion of the section of the vortex within the airfoil span ( 12 L <
x3 < 12 L) is governed by Equation (8.1.10) (where 0 is dened in terms of z 0
as in (8.1.1)), and the suction and lift dipole radiation pressures are given by
dv
p1 (x, t)
0 U M cos (L/x)/4a
dT
p2 (x, t)
0 U M cos (L/x)/4a
T
x ,
Fig. 8.2.3.
191
gure shows the path followed by those sections of the vortex inboard of the
airfoil tips; it is the same as that depicted in Fig. 8.1.5 for the innite span
airfoil. As in that case, small acoustic blips spuriously predicted during the
passage of the vortex past the trailing edge have been removed (c.f., Fig. 8.1.4).
The threedimensional acoustic pulses are narrower than those predicted in two
dimensions.
Fig. 8.3.1.
192
i
i
ln( 0 ) +
ln( 0 ) + U a.
2
2
i
=
+ F (z 0 ),
dt
dt
dt
4 (z 0 )
that is,
d Z
= i
dT
where
Z=
1
Z (Z 2 + 1)
z0
,
a
T =
Vt
,
a
2Z
Z
, (8.3.2)
+
Z 2 + 1 Z 2 + 1
Z2 + 1
V =
,
4a
=
U
.
V
The compact Greens function for this problem (applicable when the acoustic
wavelength
) is given by (6.1.6), so that the analogue of Equation (6.2.4)
for the fareld acoustic pressure becomes
p(x, t)
d
dx0
( ) Y1 (x0 ( ))
k
d
t x/c0
tx/c0
d x01 Y1
d
0 x1
d x02 Y1
=
3
d y2
d y1 x0 ( ) t x/c0
2c0 x 2 t
(8.3.3)
0 x1
3
2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
at
z = z0.
(8.3.4)
193
The radiation is produced by the unsteady drag force F1 exerted on the uid
by the spoiler, given (per unit span) by
dx0
Y1 (x0 ).
F1 = 0 v Y1 dy1 dy2 = 0 k
dt
This force vanishes, and therefore no sound is generated, in the linearized
approximation in which the vortex is assumed to translate at the local mean
stream velocity, because in that case
dx0
= U Y1 (x0 )
dt
and k Y1 Y1 0.
W=
d 2
Z
( z + a2 ) =
dz
Z2 + 1
(8.3.5)
0 V
M sin
a 2
a
x
12
[T ]
d T
dZ
Im W(Z )
,
d T
[T ] T
that is,
1 2
2
T
0 V M sin (a/x) 2
p(x, t)
5
2
(8.3.6)
where [T ] = V [t]/a is the nondimensional retarded time and M = V /c0 .
The vortex path equation (8.3.2) and the acoustic pressure integral (8.3.6)
are evaluated numerically, taking the initial position of the vortex to be several
spoiler heights a upstream, where its motion is unaffected by the spoiler. The
upper part of Fig. 8.3.2 shows the vortex trajectories when the initial distance of
the vortex from the wall is h = 0.75a for the two cases (i) of no mean ow, U = 0,
and (ii) U = V /4a; the corresponding nondimensional acoustic pressures
(8.3.6) are plotted in the lower part of the gure, where time is measured from
the instant that the vortex passes the spoiler. The effect of mean ow is to draw
the trajectory marginally closer to the spoiler as it passes the tip of the spoiler
where the interaction is strongest. The convection velocity at this point is also
increased from about 1.98V when U = 0 to 3.95V when U = V , and this is
responsible for more than doubling the amplitude and the effective frequency
of the sound.
194
Fig. 8.3.2.
i
ln(z z 0 ).
2
195
,
dT
Z (Z 2 1)
Z2
where
and
z0
Vt
, V =
, T =
,
a
2a
a
dZ
dz 0
=V
V (u + iv).
dt
dT
Z =
(8.4.2)
=
U
,
V
3
d y2
d y1 x0 ( )
2 2c0 x 2 t
d
,
(8.4.3)
t x/c0
where the components of the Kirchhoff vector can be written (see Section 4.5)
a2
,
Y1 = Re z +
z
a2
Y2 = Re i z
,
z
z = y1 + i y2 . (8.4.4)
By dening
d
W1 =
dz
a2
z+
z
d
1
a2
1
1 2 , W2 =
i z
i 1 + 2
Z
dz
z
Z
[T ]
0 V M x j
d T
,
Im(W j (u + iv))(T )
p(x, t)
3
2 2ax 2 T
[T ] T
V
V
x
where M = , [T ] =
.
t
c0
a
c0
The subscripts j = 1, 2 in this formula respectively correspond to the acoustic pressures p1 , p2 , say, produced by drag and lift dipoles, whose strengths
are determined by the force (F1 , F2 ) exerted on the uid (per unit span) by
the cylinder. The integrals must be evaluated numerically using the numerical
196
Fig. 8.4.1.
solution of Equation (8.4.2) for the vortexpath. This is done by making the
further change of integration variable = [T ] T , in which case
p1 (x, t)
0 V 2 M sin (a/x) 2
22
1 2
2
T
0 V M cos (a/x) 2
p2 (x, t)
1
2
Im(W1 (u + iv))([T ] 2 ) d,
Im(W2 (u + iv))([T ] 2 ) d.
The calculation begins at time T , say, by taking the initial position of the vortex
to be far upstream of the cylinder at z 0 = L + i h, where L
a is sufciently
large that the source strengths are negligible for T < T (Fig. 8.4.1). The upper
limits of integration are then nite because the source terms vanish as soon as
[T ] 2 < T .
Figure 8.4.1 illustrates the typical nondimensional waveforms produced when
V /2a = 2U and for h/a = 0.7, time being measured from the instant
that the vortex crosses x1 = 0. The amplitude of the sound decreases rapidly
with increasing distance of closest approach of the vortex to the cylinder; near
the cylinder the translational velocity of the vortex is increased because the
197
mean ow velocity is larger, and also because of the increased inuence of the
image vorticity. In cases where U
V , the lift dipole will tend to predominate because convection by the image vortices can then be neglected in a rst
approximation, and the drag ( U Y1 ) Y1 0.
8.4.2 WallMounted Cylinder
The case of ideal motion of a vortex translating past a cylindrical, semicircular
projection on a rigid wall (Fig. 8.4.2) can be treated by the method used for
the spoiler in Section 8.3. The problem is equivalent to that in which a vortex
pair, consisting of a vortex at z 0 accompanied by an image of strength at
z 0 , is incident symmetrically on a circular cylinder. In this case, the lift dipole
vanishes identically.
The velocity potential of the unsteady motion is given by augmenting the
complex potential (8.4.1) by the terms
a2
i
i
i
ln(z z 0 )
ln z
ln z,
+
2
2
z0
2
Fig. 8.4.2.
198
which correspond to the net potential produced by the image. Then, the equation
of motion becomes
1
Z Z
d Z
1
+
=i
+ 1 2 , (8.4.5)
dT
Z Z
(Z 2 1)(Z 2 1)
Z
where Z =
z0
,
a
V =
,
2a
T =
Vt
U
, = .
a
V
The compact Greens function is given by (6.1.6), and the fareld acoustic
pressure by
p(x, t)
dx0
d
( ) Y1 (x0 ( ))
d
t
x/c0
tx/c0
d x01 Y1
d
0 x1
d x02 Y1
=
3
t
d
y
d
y
t
x/c0
2
2
1 x0 ( )
2c0 x
(8.4.6)
0 x1
3
2c0 x 2 t
tx/c0
a2
Y1 = Re z +
z
.
(8.4.7)
The radiation is produced by the unsteady drag force exerted on the uid by
the cylinder, which vanishes in the linearized approximation, when the vortex
is assumed to convect passively at the local velocity of the undisturbed mean
stream. As before, set
dZ
d
a2
1
= u(T ) + iv(T ),
W1 =
z+
= 1 2 (8.4.8)
dT
dz
z
Z
evaluated at the vortex. Then,
1 2
2
T
0 V M sin (a/x) 2
p(x, t)
3
2
Im(W1 (u +iv))([T ]2 ) d,
(8.4.9)
199
initial standoff distance of the vortex from the wall h = 0.5a for the two cases
(i) of no mean ow, U = 0, and (ii) U = V . The vortex convection velocity
at y1 = 0 is increased from about 1.23V when U = 0 to 3.07V when U = V ;
this is responsible for the increased acoustic amplitude and for more than doubling the effective frequency. The waveforms and these general conclusions
are qualitatively similar to those discussed in Section 8.3 for the sharpedged
spoiler.
8.5 Vortex Ring and Sphere
Perhaps the simplest low Mach number, inviscid, threedimensional vortex
surface interaction amenable to analysis is the axisymmetric motion of a ring
vortex over a sphere. Let a sphere of radius a be placed with its centre at the
origin in the presence of a uniform mean ow at speed U in the x1 direction.
A vortex ring of radius r0 (t) and circulation is coaxial with the x1 axis and
translates in the positive x1 direction under the inuence of the mean ow,
selfinduction and image vorticity in the sphere (Fig. 8.5.1). We shall assume
the vortex core is circular (and remains circular throughout the interaction)
with radius (t) r0 . The selfinduced velocity of the ring (in inviscid ow)
is parallel to the x1 axis at speed u given approximately by Kelvins formula
(Batchelor, 1967)
8r0
1
u (r0 , ) =
ln
.
(8.5.1)
4r0
Fig. 8.5.1.
200
r0 =
a 2 r0
,
2
r02 + x01
x01
=
a 2 x01
,
2
r02 + x01
(8.5.2)
where the planes of symmetry of the ring vortex and its image cut the x1
axis respectively at x01 (t), x01
(t). The motion of the vortex produced by the
combined induction by the image and the mean ow can be expressed in terms
of the Stokes stream function ( r , x1 ) (Batchelor, 1967; Ting and Klein, 1991)
(r, x1 ) =
a
Ur
+ (+ + ){K (") E(")},
1
3
2
2
r 2 + x12 2
2
(8.5.3)
+
2
where = (r r0 )2 + (x1 x01
),
"=
,
+ +
2
2
d
K (") =
1 "2 sin2 d,
,
E(") =
2
2
0
0
1 " sin
where r denotes perpendicular distance from the x1 axis, and K ("), E(") are
respectively complete elliptic integrals of the rst and second kinds.
The radius r0 (t) and axial position x01 (t) of the ring vortex are then determined
by the equations of motion
1
dr0
=
(r0 , x01 ),
dt
r0 x 1
d x01
1
= u (r0 , ) +
(r0 , x01 ).
dt
r0 r
(8.5.4)
The core radius decreases when r0 increases, because the vortex lines move
with the uid particles. If r0 = h and = 0 are the initial values when the
vortex ring is far from the sphere, then at any time t
(2r0 ) =
2
(2 h) 02 ,
i.e., (t) = 0
h
r0 (t)
3
1
8h r0 (t) 2
ln
.
0
h
4
(8.5.5)
201
x01
,
a
R=
r0
,
a
V =
,
2a
T =
Vt
,
a
=
U
.
V
Then,
dR
1
=
(R, X ),
dT
R X
3
dX
1
1
1
8h a R 2
=
(R, X ) +
ln
,
dT
R R
2R
0 h
4
R2
where =
2
1
(8.5.6)
1
3
(R 2 + X 2 ) 2
(R 2 + X 2 )
1
2
+ +
){K (") E(")},
(
+
= (R R )2 + (X X )2 ,
"=
,
+
+
R =
R
,
R2 + X 2
X =
X
.
R2 + X 2
0 = 0.05h.
(8.5.7)
Fig. 8.5.2.
202
(no mean ow) and = 3. The latter value is chosen to make the mean stream
velocity U approximately the same as the selfinduced velocity u at large
distances from the sphere. This has a relatively small effect on the trajectory,
although the convection speed of the ring past the sphere is greatly increased.
x
( v) y, t
Y j (y) d 3 y, x .
c0
(8.5.8)
For the purpose of evaluating the integral we may neglect the nite core size of
the vortex, and set
= (r
r0 (t))(x1 x01 (t)),
(8.5.9)
where is a unit azimuthal vector, locally tangential to the vorticity and orientated in the clockwise direction when the vortex ring is viewed from upstream,
as indicated in Fig. 8.5.1.
The force on the sphere is in the mean ow direction the effective acoustic
source is the unsteady drag and only the component
Y1 = y1
a3
1+
2y3
a3
y1 1 +
3
2 r 2 + y12 2
of the Kirchhoff vector makes a nontrivial contribution to (8.5.8). The production of sound is therefore a nonlinear event the source explicitly involves
only the selfinduced velocity and the velocity induced by the image vortex;
the mean ow velocity U = U Y1 is absent because
x
( U Y1 ) y, t
Y1 (y) 0.
c0
However, the amplitude and characteristic frequency of the sound both increase
with U .
Substituting (8.5.9) into (8.5.8) and evaluating the integral, we nd
0 cos
p(x, t)
r0
2c0 x t
d x01 Y1
dr0 Y1
dt r
dt y1
(r0 ,x01 )
, x ,
203
Fig. 8.5.3.
where the quantity in the square braces is evaluated at the retarded position
of the vortex ring, and is the angle between the radiation direction and the
x1 axis illustrated in the upper part of Fig. 8.5.3. Expressing this result in
nondimensional form, we have
p(x, t)
0 V 2 M cos (a/x)
T
3R 2 X
2(R 2
+ 1+
X 2) 2
dX
dT
R 2 2X 2
5
2(R 2 + X 2 ) 2
dR
R
,
dT
where M = V /c0 , and R and X are the solutions of the vortex equations of
motion (8.5.6).
The nondimensional acoustic pressure signatures plotted in Fig. 8.5.3 are
for the same the initial conditions (8.5.7) considered above for the vortex ring
trajectories in Fig. 8.5.2. The thick solid curve is the pressure prole in the
204
absence of mean ow (U = 0). The positions of the vortex ring in this case at
several different retarded times V [t]/a are marked on the thick curve in the
upper part of Fig. 8.5.3 (time being measured from the instant that the ring
crosses the centre of the sphere). Similarly, the thinline curves in the gure
give the pressure signature and retarded positions for U = 3V , when the selfinduction velocity u U at large distances from sphere. Both the amplitude
and frequency of the sound are increased because of the increased convection
velocity of the vortex past the sphere.
and
z 0 = x01 i x02
z
z2
+ a2
(z = x1 + i x2 )
maps the region Im z > 0 cut along the upper section x2 > a of the wall onto
the upper half of the plane. By the usual method, we accordingly obtain the
equation of motion of the vortex pair in the form (Karweit, 1975)
3i Z
2i
d Z
= 2
+
,
3
dT
Z + 1 (Z 2 + 1) 2 {Z / Z 2 + 1 (Z / Z 2 + 1) }
Vt
z0
, V =
,
where Z = , T =
a
a
4a
dZ
dz 0
=V
V (u + iv).
and
dt
dT
(8.6.1)
205
Fig. 8.6.1.
T = T , where L
a. When h/a is smaller than 2/3 2 0.385 the vortex pair
passes through the aperture in the manner indicated in Fig. 8.6.1 for h/a = 0.35.
For larger values of h/a the trajectories of the two vortices separate; the vortices
travel along symmetric paths parallel to the wall on either side of the aperture,
as illustrated for h/a = 0.6.
The acoustic pressure in the far eld is given by
3
p(x, t) 0
G 2
d y d,
y
(8.6.2)
where G is the compact Greens function (3.9.10) for the wall aperture
c0 sgn(x1 ) (t x/c0 )
z
z 2
Re ln
1
,
+
G(x, y, t )
a
a2
t x/c0
2x
z = y2 + i y1 , (8.6.3)
206
and
(t) = H (t)
0
= 1.781072.
0
Z 1 Z =i Z
and put
V
in the integral (8.6.2),
T =
a
we nd
5
2 2 0 V 2 sgn(x1 )
p(x, t)
a
x
12
[T ]
(Z )(u + iv))(T )
Re(W
([T
] T ) d T
V [t]
.
, [T ] =
a
[T ] T
Therefore, by setting = [T ] T we can write
p(x, t)
22
1
M
0 V 2 sgn(x1 )(a/x) 2
(Z )(u + iv))([T ] 2 ) (2 ) d,
Re(W
x , (8.6.4)
where
(
)=
2
ln( M 2 /42 )e d
.
[ln( M 2 /42 )]2 + 2
2
207
V
.
c0
4ac0
This is just the selfinduced convection Mach number of the vortex pair when
separated by a distance 2a. We have taken M = 0.03 for the fareld acoustic
pressure signatures plotted in Fig. 8.6.1; in air this would imply that V 10 m/sec.
The ow induced by the vortex pair approaching the wall forms a localized
twodimensional jet between the vortices, directed toward the wall. The resistance of the wall to this ow causes the pressure just to the left of the wall
aperture to rise, forcing uid through the aperture into the region x1 > 0. The
radiation therefore has the characteristics of an acoustic monopole source for
x1 > 0 and a sink for x1 < 0. Numerical results are illustrated in the gure for
h/a = 0.35, 0.6. In each case, the time origin has been adjusted to correspond
approximately with the peak in the radiated acoustic pressure, which occurs
when the vortices pass close to the edges of the aperture. When h/a = 0.6 the
vortices do not penetrate the aperture but are deected by the wall; this produces a relatively larger pressure rise than for h/a = 0.35, where the vortices
pass through the aperture. The maximum acoustic pressure amplitude is found
to occur when h/a just exceeds the critical value (0.385), when the vortex
trajectories pass very close to the aperture edges. Further increases of h/a beyond 0.6 result in a gradual reduction in the amplitude of the sound, and a
corresponding increase in the width of the acoustic pulse (i.e., a decrease in the
characteristic frequency of the sound).
Bibliography
209
210
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Bibliography
211
Index
circular cylinder, 58
cylindrical bodies, 58
denition for Helmholtz equation, 64
denition for wave equation, 65
duct (tunnel) entrance, 77, 170
duct with neck, 77, 80
for incompressible ow, 81
general form, 70
halfplane, 74
rigid strip, 60
sphere, 53
symmetric, 63
twodimensional, 136, 154
uniform duct, 76
wall aperture, 75
wall cavity, 72
wall projection, 72
complex potential, 100
circular cylinder, 102
halfplane, 105
source, 103
vortex, 103
complex velocity, 101
compression wave, generated by train, 166
compressive stress, 35
conformal transformation, 100
halfplane, 105
strip 61,
continuity equation, 2
linearized, 5
with source, 5
control surface, denition, 32
creeping ow, 99
Crighton, 143, 149
Croccos equation, 85
Curle, theory, 32
differential equation, 35
integral equation, 36
213
214
decibel, 4
delta function
Fourier integral for, 43
in three dimensions, 9
density, 2
values for air and water, 3
diffusion, of vorticity, 87
dipole, denition, 14
directivity, 16
drag, 195
far eld form, 21
uid volume, 15
in Curles equation, 35
in Helmholtz equation, 45
lift, 188, 190, 195
near compact sphere, 54
near edge, 62
drag, 191, 195
efciency, acoustic, 32
of quadrupole radiation, 32
of surface dipoles, 37
end correction, 78
energy, equation, 4
ux, 18
kinetic, 82, 90
enthalpy, see total enthalpy
entropy, 4
far eld, denition, 17
acoustic, 19
calculation of, 20
hydrodynamic, 89
in terms of impulse, 89
Ffowcs Williams, 29
Force, impulse formula, 93
added mass contribution, 94
formula for translating body, 96
lift, 182, 185
produced by gust, 147
role of bound vorticity, 94
Sears formula, 149
Fraunhofer approximation, 21
Greens function, see also compact
Greens function
denition, 12
for Helmholtz equation, 45
freespace, 12, 46
gust, time harmonic, 148
vortex, 146, 156
Heaviside unit function, denition, 32
Helmholtz, equation, 44
Greens function, 45
inhomogeneous equation, 44, 57
homentropic, 4
Index
hydrodynamic, pressure, 38
far eld, 89
wavelength, 148
ideal acoustic medium, 25, 27
impedance, 48
impulse, denition, 90
theory of vortex sound, 131
incompressible uid, 7, 90, 93, 96
infrasound, 166, 174
integrals, transformation using Heaviside
function, 32
intensity, acoustic, 19
irrotational ow, sound waves in, 118
Karweit, 204
Kasoev, 191
Kelvin, circulation theorem, 87
denition of vorticity, 82
formula for vortex ring speed, 92, 199
theorem on kinetic energy, 84
kinetic energy, 82
in terms of vorticity, 90
Kelvins theorem on, 84
Kirchhoff spinning vortex, 132
Kirchhoff vector, denition, 52
circular cylinder, 60
rigid strip, 61
singularities of, 146, 159, 179
special cases, 71
sphere, 54
KraichnanPhillips theorem, 39
Kutta condition, 149
see also singularities
Lamb vector, 85, 96, 136
Laplace equation
axisymmetric, 53
polar from, 60
two dimensions, 100
leading edge, Kutta condition, 150
suction, 178, 182, 185
lift, 158
lift dipole, 188, 190, 195
Lighthill, 1
acoustic analogy, 25
eighth power law, 29
equation, 28
equation reformulated in terms of vorticity,
117
stress tensor, 28
linear, acoustics, 4
Lighthills equation, 27
momentum equation, 5
Mach number, 29
Maeda, 171
Index
micropressure wave, 166
Mohring, vortex sound formula, 132, 135
momentum equation, 3
Croccos form, 85
linearized, 5
Reynolds form, 27
momentum ux tensor, 27
monopole, 9, 13
in Curles equation, 35
NavierStokes equation, 3
near eld, hydrodynamic, 17
no slip condition, 85
nonlinear steepening in tunnel, 166
plane wave, 19, 23
point source, denition, 9
impulsive, 10, 12
in Helmholtz equation, 44
monopole, 9
potential, velocity, 6
vector, 88
potential ow interaction, 150, 161, 164
Powell, 38
power, acoustic, 19
quadrupole, denition, 15
far eld form, 22
image in plane wall, 39
in Helmholtz equation, 45
Lighthills, 28
radiation condition, 11, 13
rate of strain tensor, 26, 84
Rayleigh, 47
end correction, 78
reciprocal, theorem, 46, 127
problem for compact Greens function, 50
reduced frequency, denition, 148
retarded potential, denition, 13
retarded time, denition, 14
Reynolds number, denition, 36
Reynolds stress, denition, 28
in Lighthill tensor, 29
linear, 29
RungeKutta integration, 108, 163
Sears, 147
Sears function, 149
self potential, vortex, 107
singularities, deleting from Greens function,
146, 159, 179, 187
specic heats, ratio, 4
speed of sound, denition, 6
values for air and water, 7
sphere, added mass, 68
interacting with a vortex, 162, 199
215
216
vortex pair, 204
spinning, 120
vortex sheet, 87, 88, 91
wake, 150
vortex sound, at low Mach numbers,
119
for cylindrical bodies, 130, 194
for nonvibrating body, 130
from spinning vortices, 120
from spoiler, 191
from vortex interacting with cylinder,
139
from vortex near halfplane, 143, 173
from vortex near sphere, 162, 199
from wall aperture, 204
in terms of surface force, 129
vortex sound equation, 116, 118
linearized, 156
low Mach number approximation, 120
vortexsurface interaction noise, 124
general formula, 127
high Reynolds number form, 128
inuence of vortex shedding, 143
vortex near sphere, 162
Index
vortex near spoiler, 191
wall mounted cylinder, 197
vorticity, bound, 91
equation, 84
equation for Stokesian uid, 86
in force formulae, 93, 96
Kelvins denition, 82
molecular diffusion, 87
source of sound, 114
wake, cylinder, 148
vortex sheet, 150
wall drag, 191
wave equation
classical acoustics, 6
for pressure, 6
in irrotational mean ow, 118
inhomogeneous, 13
radially symmetric, 10
wavelength
acoustic, 7, 17, 43
at 1 kHz, 7
hydrodynamic, 148
wave number, 43