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Ab ayyn al-Gharn

(5,818 words)
Article Table of Contents

Grammatical Opinions
Ab ayyn and Ibn Mlik
Ab ayyn and Ibn Hishm
A. Published works
B. Manuscripts
Lost works

Ab ayyn al-Gharn, Athr al-Dn Muammad b. Ysuf b. Al b. ayyn al-Nifz al-Gharn

(654745/12561344), was a grammarian, poet and man of letters during Narid rule in Granada
(Gharna) and under the Mamlks in Egypt. He was descended from the Berber tribe of Nifza (Ibn
ajar, 6/62). His father was an inhabitant of Jayyn (Jan) (Ibn ajar, 6/63), but he fled the city in
643/1245 or 1246 after it was captured by the Christians (Annn, 20). Ab ayyn was born in
Maakhshrash, a dependency of Granada, and spent his early life there (al-afad, Ayn, 11/163; Ibn
Q Shuhba, abaqt al-nut, 289). He is therefore known as al-Nifz, al-Jayyn and al-Gharn.
In 670/1272, or 668/1270, Ab ayyn started learning the Islamic sciences (Ibn al-Jazar, 2/285; Ibn
Q Shuhba, abaqt al-nut, 291), travelled to many cities in both the West and the East, and
studied under many eminent masters. He enumerated 450 of his teachers, while elsewhere he mentions
that the number of his masters was equal to the number of people who authorised him to transmit
adth on their authority, i.e. 1500 persons (see Ibn ajar, 6/58, 64; Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt alShfiiyya, 3/91). He studied the seven readings of the Qurn (al-qirt al-saba) first in
Maakhshrash under Ab Muammad Abd al-aqq b. Al al-Anr and then in Granada under Ab
Jafar Ibn al-ib and Ibn Bashr (Ab ayyn, Tafsr al-bar, 1/7; al-afad, Ayn, 11/165; al-Subk,
6/32; Ibn al-Jazar, 2/285). Later, he attended Ibn al-Zubayr's sessions and studied grammar under him
(Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt al-Shfiiyya, 3/89; Ibn al-Khab, 3/44). According to al-afad (Ayn,
2/285), he recited the entire Qurn twenty times under Ab Muammad Abd al-aqq. Ibn Q
Shuhba (abaqt al-nut, 289) says he studied grammar under Ab Al al-Shalbn, although alShalbn is known to have died in 645/1247, that is, ten years before Ab ayyn was born (see Ibn
Khallikn, 3/452).
Around the year 671/1273, he left Granada for Malaga (Mlaqa) to attend the sessions of Ibn alZubayr, who was living there at the time. Under him he learnt adth, the principles of jurisprudence
and logic, and recited Ab al-Wald al-Bj's al-Ishra and al-Ghazl's al-Mustaf. During this
period, he studied the seven readings up to the end of Srat al-ijr under Ibn Ab al-Awa (al-

afad, Ayn, 11/165166; Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt al-nut, 290; al-Maqqar, 3/315).
In 673/1275, he again attended the teaching sessions of Ibn al-ib, in which he studied al-Muwaa
(Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt al-nut, 290). Among his other masters in Malaga was Muammad b.
Abbs al-Qurub (al-Subk, 6/32).
From Malaga, Ab ayyn went first to Almeria (Almariya) and next to Algeciras (al-Jazrat alKhar) and then to Gibraltar (Jabal al-riq, known also as Jabal al-Fat), where he learnt from
prominent masters (al-usayn al-Dimashq, 23). In 677/1278, he left al-Andalus for the Maghrib and
upon his arrival he settled in Sabta (Ceuta). Later on, he learnt much in the teaching sessions of Ab
Abd Allh Muammad b. li al-Kinn in Bijya (Bougie) and Abd Allh b. Hrn in Tunis (alSubk, 6/32; al-usayn al-Dimashq, 24), where he stayed until 679/1280 (al-usayn al-Dimashq,
26). Later in that year, he set off for the East and went to the ijz for the ajj (Ibn Q Shuhba,
abaqt al-nut, 289; al-Maqqar, 3/318; al-usayn al-Dimashq, 24).
Opinions differ as to why he migrated to the East. According to Ibn al-Khab (3/4647), Ab yyn's
adolescent arrogance set him against some of his masters, including Ibn al-ib and Ibn al-Zubayr, so
much so that he wrote books refuting their ideas. Ibn al-ib made a complaint to Emir Muammad b.
Nar, better known as al-Faqh, and when the emir decided to rebuke Ab ayyn, the latter fled to the
Maghrib in fear for his life, and went on later to Egypt (cf. al-Maqqar, 3/340). On the other hand, alSuy (Bughya, 1/281) quotes Ab ayyn himself, saying that he decided to migrate to the East
because of one of the learned men of his time (Ibn al-ib according to some), who was highly
accomplished in logic, philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. The latter had asked the
sultan to send him talented students so that, before he died, he could teach them all he had learnt during
his years of research. As a result, the sultan decided to refer Ab ayyn to him. However, as he
detested his teaching sessions, Ab ayyn found he had no option but to flee (cf. Ibn al-Imd, 6/146).
While all this may have directly influenced his migration, his personality and way of living indicate
that what really drove him to move was that, like many of his contemporaries, he wished to further his
education and benefit from the teaching sessions of eastern scholars. More particularly, as he himself
admits (Tafsr al-bar, 1/4), his love of knowledge made him more courageous in its pursuit and less
fearful of any adversaries, so that he preferred the quest for knowledge to all other things, even having
a wife and children.
During the ajj, Ab ayyn heard adths in Mecca, Min and Jedda. In Mecca, he heard adths
from Ab al-asan Al b. li al-usayn, and he had sessions with Badr al-Dn b. Hd (Ibn Shkir,
1/345; al-usayn al-Dimashq, 24). From the ijz he went to Aydhb and Q. He met Mujr al-Dn
b. al-Lam (638721/12401321) in Q, and studied his poetry with him. He finally returned to Cairo
in 680/1281 and started his studies at the Afram madrasa (Ibn Shkir, 3/138; al-usayn al-Dimashq,
24; al-Maqqar, 3/338).
At this time, Granada was the only Andalus region still under Muslim rule, and many Andalus
scholars and learned people had been forced to leave their country. Cairo was the main centre of
scholarship and learning, and teaching and scholarly debate flourished in the city's mosques and
schools (Slim, 354; Ashtar, 295296). It was then that Ab ayyn first studied the eight readings

(qirat) of the Qurn under Abd al-Nar b. Al, known as Ibn al-Mary, in Alexandria, and then
the seven readings of the Qurn according to the transmission of Warsh (d. 197/812) under Isml b.
Hibat Allh al-Malj (Ab ayyn, Tafsr al-bar, 1/7, 11; Ibn al-Jazar, 2/285). He also learnt Ab alIzz's al-Irshd from Yaqb b. Badrn (Ibn al-Jazar, 2/285). His masters in Alexandria included Abd
al-Wahhb b. Furt, Ibn al-Dahhn and Abd Allh b. Amad b. Fris (Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt alnut, 291). He later studied the sciences of ul and adth with Shaykh Shams al-Dn al-Ifahn and
al-Dimy respectively. He also studied al-Rfi's al-Muarrir and al-Nawaw's al-Minhj under
Shaykh Alam al-Dn al-Irq, and memorised most of al-Minhj (al-afad, Ayn, 11/166; Ibn Q
Shuhba, abaqt al-Shfiiyya, 4/91).
In addition to the above sciences, Ab ayyn had extensive learning in poetry, literature and
lexicology. According to his own account (Tafsr al-bar, 1/6), he knew by heart al-Fa by Ab alAbbs Amad b. Yay al-Shaybn, the collected works of the most famous pre-Islamic poets, and
one part of Ab Tammm's amsa. In 688/1289, he studied Sbawayh's al-Kitb under the famous
grammarian Ibn al-Nas (Ibn al-Khab, 3/45). Having dedicated twenty years of his life to study,
becoming an expert in different branches of grammar (naw), exegesis (tafsr), jurisprudence, adth
and recitation of the Qurn, he then turned to teaching and writing. Al-afad says, I found none of
my teachers as hard-working as him: whenever I entered his presence, he was either busy teaching or
collecting adth and writing, and I never found him doing anything else apart from these activities
(Ayn, 11/165). It was not long before Ab ayyn had surpassed his contemporaries and become
hugely popular in both east and west. He became known as the shaykh al-nut (Shaykh of all
Grammarians) or imm al-nut (Imam of all Grammarians). Similarly, in the science of adth, he was
famed as the shaykh al-muaddithn (Shaykh of all Traditionists), while in other fields he was known
as ras al-ulam (the Chief of the Scholars) (al-Maqqar, 3/288, 291; cf. Mudarris, 7/82). He was
even considered greater than al-Khall b. Amad, Sbawayh, al-Kis, al-Farr and other well-known
grammarians (al-fad, Ayn, 11/161162; al-Maqqar, 3/290291).
After the death of Ibn Na in 698/1299, as the most prominent authority in grammar Ab ayyn
took up the chair of naw in the mosques of al-Aqmar and al-kim, and later the chair of Qurnic
commentary in the liiyya madrasa and the Amad b. ln mosque, as well as the chair of adth
in the Manriyya madrasa (Ab ayyn, Tafsr al-bar, 1/3; Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt al-Shfiiyya,
4/91; idem, abaqt al-nut, 290; al-Maqqar, 3/288; al-usayn al-Dimashq, 24). Students from
near and far attended his teaching sessions, many of whom became recognised scholars and learned
individuals in their own right (al-Frzbd, 203; Ibn ajar, 6/59). His most famous students
included al-afad, Ibn Hishm, Taq al-Dn al-Subk and his son Tj al-Dn al-Subk, Jaml al-Dn alIsnaw, Ibn Aql, Ibn Rfi, Ibn Fal Allh and Ibn Marzq (al-afad, al-Ghayth, 2/416; idem, Nakt,
280; al-Subk, 6/32; al-Isnaw, 1/458; Ibn Q Shuhba, abaqt al-nut, 290; Khwnsr, 8/91). He
taught the Saq al-zand (or Siq al-zand), arr's Maqmt, Ab Tammm's amsa, Ibn Durayd's
Maqra and Thalab's al-Fa as well as Ibn Ab al-Awa's works such as al-Tibyn f akm alQurn, al-Murab al-mufhim f shar Muslim, al-Wasma f akm al-qasma and al-Mishra alsalsal f adth al-musalsal (al-afad, Nakt, 281; al-Maqqar, 3/288). All these demonstrate his
encyclopaedic knowledge, in addition to which his works show that he knew Persian, Turkish and

Ge'ez (Ethiopic), and one or two of his works were even written in those languages (Gonzlez, 138; aladth, 176187).
Despite his devotion to the traditional sciences, he had little interest in philosophy, and when he came
to Egypt, he was most surprised to see so many people studying philosophy (Ab ayyn al-Gharn,
Tufat al-arb, xxxiv). Equally, he was unimpressed by Sufi teachings. Although he recorded stories of
the miraculous acts (karmt) of certain Sufi shaykhs, he was nonetheless critical of them, referring to
them in his poetry as heretics (using the term zindq) drowning in error (see Tafsr al-bar, 1/5; Ibn
ajar, 6/64; Nmah-yi dnishwarn, 1/225226).
Before his migration to the East, like many people of al-Andalus, Ab ayyn was an enthusiastic
hir (a school which derives law solely from the literal meaning of the text). However, after his
arrival in Egypt, like many other scholars in the Maghrib such as Ibn Mlik, he was influenced by the
intellectual environment of the Egyptian schools and changed his orientation. In spite of his repeated
assertion that he would always stay with hir beliefs and methods, he converted to the Shfi
madhhab, and composed an ode eulogising al-Shfi (al-afad, Ayn, 11/179; al-Subk, 6/36; Ibn
Q Shuhba, abaqt al-Shfiiyya, 3/9192). He held Al b. Ab lib in high regard, and he cursed
those who opposed him. In his writings, he cites Al's sayings as support for his own statements (Ab
ayyn, Taqrb, 39; Ibn ajar, 6/62; al-Maqqar, 3/295, 338). Nonetheless, this aspect of his teaching
should not be exaggerated: his great respect for Al b. Ab lib may simply have resulted from his
belief that Al was the founder of Arabic grammar (Ab ayyn, Taqrb, 39).
Of his scholarly contemporaries, Ab ayyn was initially full of admiration for Ibn Taymiyya, who
lived in Alexandria between the years 709/13091310 and 713/1313, and he even composed an ode in
his honour. However, after Ibn Taymiyya was highly critical of Sbawayh in his Kitb al-arsh, Ab
ayyn turned against him and joined the ranks of Ibn Taymiyya's opponents (Ibn ajar, 6/64; alMaqqar, 3/295). Ab ayyn was also a celebrated poet, and some of his poems are quoted in alafad's works (Ayn, 11/168169, 172, 173, 180183), and by Ibn Shkir (4/7274) and Ibn alKhab (3/4759). Some of these compositions are in praise of grammar and prominent grammarians
such as Sbawayh as well as the shaykhs and the rulers of his time. He had a particular interest in epic
and love poetry (al-afad, Ayn, 11/168; Ibn ajar, 6/62; al-Maqqar, 3/296), and composed some
muwashshat, a genre of stanzaic poetry originally from al-Andalus; a number of these are cited by
al-afad (Ayn, 11/183184, 186187) and al-Maqqar (3/309310, 312313; cf. al-adth, 8083).
Ab ayyn had a low opinion of others, and was extremely mean. Surprisingly he took pride in his
meanness, and in every gathering he would seek to praise it and find fault with people who were
generous and liberal. He loved money so much that he considered wealth to be the cure for all
suffering: in one poem he declared that hoping that a dirham might be placed in one's purse is like
expecting a child from a sterile person (al-afad, Ayn, 11/167168). In contrast to other scholars, he
never spent money on books but simply used ones that he had borrowed (al-Maqqar, 3/296297).
The only thing that is known about his relations with the rulers of the time is that he was on friendly
terms with one of the Mamlk emirs, Sayf al-Dn Arghn, and held him in high regard (al-afad, Nakt,

Ab Hayyn had a daughter called Nur, who was a celebrated traditionist, and he was full of praise
and admiration for her. In 730/1330 Nur died, and Ab ayyn was so distressed by her death that
for a whole year he lived next to her grave in Cairo's Barqqiyya madrasa, in virtual seclusion. He then
wrote a book entitled al-Nur f al-maslt an Nur (al-Maqqar, 3/314).
Ab ayyn went blind towards the end of life, and died in Cairo. He was buried in the Sufi cemetery
(maqbarat al-fiyya) (Ibn al-Ward, 482; al-afad, Nakt, 284; al-usayn al-Dimashq, 26). Al-afad
wrote an elegy on him (Ayn, 11/163164).

Grammatical Opinions
Ab ayyn revered Sbawayh's al-Kitb as if it were practically sacred scripture, and considered no
other book worth teaching. The book had a huge influence on the development of his own grammatical
ideas and opinions. Although debates between different grammatical schools had died down, and
grammarians were no longer partisan supporters of schools of grammar and major grammarians, Ab
ayyn had such intense enthusiasm for Sbawayh, the leader of the Bara school, that he would not
tolerate any criticism of him or his book. As mentioned above, he broke off relations with Ibn
Taymiyya, roundly criticising him for saying that Sbawayh was not a prophet of grammar since he
was not exempt from error (al-Suy, Bughya, 1/282). Ab ayyn's excessive bias towards earlier
grammarians, especially Sbawayh, which was mainly due to his hir inclinations, led him to be
content with imitating his predecessors and remaining literalist in his exposition of grammar, like Ibn
Ma (Ibn al-Ward, 482; ayf, 321). As a result, there is little that is original about his grammatical
Ab ayyn's devotion to Sbawayh caused him to prefer Sbawayh's grammatical opinions to those of
any other eminent grammarian, including al-Khall b. Amad, Thalab, al-Mzin, al-Mubarrad and alJarm. The following are some examples:
Grammarians such as al-Khall, al-Mzin and Ibn Mlik considered detached object pronouns as
two separate words: for example, they view iyy-hu ( )as a genitive construction (ifa) similar
to iyy al-shawib. Ab ayyn, on the other hand, following Sbawayh, considers it as a single
word, saying that if iyy ( )was the first part of the genitive construction it would have to be in
the genitive case, since nouns with an indeclinable ending (mabn), such as ayy ( ) become
inflected (murab) when they occur in a genitive construction.
Next is the precedence of the predicate (khabar) of inna ( ) or its effective predicate (maml
khabar) as it appears in the sentence, amm Zaydan fa-inn ribun, which was deemed
inappropriate by Sbawayh, whereas al-Mubarrad, Ibn Durustawayh, al-Farr and Ibn Mlik
considered it correct usage. Ab ayyn maintained that it is unlike either sam (generally
accepted usage) or qiys (norm), and further believed that al-Mubarrad later also adopted
Sbawayh's opinion.
On the subject of the six nouns (al-asm al-sitta), he did not accept that the attached pronouns
3. were irb by means of a arf (irb bi arf); rather, he regarded their surface desinential syntax
as a transformation in their phonic structure. For example, according to him and Sbawayh, abka (

) in the nominative case, was originally abawuka () , in which the letter b ( )took the
vowel-sound of u ( )as its following consonant letter, while the letter ww ( )dropped its vowelsound. Similarly, abka ( )was originally abawaka ( ) in which the letter ww ( )is
transformed into the letter alif (). In a similar way, abka (
) was originally abawika ( ) in
which the letter b ( )took the vowel-sound i ( )as its following consonant and so changed into
abiwika () , while the letter ww ( )dropped its vowel-sound i ( )and became abiwka ( ) in
which the letter ww ( )was transformed into y ( )and became abka (
( ) see Slim, 306
323, in which these opinions are discussed in detail). In one or two cases, he disagreed with the
Baran grammarians and sided with the Kfans. Thus, the grammarians from Bara did not permit
adjunction (af) to a pronoun in the genitive case (majrr), without repeating the genitive vowel i
(), as in fa qla lah wa li al-ari and wa alayh wa al al-fulki, whereas Ab ayyn allowed
the use of adjunction to an antecedent because of its extensive use in poetry and prose texts (alSuy, al-Iqtir, 100; Slim, 314315; on his other [grammatical] opinions see al-adth, 453 et

Ab ayyn and Ibn Mlik

In his works, Ab ayyn severely criticised Ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn al-ib, as well as Ibn Mlik who
was his compatriot and a contemporary a famous grammarian (al-Maqqar, 2/434). It has been
thought that the disagreement between Ab ayyn and Ibn Mlik was mainly due to his scholarly
arrogance and the fact that he was envious of Ibn Mlik, and that it was for these same reasons that
Ab ayyn never attended his teaching sessions (Slim, 165167). However, a careful study of their
respective biographies reveals the erroneousness of such assumptions: Ab ayyn and Ibn Mlik
never met each other, although they were contemporaries and compatriots. In 632/1235, that is, twentytwo years before Ab ayyn's birth, Ibn Mlik emigrated from al-Andalus to Egypt, while Ab
ayyn went to Cairo in 679/1280, i.e. six years after Ibn Mlik's death in 673/1275. In addition, at the
time of Ibn Mlik's death Ab ayyn was only nineteen years old (although according to al-Maqqar's
report he must have been at least thirty). Furthermore, by that time, Ab ayyn had not achieved a
degree of fame equal to that of Ibn Mlik, nor was he able to compete with him. Ab ayyn's
antagonism towards Ibn Mlik and his criticisms, therefore, all relate to the period after Ibn Mlik's
death, and significantly are all one-way since none of the sources mention any response or counterargument on the part of Ibn Mlik.
In many cases Ab ayyn considered Ibn Mlik's arguments simply weak and without foundation (alMaqqar, 2/432), while in other instances he credited him with being a trustworthy and learned scholar
and even calls him ibun (our master) (Ab ayyn, Tadhkira, 345; al-Maqqar, 2/432). In addition,
he extolled the virtues of some of his works including al-Tashl, a work he considered to be of the same
rank as Sbawayh's al-Kitb (al-Maqqar, 2/433, 3/294). On other occasions he encouraged others to
study and learn Ibn Mlik's works (Ibn al-Imd, 6/146), and wrote commentaries on his writings.

Ab ayyn and Ibn Hishm

Ibn Hishm was a student of Ab ayyn's in Cairo for some time, and studied Zuhayr b. Ab Salam's
Dwn under him (al-Suy, Bughya, 2/68); however, after a while he left him and began opposing

him. Despite reports with differing possible reasons for this, this enmity may possibly date back to the
time when Ab ayyn started writing critiques of Ibn Mlik's grammatical opinions. Ibn Hishm, who
was a strong supporter of Ibn Mlik, was unable to put up with Ab ayyn's severe criticisms, and
ignoring Ab ayyn's privilege in this matter by virtue of being his teacher, he turned against him (cf.
Slim, 324).

In Ab ayyn's time, writing commentaries, handbooks or abridged manuals and versifying prose
works by other authors were common practice amongst grammarians. Ab ayyn was no exception to
this, and many of his works belong in this category.

A. Published works

al-Idrk li lisn al-atrk, one of the oldest Turkish grammars written. The work was first printed
in 1309/1892, and later edited and published in Istanbul in 1350/1931 by Ahmet Caferolu.


Irtishf al-arab min lisn al-Arab, the author's own abridgement of al-Tadhyl wa al-takml f
shar tashl al-fawid wa takml al-maqid. It was published in Cairo (14041409/19841989)
by Muaf Amad al-Nas.


al-Irti f al-farq bayn al-d and al-, edited by Muammad asan l Ysn, and published
together with al-Farq bayn al-d wa al- by Muammad b. Nash-wn al-imyar in Baghdad


Tafsr al-bar al-mu, an important commentary on the Qurn, which Ab ayyn wrote in
710/1310, during the reign of the Mamlk sultan, al-Nir, while he was teaching Qurnic
exegesis at the Manriyya madrasa. In the commentary on each verse (ya), he first mentions
the different meanings of each word with reference to various examples, and then based upon the
opinions of earlier grammarians, especially Sbawayh, he comments on the grammatical rules of
the verse in detail. Therefore, in this book, grammatical rules outweigh the spirit of commentary.
Then the author expands on the conditions in which the verse was revealed, and its relation to
previous and succeeding verses, as well as the variant Qurnic readings. He states that he is
limiting his focus to the apparent, literal meanings of the verses, and dismisses the esoteric
interpretation (tawl) of verses which are found in Sufi and bin commentaries (see Ab
ayyn, Tafsr al-bar, 1/35). The work was published in Cairo in 1328/1910 and in Beirut in
1403/1983. The author's al-Nahr al-mdd and Ibn Maktm's al-Durr al-laq appear as
appendices to more recent editions of the work (for more information on Tafsr al-bar al-mu
see al-adth, 189 et passim).


Tadhkirat al-nut, a work on different aspects of Arabic grammar, i.e. arf and naw. It starts
with an examination of particles (urf): rubba, mundhu, mudh and law (
) , and ends
with a discussion of lexical issues and quotations from books by different grammarians, such as
Ibn al-Anbr's al-Inf, Ab al-Baq's al-Tabyn f madhhib al-nawiyyn and al-Muall f alnaw by Ab Ghnim al-Muaffar b. Amad b. amdn (see pp. 679, 704, 713, 724737). Ab
ayyn does not follow any particular ordering in this work: in discussing a subject, he cites in
detail the various opinions of different grammarians and brings many early Arabic poems and

Qurnic verses as examples, carefully elaborating on their lexical aspects. For this reason, this
book is also highly significant in lexical terms. The work was published in Beirut in 1406/1984
by Aff Abd al-Ramn.


Tufat (Itf) al-arb bi m f al-Qurn min al-gharb: at the beginning of the book, the author
divides Qurnic terms into two groups: simple terms that are understood by ordinary people and
terms whose meanings are known only to the adept, but he discusses only the second type of term
and idiom. He arranges them according to urf al-mujam (dotted letters), and gives a brief
explanation of each word and its meaning. He arranges the entries according to the first and third
radicals (al-urf al-aliyya), so that under the letter b ( )entries are arranged as follows:
baraa (), bawaa ( )and badaa ( )followed by bahata (
) and baghata (
) , a
style that is reminiscent of al-Jawhar's method in al-i (see Tufa, passim; Slim, 302). A
quick comparison between this work and Ibn Qutayba's Tafsr gharb al-Qurn clearly shows
that the latter was Ab ayyn's major source. Ab ayyn quotes the exact expressions of Ibn
Qutayba (for example, cf. Ibn Qutayba, 42, 50, 64 and Ab ayyn, Tufa, 191, 178, 317; see the
entries on al-ayyib (), al-salw ( )and wasa (). The difference between these
works is that Ab ayyn arranges his book according to the order of the urf al-mujam,
whereas Ibn Qutayba does so in accordance with the Qurnic sras. In addition, in contrast to
Ab ayyn's work, Ibn Qutayba's incorporates an account and detailed analysis of different
examples and opinions. The Tufat al-arb has been published many times: in 1345/1926 by
Muammad Sad b. Muaf al-Ward in am, in 1397/ 1977 by Amad Malb and Khadja
al-adth in Baghdad, in 1408/1988 by Samr h Majdhb in Damascus and Beirut, and most
recently in 1409/1989 by Dwd Sallm and Nr ammd Qays in Beirut under the title
Tufat al-arb. Qsim al-anaf has produced an abridged and revised version entitled Mukhtaar
al-tufa wa gharb al-Qurn.


al-Tadhyl wa al-takml f shar al-tashl, an elaborate commentary on and critique of Ibn Mlik's
al-Tashl. Some parts were published in Egypt in 1328/1910.


Taqrb al-muqarrab, an abridged version of Ibn Ufr's al-Muqarrab. In this work, the author
left out the examples and comparisons given in al-Muqarrab, and produced an abridged version
of the subject matter in order to make it easier for students and learners to memorise (Taqrb, 39).
However, this shortening of the work created ambiguities that made it difficult to comprehend,
and so the author had to compose a commentary entitled al-Tadrb f tamthl al-taqrb, in which
he incorporated the examples and comparisons of the original in full (see manuscripts below).
The author rearranged the topics and chapters, creating an order different from al-Muqarrab,
sometimes reversing the original ordering or omitting things altogether (see Ab ayyn alGharn, Taqrb, 3140 and Abd al-Ramn, 2627). It was published in Beirut in 1402/1982
by Aff Abd al-Ramn.


Dwn, published in Baghdad in 1388/1969 by Amad Malb and Khadja al-adth.


Manhaj al-slik f al-kalm al alfiyyat Ibn Mlik, a commentary on Ibn Mlik's Alfiyya. This
was edited by Sidney Glazer and published in New Haven, CT, in 1947.

al-Nukat al-isn f shar Ghyat al-isn, a commentary on the author's Ghyat al-isn f ilm
11. al-lisn (see manuscripts below). This is in fact an introduction to grammatical topics for learners

of Arabic. In the book, the author explains the difficult parts in Ghyat al-isn with examples
from poetry and Qurnic verses. In addition, on each topic he gives the different opinions of the
great grammarians and the various schools of Bara, Kfa, Baghdad and Egypt, and especially alAndalus. Among his contemporaries, he cites reports from his teachers, particularly Ibn alNas and Ibn al-Zubayr (see pp. 37, 47, 66; cf. Ab ayyn al-Gharn, al-Nukat, 25). The
contents include grammatical topics as well as lexical themes. Al-Nukat was published in Beirut
in 1405/1985 by Abd al-usayn al-Fatl.
al-Nahr al-mdd, an abridged version of the author's Tafsr al-bar al-mu. It was originally
12. published as an appendix to Tafsr al-bar al-mu, and later separately in Beirut in 1407/1987
by Brn al-annw and Hidyn al-annw.
Hidyat al-naw, a short work on grammar. In this book, following the style of Ibn al-jib in his
13. al-Kfiya, the author briefly discusses some grammatical topics. It consists of an introduction,
three chapters and a conclusion, and was published at Kanpur in India in 1280/1863.

B. Manuscripts
Irb al-Qurn, two sections of this work survive in the Rib al-Fat Library in Marrakesh
(Alwash, 1/3637). The first section starts at Srat al-amd and continues up to the end of Srat
1. al-Nis with full irb (vowelling and diacritics), and the second section starts at Srat al-Mida
and goes to the end of Srat al-Arf. The first and third parts of this book are held in the Escorial
Library, Madrid (Derenbourg, 3/34).

al-Tadrb f tamthl al-taqrb, a commentary on the author's Taqrb al-muqarrab. A copy can be
found in the Beir Aa collection in the Sleymaniye library in Istanbul (Brockelmann, SII/136).


Talw al-taw f al-naw, on syntax, a copy of which is to be found in the Hebron (al-Khall)
Library (Brockelmann, SII/136).

Khulat al-tibyn f al-man wa al-bayn, a verse work on the science of man wa bayn,
meaning and exposition, two of the three categories into which the study of rhetoric had been
divided since the time of al-Sakkk (d. 626/1229); a copy of this is in the Jall al-Dn al-Barr
Library in Mecca (al-usayn, Dall, 1/205).
Iqd al-lal f al-qirt al-sab al-awl, a verse collection consisting of 1044 verses. The author
composed it in the style of Ab al-Qsim al-Shib's irz al-amn. Ibn ajar (6/6162)
5. considered the work to be of more significance than irz al-amn. Manuscripts of it are kept in
the Dr al-Kutub in Cairo, the Bankipore Library and the Jall al-Dn al-Barr Library in Mecca
(al-usayn, Dall, 1/205; Khuda Bakhsh, 18/8688; Brockelmann, SII/136).
6. Ghyat al-isn f ilm al-lisn (al-bayn), a work on syntax, on which the author also wrote a
commentary entitled al-Nukat al-isn. A manuscript of this work and the commentary are in the
Dr al-Kutub in Cairo (Brockelmann, SII/136), and another manuscript, of the work only, is in
Najaf (al-usayn, Fihrist, 68). In addition, there is an abridged version of the book as an appendix

to al-Nukat al-isn in Berlin (Ahlwardt, 6/126127).


Lught al-Qurn: a manuscript of this work is in the Dr al-Kutub in Cairo (see Sayyid, Fihris
al-makht al-muawwara, 1/42).

al-Lamat al-badriyya f ilm al-Arabiyya: two manuscripts of this work are kept in the Dr alKutub in Cairo, and one of these two copies is accompanied by a commentary written by Jaml al8.
Dn Abd Allh b. Hishm (Brockelmann, SII/136). Another manuscript has a commentary written
by Shams al-Dn Muammad al-Barmw, and is held at the British Library (Catalogus, II/238).

al-Mubdi al-mulakhkha min al-mumti f al-tarf, an abridged version of Ibn Ufr's al-Mumti
f al-tarf.

al-Mawfr min shar Ibn Ufr, an abridgement of Ibn Ufr's al-Shar al-kabr. A manuscript of
10 this work and al-Mubdi al-mulakhkha (no. 9, above) in the author's own hand are kept in a
. collection in the Dr al-Kutub in Cairo (Ab ayyn al-Gharn, Taqrb, xxiiixxiv; Sayyid,
Fihris al-makht al-muawwara, 3/34, 144).
11 Nukat al-aml al iqd al-lal, a commentary on the author's Iqd al-lal. A manuscript of the
. work is in Bankipore (Khuda Bakhsh, 18/8889).
12 Two odes by the author in praise of al-Zamakhshar, copies of which are in Berlin (Ahlwardt, 7/70)
. and the Vatican (Brockelmann, SII/136).

Lost works
1. al-Abyt al-wfiya f ilm al-qfiya; 2. al-Athr f qirat Ibn Kathr; 3. al-Isfr al-mulakhkha min
kitb al-affr, an abridged version of al-affr's commentary on Sbawayh's al-Kitb; 4. al-Ilm bi
arkn al-Islm; 5. al-Afl f lisn al-Turk; 6. al-Anwr al-ajl f ikhtir al-muall; 7. al-Tankhl almulakhkha min shar al-Tashl; 8. al-Tajrd li kitb Sbawayh; 9. Tufat al-nadus f nut al-Andalus;
10. Taqrb al-n f qirat al-Kis; 11. al-ulal al-liya f asnd al-Qurn al-liya; 12. alRamza f qirat amza; 13. al-Raw al-bsim f qirat im; 14. Zahw al-mulk f naw al-Turk;
15. al-Shadh f masalat kadh; 16. al-Shadhara; 17. Ghyat al-malb f qirat Yaqb; 18. al-Fal
f akm al-fal; 19. Fihrist masmt; 20. Qar al-ab f jawb asilat al-Dhahab; 21. Majn alar f db wa al-tawrkh li ahl al-ar; 22. al-Makhbr f lisn al-Yakhmr; 23. al-Muzn al-hmir f
qirat Ibn mir; 24. Maslak al-rushd f tajrd masil Nihyat Ibn Rushd; 25. Mashyakhat Ibn Ab
Manr; 26. al-Mawrid al-ghamr f qirat Ibn Amr; 27. Maniq al-khurs f lisn al-Furs; 28. al-Nqi
f qirat Nfi; 29. Nafat al-misk f srat al-Turk; 30. Nawfith al-sir f damith al-shir; 31. Nr alghabash f lisn al-abash; 32. Nihyat al-ighrb f ilmay al-tarf wa al-irb; 33. al-Nayyir al-jal f
qirat Zayd b. Al; 34. al-Wahhj f ikhtir al-Minhj (al-afad, Ayn, 11/179180).
Enayatollah Fatehi-nezhad
Tr. Rahim Gholami

Ab ayyn al-Gharn, Muammad b. Ysuf, al-Nukat al-isn f shar Ghyat al-isn, ed. Abd
al-usayn al-Fatl (Beirut, 1405/1985)
idem, Tadhkirat al-nut, ed. Aff Abd al-Ramn (Beirut, 1406/1986)
idem, Tafsr al-bar al-mu (Beirut, 1403/1983)
idem, Taqrb al-muqarrab, ed. Aff Abd al-Ramn (Beirut, 1402/1982)
idem, Tufat al-arb, ed. Samr h Majdhb (Beirut, 1408/1988)
Ahlwardt, Verzeichniss
Alwash, Y. S., and Abd Allh al-Rajrj, Fihrist al-makht al-Arabiyya bi Rib al-fat
(Marrakesh, 1954)
Annn, Muammad Abd Allh, Nihyat al-Andalus (Cairo, 1386/1966)
Ari, Rachel, L'Espagne Musulmane au Temps des Nasrides (12321492) (Paris, 1973)
Ashtar, li, Ibn Hishm an min Sbawayh, Majallat al-majma al-ilm al-Arab, 40
(1385/1965), pp. 295309
Bouvat, Lucien, Notice bio-bibliographique sur Athir ad-Din Mohammad ibn Yousouf Abou Hayyan
al-Gharnati, Revue Hispaniques, 10 (1903), pp. 471484
Brockelmann SII
Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum orientalium qui in Museo Brittanico asservantur (London, 1852)
ayf, Shawq, al-Madris al-nawiyya (Cairo, 1968)
Derenbourg, H., et al., Les Manuscrits Arabes de l'Escurial (Paris, 18841941)
al-Frzbd, Muammad b. Yaqb, al-Bulgha f tarkh aimmat al-lugha, ed. Muammad al-Mir
(Damascus, 1392/1972)
Glazer, S., Ab ayyn al-Gharn, EI2, vol. 1, p. 126
idem, The Alfiyya Commentaries of Ibn Aql and Ab aiyn, MW, 31 (1941), pp. 400408
idem, Manhaj al-slik: Ab ayyn's Commentary on the Alfiyya of Ibn Mlik, (New Haven, CT,
Gonzlez Palencia, ngel, Historia de la Literatura Arbigo-Espaola (2nd ed., Barcelona, 1945)
Gully, Adrian, Grammmar and Semantics in Medieval Arabic (Richmond, 1995)
al-adth, Khadja, Ab ayyn al-naw (Baghdad, 1385/1966)
al-usayn, Amad, Dall al-makht (Qumm, 1397/1977)

idem, Fihrist makht khiznat al-Rawa al-aydariyya (Najaf, 1391/1971)

al-usayn al-Dimashq, Muammad b. Al, Dhayl tadhkirat al-uff li al-Dhahab, ed. Muammad
Zhid al-Kawthar (Beirut, 1347/1928)
Ibn ajar al-Asqaln, Amad, al-Durar al-kmina (Hyderabad, 1396/1976)
Ibn al-Imd, Abd al-ayy, Shadhart al-dhahab (Cairo, 1351/1932)
Ibn al-Jazar, Muammad, Ghyat al-nihya, ed. Gotthelf Bergstrsser and Otto Pretzl (Cairo
Ibn Khallikn, Wafayt
Ibn al-Khab, Muammad, al-Ia f akhbr Gharna, ed. Muammad Abd Allh Annn (Cairo,
Ibn Q Shuhba, Ab Bakr, abaqt al-Shfiiyya, ed. fi Abd al-Alm Khn (Hyderabad,
idem, abaqt al-nut wa al-nawiyyn, ed. Musin Fayy (Najaf, 1974)
Ibn Qutayba, Abd Allh, Tafsr gharb al-Qurn, ed. Amad aqr (Beirut, 1398/1978)
Ibn Shkir al-Kutub, Muammad, Fawt al-wafayt, ed. Isn Abbs (Beirut, 1973)
Ibn al-Ward, Umar, Tatimmat al-mukhtaar, ed. Amad Rifat al-Badrw (Beirut, 1389/1970)
al-Isnaw, Abd al-Ram, abaqt al-Shfiiyya, ed. Abd Allh al-Jubr (Baghdad, 1390/1970)
Khwnsr, Muammad Bqir, Rawt al-jannt, ed. Asad Allh Ismliyn (Tehran, 1382/1962)
Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Catalogue of the Arabic and Persian Manuscripts (Calcutta,
al-Maqqar, Amad b. Muammad, Naf al-b, ed. Ysuf Muammad al-Biq (Beirut, 1406/1986)
Mudarris, Muammad Al, Raynat al-adab (Tabrz, 1346 Sh./1967)
Nmah-yi dnishwarn-i Nir (Qumm, 1379/1959)
al-afad, Khall b. Aybak, Ayn al-ar, MS EH1217, Library of Ahmet III, Topkap Saray Mzesi,
idem, Ghayth al-musajjam (Beirut, 1395/1975)
idem, Nakt al-himyn, ed. Amad Zak Beg (Cairo, 1329/1911)
Slim Mukarram, Abd al-dil, al-Madrasa al-nawiyya f Mir wa al-Shm f al-qarnayn al-sbi
wa al-thmin min al-hijra (Beirut, 1400/1980)
Sayyid, Fud, Fihris al-makht (Cairo, 13801383/19611963)
idem, ed., Fihris al-makht al-muawwara (Cairo, 1962)

al-Subk, Abd al-Wahhb, abaqt al-Shfiiyya al-kubr (Cairo, 1324/1906)

al-Suy, Abd al-Ramn, Bughyat al-wut, ed. Muammad Ab al-Fal Ibrhm (Cairo,
idem, al-Iqtir, ed. Ahmed Subhi Furat (Istanbul, 1395/1975)
Versteegh, Keers, Landmarks in Lin- guistic Thought III: The Arabic Linguistic Tradition (London
and New York, 1997).