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CHAPTER-1

ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY

1.1

Introduction

In the last decade, the electrical power quality issue has been the main concern

of the power companies. Power quality is defined as the index which both the delivery and

consumption of electric power affect on the performance of electrical apparatus. From a

customer point of view, a power quality problem can be defined as any problem is manifested

on voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in power failure. The power electronics

progressive, especially in flexible alternating-current transmission system (FACTS) and

custom power devices, affects power quality improvement. Generally, custom power devices,

e.g., dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), are used in medium-to-low voltage levels to improve

customer power quality .

Most serious threats for sensitive equipment in electrical grids are voltage sags (voltage dip)

and swells (over voltage) . These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit in

the grid, inrush currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations

in the grid. The FACTS devices, such as unified power flow controller (UPFC) and

synchronous static compensator (STAT-COM), are used to alleviate the disturbance and

improve the power system quality and reliability. In this paper, a distributed power flow

controller, introduced in as a new FACTS device, is used to mitigate voltage and current

waveform deviation and improve power quality in a matter of seconds.

The causes of power quality problems are generally complex and difficult to detect.

Technically speaking, the ideal ac line supply by the utility system should be a pure sine wave

of fundamental frequency. In addition, the peak of the voltage should be of rated value.

Unfortunately the actual ac line supply that we receive everyday departs from the ideal

specifications. Table 1.1 lists various power quality problems, their characterization methods

and possible causes.

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.

Broad

categories

Specific

categories

Impulsive

Transients

Methods of

Characterizatio

n

Peak

magnitude,

Time and

duration

Oscillatory

Sag

Short duration

Voltage

variation

Peak

magnitude,

Frequency

components

Magnitude,

duration

Swell

Magnitude,

duration

Interruption

duration

Under voltage

Magnitude,

duration

Overvoltage

Long duration

voltage

variations

Sustained

interruptions

Duration

Symmetrical

components

Voltage

imbalance

Waveform

distortion

Harmonics

Notching

DC offset

Voltage flicker

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Magnitude,

duration

Typical causes

Lightning strike,

Transformer energization,

Capacitor switching

Line or capacitor

Or load switching.

Ferroresonant

transformers,

Single line to ground

faults

Ferroresonant

transformers,

Single line to ground

faults

Temporary faults

Switching on loads,

capacitor deenergization

Switching off loads,

Capacitor energization

faults

Single-phase loads,

single-phasing condition

THD, harmonic

Spectrum

Adjustable speed

Drives and other

nonlinear loads

THD , harmonic Power electronic

Spectrum

Converters

Volts, amps

Geo-magnetic

disturbance,

Half-wave rectification

Frequency of

Occurrence,

Page

3

Modeling

frequency

Lamps Eswar College of Engineering

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There are many ways in which the lack of quality power affects customers. Impulsive

transients do not travel very far from their point of entry. However an impulsive transient can

give rise to an oscillatory transient can lead to transient over voltage and consequent damage

to the power line insulators.

Short duration voltage variations have varied effects on consumers. Voltage sag can

cause loss of production in automated process. Since a voltage sag can trip a motor or cause its

controller to malfunction. also voltage swells can put stress on computers and many home

appliances.

The impact of long duration voltage variations is greater than those of short

duration variations. The under voltage effects same as voltage sag and over voltage effects

same as voltage swell. The recent proliferation of electronic equipment and microprocessorbased controls has caused electric utilities to redefine power quality in terms of the quality of

voltage supply rather than availability of power. In this regard, IEEE Std. 1159-1995,

Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality as created categories of

power quality disturbances based upon duration, magnitude, and spectral content. Table 2-1

shows the categories of power quality disturbances with spectral content, typical duration,

and typical magnitude.

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1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

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Categories

Transients

1.1 Impulsive

1.1.1 Voltage

1.1.2 Current

1.2 Oscillatory

1.2.1 Low Frequency

1.2.2 Medium Frequency

1.2.3 High Frequency

Short-Duration Variations

2.1 Sags

2.1.1 Instantaneous

2.1.2 Momentary

2.1.3 Temporary

2.2 Swells

2.1.1 Instantaneous

2.1.2 Momentary

2.1.3 Temporary

Long-Duration Variations

3.1 Overvoltage

3.2 Under voltages

Interruptions

4.1 Momentary

4.2 Temporary

4.3 Long-Term

Waveform Distortion

5.2 Voltage

5.3 Current

Waveform Notching

Flicker

Noise

Spectral

Content

Typical

Magnitudes

> 5 kHz

> 5 kHz

< 500 kHz

3002 kHz

> 2 kHz

0.11.0 pu

0.11.0 pu

0.11.0 pu

0.11.8 pu

0.11.8 pu

0.11.8 pu

0.11.2 pu

0.81.0 pu

0

0

0

0100th Harmonic

0100th Harmonic

0200 kHz

< 30 Hz

0200 kHz

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020%

0100%

0.17%

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Table 1.2 shows typical voltage sag, swell, and interruption. Voltage sag is a shortduration decrease of the RMS voltage value, lasting from 0.5 cycles to 120 seconds. Sags are

caused by faults on the power system or by the starting of are relatively large motor or other

large load. A voltage swells may accompany voltage sag.

A voltage swell occurs when a single line-to-ground fault on the system results in a

temporary voltage rise on the Un faulted phases. Removing a large load or adding a large

capacitor bank can also cause voltage swells, but these events tend to cause longer-duration

changes in the voltage magnitude and will usually be classified as long-duration variations

A voltage interruption is the complete loss of voltage. A disconnection of electricity

causes an interruption, usually by the opening of circuit breaker, liner closer, or fuse. For

example, if a tree comes into contact with an overhead electricity line, a circuit breaker will

clear the fault (short circuit), and the customer who receives their power from the faulted

line will experience an interruption.

Geneva based international electro technical commission (IEC) and institute of

electrical and electronics engineers proposed various standards for power quality. The table

is shown below.

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Phenomena

Standards

IEC 61000-2-1:1990 [3],

IEEE 1159: 1195 [4]

Transients

IEEE C62.41(1991) [5],

IEEE 1159: 1995 [4], IEC 816: 1984 [6]

IEEE 1159: 1995[4]

Harmonics

IEEE 519: 1992[7], IEC 61000-47:1991[8]

Voltage flicker

Table 1.3 power quality standards

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CHAPTER-2

FACTS DEVICES

2.1 ROLE OF FACTS DEVICES

Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices have been

proposed for effective power flow control and regulating bus voltage in electrical power

systems, thus resulting in an increased transfer capability, low system losses and improved

stability.

Most serious threats for sensitive equipment in electrical grids are voltage sags(voltage

dip) and swells (over voltage) . These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit

in the grid, inrush currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations

in the grid.

FACTs controllers

MECHANICAL PFCDs

Thyristr

Shunt

devices

#!(

Series

devices

L, C

SVC

SSC

!!

+,,,

TCSC

Static synchronous series compensator

L, C

"

Unified/ interline

power flow controller

Combined devices

Phase shifting T/f

%

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(a) Shunt FACTS Controller: The shunt controllers are connected in parallel with the

transmission line. They inject the voltage and current in parallel with the transmission

system.

(i)

static synchronous generator operated as a shunt connected static var compensator

whose capacitive or inductive o/p current can be controlled independent of ac system

voltage.

A three-level voltage inverter based dynamic model of DSTATCOM has been

established by way of lead-in switch function and using PWM current control technology for

realizing dynamic var compensation effectively.

A three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI) configuration with a dc bus capacitor as a

DSTATCOM has been demonstrated through MATLAB/SIMULINK for power quality

improvement in a three-phase, three-wire distribution system .

Different control strategies have been employed and compared like hysteresis control,

PWM current controllers, PI controller and sliding mode controller.

In order to balance the supply current, and improving the power factor to a desired

value the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components has been used here to extract the

three-phase reference currents and then these reference currents are then tracked using voltage

source inverter (VSI), operated in a hysteresis band control technique .

These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit in the grid, inrush

currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations in the grid.

The nonlinear state-space model of the multilevel DSTATCOM has been presented

from the dq0 reference frame that can adapt to load changes and have effective steady-state

compensation and a better dynamic response .

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dynamic voltage restorer operated without an external electrical energy source or a series

compensator where o/p voltage is in quadrature and controllable independently of the line

current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the

line and there by controlling the transmitted electric power. SSSC is also known as dynamic

voltage restorer.

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A Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) as shown in Fig. 2 emulates an

inductive or a capacitive reactance at the point of connection with the transmission line by

injecting sinusoidal current, of variable magnitude, at the point of connection in quadrature

with the line voltage. The line voltage regulation can be achieved by regulating the reactive

current flow through STATCOM which has been verified by the modeling technique of

STATCOM using an Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) simulation package [9].

Distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) is used in distribution system for the

compensation of reactive power and unbalance caused by various loads and it works on the

principle of VSC (voltage source converter). To compensate the reactive power a current

injected into the system by D-STATCOM to correct the voltage sag, swell and interruption.

DSTATCOM is shown below in Fig. 3.

and unbalance. The DSTATCOMs performance is dependent on the control algorithm used for

extraction of reference current components. A test system with/without DSTATCOM and a

Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) have been done using Simulink and Sim Power System

in MATLAB environment for a wide variety of system disturbances under different tested

conditions.

A paper has been published describing implementation of a neural-network (NN)controlled DSTATCOM using a DSPACE processor for power quality improvement in a threephase four-wire distribution system and its performance has been analyzed in MATLAB. For

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improving the power quality of power systems dynamic modeling and the control design of a

distribution static compensator coupled with ultra-capacitor energy storage (UCES) has also

been proposed and the control technique employed is based on the instantaneous power theory

on the synchronous-rotating dq reference frame. Three modes of operation have been

considered, i.e. voltage control for voltage fluctuations ride-through, current/voltage harmonics

mitigation and dynamic active power control.

A mathematical model of DSTATCOM in voltage sag compensation mode along with

SVPWM switched DSTATCOM simulation in power factor control mode has been presented

for power factor and voltage sag compensation. DSTATCOM can also be applied to industrial

systems for mitigation of voltage dip problem which generally occurs during the starting of an

induction motor. The distribution system performance under all types of fault can be improved

by using a 12-pulse DSTATCOM configuration with IGBT which can be modeled and

simulated using the PSCAD/EMTDC. A DSTATCOM can also be applied in three-phase, fourwire distribution system feeding commercial and domestic consumers for load balancing,

neutral current elimination, power factor correction and voltage regulationTo maintain voltage

stability and improve power quality of distribution grid, a control strategy combining control of

state feedback and feed forward has been employed using a nonlinear dynamic mathematical

model of DSTATCOM and thus improving the transient response performance and antidisturbing ability of the system .

A three-level voltage inverter based dynamic model of DSTATCOM has been

established by way of lead-in switch function and using PWM current control technology for

realizing dynamic var compensation effectively. A three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI)

configuration with a dc bus capacitor as a DSTATCOM has been demonstrated through

MATLAB/SIMULINK for power quality improvement in a three-phase, three-wire distribution

system . Different control strategies have been employed and compared like hysteresis control,

PWM current controllers, PI controller and sliding mode controller.

In order to balance the supply current, and improving the power factor to a desired

value the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components has been used here to extract the

three-phase reference currents and then these reference currents are then tracked using voltage

source inverter (VSI), operated in a hysteresis band control technique . The nonlinear statespace model of the multilevel DSTATCOM has been presented from the dq0 reference frame

that can adapt to load changes and have effective steady-state compensation and a better

dynamic response .

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(ii) Static VAR Compensator: According to IEEE definitions and standards, a shunt connected

static VAR generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so

as to maintain or control specific parameters of the electrical power system.

.

Static VAR compensator (SVC) can be seen in Fig. 4. A comparative power flow study

using SVC and STATCOM models on IEEE 14-Bus Test Network has been carried out and it

has been shown that in both cases, the state variables of SVC and STATCOM have been

combined with the bus voltage magnitudes and the angles of the network for Newton Power

flow solution for achieving power quality and stability

(b) Series FACTS Controller: These controllers are connected in series with the

transmission line and they inject the voltage and current in series with the transmission system..

(i)

According to IEEE definitions and standards, a static synchronous generator or dynamic

voltage restorer operated without an external electrical energy source or a series compensator

where o/p voltage is in quadrature and controllable independently of the line current for the

purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and there

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by controlling the transmitted electric power. SSSC is also known as dynamic voltage

restorer. The DVR was first installed in 1996 and is shown in Fig. 5.

DVR is useful for compensating voltage quality problems that are due to voltage sag.

Due to its excellent dynamic capabilities, it is well suited to protect critical or sensitive load

from short duration voltage dips or swells. When a fault occurs in a distribution network, a

sudden voltage dip will appear on adjacent load feeders. With a DVR installed on a critical

load feeder, the line voltage is restored to its nominal value within the response time of a few

milliseconds thus avoiding any power disruption to the load.

DVR protects loads against voltage sags by series injection of the missing portion of the

utility voltage. To obtain missing voltage the distorted source voltage is compared with its

pre-fault value to generate the control signal for PWM. The size and rating of DVR depend

on its capability in supplying or absorbing real power in the steady-state .

Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is normally installed in a distribution system between

the supply and the critical load feeder. Its primary function is to rapidly boost up the loadside voltage in the event of a disturbance in order to avoid any power disruption to that load.

There are various circuit topologies and control schemes that can be used to implement a

DVR.

To compensate the voltage deviation caused in a feeder the Interline DVR (IDVR)

operated by Multiple Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) has been proposed which consists

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several DVRs connected to different distribution feeders in the power system sharing

common energy storage. One DVR in the IDVR system works in voltage-sag/swell

compensation mode while the other DVR in the IDVR system operate in power-flow control

mode.

GA-based optimization can be used for the location, the type and the rating of the various

FACTS devices like static var compensator, static compensator, and dynamic voltage restorer

and the performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested and illustrated on 295-bus

generic distribution system.

A schematic diagram of IDVR has been shown in Fig. 6

A concept of interline dynam

i

c voltage restoration (IDVR) has been proposed in which several DVRs in different feeders

are connected to a common DC-link energy storage and thus reducing the cost of installation.

For both the voltage control and the power flow control modes a closed-loop controller that

consists of an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop has been incorporated into the

IDVR system.

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(ii)

standards, a capacitive reactance compensator which consists of series capacitor bank

shunted by thyristor controlled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series

capacitive reactance. Fig. 7 shows a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) has been modeled in a simple two bus

system with distributed parameter line. A Fuzzy logic controller and a PID controller have been

used to control firing angles of TCSC but it has been verified that the fuzzy logic controller can

generate better dynamic response

. A single-machine infinite-bus power system installed with a TCSC has been proposed

whose control parameters have been optimized using genetic algorithm. The modeling and

simulation have validated the effectiveness of the proposed approach to achieve system

stability.

The TCSC controller can provide a very fast action to increase the synchronization

power by quick change in the equivalent capacitive reactance to the full compensation during a

fault. The TCSC controller can be designed to control the power flow, to increase the transfer

limits or to improve the transient stability and damping the oscillations FACTS devices such as

thyristor controlled series capacitors are difficult to model due to their nonlinear switching

behavior. It has been shown that passive damping has a significant effect on modal damping.

As compared to the traditional control devices, the TCSC offers smooth and flexible

control of the line impedance with much faster response. The Newton-Raphson ac power flow

method has been used to perform the modeling of TCSC for power flow studies. The

performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on IEEE-30 bus systems.

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(c) Combined series-series controllers: These controllers have two series controllers

which are connected in series with the transmission line coupled via common dc power link to

transmit the current, voltage and power.

(i) Interline Power Flow Controller: According to IEEE definitions and standards, it

consists of two or more SSSC which are coupled via common dc power link to facilitate

bidirectional flow of real power between the ac terminals of SSSC. Interline Power Flow

Controller (IPFC) can be seen in Fig. 8.

IPFC is a new concept for an overall real and reactive compensation and effective power flow

management of multi-line transmission systems by transferring the power from overloaded to

under loaded lines. It consists of a number of inverters with a common dc link to facilitate

real Power transfer among the lines of transmission system. The prime inverters can be

controlled to provide totally different operating functions, e.g., independent P and Q control,

phase shifting (transmission angle regulation), transmission impedance control, etc.

In order to analyze the flexibility of power flow control, the steady state operation of

the IPFC has been investigated through its mathematical model using improved control

strategies. A mathematical model based on the d-q orthogonal coordinates was developed to

address the issues like the relationship between the transmission angle and the IPFC controlled

region.

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The power injection model has been incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power

flow solution method on IEEE 14-bus system on the basis of a MATLAB program to

demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model and its effects in power flow studies

To verify the capability of IPFC in controlling the power flow in power system a case

study has been conducted on 6-bus & 3-machine and 30-bus & 6- machine systems, and the

results have been examined in the absence and presence of IPFC in the network .

A controller has been made using ATP- Electromagnetic Transients Program as study

and investigation tool in which the IPFC employs two dc/ac inverter with a common DC-link

to provide series compensation in the transmission system.

For improving the transient stability performance of power systems an integrated

approach of radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and Takagi-Surgeon (TS) fuzzy

scheme with a genetic optimization of their parameters has been implemented on TCSC

connected in a single-machine infinite bus power system and then applied to IPFC connected in

a multi machine power system

An extended Heffron-Phillips model of a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system

installed with IPFC has been established and used to analyze the damping torque contribution

of the IPFC in damping the low frequency oscillations and maintaining the control of the

power system. Under various loading conditions the potential of various IPFC control signals

has been investigated for the power system oscillation stability. To enhance the transient

stability of the system a power oscillation damping controller has been designed for the IPFC

using phase compensation technique. The Eigen value analyses of the lineralized PhillipsHeffron model have been used to identify the oscillation modes with low damping ratio. To

control the power flow demand in the IPFC connected transmission lines additional power flow

controllers have also been incorporated into the system.

Another Mathematical model of the IPFC has been presented to investigate the

flexibility of power flow control, and the steady state operation of the Interline Power Flow

Controller (IPFC) has been investigated in the presence of operating constraints of the IPFC.

In order to ensure a globally optimum control strategy in the Lyapunov sense, the newly

developed IPFC energy functions has been implemented such that the magnitudes of the

IPFCs series-injected voltages remain set to their maximum values and only the angles of

these voltages change.

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To investigate the inter-system oscillations, a linear model of VSC-based FACTS

devices has been developed that takes into account the dynamics of dc links and then

incorporated into production-grade software for small signal analysis of large power systems

For state estimation a model with IPFC has been introduced on the basis of

conventional power system state estimation model, in which power injection model has been

used and the effect of IPFC on the power flow has been transferred to the lines which are

connected to it .

(d) Combined Series and Shunt Connected Controller: In these controllers, one controller is

connected in series and another is connected in parallel and they both are coupled via a

coordinated control and a common dc power link in transmission line to transmit the current,

voltage and power.

(i) Unified Power Flow Controller: According to IEEE definitions and standards, Unified

Power Flow Controller (UPFC) consists of STATCOM and SSSC which are coupled via

common dc power link to allow bidirectional flow of real power between the series o/p terminals

of the SSSC and shunt o/p terminals of the STATCOM. The basic structure of UPFC has been

shown in Fig. 9.

The most promising FACTS device, UPFC, is capable of providing an adaptive voltage

magnitude control as well as active and reactive power control and their regulation. A new

mathematical model of UPFC incorporated in Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm has been

developed. Voltage Stability Index has been used for optimal location of UPFC and Particle

Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique has been used to set the parameters of UPFC being

tested on IEEE 5-Bus and IEEE 14-Bus systems using MATLAB.

A numerical method tested with Matlab consisting of a set of equations for a system

including the UPFC and an equivalent two bus power network has been successfully validated

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with analog model and EMTP. The mathematical models for new UPFC series control modes

have been presented which include direct voltage injection, bus voltage regulation, line

impedance compensation and phase angle regulation. In comparison with the classical

decoupled control strategy, for better stability and transient performance a modified control

structure with a predictive control loop and pre control signal has been designed for a dcvoltage control and control of harmonic current The selection of damping control signal for the

design of UPFC damping controller and the effect of UPFC DC voltage regulator on power

system oscillation stability and the have been studied and demonstrated on the PhillipsHeffron

model .

The modeling of converter-based controllers in which two or more VSCs are coupled to

a dc link like UPFC, IPFC and GUPFC has been presented for load-flow calculations .The

modeling and simulation of IEEE 30 bus system employing UPFC has been described with and

without implementation of UPFC .SVC and UPFC have been explained and modeled.

Integration of FACTS devices and heeling transactions into SCADA systems has been

investigated. PF and OPF algorithms have been used for incorporating different policies and

accounting methods.

A comparison among the load flow results using three models of UPFC: decoupled

UPFC model, injection UPFC model and comprehensive NR UPFC model have been

incorporated in a MATLAB power flow program at different operation modes.The dynamic

behavior of IPFC & UPFC has been compared and rationalized by developing the small-signal

models and validating them using detailed electromagnetic transients simulation. To improve

the dynamic performance of the power system, a nonlinear dynamic model of the network

consisting UPFC has been established using linearization and network reduction for transient

studies and the decoupled control algorithms for active and reactive power have been developed.

To minimize the capacity of the shunt compensator and to maintain power flow control

sensitivity the perpendicular voltage control model of UPFC has been proposed. The protection and

control of UPFC model for transmission capability improvement have been verified using a real time

analog simulator. An approach to solve first-swing stability problem using UPFC, by using the local

variable of system along with a comprehensive analysis has been presented for better stability

performance. A power flow study of a five bus system with and without UPFC has been carried

out and has been implemented with MATLAB to conclude that UPFC is able to control

voltage, impedance, and phase angle MATLAB program has been used to model UPFC and to

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verify the performance of UPFC with different controllers like PID controller and ANFIS

controller.

For the analysis of the steady state operation of Unified Power Flow Controller

connected in a power system, an improved steady state mathematical model has been presented

employing conventional techniques such as Newton-Raphson method and has been simulated

on IEEE 30-bus systems using commercial software. The modeling of the unified power flow

controller (UPFC) on the IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system has been presented

to illustrate the feasibility and the performance of the system. The control modes including

power flow, voltage, angle and impedance control functions have been incorporated into a

Newton-Raphson power flow algorithm. .

As shown in Fig.2 10, a Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller consists of three or

more converters out of which one is shunt connected while the remaining converters are series

connected, resulting in the control of both real and reactive power flow in the line and to

provide flexibility and additional degrees of freedom. The shunt connected converter not only

provides the necessary power required, but also the reactive current injected at the converter

bus. A novel concept of a similar mathematical model for the GUPFC on the 30 bus power

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system demonstrating the feasibility as well as the effectiveness of the GUPFC in the OPF

method has been presented.

Compared with the conventional application of the UPFC, the GUPFC have shown

great advantages. For the desired power flow distribution in Sichuan power grid, and also the

voltage control of a substation a control law for the four-converter GUPFC has been proposed.

Mathematical models of the IPFC and GUPFC and their implementation in Newton power

flow based on the 30-bus and 300-bus systems have been presented to demonstrate the

performance of these FACTS devices.

2.3 CONCLUSION

This chapter reviewed the theory of FACTS devices and their control. The DSSC have

high reliability and low cost. However, the control capability of the DSSC is limited because it

can inject only reactive power. It is found that the combined PFCDs based on VSCs have the

best capability of power flow control, and are therefore the most suitable device for the future

network. However, their high cost and complexity become the bottleneck for their application

in practice.

CHAPTER-3

DISTRIBUTED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER

3.1 Introduction

In the previous chapter, an overview was given by FACTS devices. Because of high control

capability, the PE-based combined PFCS specially UPFC and IPFC are suitable for the future power

system. However, the UPFC and IPFC are not widely applied in practice, due to their high cost and

the thesis not possible due to susceptibility to failures .generally, the reliability can be improved by

reducing the number of components; however, this is not possible due to the complex topology of UPFC

and IPFC. To reduce the failure rate of the components by selecting components with higher ratings than

necessary or employing tendency at the component or system levels are also options. Unfortunately, these

solutions increase the initial investment necessary, negating any cost-related advantages. Accordingly,

new approaches are needed in order to increase reliability and reduce cost of the UPFC and IPFC at the

same time.

After studying the failure mode of the combined FACTS device, it is found that a common

DC link between converters reduces the reliability of a device, because failure in one converter will

pervade the whole device though the DC link. By eliminating this DC link, the converters within the

FACTS device are operated independely, thereby increasing their reliability.

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The elimination of the common DC link also allows the DSSC concept to be applied series

convertors. In that case, the reliability of the new device is further improved due to the reduency provided

by the distributed series converters. In addition, series converter distribution reduces cost because no

high- voltage isolation and high power rating components are required at the series part. By applying the

two approaches eliminating common DC link and distributing series converter, the UPFC is further

developed into a new combined FACTS device. The DPFC Flow chart and configuration are shown

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By introducing the two approaches outlined in the previous section into UPFC , the

DPFC is achieved. Similar as the UPFC, the DPFC consists of shunt and series connected

convertes. The shunt converter is similar as a STATCOM, while the series conerter employs the

DSSC concept, which is to use multiple single- phase converters instead of one three-phase

converter. Each converter within the DPFC is independent and has its own DC capacitor to

provide the required DC voltage. The configuration of the DPFC is shown in fig 3.3

As shown, besides the key components- shunt and series converters, a DPFC also

requires a high pass filter that is shunt connected to the other side of the transmission line and

star-delta transformer on each side of the line.

The unique control capability of the UPFC is given by the back-to-back connection

between the shunt and series converters, which allows the active power to freely exchange. To

ensure the DPFC has the same control capability as the UPFC, a method that allows active

power exchange between converters with an eliminated DC link is required.

The DPFC consists of one shunt and several series connected converters. The shunt

converter is similar as a STATCOM, while the series converter employs the DFACTS concept,

which is to use multiple single-phase converters instead of one large rated converter. Each

converter within the DPFC is independent and has its own dc capacitor to provide the required

dc voltage. The configuration of the DPFC is shown in Fig. 3.4. As shown, besides the key

components, namely the shunt and series converters, the DPFC also requires a high-pass filter

that is shunt connected at the other side of the transmission line, and two Y transformers at

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each side of the line. To ensure that the DPFC have the same control capability as the UPFC, a

method that allows the exchange of active power between converters with eliminated dc link is

the prerequisite.

A. Eliminate DC Link

Within the DPFC, transmission line is the common connection between the AC terminal of

the shunt and series converters. Therefore it is possible to exchange the active power though

the terminals of the converters. The method is based on power theory of non sinusoidal

components. According to the Fourier analysis, a non sinusoidal voltage and current can be

expressed by the sum of sinusoidal functions in different frequencies wit different amplitudes.

The active power resulting from this non sinusoidal voltage and current is defined as the mean

value of the product of voltage and current. Since the integral of all the cross product of terms

with different frequencies are zero, the power can be expressed by:

Where Vi and Ii are the voltage and current at the ith harmonic frequency, respectively,

and i is the corresponding angle between the voltage and current. From this equation active

power at different frequencies is isolated from each other and voltage or current in one

frequency has no influence on active power at other frequencies. The independency of the

active power at different frequencies gives the possibility that a converter without power source

can generate active power at one frequency and absorb this power from other frequencies. By

applying this method to the DPFC the shunt converter can absorb the active power from the

grid at the fundamental frequency and inject the current back into the grid at a harmonic

frequency. Due to unique features of 3 rd harmonic frequency components in a three phase

system, the 3rd harmonic is selected for active power exchange. In a three phase system the 3rd

harmonic each phase is identical, which means they are zero sequence components. Because

the zero sequence harmonic can be naturally blocked by star delta transformers and these are

widely incorporated in power systems, there is no extra filter required to prevent harmonic

leakage. Fig.4 shows Active power exchange between DPFC converters.

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system, the 3rd harmonic is selected for active power exchange in the DPFC. In a three-phase

system, the 3rd harmonic in each phase is identical, which means they are zero -sequence

components. Because the zero-sequence harmonic can be naturally blocked by

trans-

formers and these are widely incorporated in power systems (as a means of changing voltage), there is

no extra filter required to prevent harmonic leakage. As introduced above, a high pass filter is required

to make a closed loop for the harmonic current and the cut off frequency of this filter is approximately

the fundamental frequency. Because the voltage isolation is high and the harmonic frequency is close to

the cut off frequency, the filter will be costly. By using the zero-sequence harmonic, the costly filter can

Figure 2 with the ground. Because the delta -winding appears open-circuit to the 3rd harmonic current,

all harmonic current will flow through the Y winding and concentrate to the grounding cable as shown

in Figure 3. Therefore the large high-pass filter is eliminated.

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Another advantage of using the 3rd harmonic to exchange active power is that the

grounding of the

network. If the network requires the harmonic current to flow through a specific branch, the

neutral point of the

Figure 4 shows a simple example of routing the harmonic current by using the

grounding of the

transformer of the line without the series converter, it is an open-circuit for 3rd harmonic

components and therefore no 3rd harmonic current will flow through this line.

The harmonic at the frequencies like 3rd, 6th, 9th... are all zero-sequence and all can be used to

exchange active power in the DPFC. However, the 3rd harmonic is selected, because it is the lowest

frequency among all zero-sequence harmonics. The relationship between the exchanged active power at

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the ith harmonic frequency Pi and the voltages generated by the converters is expressed by the well

known the power flow equation and given as:

voltage

magnitudes

of

the

harmonic

of

the

shunt

is the

and

series

converters,

and

impedance of the line limits the active power exchange capacity. To exchange the same amount

of active power, the line with high impedance requires higher voltages. Because the

transmission line impedance is mostly inductive and proportional to frequency, high

transmission frequencies will cause high impedance and result in high voltage within

converters. Consequently, the zero -sequence harmonic with the lowest frequency - the 3rd

harmonic - has been selected.

B. Distributed Series Converter

The D-FACTS is a solution for the series connected FACTS, which can dramatically

reduce the total cost and increase the reliability of the series FACTS device. The idea of the DFACTS is to use a large number of controllers with low rating instead of one large rated

controller. The small controller is a single-phase converter attached to transmission lines by a

single-turn trans-former. The converters are hanging on the line so that no costly high-voltage

isolation is required. The single-turn transformer uses the transmission line as the secondary

winding, inserting controllable impedance into the line directly. Each D-FACTS module is selfpowered from the line and controlled remotely by wireless or power line communication

shown in Fig.5. The structure of the DFACTS results in low cost and high re-liability. As

DFACTS units are single-phase devices floating on lines, high-voltage isolations between

phases are avoided. The unit can easily be applied at any transmission voltage level, be-cause it

does not require supporting phase ground isolation. The power and voltage rating of each unit

is relatively small. Further, the units are clamped on transmission lines, and therefore, no land

is required. The redundancy of the D-FACTS provides an uninterrupted operation during a

single module failure, thereby giving a much higher reliability than other FACTS devices.

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The DPFC can be considered as a UPFC that employs the DFACTS concept and the

concept of exchanging power through harmonic. Therefore, the DPFC inherits all the

advantages of the UPFC and the D-FACTS, which are as follows.

1) High control capability: The DPFC can simultaneously control all the parameters of

the power system: the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage.

2) High reliability: The redundancy of the series converter gives an improved reliability.

In addition, the shunt and series converters are independent, and the failure at one place will

not influence the other converters. When a failure occurs in the series converter, the

converter will be short-circuited by bypass protection, thereby having little influence to the

network.

3) Low cost: There is no phase-to-phase voltage isolation required by the series

converter. Also, the power rating of each converter is small and can be easily produced in

series production lines.

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To control multiple converters, a DPFC consists of three types of controllers:

central control, shunt control and series control,

The shunt and series control are localized controllers and are responsible for maintaining their own

converters parameters. The central control takes care of the DPFC functions at the power system level.

The function of each controller is listed:

i) Central control: The central control generates the reference signals for both the shunt

and series converters of the DPFC. Its control function depends on the specifics of the DPFC

application at the power system level, such as power flow control, low frequency power

oscillation damping and balancing of asymmetrical components. According to the system

requirements, the central control gives corresponding voltage reference signals for the series

converters and reactive current signal for the shunt converter. All the reference signals ge

nerated by the central control concern the fundamental frequency components.

ii) Series control: Each series converter has its own series control. The controller is used to

maintain the capacitor DC voltage of its own converter, by using 3rd harmonic frequency

components, in addition to generating series voltage at the fundamental frequency as required

by the central control.

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Any series controller has a low-pass and a 3 rd-pass filter to create fundamental and third

harmonic current, respectively. Two single-phase phase lock loop (PLL) are used to take

frequency and phase information from network [11]. The block diagram of series controller in

Matlab/Simulink is shown in Fig. 5. The PWM-Generator block manages switching processes.

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The shunt converter includes a three-phase converter connected back-to-back to a

single-phase converter. The three-phase converter absorbs active power from grid at

fundamental frequency and controls the dc voltage of capacitor between this converter and

single-phase one. Other task of the shunt converter is to inject constant third-harmonic current

into lines through the neutral cable of -Y transformer.

The objective of the shunt control is to inject a constant 3 rd harmonic current into the

line to supply active power for the series converters. At the same time, it maintains the

capacitor DC voltage of the shunt converter at a constant value by absorbing active power from

the grid at the fundamental frequency and injecting the required reactive current at the

fundamental frequency into the grid.

Each converter has its own controller at different frequency operation (fundamental and thirdharmonic frequency). The shunt control structure block diagram is shown in Fig. 6.

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The third-harmonic frequency control is the major control loop with the DPFC series converter

control. The principle of the vector control is used here for the dc-voltage control. The thirdharmonic current through the line is selected as the rotation reference frame for the single-phase

park transformation, because it is easy to be captured by the phase-locked loop (PLL) in the

series converter. As the line current contains two frequency components, a third high-pass filter

is needed to reduce the fundamental current. The d-component of the third harmonic voltage is

the parameter that is used to control the dc voltage, and its reference signal is generated by the

dc-voltage control loop. To minimize the reactive power that is caused by the third harmonic, the

series converter is controlled as a resistance at the third-harmonic frequency. The q-component

of the third harmonic voltage is kept zero during the Operation.

As the series converter is single phase, there will be voltage ripple at the dc side of

each converter. The frequency of the ripple depends on the frequency of the current that flows

through the converter. As the current contains the fundamental and third harmonic frequency

component, the dc-capacitor voltage will contain 100-, 200-, and 300-Hz frequency

component. There are two possible ways to reduce this ripple. One is to increase the turn ratio

of the single-phase transformer of the\ series converter to reduce the magnitude of the current

that flows into the converter. The other way is to use the dc capacitor with a larger capacitance.

The control for the fundamental frequency components consists of two cascaded

controllers. The current control is the inner control loop, which is to modulate the shunt current

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at the fundamental frequency. The q-component of the reference signal of the shunt converter is

obtained from the central Controller and dc component is generated by the dc control.

CHAPTER-4

POWER QUALITY TERMS AND REACTIVE POWER

CONTROL

4.1 Need of Reactive power control.

In an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit.

In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may

result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that averaged

over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is

known as real power. The portion of power due to stored energy, which returns to the source in

each cycle, is known as reactive power.

4.2 Real, reactive, and apparent power

In a simple alternating current (AC) circuit consisting of a source and a linear load, both

the current and voltage are sinusoidal. If the load is purely resistive, the two quantities reverse

their polarity at the same time. At every instant the product of voltage and current is positive;

indicating that the direction of energy flow does not reverse. In this case, only real power is

transferred.

If the loads are purely reactive, then the voltage and current are 90 degrees out of phase.

For half of each cycle, the product of voltage and current is positive, but on the other half of the

cycle, the product is negative, indicating that on average, exactly as much energy flows toward

the load as flows back. There is no net energy flow over one cycle. In this case, only reactive

energy flowsthere is no net transfer of energy to the load.

Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both real and reactive

power will flow to real loads. Power engineers measure apparent power as the magnitude of the

vector sum of real and reactive power. Apparent power is the product of the root-meansquare of voltage and current.

Engineers care about apparent power, because even though the current associated with

reactive power does no work at the load, it heats the wires, wasting energy. Conductors,

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transformers and generators must be sized to carry the total current, not just the current that

does useful work.

Another consequence is that adding the apparent power for two loads will not

accurately give the total apparent power unless they have the same displacement between

current and voltage (the same power factor).

Conventionally, capacitors are considered to generate reactive power and inductors to

consume it. If a capacitor and an inductor are placed in parallel, then the currents flowing

through the inductor and the capacitor tend to cancel rather than add. This is the fundamental

mechanism for controlling the power factor in electric power transmission; capacitors (or

inductors) are inserted in a circuit to partially cancel reactive power 'consumed' by the load.

The complex power is the vector sum of real and reactive power. The apparent power is the

magnitude of the complex power.

Real power, P

Reactive power, Q

Complex power, S

Apparent power, |S|

Phase of current,

Engineers use the following terms to describe energy flow in a system (and assign each of them

a different unit to differentiate between them):

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Phase of voltage relative to current, : the angle of difference (in degrees) between

voltage and current; current lagging voltage (quadrant I vector), current leading voltage

(quadrant IV vector)

In the diagram, P is the real power, Q is the reactive power (in this case positive), S is the

complex power and the length of S is the apparent power. Reactive power does not do any

work, so it is represented as the imaginary axis of the vector diagram. Real power does do

work, so it is the real axis.

The unit for all forms of power is the watt (symbol: W), but this unit is generally

reserved for real power. Apparent power is conventionally expressed in volt-amperes (VA)

since it is the product of rms voltage and rms current. The unit for reactive power is expressed

as var, which stands for volt-ampere reactive. Since reactive power transfers no net energy to

the load, it is sometimes called "wattles" power. It does, however, serve an important function

in electrical grids and its lack has been cited as a significant factor in the Northeast Blackout of

2003.

Understanding the relationship among these three quantities lies at the heart of understanding

power engineering. The mathematical relationship among them can be represented by vectors or

expressed using complex numbers, S = P + jQ (where j is the imaginary unit).

4.3 Power factor

The ratio between real power and apparent power in a circuit is called the power factor.

It's a practical measure of the efficiency of a power distribution system. For two systems

transmitting the same amount of real power, the system with the lower power factor will have

higher circulating currents due to energy that returns to the source from energy storage in the

load. These higher currents produce higher losses and reduce overall transmission efficiency. A

lower power factor circuit will have a higher apparent power and higher losses for the same

amount of real power.

The power factor is unity (one) when the voltage and current are in phase. It is zero

when the current leads or lags the voltage by 90 degrees. Power factors are usually stated as

"leading" or "lagging" to show the sign of the phase angle of current with respect to voltage.

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Purely capacitive circuits supply reactive power with the current waveform leading the voltage

waveform by 90 degrees, while purely inductive circuits absorb reactive power with the current

waveform lagging the voltage waveform by 90 degrees. The result of this is that capacitive and

inductive circuit elements tend to cancel each other out.

Where the waveforms are purely sinusoidal, the power factor is the cosine of the phase angle ()

between the current and voltage sinusoid waveforms. Equipment data sheets and nameplates

often will abbreviate power factor as "

Example: The real power is 700 W and the phase angle between voltage and current is 45.6.

The power factor is cos (45.6) = 0.700. The apparent power is then: 700 W / cos (45.6) = 1000

VA.

4.4 Reactive power

Reactive power flow is needed in an alternating-current transmission system to support

the transfer of real power over the network. In alternating current circuits, energy is stored

temporarily in inductive and capacitive elements, which can result in the periodic reversal of

the direction of energy flow. The portion of power flow remaining, after being averaged over a

complete AC waveform, is the real power; that is, energy that can be used to do work (for

example overcome friction in a motor, or heat an element). On the other hand, the portion of

power flow that is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields, due to inductive

and capacitive network elements, and then returned to source, is known as reactive power.

AC connected devices that store energy in the form of a magnetic field include devices

called inductors, which consist of a large coil of wire. When a voltage is initially placed across

the coil, a magnetic field builds up, and it takes a period of time for the current to reach full

value. This causes the current to lag behind the voltage in phase; hence, these devices are said

to absorb reactive power.

A capacitor is an AC device that stores energy in the form of an electric field. When

current is driven through the capacitor, it takes a period of time for a charge to build up to

produce the full voltage difference. On an AC network, the voltage across a capacitor is

constantly changing the capacitor will oppose this change, causing the voltage to lag behind

the current. In other words, the current leads the voltage in phase; hence, these devices are said

to generate reactive power.

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Energy stored in capacitive or inductive elements of the network give rise to reactive

power flow. Reactive power flow strongly influences the voltage levels across the network.

Voltage levels and reactive power flow must be carefully controlled to allow a power system to

be operated within acceptable limits.

Transmission connected generators are generally required to support reactive power

flow. For example on the United Kingdom transmission system generators are required by the

Grid Code Requirements to supply their rated power between the limits of 0.85 power factor

lagging and 0.90 power factor leading at the designated terminals. The system operator will

perform switching actions to maintain a secure and economical voltage profile while

maintaining a reactive power balance equation:

Generator MVARs + System gain + Shunt capacitors = MVAR Demand + Reactive losses +

Shunt reactors

The System gain is an important source of reactive power in the above power balance

equation, which is generated by the capacitive nature of the transmission network itself. By

making decisive switching actions in the early morning before the demand increases, the

system gain can be maximized early on, helping to secure the system for the whole day.

To balance the equation some pre-fault reactive generator use will be required. Other

sources of reactive power that will also be used include shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, Static

VAR Compensators and voltage control circuits.

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CHAPTER-5

MATLAB/SIMULATION RESULTS

Introduction

MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates

computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems

and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include

Algorithm development

Data acquisition

Modeling, simulation, and prototyping

Data analysis, exploration, and visualization

Scientific and engineering graphics

MATLAB:

Matlab is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates

computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems

and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include Math and

computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling, simulation, and prototyping

Data analysis, exploration, and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics Application

development, including graphical user interface building.

Matlab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not

require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems,

especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a fraction of the time it would take to

write a program in a scalar no interactive language such as C or FORTRAN.

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The name matlab stands for matrix laboratory. Matlab was originally written to provide

easy access to matrix software developed by the linpack and eispack projects. Today, matlab

engines incorporate the lapack and blas libraries, embedding the state of the art in software

for matrix computation.

Matlab has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In university

environments, it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in

mathematics, engineering, and science. In industry, matlab is the tool of choice for highproductivity research, development, and analysis.

Matlab features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. Very

important to most users of matlab, toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized

technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of matlab functions (M-files) that

extend the matlab environment to solve particular classes of problems. Areas in which

toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy

logic, wavelets, simulation, and many others.

The matlab system consists of five main parts:

Development Environment. This is the set of tools and facilities that help you use

matlab functions and files. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the

matlab desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor and debugger, and

browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and the search path.

The matlab Mathematical Function Library. This is a vast collection of computational

algorithms ranging from elementary functions, like sum, sine, cosine, and complex

arithmetic, to more sophisticated functions like matrix inverse, matrix Eigen values, Bessel

functions, and fast Fourier transforms.

The matlab Language.

features. It allows both "programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throwaway programs, and "programming in the large" to create large and complex application

programs.

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Matlab has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as graphs, as well as

annotating and printing these graphs. It includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and

three-dimensional data visualization, image processing, animation, and presentation graphics.

It also includes low-level functions that allow you to fully customize the appearance of

graphics as well as to build complete graphical user interfaces on your matlab applications.

The matlab Application Program Interface (API). This is a library that allows you to

write C and FORTRAN programs that interact with matlab. It includes facilities for calling

routines from matlab (dynamic linking), calling matlab as a computational engine, and for

reading and writing MAT-files.

SIMULINK

SIMULINK

Simulink, developed by MathWorks, is a data flow graphical programming language tool

for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamic systems. Its primary interface is

a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight

integration with the rest of theMATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be

scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in control theory and digital signal processing for

multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.

A. Add-on products

A number of Math Works and third-party hardware and software products are available

for use with Simulink. For example, State flow extends Simulink with a design environment for

developing state machines and flow charts.

Coupled with Simulink Coder, another product from Math Works, Simulink can automatically

generate Source for real-time implementation of systems. As the efficiency and flexibility of the

code improves, this is becoming more widely adopted for production systems, in addition to

being a popular tool for embedded design work because of its flexibility and capacity for quick

iteration. Code creates code efficient enough for use in embedded systems.

XPC Target together with x86-based real-time systems provides an environment to

simulate and test Simulink and State flow models in real-time on the physical system. Embedded

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Coder also supports specific embedded targets, including Infineon C166, Motorola 68HC12,

Motorola MPC555, TIC2000, TIC6000, Renesas V850 and Renesas SuperH. With HDL Coder,

also from Math Works, Simulink and State flow can automatically generate synthesizable

VHDL and Verilog. Simulink Verification and Validation enables systematic verification and

validation of models through modeling style checking, requirements traceability and model

coverage analysis. Simulink Design Verifier uses formal methods to identify design errors

like integer overflow, division by zero and dead logic, and generates test case scenarios

for model checking within the Simulink environment.

The systematic testing tool TPT offers one way to perform formal test- verification and

validation process to stimulate Simulink models but also during the development phase where

the developer generates inputs to test the system. By the substitution of the Constant and Signal

generator blocks of Simulink the stimulation becomes reproducible.

SimEvents adds a library of graphical building blocks for modeling queuing systems to

the Simulink environment. It also adds an event-based simulation engine to the time-based

simulation engine in Simulink.

Introduction:

Simulink is a software add-on to matlab which is a mathematical tool developed by The

Math works,(http://www.mathworks.com) a company based in Natick. Matlab is powered by

extensive numerical analysis capability. Simulink is a tool used to visually program a

dynamic system (those governed by Differential equations) and look at results. Any logic

circuit, or control system for a dynamic system can be built by using standard building blocks

available in Simulink Libraries. Various toolboxes for different techniques, such as Fuzzy

Logic, Neural Networks, dsp, Statistics etc. are available with Simulink, which enhance the

processing power of the tool. The main advantage is the availability of templates / building

blocks, which avoid the necessity of typing code for small mathematical processes.

Concept of signal and logic flow:

In Simulink, data/information from various blocks are sent to another block by lines

connecting the relevant blocks. Signals can be generated and fed into blocks dynamic /

static).Data can be fed into functions. Data can then be dumped into sinks, which could be

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scopes, displays or could be saved to a file. Data can be connected from one block to another,

can be branched, multiplexed etc. In simulation, data is processed and transferred only at

discrete times, since all computers are discrete systems. Thus, a simulation time step

(otherwise called an integration time step) is essential, and the selection of that step is

determined by the fastest dynamics in the simulated system.

Connecting blocks:

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Connectung blocks

To connect blocks, left-click and drag the mouse from the output of one block to the

input of another block.

The sources library contains the sources of data/signals that one would use in a dynamic

system simulation. One may want to use a constant input, a sinusoidal wave, a step, a

repeating sequence such as a pulse train, a ramp etc. One may want to test disturbance effects,

and can use the random signal generator to simulate noise. The clock may be used to create a

time index for plotting purposes. The ground could be used to connect to any unused port, to

avoid warning messages indicating unconnected ports.

The sinks are blocks where signals are terminated or ultimately used. In most cases, we

would want to store the resulting data in a file, or a matrix of variables. The data could be

displayed or even stored to a file. the stop block could be used to stop the simulation if the

input to that block (the signal being sunk) is non-zero. Figure 3 shows the available blocks in

the sources and sinks libraries. Unused signals must be terminated, to prevent warnings about

unconnected signals.

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Continuous and discrete systems:

All dynamic systems can be analyzed as continuous or discrete time systems. Simulink

allows you to represent these systems using transfer functions, integration blocks, delay

blocks etc.

CHAPTER-6

SIMULATION MODEL AND SIMULATION RESULTS

6.1 Simulation models

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Fig. 10 depicts the load current swell about 1.1 per- unit, during the fault. After

implementation of the DPFC, the load current swell is removed effectively. The current swell

mitigation for this case can be observed from Fig. 11.

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The load voltage harmonic analysis without presence of DPFC is illustrated in Fig. 12.

It can be seen, after DPFC implementation in system, the even harmonics is eliminated , the

odd harmonics are reduced within acceptable limits, and total harmonic distortion (THD) of

load voltage is minimized from 45.67 to 0.65 percentage (Fig. 13), i.e., the standardTHD is less

than 5 percent in IEEE standards.

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6.3 POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

The whole model of system under study is shown in Fig. 6.8. The system contains a

three-phase source connected to a nonlinear RLC load through parallel transmission lines (Line

1 and Line 2) with the same lengths. The DPFC is placed in transmission line, which the shunt

converter is connected to the transmission line 2 in parallel through a Y- three-phase

transformer, and series converters is distributed through this line. The system parameters are

listed in appendix TABLE I. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is

considered near the load. The time duration of the fault is 0.5 seconds (500-1000 millisecond).

As shown in Fig.6.5 , significant voltage sag is observable during the fault, without any

compensation. The voltage sag value is about 0.5 per unit per unit. After adding a DPFC, load

voltage sag can be mitigated effectively, as shown in Fig. 6.6

Table 6.1 simulation system parameters

Parameters

Three phase source

Rated voltage

Rated power/ frequency

X/R

Short circuit capacity

Transmission line

Resistance

Inductance/Capacitance reactance

Length of transmission line

Shunt converter 3-phase

Nominal power

DC link capacitor

Coupling transformer(shunt)

Nominal power

Rated voltage

Series converters

Rated voltage

Nominal power

Three phase fault

Type

Values

230kv

100MW/60HZ

3

11000MW

0.012pu/km

0.12/0.12pu/km

100km

60MVAR

600uf

100MVA

230/15 kv

6 kv

6MVAR

ABC-G

CONCLUSION

To improve power quality in the power transmission system, there are some effective

methods. In this paper, the voltage sag and swell mitigation, using a new FACTS device

called distributed power flow controller is presented. The DPFC structure is similar to unified

power flow controller, and has a same control capability to balance the line parameters, i.e.;

Dept. of EEE

Page 51

CONTROLLER

line impedance, transmission angle, and bus voltage magnitude. However, the DPFC offers

some advantages, in comparisons with UPFC, such as high control capability, high reliability,

and low cost. The DPFC is modeled and three phase control loops i.e.; central controller,

series control, and shunt control are design. The system under study is a machine infinite bus

system, with and without DPFC. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is

considered near the load. It is shown that the DPFC gives an acceptable performance in

power quality mitigation and power flow control.

REFERENCES

[1] Power Quality Improvement and Mitigation Case Study Using Distributed Power Flow

Controller, Ahmad Jamshidi1,a, S. Masoud Barakati1,b, and Mohammad Moradi Ghahderijani1,

C1 ECE Department, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran.

Dept. of EEE

Page 52

CONTROLLER

[2] Guide book on Custom Power Devices by EPRI Project Manager A.Sundaram

[3] Power quality enhancement using custom power devices. The kluwer international series in

engineering and computer science Power electronics and power systems series editor M. A. Pal.

[4] Distributed power flow controller by ZhihuiYuan Electrical Power Processing

(EPP) Unit Electrical Sustainable Energy Department Delft University of Technology.

Dept. of EEE

Page 53

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