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CHAPTER-1
ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY
1.1

Introduction
In the last decade, the electrical power quality issue has been the main concern

of the power companies. Power quality is defined as the index which both the delivery and
consumption of electric power affect on the performance of electrical apparatus. From a
customer point of view, a power quality problem can be defined as any problem is manifested
on voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in power failure. The power electronics
progressive, especially in flexible alternating-current transmission system (FACTS) and
custom power devices, affects power quality improvement. Generally, custom power devices,
e.g., dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), are used in medium-to-low voltage levels to improve
customer power quality .
Most serious threats for sensitive equipment in electrical grids are voltage sags (voltage dip)
and swells (over voltage) . These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit in
the grid, inrush currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations
in the grid. The FACTS devices, such as unified power flow controller (UPFC) and
synchronous static compensator (STAT-COM), are used to alleviate the disturbance and
improve the power system quality and reliability. In this paper, a distributed power flow
controller, introduced in as a new FACTS device, is used to mitigate voltage and current
waveform deviation and improve power quality in a matter of seconds.

1.2 Impacts of power quality problems on end users


The causes of power quality problems are generally complex and difficult to detect.
Technically speaking, the ideal ac line supply by the utility system should be a pure sine wave
of fundamental frequency. In addition, the peak of the voltage should be of rated value.
Unfortunately the actual ac line supply that we receive everyday departs from the ideal
specifications. Table 1.1 lists various power quality problems, their characterization methods
and possible causes.

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Table 1.1 power quality problems and their causes

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.

Broad
categories

Specific
categories
Impulsive

Transients

Methods of
Characterizatio
n
Peak
magnitude,
Time and
duration

Oscillatory

Sag

Short duration
Voltage
variation

Peak
magnitude,
Frequency
components
Magnitude,
duration

Swell
Magnitude,
duration
Interruption

duration

Under voltage

Magnitude,
duration

Overvoltage
Long duration
voltage
variations
Sustained
interruptions

Duration
Symmetrical
components

Voltage
imbalance
Waveform
distortion

Harmonics

Notching
DC offset

Voltage flicker
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Magnitude,
duration

Typical causes

Lightning strike,
Transformer energization,
Capacitor switching
Line or capacitor
Or load switching.

Ferroresonant
transformers,
Single line to ground
faults
Ferroresonant
transformers,
Single line to ground
faults
Temporary faults
Switching on loads,
capacitor deenergization
Switching off loads,
Capacitor energization
faults

Single-phase loads,
single-phasing condition

THD, harmonic
Spectrum

Adjustable speed
Drives and other
nonlinear loads
THD , harmonic Power electronic
Spectrum
Converters
Volts, amps
Geo-magnetic
disturbance,
Half-wave rectification
Frequency of
Occurrence,
Page
3
Modeling
frequency

Arc furnace, arc


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There are many ways in which the lack of quality power affects customers. Impulsive
transients do not travel very far from their point of entry. However an impulsive transient can
give rise to an oscillatory transient can lead to transient over voltage and consequent damage
to the power line insulators.
Short duration voltage variations have varied effects on consumers. Voltage sag can
cause loss of production in automated process. Since a voltage sag can trip a motor or cause its
controller to malfunction. also voltage swells can put stress on computers and many home
appliances.

1.3 Categories or power quality variation


The impact of long duration voltage variations is greater than those of short
duration variations. The under voltage effects same as voltage sag and over voltage effects
same as voltage swell. The recent proliferation of electronic equipment and microprocessorbased controls has caused electric utilities to redefine power quality in terms of the quality of
voltage supply rather than availability of power. In this regard, IEEE Std. 1159-1995,
Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality as created categories of
power quality disturbances based upon duration, magnitude, and spectral content. Table 2-1
shows the categories of power quality disturbances with spectral content, typical duration,
and typical magnitude.

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Table 1.2 Categories of Power Quality Variation IEEE 1159-1995


1.0

2.0

3.0
4.0

5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

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Categories
Transients
1.1 Impulsive
1.1.1 Voltage
1.1.2 Current
1.2 Oscillatory
1.2.1 Low Frequency
1.2.2 Medium Frequency
1.2.3 High Frequency
Short-Duration Variations
2.1 Sags
2.1.1 Instantaneous
2.1.2 Momentary
2.1.3 Temporary
2.2 Swells
2.1.1 Instantaneous
2.1.2 Momentary
2.1.3 Temporary
Long-Duration Variations
3.1 Overvoltage
3.2 Under voltages
Interruptions
4.1 Momentary
4.2 Temporary
4.3 Long-Term
Waveform Distortion
5.2 Voltage
5.3 Current
Waveform Notching
Flicker
Noise

Spectral
Content

Typical
Magnitudes

> 5 kHz
> 5 kHz
< 500 kHz
3002 kHz
> 2 kHz
0.11.0 pu
0.11.0 pu
0.11.0 pu
0.11.8 pu
0.11.8 pu
0.11.8 pu
0.11.2 pu
0.81.0 pu
0
0
0
0100th Harmonic
0100th Harmonic
0200 kHz
< 30 Hz
0200 kHz

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020%
0100%
0.17%

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VoltageSags, Swells and Interruptions


Table 1.2 shows typical voltage sag, swell, and interruption. Voltage sag is a shortduration decrease of the RMS voltage value, lasting from 0.5 cycles to 120 seconds. Sags are
caused by faults on the power system or by the starting of are relatively large motor or other
large load. A voltage swells may accompany voltage sag.
A voltage swell occurs when a single line-to-ground fault on the system results in a
temporary voltage rise on the Un faulted phases. Removing a large load or adding a large
capacitor bank can also cause voltage swells, but these events tend to cause longer-duration
changes in the voltage magnitude and will usually be classified as long-duration variations
A voltage interruption is the complete loss of voltage. A disconnection of electricity
causes an interruption, usually by the opening of circuit breaker, liner closer, or fuse. For
example, if a tree comes into contact with an overhead electricity line, a circuit breaker will
clear the fault (short circuit), and the customer who receives their power from the faulted
line will experience an interruption.

Fig. 1.1 Typical Short Duration RMS Voltage Variation

1.4 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS


Geneva based international electro technical commission (IEC) and institute of
electrical and electronics engineers proposed various standards for power quality. The table
is shown below.

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Phenomena

Standards

Classification of power quality

IEC 61000-2-5:1995 [2],


IEC 61000-2-1:1990 [3],
IEEE 1159: 1195 [4]

Transients

IEC 61000-2-1:1990 [3],


IEEE C62.41(1991) [5],
IEEE 1159: 1995 [4], IEC 816: 1984 [6]

Voltage sag/swell and interruption

IEC 61009-2-1: 1990[3],


IEEE 1159: 1995[4]

Harmonics

IEC 6[3]1000-2-1: 1990,


IEEE 519: 1992[7], IEC 61000-47:1991[8]

Voltage flicker

IEC 61000-4-15: 1997[9]


Table 1.3 power quality standards

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CHAPTER-2
FACTS DEVICES
2.1 ROLE OF FACTS DEVICES
Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices have been
proposed for effective power flow control and regulating bus voltage in electrical power
systems, thus resulting in an increased transfer capability, low system losses and improved
stability.
Most serious threats for sensitive equipment in electrical grids are voltage sags(voltage
dip) and swells (over voltage) . These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit
in the grid, inrush currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations
in the grid.

2.2 Categorization of PFCDs

FACTs controllers
MECHANICAL PFCDs

Power electronic PFCDs


Thyristr

Shunt
devices
#!(
Series
devices

L, C

Voltage source converter

SVC

SSC

!!

Others: HVDC , DVR


+,,,
TCSC
Static synchronous series compensator

L, C

"
Unified/ interline
power flow controller

Combined devices
Phase shifting T/f
%

Fig 2.1 categorization of PFCDs

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(a) Shunt FACTS Controller: The shunt controllers are connected in parallel with the
transmission line. They inject the voltage and current in parallel with the transmission
system.
(i)

Static Synchronous Compensator: According to IEEE definitions and standards, a


static synchronous generator operated as a shunt connected static var compensator
whose capacitive or inductive o/p current can be controlled independent of ac system
voltage.
A three-level voltage inverter based dynamic model of DSTATCOM has been

established by way of lead-in switch function and using PWM current control technology for
realizing dynamic var compensation effectively.
A three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI) configuration with a dc bus capacitor as a
DSTATCOM has been demonstrated through MATLAB/SIMULINK for power quality
improvement in a three-phase, three-wire distribution system .
Different control strategies have been employed and compared like hysteresis control,
PWM current controllers, PI controller and sliding mode controller.
In order to balance the supply current, and improving the power factor to a desired
value the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components has been used here to extract the
three-phase reference currents and then these reference currents are then tracked using voltage
source inverter (VSI), operated in a hysteresis band control technique .
These disturbances occur due to some events, e.g., short circuit in the grid, inrush
currents involved with the starting of large machines, or switching operations in the grid.
The nonlinear state-space model of the multilevel DSTATCOM has been presented
from the dq0 reference frame that can adapt to load changes and have effective steady-state
compensation and a better dynamic response .

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According to IEEE definitions and standards, a static synchronous generator or


dynamic voltage restorer operated without an external electrical energy source or a series
compensator where o/p voltage is in quadrature and controllable independently of the line
current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the
line and there by controlling the transmitted electric power. SSSC is also known as dynamic
voltage restorer.

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A Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) as shown in Fig. 2 emulates an
inductive or a capacitive reactance at the point of connection with the transmission line by
injecting sinusoidal current, of variable magnitude, at the point of connection in quadrature
with the line voltage. The line voltage regulation can be achieved by regulating the reactive
current flow through STATCOM which has been verified by the modeling technique of
STATCOM using an Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) simulation package [9].
Distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) is used in distribution system for the
compensation of reactive power and unbalance caused by various loads and it works on the
principle of VSC (voltage source converter). To compensate the reactive power a current
injected into the system by D-STATCOM to correct the voltage sag, swell and interruption.
DSTATCOM is shown below in Fig. 3.

An efficiently controlled DSTATCOM can be used to compensate the reactive power


and unbalance. The DSTATCOMs performance is dependent on the control algorithm used for
extraction of reference current components. A test system with/without DSTATCOM and a
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) have been done using Simulink and Sim Power System
in MATLAB environment for a wide variety of system disturbances under different tested
conditions.
A paper has been published describing implementation of a neural-network (NN)controlled DSTATCOM using a DSPACE processor for power quality improvement in a threephase four-wire distribution system and its performance has been analyzed in MATLAB. For
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improving the power quality of power systems dynamic modeling and the control design of a
distribution static compensator coupled with ultra-capacitor energy storage (UCES) has also
been proposed and the control technique employed is based on the instantaneous power theory
on the synchronous-rotating dq reference frame. Three modes of operation have been
considered, i.e. voltage control for voltage fluctuations ride-through, current/voltage harmonics
mitigation and dynamic active power control.
A mathematical model of DSTATCOM in voltage sag compensation mode along with
SVPWM switched DSTATCOM simulation in power factor control mode has been presented
for power factor and voltage sag compensation. DSTATCOM can also be applied to industrial
systems for mitigation of voltage dip problem which generally occurs during the starting of an
induction motor. The distribution system performance under all types of fault can be improved
by using a 12-pulse DSTATCOM configuration with IGBT which can be modeled and
simulated using the PSCAD/EMTDC. A DSTATCOM can also be applied in three-phase, fourwire distribution system feeding commercial and domestic consumers for load balancing,
neutral current elimination, power factor correction and voltage regulationTo maintain voltage
stability and improve power quality of distribution grid, a control strategy combining control of
state feedback and feed forward has been employed using a nonlinear dynamic mathematical
model of DSTATCOM and thus improving the transient response performance and antidisturbing ability of the system .
A three-level voltage inverter based dynamic model of DSTATCOM has been
established by way of lead-in switch function and using PWM current control technology for
realizing dynamic var compensation effectively. A three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI)
configuration with a dc bus capacitor as a DSTATCOM has been demonstrated through
MATLAB/SIMULINK for power quality improvement in a three-phase, three-wire distribution
system . Different control strategies have been employed and compared like hysteresis control,
PWM current controllers, PI controller and sliding mode controller.
In order to balance the supply current, and improving the power factor to a desired
value the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components has been used here to extract the
three-phase reference currents and then these reference currents are then tracked using voltage
source inverter (VSI), operated in a hysteresis band control technique . The nonlinear statespace model of the multilevel DSTATCOM has been presented from the dq0 reference frame
that can adapt to load changes and have effective steady-state compensation and a better
dynamic response .

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(ii) Static VAR Compensator: According to IEEE definitions and standards, a shunt connected
static VAR generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so
as to maintain or control specific parameters of the electrical power system.

.
Static VAR compensator (SVC) can be seen in Fig. 4. A comparative power flow study
using SVC and STATCOM models on IEEE 14-Bus Test Network has been carried out and it
has been shown that in both cases, the state variables of SVC and STATCOM have been
combined with the bus voltage magnitudes and the angles of the network for Newton Power
flow solution for achieving power quality and stability

(b) Series FACTS Controller: These controllers are connected in series with the
transmission line and they inject the voltage and current in series with the transmission system..
(i)

Static Synchronous Series Compensator:


According to IEEE definitions and standards, a static synchronous generator or dynamic

voltage restorer operated without an external electrical energy source or a series compensator
where o/p voltage is in quadrature and controllable independently of the line current for the
purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and there

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by controlling the transmitted electric power. SSSC is also known as dynamic voltage
restorer. The DVR was first installed in 1996 and is shown in Fig. 5.

DVR is useful for compensating voltage quality problems that are due to voltage sag.
Due to its excellent dynamic capabilities, it is well suited to protect critical or sensitive load
from short duration voltage dips or swells. When a fault occurs in a distribution network, a
sudden voltage dip will appear on adjacent load feeders. With a DVR installed on a critical
load feeder, the line voltage is restored to its nominal value within the response time of a few
milliseconds thus avoiding any power disruption to the load.
DVR protects loads against voltage sags by series injection of the missing portion of the
utility voltage. To obtain missing voltage the distorted source voltage is compared with its
pre-fault value to generate the control signal for PWM. The size and rating of DVR depend
on its capability in supplying or absorbing real power in the steady-state .
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is normally installed in a distribution system between
the supply and the critical load feeder. Its primary function is to rapidly boost up the loadside voltage in the event of a disturbance in order to avoid any power disruption to that load.
There are various circuit topologies and control schemes that can be used to implement a
DVR.
To compensate the voltage deviation caused in a feeder the Interline DVR (IDVR)
operated by Multiple Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) has been proposed which consists
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several DVRs connected to different distribution feeders in the power system sharing
common energy storage. One DVR in the IDVR system works in voltage-sag/swell
compensation mode while the other DVR in the IDVR system operate in power-flow control
mode.
GA-based optimization can be used for the location, the type and the rating of the various
FACTS devices like static var compensator, static compensator, and dynamic voltage restorer
and the performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested and illustrated on 295-bus
generic distribution system.
A schematic diagram of IDVR has been shown in Fig. 6
A concept of interline dynam

i
c voltage restoration (IDVR) has been proposed in which several DVRs in different feeders
are connected to a common DC-link energy storage and thus reducing the cost of installation.
For both the voltage control and the power flow control modes a closed-loop controller that
consists of an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop has been incorporated into the
IDVR system.

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(ii)

Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor: According to IEEE definitions and


standards, a capacitive reactance compensator which consists of series capacitor bank
shunted by thyristor controlled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series
capacitive reactance. Fig. 7 shows a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) has been modeled in a simple two bus
system with distributed parameter line. A Fuzzy logic controller and a PID controller have been
used to control firing angles of TCSC but it has been verified that the fuzzy logic controller can
generate better dynamic response
. A single-machine infinite-bus power system installed with a TCSC has been proposed
whose control parameters have been optimized using genetic algorithm. The modeling and
simulation have validated the effectiveness of the proposed approach to achieve system
stability.
The TCSC controller can provide a very fast action to increase the synchronization
power by quick change in the equivalent capacitive reactance to the full compensation during a
fault. The TCSC controller can be designed to control the power flow, to increase the transfer
limits or to improve the transient stability and damping the oscillations FACTS devices such as
thyristor controlled series capacitors are difficult to model due to their nonlinear switching
behavior. It has been shown that passive damping has a significant effect on modal damping.
As compared to the traditional control devices, the TCSC offers smooth and flexible
control of the line impedance with much faster response. The Newton-Raphson ac power flow
method has been used to perform the modeling of TCSC for power flow studies. The
performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on IEEE-30 bus systems.

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(c) Combined series-series controllers: These controllers have two series controllers
which are connected in series with the transmission line coupled via common dc power link to
transmit the current, voltage and power.
(i) Interline Power Flow Controller: According to IEEE definitions and standards, it
consists of two or more SSSC which are coupled via common dc power link to facilitate
bidirectional flow of real power between the ac terminals of SSSC. Interline Power Flow
Controller (IPFC) can be seen in Fig. 8.

IPFC is a new concept for an overall real and reactive compensation and effective power flow
management of multi-line transmission systems by transferring the power from overloaded to
under loaded lines. It consists of a number of inverters with a common dc link to facilitate
real Power transfer among the lines of transmission system. The prime inverters can be
controlled to provide totally different operating functions, e.g., independent P and Q control,
phase shifting (transmission angle regulation), transmission impedance control, etc.
In order to analyze the flexibility of power flow control, the steady state operation of
the IPFC has been investigated through its mathematical model using improved control
strategies. A mathematical model based on the d-q orthogonal coordinates was developed to
address the issues like the relationship between the transmission angle and the IPFC controlled
region.
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The power injection model has been incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power
flow solution method on IEEE 14-bus system on the basis of a MATLAB program to
demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model and its effects in power flow studies
To verify the capability of IPFC in controlling the power flow in power system a case
study has been conducted on 6-bus & 3-machine and 30-bus & 6- machine systems, and the
results have been examined in the absence and presence of IPFC in the network .
A controller has been made using ATP- Electromagnetic Transients Program as study
and investigation tool in which the IPFC employs two dc/ac inverter with a common DC-link
to provide series compensation in the transmission system.
For improving the transient stability performance of power systems an integrated
approach of radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and Takagi-Surgeon (TS) fuzzy
scheme with a genetic optimization of their parameters has been implemented on TCSC
connected in a single-machine infinite bus power system and then applied to IPFC connected in
a multi machine power system
An extended Heffron-Phillips model of a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system
installed with IPFC has been established and used to analyze the damping torque contribution
of the IPFC in damping the low frequency oscillations and maintaining the control of the
power system. Under various loading conditions the potential of various IPFC control signals
has been investigated for the power system oscillation stability. To enhance the transient
stability of the system a power oscillation damping controller has been designed for the IPFC
using phase compensation technique. The Eigen value analyses of the lineralized PhillipsHeffron model have been used to identify the oscillation modes with low damping ratio. To
control the power flow demand in the IPFC connected transmission lines additional power flow
controllers have also been incorporated into the system.
Another Mathematical model of the IPFC has been presented to investigate the
flexibility of power flow control, and the steady state operation of the Interline Power Flow
Controller (IPFC) has been investigated in the presence of operating constraints of the IPFC.
In order to ensure a globally optimum control strategy in the Lyapunov sense, the newly
developed IPFC energy functions has been implemented such that the magnitudes of the
IPFCs series-injected voltages remain set to their maximum values and only the angles of
these voltages change.

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To investigate the inter-system oscillations, a linear model of VSC-based FACTS
devices has been developed that takes into account the dynamics of dc links and then
incorporated into production-grade software for small signal analysis of large power systems
For state estimation a model with IPFC has been introduced on the basis of
conventional power system state estimation model, in which power injection model has been
used and the effect of IPFC on the power flow has been transferred to the lines which are
connected to it .
(d) Combined Series and Shunt Connected Controller: In these controllers, one controller is
connected in series and another is connected in parallel and they both are coupled via a
coordinated control and a common dc power link in transmission line to transmit the current,
voltage and power.
(i) Unified Power Flow Controller: According to IEEE definitions and standards, Unified
Power Flow Controller (UPFC) consists of STATCOM and SSSC which are coupled via
common dc power link to allow bidirectional flow of real power between the series o/p terminals
of the SSSC and shunt o/p terminals of the STATCOM. The basic structure of UPFC has been
shown in Fig. 9.

The most promising FACTS device, UPFC, is capable of providing an adaptive voltage
magnitude control as well as active and reactive power control and their regulation. A new
mathematical model of UPFC incorporated in Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm has been
developed. Voltage Stability Index has been used for optimal location of UPFC and Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique has been used to set the parameters of UPFC being
tested on IEEE 5-Bus and IEEE 14-Bus systems using MATLAB.
A numerical method tested with Matlab consisting of a set of equations for a system
including the UPFC and an equivalent two bus power network has been successfully validated

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with analog model and EMTP. The mathematical models for new UPFC series control modes
have been presented which include direct voltage injection, bus voltage regulation, line
impedance compensation and phase angle regulation. In comparison with the classical
decoupled control strategy, for better stability and transient performance a modified control
structure with a predictive control loop and pre control signal has been designed for a dcvoltage control and control of harmonic current The selection of damping control signal for the
design of UPFC damping controller and the effect of UPFC DC voltage regulator on power
system oscillation stability and the have been studied and demonstrated on the PhillipsHeffron
model .
The modeling of converter-based controllers in which two or more VSCs are coupled to
a dc link like UPFC, IPFC and GUPFC has been presented for load-flow calculations .The
modeling and simulation of IEEE 30 bus system employing UPFC has been described with and
without implementation of UPFC .SVC and UPFC have been explained and modeled.
Integration of FACTS devices and heeling transactions into SCADA systems has been
investigated. PF and OPF algorithms have been used for incorporating different policies and
accounting methods.
A comparison among the load flow results using three models of UPFC: decoupled
UPFC model, injection UPFC model and comprehensive NR UPFC model have been
incorporated in a MATLAB power flow program at different operation modes.The dynamic
behavior of IPFC & UPFC has been compared and rationalized by developing the small-signal
models and validating them using detailed electromagnetic transients simulation. To improve
the dynamic performance of the power system, a nonlinear dynamic model of the network
consisting UPFC has been established using linearization and network reduction for transient
studies and the decoupled control algorithms for active and reactive power have been developed.
To minimize the capacity of the shunt compensator and to maintain power flow control
sensitivity the perpendicular voltage control model of UPFC has been proposed. The protection and
control of UPFC model for transmission capability improvement have been verified using a real time
analog simulator. An approach to solve first-swing stability problem using UPFC, by using the local
variable of system along with a comprehensive analysis has been presented for better stability

performance. A power flow study of a five bus system with and without UPFC has been carried
out and has been implemented with MATLAB to conclude that UPFC is able to control
voltage, impedance, and phase angle MATLAB program has been used to model UPFC and to

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verify the performance of UPFC with different controllers like PID controller and ANFIS
controller.
For the analysis of the steady state operation of Unified Power Flow Controller
connected in a power system, an improved steady state mathematical model has been presented
employing conventional techniques such as Newton-Raphson method and has been simulated
on IEEE 30-bus systems using commercial software. The modeling of the unified power flow
controller (UPFC) on the IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system has been presented
to illustrate the feasibility and the performance of the system. The control modes including
power flow, voltage, angle and impedance control functions have been incorporated into a
Newton-Raphson power flow algorithm. .

ii) Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller (GUPFC):

As shown in Fig.2 10, a Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller consists of three or
more converters out of which one is shunt connected while the remaining converters are series
connected, resulting in the control of both real and reactive power flow in the line and to
provide flexibility and additional degrees of freedom. The shunt connected converter not only
provides the necessary power required, but also the reactive current injected at the converter
bus. A novel concept of a similar mathematical model for the GUPFC on the 30 bus power

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system demonstrating the feasibility as well as the effectiveness of the GUPFC in the OPF
method has been presented.
Compared with the conventional application of the UPFC, the GUPFC have shown
great advantages. For the desired power flow distribution in Sichuan power grid, and also the
voltage control of a substation a control law for the four-converter GUPFC has been proposed.
Mathematical models of the IPFC and GUPFC and their implementation in Newton power
flow based on the 30-bus and 300-bus systems have been presented to demonstrate the
performance of these FACTS devices.

2.3 CONCLUSION
This chapter reviewed the theory of FACTS devices and their control. The DSSC have
high reliability and low cost. However, the control capability of the DSSC is limited because it
can inject only reactive power. It is found that the combined PFCDs based on VSCs have the
best capability of power flow control, and are therefore the most suitable device for the future
network. However, their high cost and complexity become the bottleneck for their application
in practice.

CHAPTER-3
DISTRIBUTED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
3.1 Introduction
In the previous chapter, an overview was given by FACTS devices. Because of high control
capability, the PE-based combined PFCS specially UPFC and IPFC are suitable for the future power
system. However, the UPFC and IPFC are not widely applied in practice, due to their high cost and
the thesis not possible due to susceptibility to failures .generally, the reliability can be improved by
reducing the number of components; however, this is not possible due to the complex topology of UPFC
and IPFC. To reduce the failure rate of the components by selecting components with higher ratings than
necessary or employing tendency at the component or system levels are also options. Unfortunately, these
solutions increase the initial investment necessary, negating any cost-related advantages. Accordingly,
new approaches are needed in order to increase reliability and reduce cost of the UPFC and IPFC at the
same time.
After studying the failure mode of the combined FACTS device, it is found that a common
DC link between converters reduces the reliability of a device, because failure in one converter will
pervade the whole device though the DC link. By eliminating this DC link, the converters within the
FACTS device are operated independely, thereby increasing their reliability.

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The elimination of the common DC link also allows the DSSC concept to be applied series
convertors. In that case, the reliability of the new device is further improved due to the reduency provided
by the distributed series converters. In addition, series converter distribution reduces cost because no
high- voltage isolation and high power rating components are required at the series part. By applying the
two approaches eliminating common DC link and distributing series converter, the UPFC is further
developed into a new combined FACTS device. The DPFC Flow chart and configuration are shown

in Fig.3.1 and Fig.3.2 respectively

Fig.3.2 DPFC basic structure

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3.2 DPFC TOPOLOGY


By introducing the two approaches outlined in the previous section into UPFC , the
DPFC is achieved. Similar as the UPFC, the DPFC consists of shunt and series connected
convertes. The shunt converter is similar as a STATCOM, while the series conerter employs the
DSSC concept, which is to use multiple single- phase converters instead of one three-phase
converter. Each converter within the DPFC is independent and has its own DC capacitor to
provide the required DC voltage. The configuration of the DPFC is shown in fig 3.3

Fig. 3.3.DPFC configuration


As shown, besides the key components- shunt and series converters, a DPFC also
requires a high pass filter that is shunt connected to the other side of the transmission line and
star-delta transformer on each side of the line.
The unique control capability of the UPFC is given by the back-to-back connection
between the shunt and series converters, which allows the active power to freely exchange. To
ensure the DPFC has the same control capability as the UPFC, a method that allows active
power exchange between converters with an eliminated DC link is required.

3.3 DPFC OPERATING PRINCIPLE


The DPFC consists of one shunt and several series connected converters. The shunt
converter is similar as a STATCOM, while the series converter employs the DFACTS concept,
which is to use multiple single-phase converters instead of one large rated converter. Each
converter within the DPFC is independent and has its own dc capacitor to provide the required
dc voltage. The configuration of the DPFC is shown in Fig. 3.4. As shown, besides the key
components, namely the shunt and series converters, the DPFC also requires a high-pass filter
that is shunt connected at the other side of the transmission line, and two Y transformers at

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each side of the line. To ensure that the DPFC have the same control capability as the UPFC, a
method that allows the exchange of active power between converters with eliminated dc link is
the prerequisite.
A. Eliminate DC Link
Within the DPFC, transmission line is the common connection between the AC terminal of
the shunt and series converters. Therefore it is possible to exchange the active power though
the terminals of the converters. The method is based on power theory of non sinusoidal
components. According to the Fourier analysis, a non sinusoidal voltage and current can be
expressed by the sum of sinusoidal functions in different frequencies wit different amplitudes.
The active power resulting from this non sinusoidal voltage and current is defined as the mean
value of the product of voltage and current. Since the integral of all the cross product of terms
with different frequencies are zero, the power can be expressed by:

Where Vi and Ii are the voltage and current at the ith harmonic frequency, respectively,
and i is the corresponding angle between the voltage and current. From this equation active
power at different frequencies is isolated from each other and voltage or current in one
frequency has no influence on active power at other frequencies. The independency of the
active power at different frequencies gives the possibility that a converter without power source
can generate active power at one frequency and absorb this power from other frequencies. By
applying this method to the DPFC the shunt converter can absorb the active power from the
grid at the fundamental frequency and inject the current back into the grid at a harmonic
frequency. Due to unique features of 3 rd harmonic frequency components in a three phase
system, the 3rd harmonic is selected for active power exchange. In a three phase system the 3rd
harmonic each phase is identical, which means they are zero sequence components. Because
the zero sequence harmonic can be naturally blocked by star delta transformers and these are
widely incorporated in power systems, there is no extra filter required to prevent harmonic
leakage. Fig.4 shows Active power exchange between DPFC converters.

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Due to the unique features of 3rd harmonic frequency components in a three-phase


system, the 3rd harmonic is selected for active power exchange in the DPFC. In a three-phase
system, the 3rd harmonic in each phase is identical, which means they are zero -sequence
components. Because the zero-sequence harmonic can be naturally blocked by

trans-

formers and these are widely incorporated in power systems (as a means of changing voltage), there is
no extra filter required to prevent harmonic leakage. As introduced above, a high pass filter is required
to make a closed loop for the harmonic current and the cut off frequency of this filter is approximately
the fundamental frequency. Because the voltage isolation is high and the harmonic frequency is close to
the cut off frequency, the filter will be costly. By using the zero-sequence harmonic, the costly filter can

be replaced by a cable that connects the neutral point of the

transformer on the right side in

Figure 2 with the ground. Because the delta -winding appears open-circuit to the 3rd harmonic current,
all harmonic current will flow through the Y winding and concentrate to the grounding cable as shown
in Figure 3. Therefore the large high-pass filter is eliminated.

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Another advantage of using the 3rd harmonic to exchange active power is that the
grounding of the

transformers can be used to route the harmonic current in a meshed

network. If the network requires the harmonic current to flow through a specific branch, the
neutral point of the

transformer in that branch, at the side opposite to the shunt

converter, will be grounded and vice versa.


Figure 4 shows a simple example of routing the harmonic current by using the
grounding of the

transformer. Because the floating neutral point is located on the

transformer of the line without the series converter, it is an open-circuit for 3rd harmonic
components and therefore no 3rd harmonic current will flow through this line.

The harmonic at the frequencies like 3rd, 6th, 9th... are all zero-sequence and all can be used to
exchange active power in the DPFC. However, the 3rd harmonic is selected, because it is the lowest
frequency among all zero-sequence harmonics. The relationship between the exchanged active power at

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the ith harmonic frequency Pi and the voltages generated by the converters is expressed by the well
known the power flow equation and given as:

Where Xi is the line impedance at ith frequency,


voltage

magnitudes

of

the

harmonic

of

the

shunt

is the
and

series

converters,

and

is the angle difference between the two voltages. As shown, the


impedance of the line limits the active power exchange capacity. To exchange the same amount
of active power, the line with high impedance requires higher voltages. Because the
transmission line impedance is mostly inductive and proportional to frequency, high
transmission frequencies will cause high impedance and result in high voltage within
converters. Consequently, the zero -sequence harmonic with the lowest frequency - the 3rd
harmonic - has been selected.
B. Distributed Series Converter
The D-FACTS is a solution for the series connected FACTS, which can dramatically
reduce the total cost and increase the reliability of the series FACTS device. The idea of the DFACTS is to use a large number of controllers with low rating instead of one large rated
controller. The small controller is a single-phase converter attached to transmission lines by a
single-turn trans-former. The converters are hanging on the line so that no costly high-voltage
isolation is required. The single-turn transformer uses the transmission line as the secondary
winding, inserting controllable impedance into the line directly. Each D-FACTS module is selfpowered from the line and controlled remotely by wireless or power line communication
shown in Fig.5. The structure of the DFACTS results in low cost and high re-liability. As
DFACTS units are single-phase devices floating on lines, high-voltage isolations between
phases are avoided. The unit can easily be applied at any transmission voltage level, be-cause it
does not require supporting phase ground isolation. The power and voltage rating of each unit
is relatively small. Further, the units are clamped on transmission lines, and therefore, no land
is required. The redundancy of the D-FACTS provides an uninterrupted operation during a
single module failure, thereby giving a much higher reliability than other FACTS devices.

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3.4 Advantages of DPFC


The DPFC can be considered as a UPFC that employs the DFACTS concept and the
concept of exchanging power through harmonic. Therefore, the DPFC inherits all the
advantages of the UPFC and the D-FACTS, which are as follows.
1) High control capability: The DPFC can simultaneously control all the parameters of
the power system: the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage.
2) High reliability: The redundancy of the series converter gives an improved reliability.
In addition, the shunt and series converters are independent, and the failure at one place will
not influence the other converters. When a failure occurs in the series converter, the
converter will be short-circuited by bypass protection, thereby having little influence to the
network.
3) Low cost: There is no phase-to-phase voltage isolation required by the series
converter. Also, the power rating of each converter is small and can be easily produced in
series production lines.

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3.5 DPFC CONTROL


To control multiple converters, a DPFC consists of three types of controllers:
central control, shunt control and series control,
The shunt and series control are localized controllers and are responsible for maintaining their own
converters parameters. The central control takes care of the DPFC functions at the power system level.
The function of each controller is listed:

i) Central control: The central control generates the reference signals for both the shunt
and series converters of the DPFC. Its control function depends on the specifics of the DPFC
application at the power system level, such as power flow control, low frequency power
oscillation damping and balancing of asymmetrical components. According to the system
requirements, the central control gives corresponding voltage reference signals for the series
converters and reactive current signal for the shunt converter. All the reference signals ge
nerated by the central control concern the fundamental frequency components.
ii) Series control: Each series converter has its own series control. The controller is used to
maintain the capacitor DC voltage of its own converter, by using 3rd harmonic frequency
components, in addition to generating series voltage at the fundamental frequency as required
by the central control.

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Any series controller has a low-pass and a 3 rd-pass filter to create fundamental and third
harmonic current, respectively. Two single-phase phase lock loop (PLL) are used to take
frequency and phase information from network [11]. The block diagram of series controller in
Matlab/Simulink is shown in Fig. 5. The PWM-Generator block manages switching processes.

iii) Shunt Control

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The shunt converter includes a three-phase converter connected back-to-back to a
single-phase converter. The three-phase converter absorbs active power from grid at
fundamental frequency and controls the dc voltage of capacitor between this converter and
single-phase one. Other task of the shunt converter is to inject constant third-harmonic current
into lines through the neutral cable of -Y transformer.
The objective of the shunt control is to inject a constant 3 rd harmonic current into the
line to supply active power for the series converters. At the same time, it maintains the
capacitor DC voltage of the shunt converter at a constant value by absorbing active power from
the grid at the fundamental frequency and injecting the required reactive current at the
fundamental frequency into the grid.

Each converter has its own controller at different frequency operation (fundamental and thirdharmonic frequency). The shunt control structure block diagram is shown in Fig. 6.

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The third-harmonic frequency control is the major control loop with the DPFC series converter
control. The principle of the vector control is used here for the dc-voltage control. The thirdharmonic current through the line is selected as the rotation reference frame for the single-phase
park transformation, because it is easy to be captured by the phase-locked loop (PLL) in the
series converter. As the line current contains two frequency components, a third high-pass filter
is needed to reduce the fundamental current. The d-component of the third harmonic voltage is
the parameter that is used to control the dc voltage, and its reference signal is generated by the
dc-voltage control loop. To minimize the reactive power that is caused by the third harmonic, the
series converter is controlled as a resistance at the third-harmonic frequency. The q-component
of the third harmonic voltage is kept zero during the Operation.
As the series converter is single phase, there will be voltage ripple at the dc side of
each converter. The frequency of the ripple depends on the frequency of the current that flows
through the converter. As the current contains the fundamental and third harmonic frequency
component, the dc-capacitor voltage will contain 100-, 200-, and 300-Hz frequency
component. There are two possible ways to reduce this ripple. One is to increase the turn ratio
of the single-phase transformer of the\ series converter to reduce the magnitude of the current
that flows into the converter. The other way is to use the dc capacitor with a larger capacitance.
The control for the fundamental frequency components consists of two cascaded
controllers. The current control is the inner control loop, which is to modulate the shunt current

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at the fundamental frequency. The q-component of the reference signal of the shunt converter is
obtained from the central Controller and dc component is generated by the dc control.

CHAPTER-4
POWER QUALITY TERMS AND REACTIVE POWER
CONTROL
4.1 Need of Reactive power control.
In an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit.
In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may
result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that averaged
over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is
known as real power. The portion of power due to stored energy, which returns to the source in
each cycle, is known as reactive power.
4.2 Real, reactive, and apparent power
In a simple alternating current (AC) circuit consisting of a source and a linear load, both
the current and voltage are sinusoidal. If the load is purely resistive, the two quantities reverse
their polarity at the same time. At every instant the product of voltage and current is positive;
indicating that the direction of energy flow does not reverse. In this case, only real power is
transferred.
If the loads are purely reactive, then the voltage and current are 90 degrees out of phase.
For half of each cycle, the product of voltage and current is positive, but on the other half of the
cycle, the product is negative, indicating that on average, exactly as much energy flows toward
the load as flows back. There is no net energy flow over one cycle. In this case, only reactive
energy flowsthere is no net transfer of energy to the load.
Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both real and reactive
power will flow to real loads. Power engineers measure apparent power as the magnitude of the
vector sum of real and reactive power. Apparent power is the product of the root-meansquare of voltage and current.
Engineers care about apparent power, because even though the current associated with
reactive power does no work at the load, it heats the wires, wasting energy. Conductors,

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transformers and generators must be sized to carry the total current, not just the current that
does useful work.
Another consequence is that adding the apparent power for two loads will not
accurately give the total apparent power unless they have the same displacement between
current and voltage (the same power factor).
Conventionally, capacitors are considered to generate reactive power and inductors to
consume it. If a capacitor and an inductor are placed in parallel, then the currents flowing
through the inductor and the capacitor tend to cancel rather than add. This is the fundamental
mechanism for controlling the power factor in electric power transmission; capacitors (or
inductors) are inserted in a circuit to partially cancel reactive power 'consumed' by the load.

The complex power is the vector sum of real and reactive power. The apparent power is the
magnitude of the complex power.
Real power, P
Reactive power, Q
Complex power, S
Apparent power, |S|
Phase of current,
Engineers use the following terms to describe energy flow in a system (and assign each of them
a different unit to differentiate between them):

Real power, P, or active power: watt (W)

Reactive power, Q: volt-ampere reactive (var)

Complex power, S: volt-ampere (VA)

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Apparent power, |S|: the magnitude of complex power S: volt-ampere (VA)

Phase of voltage relative to current, : the angle of difference (in degrees) between
voltage and current; current lagging voltage (quadrant I vector), current leading voltage
(quadrant IV vector)
In the diagram, P is the real power, Q is the reactive power (in this case positive), S is the
complex power and the length of S is the apparent power. Reactive power does not do any
work, so it is represented as the imaginary axis of the vector diagram. Real power does do
work, so it is the real axis.
The unit for all forms of power is the watt (symbol: W), but this unit is generally
reserved for real power. Apparent power is conventionally expressed in volt-amperes (VA)
since it is the product of rms voltage and rms current. The unit for reactive power is expressed
as var, which stands for volt-ampere reactive. Since reactive power transfers no net energy to
the load, it is sometimes called "wattles" power. It does, however, serve an important function
in electrical grids and its lack has been cited as a significant factor in the Northeast Blackout of
2003.

Understanding the relationship among these three quantities lies at the heart of understanding
power engineering. The mathematical relationship among them can be represented by vectors or
expressed using complex numbers, S = P + jQ (where j is the imaginary unit).
4.3 Power factor
The ratio between real power and apparent power in a circuit is called the power factor.
It's a practical measure of the efficiency of a power distribution system. For two systems
transmitting the same amount of real power, the system with the lower power factor will have
higher circulating currents due to energy that returns to the source from energy storage in the
load. These higher currents produce higher losses and reduce overall transmission efficiency. A
lower power factor circuit will have a higher apparent power and higher losses for the same
amount of real power.
The power factor is unity (one) when the voltage and current are in phase. It is zero
when the current leads or lags the voltage by 90 degrees. Power factors are usually stated as
"leading" or "lagging" to show the sign of the phase angle of current with respect to voltage.

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Purely capacitive circuits supply reactive power with the current waveform leading the voltage
waveform by 90 degrees, while purely inductive circuits absorb reactive power with the current
waveform lagging the voltage waveform by 90 degrees. The result of this is that capacitive and
inductive circuit elements tend to cancel each other out.
Where the waveforms are purely sinusoidal, the power factor is the cosine of the phase angle ()
between the current and voltage sinusoid waveforms. Equipment data sheets and nameplates
often will abbreviate power factor as "

" for this reason.

Example: The real power is 700 W and the phase angle between voltage and current is 45.6.
The power factor is cos (45.6) = 0.700. The apparent power is then: 700 W / cos (45.6) = 1000
VA.
4.4 Reactive power
Reactive power flow is needed in an alternating-current transmission system to support
the transfer of real power over the network. In alternating current circuits, energy is stored
temporarily in inductive and capacitive elements, which can result in the periodic reversal of
the direction of energy flow. The portion of power flow remaining, after being averaged over a
complete AC waveform, is the real power; that is, energy that can be used to do work (for
example overcome friction in a motor, or heat an element). On the other hand, the portion of
power flow that is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields, due to inductive
and capacitive network elements, and then returned to source, is known as reactive power.
AC connected devices that store energy in the form of a magnetic field include devices
called inductors, which consist of a large coil of wire. When a voltage is initially placed across
the coil, a magnetic field builds up, and it takes a period of time for the current to reach full
value. This causes the current to lag behind the voltage in phase; hence, these devices are said
to absorb reactive power.
A capacitor is an AC device that stores energy in the form of an electric field. When
current is driven through the capacitor, it takes a period of time for a charge to build up to
produce the full voltage difference. On an AC network, the voltage across a capacitor is
constantly changing the capacitor will oppose this change, causing the voltage to lag behind
the current. In other words, the current leads the voltage in phase; hence, these devices are said
to generate reactive power.

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Energy stored in capacitive or inductive elements of the network give rise to reactive
power flow. Reactive power flow strongly influences the voltage levels across the network.
Voltage levels and reactive power flow must be carefully controlled to allow a power system to
be operated within acceptable limits.

4.5 Reactive power control


Transmission connected generators are generally required to support reactive power
flow. For example on the United Kingdom transmission system generators are required by the
Grid Code Requirements to supply their rated power between the limits of 0.85 power factor
lagging and 0.90 power factor leading at the designated terminals. The system operator will
perform switching actions to maintain a secure and economical voltage profile while
maintaining a reactive power balance equation:
Generator MVARs + System gain + Shunt capacitors = MVAR Demand + Reactive losses +
Shunt reactors
The System gain is an important source of reactive power in the above power balance
equation, which is generated by the capacitive nature of the transmission network itself. By
making decisive switching actions in the early morning before the demand increases, the
system gain can be maximized early on, helping to secure the system for the whole day.
To balance the equation some pre-fault reactive generator use will be required. Other
sources of reactive power that will also be used include shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, Static
VAR Compensators and voltage control circuits.

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CHAPTER-5
MATLAB/SIMULATION RESULTS
Introduction
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates
computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems
and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include

Math and computation


Algorithm development
Data acquisition
Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
Data analysis, exploration, and visualization
Scientific and engineering graphics

MATLAB:
Matlab is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates
computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems
and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include Math and
computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
Data analysis, exploration, and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics Application
development, including graphical user interface building.
Matlab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not
require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems,
especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a fraction of the time it would take to
write a program in a scalar no interactive language such as C or FORTRAN.

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The name matlab stands for matrix laboratory. Matlab was originally written to provide
easy access to matrix software developed by the linpack and eispack projects. Today, matlab
engines incorporate the lapack and blas libraries, embedding the state of the art in software
for matrix computation.
Matlab has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. In university
environments, it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in
mathematics, engineering, and science. In industry, matlab is the tool of choice for highproductivity research, development, and analysis.
Matlab features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. Very
important to most users of matlab, toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized
technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of matlab functions (M-files) that
extend the matlab environment to solve particular classes of problems. Areas in which
toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy
logic, wavelets, simulation, and many others.
The matlab system consists of five main parts:
Development Environment. This is the set of tools and facilities that help you use
matlab functions and files. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the
matlab desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor and debugger, and
browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and the search path.
The matlab Mathematical Function Library. This is a vast collection of computational
algorithms ranging from elementary functions, like sum, sine, cosine, and complex
arithmetic, to more sophisticated functions like matrix inverse, matrix Eigen values, Bessel
functions, and fast Fourier transforms.
The matlab Language.

This is a high-level matrix/array language with control flow

statements, functions, data structures, input/output, and object-oriented programming


features. It allows both "programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throwaway programs, and "programming in the large" to create large and complex application
programs.

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Matlab has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as graphs, as well as
annotating and printing these graphs. It includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and
three-dimensional data visualization, image processing, animation, and presentation graphics.
It also includes low-level functions that allow you to fully customize the appearance of
graphics as well as to build complete graphical user interfaces on your matlab applications.
The matlab Application Program Interface (API). This is a library that allows you to
write C and FORTRAN programs that interact with matlab. It includes facilities for calling
routines from matlab (dynamic linking), calling matlab as a computational engine, and for
reading and writing MAT-files.
SIMULINK
SIMULINK
Simulink, developed by MathWorks, is a data flow graphical programming language tool
for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamic systems. Its primary interface is
a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight
integration with the rest of theMATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be
scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in control theory and digital signal processing for
multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.
A. Add-on products
A number of Math Works and third-party hardware and software products are available
for use with Simulink. For example, State flow extends Simulink with a design environment for
developing state machines and flow charts.
Coupled with Simulink Coder, another product from Math Works, Simulink can automatically
generate Source for real-time implementation of systems. As the efficiency and flexibility of the
code improves, this is becoming more widely adopted for production systems, in addition to
being a popular tool for embedded design work because of its flexibility and capacity for quick
iteration. Code creates code efficient enough for use in embedded systems.
XPC Target together with x86-based real-time systems provides an environment to
simulate and test Simulink and State flow models in real-time on the physical system. Embedded

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Coder also supports specific embedded targets, including Infineon C166, Motorola 68HC12,
Motorola MPC555, TIC2000, TIC6000, Renesas V850 and Renesas SuperH. With HDL Coder,
also from Math Works, Simulink and State flow can automatically generate synthesizable
VHDL and Verilog. Simulink Verification and Validation enables systematic verification and
validation of models through modeling style checking, requirements traceability and model
coverage analysis. Simulink Design Verifier uses formal methods to identify design errors
like integer overflow, division by zero and dead logic, and generates test case scenarios
for model checking within the Simulink environment.
The systematic testing tool TPT offers one way to perform formal test- verification and
validation process to stimulate Simulink models but also during the development phase where
the developer generates inputs to test the system. By the substitution of the Constant and Signal
generator blocks of Simulink the stimulation becomes reproducible.
SimEvents adds a library of graphical building blocks for modeling queuing systems to
the Simulink environment. It also adds an event-based simulation engine to the time-based
simulation engine in Simulink.
Introduction:
Simulink is a software add-on to matlab which is a mathematical tool developed by The
Math works,(http://www.mathworks.com) a company based in Natick. Matlab is powered by
extensive numerical analysis capability. Simulink is a tool used to visually program a
dynamic system (those governed by Differential equations) and look at results. Any logic
circuit, or control system for a dynamic system can be built by using standard building blocks
available in Simulink Libraries. Various toolboxes for different techniques, such as Fuzzy
Logic, Neural Networks, dsp, Statistics etc. are available with Simulink, which enhance the
processing power of the tool. The main advantage is the availability of templates / building
blocks, which avoid the necessity of typing code for small mathematical processes.
Concept of signal and logic flow:
In Simulink, data/information from various blocks are sent to another block by lines
connecting the relevant blocks. Signals can be generated and fed into blocks dynamic /
static).Data can be fed into functions. Data can then be dumped into sinks, which could be

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scopes, displays or could be saved to a file. Data can be connected from one block to another,
can be branched, multiplexed etc. In simulation, data is processed and transferred only at
discrete times, since all computers are discrete systems. Thus, a simulation time step
(otherwise called an integration time step) is essential, and the selection of that step is
determined by the fastest dynamics in the simulated system.

Fig 5.1 Simulink library browser


Connecting blocks:

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Connectung blocks
To connect blocks, left-click and drag the mouse from the output of one block to the
input of another block.

Sources and sinks:


The sources library contains the sources of data/signals that one would use in a dynamic
system simulation. One may want to use a constant input, a sinusoidal wave, a step, a
repeating sequence such as a pulse train, a ramp etc. One may want to test disturbance effects,
and can use the random signal generator to simulate noise. The clock may be used to create a
time index for plotting purposes. The ground could be used to connect to any unused port, to
avoid warning messages indicating unconnected ports.
The sinks are blocks where signals are terminated or ultimately used. In most cases, we
would want to store the resulting data in a file, or a matrix of variables. The data could be
displayed or even stored to a file. the stop block could be used to stop the simulation if the
input to that block (the signal being sunk) is non-zero. Figure 3 shows the available blocks in
the sources and sinks libraries. Unused signals must be terminated, to prevent warnings about
unconnected signals.

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Fig 5.2 Sources and sinks


Continuous and discrete systems:
All dynamic systems can be analyzed as continuous or discrete time systems. Simulink
allows you to represent these systems using transfer functions, integration blocks, delay
blocks etc.

CHAPTER-6
SIMULATION MODEL AND SIMULATION RESULTS
6.1 Simulation models

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Fig. 6.1 Simulation diagram of Three-phase system without DPFC

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Fig.6.2. Simulation diagram of Three-phase system with DPFC

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6.2 EXAMINING SIMULATION RESULTS


Fig. 10 depicts the load current swell about 1.1 per- unit, during the fault. After
implementation of the DPFC, the load current swell is removed effectively. The current swell
mitigation for this case can be observed from Fig. 11.

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The load voltage harmonic analysis without presence of DPFC is illustrated in Fig. 12.
It can be seen, after DPFC implementation in system, the even harmonics is eliminated , the
odd harmonics are reduced within acceptable limits, and total harmonic distortion (THD) of
load voltage is minimized from 45.67 to 0.65 percentage (Fig. 13), i.e., the standardTHD is less
than 5 percent in IEEE standards.

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6.3 POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
The whole model of system under study is shown in Fig. 6.8. The system contains a
three-phase source connected to a nonlinear RLC load through parallel transmission lines (Line
1 and Line 2) with the same lengths. The DPFC is placed in transmission line, which the shunt
converter is connected to the transmission line 2 in parallel through a Y- three-phase
transformer, and series converters is distributed through this line. The system parameters are
listed in appendix TABLE I. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is
considered near the load. The time duration of the fault is 0.5 seconds (500-1000 millisecond).
As shown in Fig.6.5 , significant voltage sag is observable during the fault, without any
compensation. The voltage sag value is about 0.5 per unit per unit. After adding a DPFC, load
voltage sag can be mitigated effectively, as shown in Fig. 6.6
Table 6.1 simulation system parameters
Parameters
Three phase source
Rated voltage
Rated power/ frequency
X/R
Short circuit capacity
Transmission line
Resistance
Inductance/Capacitance reactance
Length of transmission line
Shunt converter 3-phase
Nominal power
DC link capacitor
Coupling transformer(shunt)
Nominal power
Rated voltage
Series converters
Rated voltage
Nominal power
Three phase fault
Type

Values
230kv
100MW/60HZ
3
11000MW
0.012pu/km
0.12/0.12pu/km
100km
60MVAR
600uf
100MVA
230/15 kv
6 kv
6MVAR
ABC-G

CONCLUSION
To improve power quality in the power transmission system, there are some effective
methods. In this paper, the voltage sag and swell mitigation, using a new FACTS device
called distributed power flow controller is presented. The DPFC structure is similar to unified
power flow controller, and has a same control capability to balance the line parameters, i.e.;

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line impedance, transmission angle, and bus voltage magnitude. However, the DPFC offers
some advantages, in comparisons with UPFC, such as high control capability, high reliability,
and low cost. The DPFC is modeled and three phase control loops i.e.; central controller,
series control, and shunt control are design. The system under study is a machine infinite bus
system, with and without DPFC. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is
considered near the load. It is shown that the DPFC gives an acceptable performance in
power quality mitigation and power flow control.

REFERENCES
[1] Power Quality Improvement and Mitigation Case Study Using Distributed Power Flow
Controller, Ahmad Jamshidi1,a, S. Masoud Barakati1,b, and Mohammad Moradi Ghahderijani1,
C1 ECE Department, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran.

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[2] Guide book on Custom Power Devices by EPRI Project Manager A.Sundaram

[3] Power quality enhancement using custom power devices. The kluwer international series in
engineering and computer science Power electronics and power systems series editor M. A. Pal.
[4] Distributed power flow controller by ZhihuiYuan Electrical Power Processing
(EPP) Unit Electrical Sustainable Energy Department Delft University of Technology.

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