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Booklet para séptimo grado

Booklet para séptimo grado

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- Solution to Diffusion and Heat Conduction Equations
- Geometry & Measurement
- Centroid Centre of Gravity
- The Van Hiele Model of the Development of Geometric Thought
- Essentials of Perspective
- Congruency of triangles, angles, and segments: multiple choice.
- WYMIC 2007
- 1-3
- thin reflectiveteachingexperience
- B-eng-vt02
- 11Syllabus2017
- MR4_Symmedians
- 10-11
- B_Chap03_028-051
- per2
- Andhra University Syllabus for EEE
- Excel Exercises Chapter 2
- III-Day 9
- Vocab Chapter 5
- NCERT St Lines

You are on page 1of 26

Student: ___________________________________________________________

Teacher: Jos Luis vila Betancourt

TH

This booklet is a summary of the topics that will be covered in the 4th partial for Mathematics

Class. Read the theory and develop all the activities proposed. Every work from this booklet should

be submitted in separate paper sheets.

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Algebra

Linear Equations

Summary: To solve equations, use the addition/multiplication principles.

1. Parentheses by using the distributive property. If no fractions, combine like terms.

2. Denominators: Multiply each side of equation by common denominator.

Decimals: Multiply each side of equation by 10, 100, 1000, etc. COMBINE LIKE TERMS.

BEFORE NEXT STEP EACH SIDE SHOULD BE NO MORE COMPLICATED THAN:

4x 8

3. Signs (addition or subtraction) by using the addition principle (add opposites).

Get variable terms on one side of the equation and all constant terms on the

other side. Goal: Each side of equation is no more complicated than

4x = -9.

4. Coefficients by dividing by coefficient (BY SAME NUMBER). Goal: x = number

inverse by using transposing. In this case, instead of writing the same operation on both

sides of the equation, we transpose the number to the other side of the equation with the

inverse operation or sign.

Set of Exercises #1

Activity 1

Solve these equations (find the value of x):

a) 5x + 1 = 31

b) 3x 1 = 8

c) 7x = 60 + 2x

d) 3x = 72 3x

e) 6x + 4 = 20 2x

f) 6x + 3 = 23 + x

Math Booklet 4th Partial

g) 5x + 4 = 2x + 17

h) 5x + 11 = 20x 64

i) 28 x = 17 + 3x

j) 6x + 7 = 8x 13

Activity 2

Solve these equations with brackets (multiply out the brackets first):

a) 5(x + 2) = 25

b) 2(2x + 10) = 40

c) 3(2x 5) = 21

d) 4(5x 3) = 7(2x + 3)

e) 3(4 + x) = 5(10 + x)

f) 2(3x 4) = 4x + 3

g) 4(2a 8) =

1

(49a + 70)

7

Activity 3

Solve these equations with brackets (simplify common terms at first and multiply the

expressions times the LCD):

3n 2 7

5

10

a)

c)

1

1

w3 w

4

3

b)

3

1

yy4 y

2

2

d)

5

3

x

6

4

e)

1

1

x x 3 x

4

2

f) m

g)

1

3

2m m

3

2

h)

5

3

x

6

4

2 1

m 1

3 4

i)

3

2

t

4

3

j)

3

1

x

4

2

k)

3

2 x 1 2

4

l)

2

3x 1 5

3

m)

1 2

1

t 1 t t

2 5

5

n)

1

2

2

m 2 m

5

3

5

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Read the problem carefully and note what is given and what is required and what is

given.

Denote the unknown value (s) by the variables as x, y, .

Translate the problem to algebraic language or mathematical statements.

Form the linear equation in one variable using the conditions given in the problems.

Solve the equation for the unknown.

Verify to be sure whether the answer satisfies the conditions of the problem.

Step-by-step application of linear equations to solve practical word problems:

a) The sum of two numbers is 25. One of the numbers exceeds the other by 9. Find the

numbers.

Solution:

Then the other number = x + 9

Let the number be x.

Sum of two numbers = 25

According to question, x + x + 9 = 25

2x + 9 = 25

2x = 25 - 9 (transposing 9 to the R.H.S changes to -9)

2x = 16

2x/2 = 16/2 (divide by 2 on both the sides)

x=8

Therefore, x + 9 = 8 + 9 = 17

Therefore, the two numbers are 8 and 17.

b) The difference between the two numbers is 48. The ratio of the two numbers is 7:3.

What are the two numbers?

Solution:

Let the common ratio be x.

Let the common ratio be x.

Their difference = 48

According to the question,

7x - 3x = 48

3

Math Booklet 4th Partial

4x = 48

x = 48/4

x = 12

Therefore, 7x = 7 12 = 84

3x = 3 12 = 36

Therefore, the two numbers are 84 and 36.

c) The length of a rectangle is twice its breadth. If the perimeter is 72 meters, find the

length and width of the rectangle.

Solution:

Let the width of the rectangle be x,

Then the length of the rectangle = 2x

Perimeter of the rectangle = 72

Therefore, according to the question, 2(x + 2x) = 72

2 3x = 72

6x = 72

x = 72/6

x = 12

We know, length of the rectangle = 2x

= 2 12 = 24

Therefore, length of the rectangle is 24 m and breadth of the rectangle is 12 m.

d) Aaron is 5 years younger than Ron. Four years later, Ron will be twice as old as

Aaron. Find their present ages.

Solution:

Let Rons present age be x.

Then Aarons present age = x - 5

After 4 years Rons age = x + 4, Aarons age x - 5 + 4.

According to the question;

Ron will be twice as old as Aaron.

Therefore, x + 4 = 2(x - 5 + 4)

x + 4 = 2(x - 1)

x + 4 = 2x - 2

x + 4 = 2x - 2

x - 2x = -2 - 4

4

Math Booklet 4th Partial

-x = -6

x=6

Therefore, Aarons present age = x - 5 = 6 - 5 = 1

Therefore, present age of Ron = 6 years and present age of Aaron = 1 year.

Activity 4

Extension Problems

a) The area of this rectangle is 10 cm2, find the value of x and use it to find the length

and the width of the rectangle.

4x + 2

10x 1

b) If the length of a rectangle is three times its width and its perimeter is 24cm, what

is its area?

c) Three times the greatest of three consecutive even integers exceeds twice the least

by 38. Find the integers.

d) The difference of two numbers is 12. Two fifths of the greater number is six more

than one third of the lesser number. Find both numbers.

e) Roberts father is 4 times as old as Robert. After 5 years, father will be three times

as old as Robert. Find their present ages.

f) The sum of two consecutive multiples of 5 is 55. Find these multiples.

g) My mother is 12 years more than twice my age. After 8 years, my mothers age will

be 20 years less than three times my age. Find my age and my mothers age.

h) Admans father is 49 years old. He is 5 years older than four times Admans age.

What is Admans age?

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Geometry

Set of Points

Points, Lines and Planes

Picture (1) shows a hand with three fingers stretched in

different directions.

Picture (1)

direction, neither extension.

Picture (2)

straight line.

would complete a straight line. A straight line doesnt

have any width, it extends infinitely in two directions, and

it doesnt have beginning neither end. (Picture 3)

If there is any change of direction in the pathway of the

point, generally we draw a non-straight line. (Picture 4)

Picture (3)

Picture (4)

straight line.

displacement of the line in order to form a plane is the

same to the displacement of the point to form the line. A

plane has two directions but it doesnt have any

thickness. (Picture 5)

When a non-straight line is moved it usually draws a

surface. (Picture 6)

Picture (5)

Picture (6)

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Points

A point indicates position it has no dimensions. To draw a point, we

generally draw a small, filled-in circle such as the graphic to the right. We

use capital letters of the alphabet to name and label a point. For example,

the point to the right is Point P. We usually use the letters P, R, Q, or A, B,

C, and X, Y, Z to name points; however, any capital letter of the alphabet

may be used.

Lines

A line only possesses length. Lines go forever and ever in both directions

but have no height. To draw a line, we draw a line that is very thin (to

represent no thickness) and we place arrows on each end of the line to

signify that lines go forever and ever in both directions (see the graphic to

the right). Another definition of a line is an infinite collection of collinear

points, but this definition is somewhat circular.

Lines can be named and labeled two different ways:

1. We use a lowercase, cursive letter of the alphabet to name and label

a line. We usually use the letters l, m, and n; however, any

lowercase, script letter of the alphabet may be used. The graphic to

the right shows line m.

2. We can identify any two points on the line to name and label a line.

We name the line by the two points. We use either the word line

or the double-headed arrow above the two named points to signify

the line. Note that any two points identify a unique line. Thus, the

graphic to the right shows line PQ, line QP, or .

Q

P

Planes

A plane is a flat surface consisting of infinitely many points. To draw a

plane, we generally draw a parallelogram such as the graphic to the right.

A sheet of paper is a good representation of a plane, as long as we

remember that a plane has no width and goes forever and ever in all

directions. We use lowercase, letters of the Greek alphabet to name and

label a plane. For example, the plane to the right is plane alpha ().

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Points that lie on the same plane are said to be coplanar!

Another way to name a plane is by giving _____ points on the plane!

Example 1

Name Lines and Planes.

Example 2

Model Points, Lines and Planes.

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Set of Exercises #2

Activity 1

a. Which are the possible names for the next line.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

b. Write whether the show part on the next pictures is a point, a line, or a plane.

(1) a knot in a piece of thread

(2) a piece of cloth

(3) the corner of a room

(4) the telecommunications beam to a satellite in space

(5) the crease in a folded sheet of wrapping paper

(6) an ice skating rink

d. List three real world objects that could be modeled using a point, a line, and a

plane.

(1) Point: ___________________________________________________________________________

(2) Line: ____________________________________________________________________________

(3) Plane: ___________________________________________________________________________

e. Draw the next lines.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

10

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Activity 2

Refer to the next diagram.

a) Name line

__________________________________________________

c) Why is EBD not an acceptable name for

plane Q?

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

d) Are the following sets of points collinear?

(1) E, B, and F

(2) Line

and line

(3) Line

and line

(4) Line

and line

(5) F, A, B, and C

(6) F, A, B, and D

(7) Plane Q and line

(8) Line

and line

Activity 3

a) Name a point that is collinear with the given points.

B and E: _________

C and H: _________

D and G: _________

A and C: _________

H and E: _________

G and B: _________

11

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Activity 4

a) Name a point that is coplanar with the given points.

M, N, R: ______

M, N, O: ______

M, T, Q: ______

Q, T, R: ______

T, R, S: ______

Q, S, O: ______

Activity 5

a) Find the intersection of the following lines and planes in the figure below.

(1) Line

and line

____________

(3) Planes GHPN and KJP ___________

(4) Planes HJN and GKL

___________

(5) Line

(6) Line

Activity 6

a) Refer to the next diagram:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Are line

(8)

and line

12

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Geometry

Set of Points

Rays and Line Segments

RAY

A ray is a portion of a line with a distinct start but no end. Some people

define a ray as half of a line but this is not entirely correct because a line

goes on forever and ever (to infinity) in both directions. There is no such

number as half of infinity.

We name a ray by the one endpoint and any other point on the ray. We place a ray

symbol (a one-ended arrow ) above the two points. Be careful when writing the ray.

In line above, we could have written line , and we would be referring to the

same line. However, ray

and ray

are entirely different rays. It is best to use the

ray symbol above a rays name so it is clear which of the two points the rays endpoint

is. Thus, the graphic above shows ray PQ or

LINE SEGMENT

A line segment is a portion of a line with a distinct start and a distinct

end. Thus, a line segment has two endpoints. We name a line segment by

listing the two endpoints. We use either the word segment or a segment

line above the two endpoints.

The graphic to the right shows the line segment PQ or

Unlike a line, a line segment, or segment, can be measured because it has two

endpoints. A segment with endpoints A and B can be named as

or

. The

length or measure of

is written as AB. The length of a segment is only as

precise as the smallest unit on the measuring device.

13

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Example 1

Length in Metric Units.

Example 2

Length in Customary Units.

Measures are real numbers, so all arithmetic operations can be used with

them. You know that the whole usually equals the sum of its parts. That is

also true of line segments in geometry.

a real number between a and b such that

.

This relationship also applies to points on a line and

is called betweenness of points. Point M is between

points P and Q if and only if P, Q, and M are collinear

and

.

14

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Example 3

Find Measurements.

and

have the same

measure. When segments have the same measure, they are said to be

congruents.

15

Math Booklet 4th Partial

benefit of measuring tools. Generally, only a pencil, straightedge, and a

compass are used in constructions.

You can construct a segment that is congruent to a given segment by

using compass and straightedge.

Set of Exercises #3

Activity 1

a. Draw line segments with the next lengths.

(1) 5 cm

(2) 2 cm

(3) 6.5 cm

(4) 2.9 cm

(5) 2.1 cm

of the line segments above.

16

Math Booklet 4th Partial

segment can be used to find the length of the segment. Because the distance

from A to B is the same distance from B to A, the order in which you name

the endpoints makes no difference.

Example 4

Find Distance in a Number Line.

between the endpoints of the segment. If X is the midpoint of a segment

,

then A, X, and B are collinear and

.

coordinates a and b is

.

Example 5

Find Coordinates of Midpoint.

Activity 2

17

Math Booklet 4th Partial

at its midpoint is called a segment bisector. In the

next figure, M is the midpoint of

. Plane N,

,

, and point M are all bisectors of

. We say that

they bisect

.

You can construct a line that bisects a segment without measuring to find

the midpoint of the given segment.

18

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Set of Exercises #4

Activity 1

By using compass and straightedge (without measuring), construct what is asked

below.

(1) Find the midpoint of the next line segments

respectively.

(3) Find and represent a point

so

so

so

Activity 2

a. Answer the next statements.

(1)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

(2)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

(3)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

b. Find the length of the segment

the line segments)

(1)

(2)

(3)

19

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Activity 3

Make a list including the collinear points in the next picture. Make another list with

sets of three non-collinear points.

Collinear points

non-collinear points.

Activity 4

Match with a segment the same name points.

Activity 5

Draw in the space, by using perspective, a representation of at least four different

planes that intersect all in the same line.

20

Math Booklet 4th Partial

Geometry

Angles

21

Math Booklet 4th Partial

22

Math Booklet 4th Partial

23

Math Booklet 4th Partial

called an angle bisector. If

is the angle bisector of RPS,

then point Q lies in the interior of RPS and

knowing the measure of the angle.

Set of Exercises #5

Activity 1

a. By using a protractor, draw the next angles.

(1) 45

(2) 27

(3) 180

(6) 15

(7) 150

(8) 270

(4) 106

(5) 95

(9) 360

(10) 60

angles to each one of the angles above. (10 constructions)

c. By using compass and straightedge (without measuring), construct the angle

bisector of each one of the angles in a. (10 constructions)

Activity 2

a. Construct by using a protractor 5 acute angles, 3 right angles, and 5 obtuse angles.

24

Math Booklet 4th Partial

PARALLEL LINES

Lines are parallel if they are always the same distance apart (called "equidistant"), and will never meet. Just remember: Always the same distance apart

and never touching. The red line is parallel to the blue line in both these cases:

Example 1

Example 2

25

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