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Instituto Salesiano San Miguel

7th Grade Section: _____


Student: ___________________________________________________________
Teacher: Jos Luis vila Betancourt

TH

MATH BOOKLET 4 PARTIAL


This booklet is a summary of the topics that will be covered in the 4th partial for Mathematics
Class. Read the theory and develop all the activities proposed. Every work from this booklet should
be submitted in separate paper sheets.

SAN MIGUEL SCHOOL


Math Booklet 4th Partial

Review: September 7th to September 24th

Algebra

Linear Equations
Summary: To solve equations, use the addition/multiplication principles.
1. Parentheses by using the distributive property. If no fractions, combine like terms.
2. Denominators: Multiply each side of equation by common denominator.
Decimals: Multiply each side of equation by 10, 100, 1000, etc. COMBINE LIKE TERMS.
BEFORE NEXT STEP EACH SIDE SHOULD BE NO MORE COMPLICATED THAN:
4x 8
3. Signs (addition or subtraction) by using the addition principle (add opposites).
Get variable terms on one side of the equation and all constant terms on the
other side. Goal: Each side of equation is no more complicated than
4x = -9.
4. Coefficients by dividing by coefficient (BY SAME NUMBER). Goal: x = number

We can summarize the process of adding opposites or multiplying by the multiplicative


inverse by using transposing. In this case, instead of writing the same operation on both
sides of the equation, we transpose the number to the other side of the equation with the
inverse operation or sign.

Set of Exercises #1
Activity 1
Solve these equations (find the value of x):
a) 5x + 1 = 31

b) 3x 1 = 8

c) 7x = 60 + 2x

d) 3x = 72 3x

e) 6x + 4 = 20 2x

f) 6x + 3 = 23 + x

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

g) 5x + 4 = 2x + 17

h) 5x + 11 = 20x 64

i) 28 x = 17 + 3x

j) 6x + 7 = 8x 13

k) 13.7b 6.5 = -2.3b + 8.3 l) 28 2.2y = 11.6y + 262.6

Activity 2
Solve these equations with brackets (multiply out the brackets first):
a) 5(x + 2) = 25

b) 2(2x + 10) = 40

c) 3(2x 5) = 21

d) 4(5x 3) = 7(2x + 3)

e) 3(4 + x) = 5(10 + x)

f) 2(3x 4) = 4x + 3

g) 4(2a 8) =

1
(49a + 70)
7

h) -8(4 + 9x) = 7(-2 11x)

i) 3(4 - 2x) - (12 + 3x) = 18

j) 4[7x - 3(2x + 7)] = 8(-4 - (0.5)x)

Activity 3
Solve these equations with brackets (simplify common terms at first and multiply the
expressions times the LCD):

3n 2 7

5
10

a)

c)

1
1
w3 w
4
3

b)

3
1
yy4 y
2
2

d)

5
3
x
6
4

e)

1
1
x x 3 x
4
2

f) m

g)

1
3
2m m
3
2

h)

5
3
x
6
4

2 1
m 1
3 4

i)

3
2
t
4
3

j)

3
1
x
4
2

k)

3
2 x 1 2
4

l)

2
3x 1 5
3

m)

1 2
1
t 1 t t
2 5
5

n)

1
2
2
m 2 m
5
3
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SAN MIGUEL SCHOOL


Math Booklet 4th Partial

Steps involved in solving a linear equation word problem:


Read the problem carefully and note what is given and what is required and what is
given.
Denote the unknown value (s) by the variables as x, y, .
Translate the problem to algebraic language or mathematical statements.
Form the linear equation in one variable using the conditions given in the problems.
Solve the equation for the unknown.
Verify to be sure whether the answer satisfies the conditions of the problem.
Step-by-step application of linear equations to solve practical word problems:
a) The sum of two numbers is 25. One of the numbers exceeds the other by 9. Find the
numbers.
Solution:
Then the other number = x + 9
Let the number be x.
Sum of two numbers = 25
According to question, x + x + 9 = 25
2x + 9 = 25
2x = 25 - 9 (transposing 9 to the R.H.S changes to -9)
2x = 16
2x/2 = 16/2 (divide by 2 on both the sides)
x=8
Therefore, x + 9 = 8 + 9 = 17
Therefore, the two numbers are 8 and 17.
b) The difference between the two numbers is 48. The ratio of the two numbers is 7:3.
What are the two numbers?
Solution:
Let the common ratio be x.
Let the common ratio be x.
Their difference = 48
According to the question,
7x - 3x = 48
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4x = 48
x = 48/4
x = 12
Therefore, 7x = 7 12 = 84
3x = 3 12 = 36
Therefore, the two numbers are 84 and 36.
c) The length of a rectangle is twice its breadth. If the perimeter is 72 meters, find the
length and width of the rectangle.
Solution:
Let the width of the rectangle be x,
Then the length of the rectangle = 2x
Perimeter of the rectangle = 72
Therefore, according to the question, 2(x + 2x) = 72
2 3x = 72
6x = 72
x = 72/6
x = 12
We know, length of the rectangle = 2x
= 2 12 = 24
Therefore, length of the rectangle is 24 m and breadth of the rectangle is 12 m.
d) Aaron is 5 years younger than Ron. Four years later, Ron will be twice as old as
Aaron. Find their present ages.
Solution:
Let Rons present age be x.
Then Aarons present age = x - 5
After 4 years Rons age = x + 4, Aarons age x - 5 + 4.
According to the question;
Ron will be twice as old as Aaron.
Therefore, x + 4 = 2(x - 5 + 4)
x + 4 = 2(x - 1)
x + 4 = 2x - 2
x + 4 = 2x - 2
x - 2x = -2 - 4
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Math Booklet 4th Partial

-x = -6
x=6
Therefore, Aarons present age = x - 5 = 6 - 5 = 1
Therefore, present age of Ron = 6 years and present age of Aaron = 1 year.

Activity 4
Extension Problems
a) The area of this rectangle is 10 cm2, find the value of x and use it to find the length
and the width of the rectangle.
4x + 2

10x 1
b) If the length of a rectangle is three times its width and its perimeter is 24cm, what
is its area?
c) Three times the greatest of three consecutive even integers exceeds twice the least
by 38. Find the integers.
d) The difference of two numbers is 12. Two fifths of the greater number is six more
than one third of the lesser number. Find both numbers.
e) Roberts father is 4 times as old as Robert. After 5 years, father will be three times
as old as Robert. Find their present ages.
f) The sum of two consecutive multiples of 5 is 55. Find these multiples.
g) My mother is 12 years more than twice my age. After 8 years, my mothers age will
be 20 years less than three times my age. Find my age and my mothers age.
h) Admans father is 49 years old. He is 5 years older than four times Admans age.
What is Admans age?

SAN MIGUEL SCHOOL


Math Booklet 4th Partial

September 28th to October 2nd

Geometry
Set of Points
Points, Lines and Planes
Picture (1) shows a hand with three fingers stretched in
different directions.

Picture (1)

Picture (2) represents the three directions by using arrows.

1. The part with the arrows start is called point.

A point represents a location and it doesnt have


direction, neither extension.

Picture (2)

2. If a point is moved in the same direction it will draw a


straight line.

If the point moves backward and forward infinitely it


would complete a straight line. A straight line doesnt
have any width, it extends infinitely in two directions, and
it doesnt have beginning neither end. (Picture 3)
If there is any change of direction in the pathway of the
point, generally we draw a non-straight line. (Picture 4)

Picture (3)

Picture (4)

From here, the word line will be used instead of


straight line.

3. If a line moves in another direction it draws a plane. The


displacement of the line in order to form a plane is the
same to the displacement of the point to form the line. A
plane has two directions but it doesnt have any
thickness. (Picture 5)
When a non-straight line is moved it usually draws a
surface. (Picture 6)

Picture (5)

Picture (6)

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

Points
A point indicates position it has no dimensions. To draw a point, we
generally draw a small, filled-in circle such as the graphic to the right. We
use capital letters of the alphabet to name and label a point. For example,
the point to the right is Point P. We usually use the letters P, R, Q, or A, B,
C, and X, Y, Z to name points; however, any capital letter of the alphabet
may be used.

Lines
A line only possesses length. Lines go forever and ever in both directions
but have no height. To draw a line, we draw a line that is very thin (to
represent no thickness) and we place arrows on each end of the line to
signify that lines go forever and ever in both directions (see the graphic to
the right). Another definition of a line is an infinite collection of collinear
points, but this definition is somewhat circular.
Lines can be named and labeled two different ways:
1. We use a lowercase, cursive letter of the alphabet to name and label
a line. We usually use the letters l, m, and n; however, any
lowercase, script letter of the alphabet may be used. The graphic to
the right shows line m.
2. We can identify any two points on the line to name and label a line.
We name the line by the two points. We use either the word line
or the double-headed arrow above the two named points to signify
the line. Note that any two points identify a unique line. Thus, the
graphic to the right shows line PQ, line QP, or .

Q
P

Planes
A plane is a flat surface consisting of infinitely many points. To draw a
plane, we generally draw a parallelogram such as the graphic to the right.
A sheet of paper is a good representation of a plane, as long as we
remember that a plane has no width and goes forever and ever in all
directions. We use lowercase, letters of the Greek alphabet to name and
label a plane. For example, the plane to the right is plane alpha ().

SAN MIGUEL SCHOOL


Math Booklet 4th Partial

Points on the same line are said to be collinear!


Points that lie on the same plane are said to be coplanar!
Another way to name a plane is by giving _____ points on the plane!

Example 1
Name Lines and Planes.

Example 2
Model Points, Lines and Planes.

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

Set of Exercises #2
Activity 1
a. Which are the possible names for the next line.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________


____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
b. Write whether the show part on the next pictures is a point, a line, or a plane.

c. State whether each is best modelled by a point, line, or plane.


(1) a knot in a piece of thread
(2) a piece of cloth
(3) the corner of a room
(4) the telecommunications beam to a satellite in space
(5) the crease in a folded sheet of wrapping paper
(6) an ice skating rink
d. List three real world objects that could be modeled using a point, a line, and a
plane.
(1) Point: ___________________________________________________________________________
(2) Line: ____________________________________________________________________________
(3) Plane: ___________________________________________________________________________
e. Draw the next lines.
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

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Activity 2
Refer to the next diagram.
a) Name line

in another way. _______________

b) Give two other names for plane Q.


__________________________________________________
c) Why is EBD not an acceptable name for
plane Q?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
d) Are the following sets of points collinear?
(1) E, B, and F
(2) Line

and line

(3) Line

and line

(4) Line

and line

(5) F, A, B, and C
(6) F, A, B, and D
(7) Plane Q and line
(8) Line

and line

Activity 3
a) Name a point that is collinear with the given points.
B and E: _________
C and H: _________
D and G: _________
A and C: _________
H and E: _________
G and B: _________
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Activity 4
a) Name a point that is coplanar with the given points.
M, N, R: ______
M, N, O: ______
M, T, Q: ______
Q, T, R: ______
T, R, S: ______
Q, S, O: ______

Activity 5
a) Find the intersection of the following lines and planes in the figure below.
(1) Line

and line

____________

(2) Planes GLM and LPN ____________


(3) Planes GHPN and KJP ___________
(4) Planes HJN and GKL

___________

(5) Line

and plane KJN __________

(6) Line

and plane GHL _________

Activity 6
a) Refer to the next diagram:
(1)

Name plane P in another way

(2)

What is the intersection of planes P and Q?

(3)

Are A, B, and C collinear?

(4)

Are D, A, B, and C coplanar?

(5)

What is the intersection of line

(6)

Are planes P and Q coplanar

(7)

Are line

(8)

Are B and C collinear?

and line

and plane Q coplanar?

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

October 12th to October 16th

Geometry
Set of Points
Rays and Line Segments
RAY
A ray is a portion of a line with a distinct start but no end. Some people
define a ray as half of a line but this is not entirely correct because a line
goes on forever and ever (to infinity) in both directions. There is no such
number as half of infinity.
We name a ray by the one endpoint and any other point on the ray. We place a ray
symbol (a one-ended arrow ) above the two points. Be careful when writing the ray.
In line above, we could have written line , and we would be referring to the
same line. However, ray
and ray
are entirely different rays. It is best to use the
ray symbol above a rays name so it is clear which of the two points the rays endpoint
is. Thus, the graphic above shows ray PQ or

LINE SEGMENT
A line segment is a portion of a line with a distinct start and a distinct
end. Thus, a line segment has two endpoints. We name a line segment by
listing the two endpoints. We use either the word segment or a segment
line above the two endpoints.
The graphic to the right shows the line segment PQ or

Unlike a line, a line segment, or segment, can be measured because it has two
endpoints. A segment with endpoints A and B can be named as
or
. The
length or measure of
is written as AB. The length of a segment is only as
precise as the smallest unit on the measuring device.

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Example 1
Length in Metric Units.

Example 2
Length in Customary Units.

Measures are real numbers, so all arithmetic operations can be used with
them. You know that the whole usually equals the sum of its parts. That is
also true of line segments in geometry.

Recall that for any two real numbers and , there is


a real number between a and b such that
.
This relationship also applies to points on a line and
is called betweenness of points. Point M is between
points P and Q if and only if P, Q, and M are collinear
and
.

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Example 3
Find Measurements.

Look at the figure in part a of example 4. Note that


and
have the same
measure. When segments have the same measure, they are said to be
congruents.

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Constructions are methods of creating geometric figures without the


benefit of measuring tools. Generally, only a pencil, straightedge, and a
compass are used in constructions.
You can construct a segment that is congruent to a given segment by
using compass and straightedge.

Set of Exercises #3
Activity 1
a. Draw line segments with the next lengths.
(1) 5 cm
(2) 2 cm
(3) 6.5 cm

(4) 2.9 cm

(5) 2.1 cm

b. By using compass and straightedge, construct congruent segments to each one


of the line segments above.
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DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS The coordinates of the endpoints of a


segment can be used to find the length of the segment. Because the distance
from A to B is the same distance from B to A, the order in which you name
the endpoints makes no difference.

Example 4
Find Distance in a Number Line.

MIDPOINT OF A SEGMENT The midpoint of a segment is the point halfway


between the endpoints of the segment. If X is the midpoint of a segment
,
then A, X, and B are collinear and
.

The coordinate of the midpoint of a segment whose endpoints have


coordinates a and b is
.

Example 5
Find Coordinates of Midpoint.

Activity 2

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Any segment, line, or plane that intersects a segment


at its midpoint is called a segment bisector. In the
next figure, M is the midpoint of
. Plane N,
,
, and point M are all bisectors of
. We say that
they bisect
.

You can construct a line that bisects a segment without measuring to find
the midpoint of the given segment.

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Set of Exercises #4
Activity 1
By using compass and straightedge (without measuring), construct what is asked
below.
(1) Find the midpoint of the next line segments

respectively.

(2) Draw a line bisector to each one of the segments above.


(3) Find and represent a point

so

(4) Find and represent a point

so

(5) Find and represent a point

so

Activity 2
a. Answer the next statements.
(1)

If AB = 7 and BC = 10, is it necessary that AC = 17? Explain your answer.

_______________________________________________________________________________________
(2)

If HJ = 20, JK = 15 and HK = 35, what do we know about A, B and C?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
(3)

If A, B and C are collinear, AB = 13 y BC = 17, does AC necessary equal 21?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
b. Find the length of the segment
the line segments)

if B is between A and C. (Recommendation, draw

(1)
(2)
(3)
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Math Booklet 4th Partial

Activity 3
Make a list including the collinear points in the next picture. Make another list with
sets of three non-collinear points.
Collinear points

Sets of three coplanar and


non-collinear points.

Activity 4
Match with a segment the same name points.

Activity 5
Draw in the space, by using perspective, a representation of at least four different
planes that intersect all in the same line.

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October 19th to October 23rd

Geometry
Angles

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Math Booklet 4th Partial

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A ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles is


called an angle bisector. If
is the angle bisector of RPS,
then point Q lies in the interior of RPS and

You can construct the angle bisector of any angle without


knowing the measure of the angle.

Set of Exercises #5
Activity 1
a. By using a protractor, draw the next angles.
(1) 45
(2) 27
(3) 180
(6) 15

(7) 150

(8) 270

(4) 106

(5) 95

(9) 360

(10) 60

b. By using compass and straightedge (without measuring), construct congruent


angles to each one of the angles above. (10 constructions)
c. By using compass and straightedge (without measuring), construct the angle
bisector of each one of the angles in a. (10 constructions)
Activity 2
a. Construct by using a protractor 5 acute angles, 3 right angles, and 5 obtuse angles.
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Math Booklet 4th Partial

October 26th to October 30th

PARALLEL LINES
Lines are parallel if they are always the same distance apart (called "equidistant"), and will never meet. Just remember: Always the same distance apart
and never touching. The red line is parallel to the blue line in both these cases:

Example 1

Example 2

Parallel lines also point in the same direction.

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