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# FrameandGridElements

FiniteElementAnalysis(ENGR455)
Dr.AndreasSchiffer
AssistantProfessor,MechanicalEngineering
Tel:+971(0)24018204
andreas.schiffer@kustar.ac.ae

Introduction
Many structures such as buildings and
bridges are composed of frame and/or
grid systems.
In this chapter we develop the finite
element equations of plane frames and
grids.
First, we will develop the stiffness matrix
for a beam element arbitrarily oriented
in a plane.
Then, we will include the axial nodal
displacement degree of freedom in the
local beam element stiffness matrix.

PlaneFrameDefinition
A rigid plane frame is defined as a series of beam elements
arbitrarily oriented in a plane and rigidly connected to each
other at their joints.
This means that the original angles made between elements at their
joints remain unchanged after the deformation.
Furthermore, forces AND moments are transmitted from one element
to another at the joints. Hence, moment continuity exists at the rigid
joints.

FBD

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2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement
We can derive the stiffness matrix for an arbitrarily oriented beam element,
in a manner similar to that used for the bar element.

The local axes are located along the beam element and transverse to the
beam element, respectively; the global axes, x and y, are located to be
convenient for the total structure.
Recall the transformation between global and local coordinates

## We need to apply this transformation to both nodes.

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement
For the beam element, we can relate local nodal degrees of freedom to
global degree of freedom as follows. In the global system, each node has
3 DOFs instead of 2 DOFs:

transformation matrix

Notice that the rotations are not affected by the orientation of the beam.
Substituting the above transformation into the general form of the stiffness
matrix gives

[k] depends on
E, I, L, and .

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement
Lets now consider the effect of an axial force in the beam transformation

## Recall the simple relationship for the truss element

Combining the axial effects with the shear force and bending moment
effects, in local coordinates gives

f k d

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement
Now, since the element has 6 DOFs instead of 4, the transformation matrix
becomes a square matrix (6 x 6)

## Then, the global stiffness

matrix becomes

[k] depends on
E, A, L, I and .

transformation matrix

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)
Consider the following plane frame.
= 120 in

Let E = 30 x 106 psi and A = 10 in2 for all elements, and let I = 200 in4 for elements 1
and 3, and I = 100 in4 for element 2.
Element 1: The angle between x and x is 90

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)
Element 2: The angle between x and x is 0

## Element 3: The angle between x and x is 270

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)
Now assemble the global stiffness matrix and apply the BCs:

[K] =

## Reduced system of equations:

[K]
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PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)
Solve the reduced system of
equations for the unknown DOFs:

The results indicate that the top of the frame moves to the right with negligible vertical
displacement and small rotations of elements at nodes 2 and 3.
The element forces can now be obtained using

## We illustrate this procedure for Element 1:

nodal DOFs in
local coordinates

Stiffness matrix in
local coordinates

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)
Repeat this procedure for Elements 2 and 3.
Free-body diagrams of the three elements:

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StressesinPlaneFrames
The stresses in a frame element can be computed from the nodal displacements and
rotations in the local coordinate system. In general, two types of stresses are induced:
(a) Stresses in the x-direction due to bending, xb

Superposition
of xb and xa:

## (b) Stresses in the x-direction due to axial effects, xa

fx

fx

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StressesinPlaneFrames
First, compute the bending stress, xb. The relationship between the stresses
and nodal displacements for a beam are
in local coordinates!
modulus of elasticity

where

[B] =

and

In order to find the maximum bending stress, evaluate the above stress formula at
the extreme fiber y = ymax.
Then, calculate the axial (bar) stress, xa. Here, we can use the
stress/displacement relationship for a bar element
modulus of elasticity

where

and

in local coordinates!

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StressesinPlaneFrames
Finally combine both stress fields and compute the maximum tensile and
compressive stress.
Superposition of xb and xa:

x,max

y=R

y=0
R
y = -R

x,min
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Example
In example 5.1, the nodal displacements for element 1 in local coordinates were
calculated as
axial effect
=
bending effect
Assume a circular cross-section of radius = 1.78 in. Then, the bending stress at
y = 1.78 in is
xb = - 1.78 E

= 3333 psi

xa = E

= 370 psi

## x,max = 3333 + 370 = 3703 psi

x,min = -3333 + 370 = -2963 psi

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
Consider the frame shown in the figure below.

## Equivalent nodal forces

The frame is fixed at nodes 1 and 3 and subjected to a distributed load of 1,000 lb/ft applied
along element 2.
Let E = 30 x 106 psi and A = 100 in2 for all elements, and let I = 1,000 in4 for all elements.
First we need to replace the distributed load with a set of equivalent nodal forces and
moments acting at nodes 2 and 3.
For a beam subjected to a uniform distributed load, w, the equivalent nodal forces and
moments are (Appendix D):

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
For the sake of simplicity, we consider only the parts of the stiffness matrix associated with the
three degrees of freedom at node 2 (nodes 1 and 2 fixed, zero displacement and rotation). This
reduces the size of the elements stiffness matrices to 3 x 3.
Element 1: = 45

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
Element 2: = 0

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
Superimposing the stiffness matrices of the elements using the nodal forces and moments at
node 2 (node 3 fixed) and solving the equations yields

## Now determine the local forces in each element using

Local forces for Element 1: = 45

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
Local forces for Element 2: no transformation required since = 0

For Element 2 we need to subtract from the above result the equivalent nodal forces used to

## Equivalent nodal forces

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)
Free-body diagrams of the two elements

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)
The frame shown below is fixed at nodes 2 and 3 and subjected
to a concentrated load of 500 kN applied at node 1. For the bar,
A = 1 x 10-3 m2, for the beam, A = 2 x 10-3 m2, I = 5 x 10-5 m4, and
L = 3 m. Let E = 210 GPa for both elements.
Again, for brevitys sake, since nodes 2 and 3 are fixed, we keep
only the parts of the parts of the elements stiffness matrices that
are needed to obtain the global [K]-matrix necessary for solution
of the nodal degrees of freedom.
Bar element: = 45

## Beam element (including axial effects): = 0

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)
We now assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole structure, apply the loading and write the
system of governing equations for node 1 only:

[K]

## Calculate the axial forces in the Bar Element:

Force at node 1:

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PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)
Calculate the forces and moments in the Beam Element for node 1:

## Similarly, at node 2 we have

Free-body diagram

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GridAnalysis
A grid is a structure on which loads are
applied perpendicular to the plane of the
structure, as opposed to a plane frame, where
loads are applied in the plane of the structure.
bending moment continuity are maintained at each
node in a grid element.
Typical grid structures include floors of buildings
and bridge decks.

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GridElementStiffnessMatrix
We will now develop the stiffness element of a grid element.
The grid element can also support torsional moments; therefore, the torsional rotation needs
to be considered in the stiffness equation.

The DOFs are: vertical displacement diy (normal to the grid), torsional rotation
x-axis, and a bending rotation

For the sake of simplicity, any effects of axial displacement are ignored (no dix); hence, our

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GridElementStiffnessMatrix
Step 1: Consider the sign convention for torsional rotation

## Step 2: Assume a linear angle-of-twist distribution along the element

Note that the choice of a linear polynomial was not arbitrary. Since there are two rotational DOFs on
the grid element, a linear polynomial provides the right number of unknown coefficients a1 and a2.

Applying the boundary conditions and solving for the unknown coefficients gives
Matrix form

## Step 3: Establish the strain/displacement and stress/strain relations

Shear strain as a function of the twist angle (see Textbook):
Hookes law for shear stresses:

G shear modulus

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GridElementStiffnessMatrix
Step 4: Derive the elements stiffness matrix
From elementary mechanics, we have the shear stress related to the applied torque by
J polar moment of inertia
Nodal torque sign convention:
Then, the governing equations for the torsional moments become
where
Combining the torsional effects with
the bending effects, we obtain
the local stiffness matrix equations
for a grid element:

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GridElementStiffnessMatrix
The transformation matrix for the grid element is

## Note that transverse displacements are not affected by in-plane rotations.

The local stiffness matrix in the global coordinates is given by

Now that we have formulated the global stiffness matrix for the grid element, the procedure
for solution then follows in the same manner as that for the plane frame.
We shall illustrate the use of the developed questions in the following example problems.

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ExampleProblem(5.5)
Consider the grid shown in the figure below. The frame is fixed at nodes 2, 3, and 4,
and is subjected to a load of 100 kips applied at node 1. Assume I = 400 in4, J = 110
in4, G = 12 x 103 ksi, and E = 30 x 103 ksi for all elements. To facilitate a timely
solution, apply the boundary conditions at nodes 2, 3, and 4 to the local stiffness
matrices at the beginning of the solution process.

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ExampleProblem(5.5)
Only node 1 needs to be considered since all DOFs associated with the remaining nodes are
constrained to zer0.

## Stiffness matrix of Element 1:

x-coordinate of node 2 minus
x-coordinate of node 1

## Calculate the stiffness matrix using

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ExampleProblem(5.5)
Stiffness matrix of Element 2:

## Stiffness matrix of Element 3:

Using

we obtain

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ExampleProblem(5.5)
Upon superposition of the element stiffness matrices in the global coordinate system, we obtain
the total stiffness matrix of the whole structure for node 1

## The grid matrix equation then becomes

Solution

The results indicate that the y displacement at node 1 is downward as indicated by the minus
sign, the rotation about the x axis is positive, and the rotation about the z axis is negative. Based
on the downward loading location with respect to the supports, these results are expected.
Having solved for the unknown displacement and the rotations, we can obtain the local element
forces on formulating the element equations in a manner similar to that for the beam and the
plane frame.

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ExampleProblem(5.6)
Consider the frame shown in the figure below, where a load of 22 kN is applied at
node 2. All other nodes are fully fixed. Assume I = 16.6 x 10-5 m4, J = 4.6 x 10-5 m4,
G = 84 GPa, and E = 210 GPa for all elements. To facilitate a timely solution, apply
the boundary conditions at nodes 1 and 3 to the local stiffness matrices at the
beginning of the solution process.

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ExampleProblem(5.6)
Recall the stiffness matrix of a grid element:

Transformation matrix:
local coordinates global coordinates
Stiffness matrix of Element 1 in global coordinates:

Using

we obtain

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ExampleProblems(5.6)
Stiffness matrix of Element 2 in global coordinates:
Using

we obtain

## Solving for the unknown displacements yields

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ExampleProblem(5.6)
Now we employ

## to compute the local forces/moments.

Element 1:

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ExampleProblem(5.6)
We can use the same procedure for Element 2. The results for the local forces/moments are

## Draw the free body diagrams

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PracticeProblem5.4(Frames)
For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine (1) the nodal
displacements and rotation at node 4, (2) the forces and moments in each
elements, and (3) provide a free-body diagram of nodal forces and moments
for each element. (4) Then check equilibrium at node 4.
Let E = 30 x 106 psi, A = 8 in2, and I = 800 in4 for all elements.

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PracticeProblem5.7(Frames)
For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine the displacements
and rotations of node 2 and the element forces/moments. Also provide a freebody diagram of each element and the whole structure.
The values of E, A, and I to be used are listed next to the figure.

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PracticeProblem5.8(Frames)
For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine equivalent nodal
forces/moments and solve for the unknown displacements and rotations.
The values of E, A, and I to be used are listed next to the figure.

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PracticeProblem5.51(Grids)
For the grid shown in figure below, determine the nodal displacements and
the local element forces.
Let E = 210 GPa, G = 84 GPa, I = 2 x 10-4 m4, J = 1 x 10-4 m4, and
A = 1 x 10-2 m2.

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