You are on page 1of 68

From%the%Big%Bang

to%Dark%Energy
Hitoshi Murayama
Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo
UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Credit:%NASA

How did the Universe begin?


What is its fate?
What is it made of?
What are its fundamental laws?
Where do we come from?
Now in the realm of science!

Credit:(aNGeLic!(by(Rolfe(Kolbe(
h7p://www.ickr.com/photos/46210293@N08/8287418426/(

Outline
1.From daily life to Big Bang
2.Birth of elements and Higgs boson
3.Dark matter and anti-matter
4.Inflation and Dark energy

4.%Ina?on
and%Dark%Energy

Ina?on

Credit:%NASA

yrs

rs

ky

8B

13.

380

in
3m
ec
th s
lion
-bil
ten
sec
nth
illio

1 tr

Higgs DM

CMB

Credit:%C.%Amsler%et%al.%%(Par?cle%Data%Group),%Physics%LeIers%B667,%1%(2008)

A%one%million%mark%note%used%as%a%notepad

Credit:%Bundesarchiv,%Bild%183SR1215S506,%CC%BYSSA%3.0

Credit:%Bundesarchiv,%Bild%102S00193,%CC%BYSSA%3.0

Credit:%Bundesarchiv,%Bild%
102S00104%/%Pahl,%Georg,%CC%
BYSSA%3.0

Notes%used%as%
wallpaper

Hundred%billion%mark%note

Credit:%Dr%Graham%Beards,%CC%BY%3.0

Credit:%NASA

>1026

Why%do%they%all%look%
the%same?

Like having discovered two

remote islands in very


different parts of the world,
speaking the same
language

even the accents are nearly


the same: one part in
100,000

we suspect they had


Credit:%NASA

communication

ySby%simula?on%based%on%real%data

Credit:%Sloan%Digital%Sky%Survey

about%ten%trillion%?mes%faster%than%light
prac?cally%the%same%no%maIer%how%far%you%go

more%or%less%uniform%
small%wrinkles

Credit:%Sloan%Digital%Sky%Survey

2%billion%light%years

equa?on%for%cosmic%
expansion
F = ma

F =

Mm
G 2
R

m
R

d
a = 2R
dt

M
d
G 2
2R =
R
dt

2
conserved
1
"=
2

dR
dt

M
G =00.01
R

equa?on%for%cosmic%
expansion
conserved

1
"=
2

dR
dt

M
G
=0
R

in%terms%of%mass%density%
4 3
M=
R
3
!2
R
8
=
G
R
3

Friedmann%equa?on

R
M

equa?on%for%cosmic%
expansion

Friedmann%equa?on
R
R

!2

8
=
G
3

if%constant%mass%density%
8
H =
G =const
3
dR
= HR
dt
2

Ht

R(t) = R(0) e
Universe%expands%exponen?ally!

R
M

Ul?mate%Free%Lunch!
constant%
energy%
per%volume

total energy keeps growing like volume R(t)3e3Ht


energy grows like!!volume
makes the expansion faster
energy grows even more

catch:
Uncertainty%Principle

physics%is%uncertain

Credit:%%Hitachi,%Ltd.%1994,%2013.%%
All%rights%reserved.

Akira%Tonomura

interference%of%waves

a%par?cle%is%a%wave%
a%wave%is%a%par?cle

quantum
mechanics
law of physics at subatomic
scales
uncertainty principle
you cant predict what
happens each time
but over time you find a
regular pattern
a particle is a wave
a wave is a particle
when squeezed into narrow
space, wave is amplified

Credit:%Armedblowsh,%BSD

near%sighted
What you are seeing one

moment is gone by inflation


the next moment

feel very near-sighted


horizon H
small space
I

big uncertainty

vacuum%is%ac?ve

Quantum%Chromodynamics%movies%are%
provided%at%
hIp://www.physics.adelaide.edu.au/theory/
sta/leinweber/VisualQCD/Nobel/

seed%for%diversity
universe was born tiny
entire visible universe was

Credit:%NASA

smaller than 1026 cm


ripples were made by uncertain
principle
only 1mm ripple on 100m deep
ocean
ripples get stretched to
macroscopic size

Credit:%Sloan%Digital%Sky%Survey

Gemng%stronger
If simple quantum

fluctuation, it must be
distributed as Gaussian

1.0

0.8

0.6

Gaussianity at Planck

Credit:%NASA

0.2

distribu?on

Indeed!
further tests of non-

0.4

ina?on

scalar field with rather flat

potential (compared to the


Planck scale), 1011
the equation of motion has a
friction term
0

+ 3H =

V ( )

slow-roll solution with more or


less constant0H

8 V
2

| || |=V ( ) H =
3 MP2 l

V()

Universe expands
exponentially R(t) "eHt
need e-folding N=Ht > 60 to
solve the problem
HM,%Suzuki,%Yanagida,%Yokoyama

t
log%R
t

S?ll%many%mysteries
What caused inflation?
What time?
How much?
Definitive proof?

ESmode

BSmode
polariza?on

How%do%we%know
it%really%happened?

everything gets quantum

fluctuation, including
gravitons
Gravitons from quantum
fluctuation gives B-mode
polarization in CMB
The size is directly
proportional to the
inflationary energy scale
e.g., Planck, POLARBEAR,
LiteBIRD

ESmode

BSmode
Credit:%KEK%CMB%Group%/%JAXA

LiteBIRD

LiteBIRD%sensi?vity

Credit:%KEK%LiteBIRD%Working%Group%/%JAXA

13.

34

rs

yrs

ky

8B

380

in
3m

sec
nth
illio
?
1 tr
???
sec

10

inflation

Higgs

CMB

Credit:%C.%Amsler%et%al.%%(Par?cle%Data%Group),%Physics%LeIers%B667,%1%(2008)

fate%of%the%Universe

Credit:%NASA

expansion

same%as%
a%ball

decelera?on

three%possible%fates
if large amount of matter,

expansion stops and heads


back to a Big Crunch
Credit:%NASA

expansion will go on
forever

study the expansion

history and predict the


future!

size%of%the%Universe

if small amount of matter,

?me

Future%observers
as the Universe gets

bigger, we will be able to


see more and more
galaxies

the observation becomes


more fun!

Dark%Energy

Credit:%NASA

Dark Energy

Dark Energy

Dark Energ

Dark Energy
Dark Energy

Dark Energy
Dark Energy

Dark Energy

Dark Energy

Dark Energy
Dark Energy
Credit:%NASA

Dark Energy
Dark Energy

Dark Energy

Dark Energ

TypeSIa%supernovae
Credit:%KMJ,%
CC%BYSSA%3.0

Supernova%Cosmology%Project%
(Amanullah,%et%al.,%2010)

Type-Ia supernova

becomes brighter than


the whole galaxy
How bright it looks
How far away
How far back in time
How red it looks
How much expansion
Expansion of the
Universe is getting
faster!

n
o
?
a
r
n
e
o
l
?
e
a
c
ac celer
de
Supernova%Cosmology%Project%(PerlmuIer,%et%al.,%
1998)

Supernova Cosmology Project


Supernova%Cosmology%Project%(Knop,%et%al.,%2010)

Knop et al. (2003)

Supernova
Cosmology
Project

22

effective mB

Thermonuclear%Supernovae%
(PerimuIer,%et%al.,%1997)

0.25,0.75
0.25, 0
1, 0

24

Credit:%NASA

20

18

Calan/Tololo
& CfA
16

supernovae%
on%demand

mag. residual
from empty cosmology

14
1.0

0.5

0.25,0.75

0.0

0.25, 0

0.5
1.0
0.0

1,

0.2

0.4

0.6

redshift z

0.8

1.0

stretch%factor
it is not quite standard
correlation between
duration time and the
absolute brightness

can be fixed by a stretch


factor

other smaller concerns


with environment
(metallicity), dust
extinction, etc

Pierre%An?logus
Marc%Betoule
Stat ~ x 10 since the
1998 discovery papers

14 HST SNe Ia (z~0.7-1.4), Riess 2007


242 SNLS SNe Ia (z~0.2-1), Sullivan 2011
93 SDSS SNe Ia (z~0.1-0.4), Holzman 2009
123 Low-z SNe Ia (z~0.05), Hamuy96, .
472 SNe Ia total

Guy et al, 2010 Conley et al 2010, Sullivan et al, 2011


Dark Energy - Blois 2012

same%as%
a%ball

size%of%the%Universe

expansion

speeding%up!
should%slow%
down
?me

expansion started to speed up recently (~7Byr)


energy is increasing!
infinite source of energy?? dark energy
Was Einstein wrong?
new paradigm of the Universe, fundamental laws
If the rate of energy increase very quick,

eventually the expansion becomes infinitely fast


Will the Universe end??
Need to measure the rate of energy increase!

Accelera?on
w: equation of state
parameter

R
R

!2

8
=
GN
3

p = w
radiation: w=1/3
3
3
matter:
w=0
dU = d(R ) = pdV = wdR

3(1+w)
vacuum
energy:
w=1

/R

acceleration: w<1/3
R / (1 + 3w)

Does%the%Universe%end?
If w<1, the Universe ends in a Big Rip
Expansion becomes so fast that galaxies,

stars, eventually atoms and even nuclei get


ripped apart
Universe ends with an infinite speed and
empty!
or it may be Inflation Strikes Back, w>1
We need to know the equation of state

NHK

NHK%Science%Zero%2010.9.4

Credit:%NASA

We%can%study%cosmology%only%now.%
Need'funding'ASAP.

Credit:%NASA

big%future%players
Credit:%LSST%Corpora?on

Credit:%ESA%/%C.%Carreau

Standard%Ruler
characteristic scales for
acoustic peaks

acoustic peak shows up in

galaxy distributions, too, at


~500M lyr

Credit:%NASA

use this scale as a standard


ruler to measure distances
accurately

Will the Universe end?


Credit:%Sloan%Digital%Sky%Survey

500M lyr

SuMIRe
a census of the Universe

Subaru has large field of view


~1000 times Hubble Telescope
imaging
900M pixels, 3 tons
observe billion galaxies
Subaru%on%Mauna%Kea
spectroscopy
measure 2400 galaxies at
once
Subaru Measurement of
Images and Redshifts
cosmic genome project
imaging%
HSC

spectroscopy%
PFS

Timeline
2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

spectroscopy

2013

2012

2011

2010

imaging

DES
HSC
SDSS/BOSS
PFS

LSST

Euclid?
WFIRST?

CCD%focal%plane

Worlds%Best%Digital%Camera:%3tons!

camera:%
Princeton,%JHU
Spectrograph

metrology:%ASIAA
Prime Focus Instrument

Rotator

Wide Field
Corrector

op?cs:%Marseille
Fiber Connector

2400%bers:%%
Brazil

Wide Field
Corrector

prototype%
ber%posi?oner%
robots
NASA/JPL+Caltech
Fiber Positioner
Cobra

procurement%in%progress%for%CCD,%gra?ngs

ber%posi?oner%
JPL%Cobra%design

poin?ng%accuracy%~10%in%~40%seconds

PFS team

map%out%evolu?on%history

CHAPTER 2. PFS COSMOLOG

ure 2.7: Expected accuracy of reconstructing the dark energy density parameter at each red

PFS%Rocks!
hIp://sumire.ipmu.jp/pfs/intro.html

Outline
1.From daily life to Big Bang
2.Birth of elements and Higgs boson
3.Dark matter and anti-matter
4.Inflation and Dark energy

How did the Universe begin?


What is its fate?
What is it made of?
What are its fundamental laws?
Where do we come from?
Now in the realm of science!

Credit:(aNGeLic!(by(Rolfe(Kolbe(
h7p://www.ickr.com/photos/46210293@N08/8287418426/(

Oct%2007

Oct%2008

Oct%2009

Oct%2010

Oct 2011

Oct 2012

picture will be taken on Oct 19

>50% international