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Projectiles (A/L Combined Mathematics)

Part A
A particle is projected with a velocity u from a point O at an angle of elevation and passes through a point P
which is at a distance x horizontally and y vertically upwards from O. Prove that y = x tan -

g x2
2
sec .
2
2u

An object is projected from the origin O with the velocity ( 20i + 40j)ms-1. Find the velocity and its position vector
at 3s.

A particle is projected from the origin O with the velocity (7i + 30j) ms-1.The particle passes through the point P
with the position vector 14i + yj. Find the time taken from O to P, the value of y and the velocity vector at P.

An object is projected from the ground with a velocity 80

ms-1 making an angle 450 with the horizontal. Find

the magnitude and direction of its speed when the object is at a height 140m above ground level.
5

An object is projected with speed 60

ms-1 with an angle 450 to the horizontal. Find the magnitude and the

direction of its velocity after 3 seconds.


6
A particle is projected with a speed of 20 ms-1 and reaches its maximum height above the point of projection

1
3

seconds later. Find the angle of projection.


7
The speed of a projectile at its greatest height is

2
5

of its speed when it is at half of its maximum height. Find

its angle of projection.


8

A particle is projected vertically upwards with speed u. It passes a point which is at a height h above the point of
projection at times t1 and t2. Show that

|t 1t 2|

2
g

u22 gh

A particle is projected under gravity with speed u at an angle

to the horizontal. Show that the maximum

height attained by the particle is

u
4g

. Deduce that the particle can never pass over a wall of height h if

u2

< 4gh.
1
0
1
1

A particle is projected from a point O with velocity 10ms-1 with an angle

60

to the horizontal. It just passes

over two vertical walls of height 3m. If g=10ms-2, find the distance between the two walls.
A particle is projected from the top of a tower with velocity of 40 ms-1 at an angle 300 upwards to the horizontal.
After 10 s it falls on to the ground. Find the height of the tower and the distance from the foot of the tower to the
point where the particle hits the ground.

1
2

A particle is projected under gravity from a point O with a speed u at an angle

to the horizontal. Let h be

the vertical distance of the particle above the level of O when it has travelled a distance k horizontally. Show that

2 g k2
3 k = h +
u2

1
3

A particle is projected with an initial speed u to pass through a point which is 5u horizontally and u vertically
from the point of projection. If there are two angles of projection for which this is possible, show that
u2 > 20(u + 125).

1
4

Two balls P and Q are projected with the velocities U and V, inclined at angles 60 0 and 300 to horizontal
respectively, from the point O. If the horizontal range of P and Q are equal then show that U=V.

1
5

A particle is projected horizontally with a velocity U from a point P which is vertically above O on horizontal
ground. The particle hits the ground at Q, a distance D from O. Find
A). The distance OP.
b). The magnitude of the velocity and the direction of the particle at Q.
(P.T.O.)
A man projects a ball in a vertical plane under gravity, with horizontal and vertical velocity components of u and
v respectively, from a point which is at a vertical height h from his feet. The ball collides perpendicularly with a
smooth vertical wall which is at a horizontal distance d from his feet and bounces back to his feet. Show that
2ghe2 = v2(1- e2). Here e is the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the wall

1
6

Part B
A particle is projected under gravity from a point O on the ground with speed u at an angle to the horizontal, in
a plane perpendicular to a wall at a distance a from O. If the particle is at the height y when it is at a horizontal
distance x from O, Show that gx2 sec = 2u2 (x sin y cos).
If the particle just passes over the wall and falls on the ground at a point of distance d from the wall, show that the
height of the wall is

ad
a+d

tan . Find the maximum height attained by the particle in terms of a,d and .

A particle is projected under gravity with speed u at an angle inclined to the horizontal. Obtain the expression
for the vertical and the horizontal components of the velocity of the particle and the position of the particle after
time t. If h is the greatest height and R is the horizontal range of the projectile, show that

(
3

h+

R
16 h

u2 = 2g

A particle is projected under gravity with velocity u at an angle to the horizontal, in a vertical plane from a point
C which is of height k above the point O. By taking OX and OY as the horizontal and vertical axes respectively
through O in the plane of projection, consider a rectangular system of coordinates. If the particle is at (x,y)at time
2

t, Show that y = k + x tan -

g x sec
2
2u

A particle P is projected with velocity v at an angle to the horizontal in the vertical plane from a point A(0,h),
where h is positive. At the same time a particle Q is projected with velocity w at an angle (>) to the horizontal
from a point B

(0 , h2 )

in the vertical plane. If the two particles P and Q meet at the point where horizontal

distance is d. Show that v cos =w cos and h = 2d(tan tan ).Show also that the time taken to meet the
particles

h
2( wsinvsin ) .

is

(2012-Aug )
A particle is projected from a point O on the ground with speed u at an angle to the horizontal, under gravity. At
the same instant, a vertical screen at a perpendicular distance d from O and at right angles to the vertical plane of
motion of the particle, is made to move away from the particle in a horizontal direction with uniform speed v. If
the particle strike the screen at a height h above the ground, show that ucos >v, and
gd2 2usin(ucos-v)d + 2h(ucos-v)2= 0. Deduce that the particle cannot strike the screen, if
d

2u
g sin(ucos

>

v).

(2004-Apr)
5

The components of the initial velocity of a particle, projected under gravity from point O are u, v in the directions
of horizontal and upward vertical axes OX and OY respectively . Show that when it has moved a horizontal
distance x it attains a vertical height y =

( vu )

x-

The particle just clears a vertical wall of height

a
2

( 2ug ) x
2

at a horizontal distance a from O and has a range 4a on the

1 2
tan
horizontal plane through O. Determine u, v and show that the direction of projection makes an angle
3

()

with the horizontal.


6

(2001-Aug)

A particle is projected under gravity, with the initial velocity u, making an angle with the horizontal. After a
time T, it is at a distance S from the point of projection, moving at right angles to the direction of projection. Show
that
(i)

u
g sin

(ii)

1
2
2 gT .

(2002-Apr)
7
A particle P is projected under gravity with initial speed U at an angle 1

point O on the ground. If P is at a height h

U2 2
sin 1
2g

( 2 )

with the horizontal from a

above the ground when it is at horizontal distances

d1

and

d2

from

O,

show

that

d1

d2

U2
sin 2 1 and
g

d1d2=

2h cos 1
g

(P.T.O.)

u2
sin 2 1 ,
2g

Deduce that the particle attains a maximum height after traversing a horizontal distance OA =
from O.

Another particle Q is projected under gravity from O, with the same U in the vertical plane through OA at an
angle 2

( 2 )

distance
(2003-Apr)
8

with the horizontal. If Q also clears a maximum height when it is at the same horizontal
OA

from

O,

find

2.

A particle was projected with the velocity w in the oxy plane from point O making an angle with the OX axis.
Show that the equation of the trajectory is gx2( 1 +

2
tan )- 2w2x tan + 2w2y =0.

A particle is projected with horizontal and vertical components, u and v respectively. The height attained is greater
than h. If the particle just passes two walls at height h, show that the distance between the two walls is

2u 2
v 2 gh .
g
9

A particle is projected under the gravity in a vertical plane with a velocity u at an angle to the horizontal, from a
point O. Consider a rectangular Cartesian system and by taking horizontal and vertical lines through the point O
in the plane of projection as OX and OY axes respectively. If the particle goes through the point P (x, y), which is
above the OX axis, show that
y= x tan 2

(1+ tan

).

i)

If

ii)

If for one path, the direction of the velocity at P, inclined at an angle to the horizontal, show that
tan =

iii)
1
0

gx 2
2 u2

> g (y+OP), show that there are two possible paths to move from O to P.

2y
x

tan.

If these two paths are orthogonal at P, show that

u2 y =g( x 2 + 2 y 2 ).

A particle is projected under gravity with velocity v at an angle to the horizontal, from a point O, in a vertical
plane through O. At a time t its position P(x,y) is given relative to horizontal and vertical axes. Obtain the
equations.
x = v cos t and y = v sin t -

1
2
2 g t .

A particle is projected from O with a velocity V at an angle to the horizontal. At the same instant another
particle is projected from A (h,k) towards the first particle with a velocity V at angle to the horizontal. Using
the above equations, show that the distance between the two particles become minimum after a time

h
2 V cos

. Also, show that this minimum distance is k.


1
1

A particle is projected at an angle of elevation and uniform velocity U. The particle passes through P(x,y) in
time t. A horizontal line through O is considered as x axis and a line perpendicular to OX is considered as Y axis.
2

gx
2
Obtain that y = x tan - 2 u2 sec . Use this to deduce that
1
2

tan

gx
sec 2
2
, if the
u

tan =

direction of motion of the particle at P is .


An object is thrown with a velocity u from a point O at an angle with the horizontal. Taking X and Y axis through
the point O find the equation of the path of the projectile.
An object is thrown from a point O on the ground with velocity u. It goes over a wall of height h at a horizontal

[ d 2+h2 +h ]

U2 g

distance d. Show that unless

the object could not go over the wall.

An object is projected from a point A on plane making an angle with the horizontal. Find the minimum speed
that the object has to be projected to travel a distance s along the angled plane.
1
3

A bomb of mass (m1+m2) is projected from the ground with horizontal and vertical velocity components u and v
respectively. It explodes at its highest point breaking into two pieces of masses m 1 and m2, both of which starts
moving horizontally .The explosion provides and additional kinetic energy E to the system. Show that the two
pieces fall on the ground at a distance

1
4

[ (

1
2

apart.

Show that the time for the maximum height of an object projected from O with velocity v and angle to the
horizontal is

vsin
. At time t
g

(t< vsin
g )

horizontal.
1
5

)]

v
1 1
2E
+
g
m1 m2

, the object is at P. The direction of motion at P is to the

Obtain

tan=

vsin
vcos .

(P.T.O.)

The range of a projectile that is projected at an angle to the horizontal with velocity v, with maximum height h is
a. Show that =

tan

4h
a

( )

[ (

a2
2 g h+
16 h

and v =

)]

1
2

Deduce the values of and v when h=2a.


1
6

If the maximum height and range of an object which is projected from the point at an angle to the horizontal
with velocity v are a and R. Show that a =
that

16 a

and a2, show that

-8ab + R

a 1 + a2 =

v 2 sin 2
2g

=0. When b=25

25 3
2

and R =

v 2 sin 2
. If the maximum range is b, show
g

and R= 20 the two values of maximum height are a 1

1
7

Two particles A, B are projected under gravity from a point O at t=0. The velocities of A and B are uj and

u
( 3i + j ) respectively. Show that
2
a). The acceleration of B relative to A is zero.
b). The locus of B relative to A is a straight line.
c). Find the time for the horizontal displacement of 4

u of B relative to A and show that the

vertical displacement at this instant is -4uj.


d). When A is at maximum height find the vertical and horizontal displacement between A and B.
1
8

. The particles pass a

point A in two different paths which is at a distance a vertically and a horizontally from O. Show that the distance
between the points on the horizontal plane through O the two particles falls is a

1
9

5 ag

Two particles are projected from a point on the horizontal plane with velocity

14

A smooth sphere is projected with velocity u making an angle to the horizontal from a point O on a horizontal
plane at a distance a from a vertical wall. The sphere comes to the point O after rebounding from the wall. If the
coefficient of restitution between wall and the sphere is e. Show that eu 2 sin2 = ga ( 1 + e)2. Deduce that e

ga
U ag . Find the height to the point where sphere hits the wall.
2

2
0

From the centre O of the base of smooth cylinder of radius a, a particle is projected with velocity v making an
angle to the horizontal. The particle collides twice with the cylinder and comes again to the point of projection
O. Show that e2v2 sin2 = ga ( 1 + e)2. Deduce that the minimum value of v is

2
1

( 1+ e )
ga .
e

A smooth ball is projected from a point O on a smooth horizontal plane with vertical and horizontal velocity
components2u and u respectively. The ball impinges normal to a smooth vertical wall at a distance a from O and
after rebounding it impinges with the horizontal plane and at the second impact with the plane it comes to the
point O.
If the coefficient of restitution between wall and the ball is e 1 and that between wall and the plane is e2. Show that

u2 =

ga ( 1+ e1 )
4 e 1 ( 1+ e2 )

When e1 = e2 = e deduce that the value of u2. Hence deduce the minimum value of u.

2
2

Two small spheres A and B are thrown from two points X and Y at a distance d apart on a horizontal ground A is
projected vertically upward with velocity u and B is projected with the same velocity making an angle

( 2 )

with XY in the vertical plane through XY. Show that the velocity of B relative to A is constant and find its value.

Show also that at time

d

tan +
2u
4 2

the distance between the spheres is minimum. Find the minimum

distance.
(1982- AL)
W.M.J.P.Wanigasekera (B.Sc./PG Dip/M.Sc.)

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The End ***