You are on page 1of 6

PHYSICAL ROCKS

CLASSIFICATION & GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS

NAMA:

BAGUS WIBISONO (3714100003)


M. IRSYAD HIBATULLAH (3714100020

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER


SURABAYA
2015

There are a lot off rock in this world, but they wer devided into three
major grpus :
1. Igneous rocks (magmatites)
2. Metamorphic rocks (metamorphites)
3. Sedimentary rocks (sediments)
The rocks starts with the magmatic rocks, created by crystallization
from the magma. Chemical processses and processes of erotion,
disintegration, and transportation create sedimentary rocks in different
composition and texture. It can treansformed into metamorphic rocks
because of pressure and temperature. Not only that it can transformed
into metamorphic rocks because of a reworking by melting and
recrystallizion also occurs.

A. The rocks cyle

1.1 IGNEOUS ROCK


Igneous rocks are made by crystallization of a molten rock. There
are two major states of molten rock, there are : Magma and Lava.
1. Magma is form of molten rock that exists below the Earths surface.
2. Lava is the term given to magma once it raaches the Earths
surface, usually in the form of volcanic eruption.
When the temperature of molten rocks bein to drop there is aloss of
energy that cause ions to slow down. As the ions slow down, they group
together and arrange themselve into orderly crystalline structures. This
process is referred to as crystallization.
There are two major classificatin of igneous rocks, there are Intrusive and
Extrusive.

1. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed by magma that cools below the
Earths surface.
2. Extrusive igneous rocks generally cool quickly when they reach the
earths surdace usually through volcanos or fissure.

According to their occurrence and psition in the crust, there are three
types of igneous rocks :
1. Plutonic rocks crystallized in great dept and forming large rock
bodies
2. Volcanic rocks reacing the curface, in many case forming layer of
rocks like a blanket
3. Dikes have dominant vertical extention and a horizontal extension in
one direction, also they frequenly separate goelogical units.
Igneous rocks can be classified according to their chemical or
mineralogical composition to. Chemical classification distinguishes acid,
intermediate, basic, and ultrabasic rocks.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Felsic or silicic rocks, ex : granite and rhyolite


Intermediate rocks, ex grandiorite, diorite, and andesite
Mafic rocks, ex: basalt and gabro
Ultramafic rocks, ex: peridotite and komatite

B. Mineral composition of igneous rocks

1.2 METAMORPHIC ROCKS


Metamorphic rocks are the result of metmaorphism. Metamorphism
is the solid state conversion of igneous and sedimentary rocks under the
pressure temperature regime of the crust. The chemical copmposition of
this primary material detemines the chemical and mineralogical
composition of metamorphic rocks to a large degree.
Classification of metamorphic rock
Non follated
Parent rock
Limestone,
Dolomite
Quartz sandstone
Shale, Basalt

Metamorphic rock

Dominant
minerals
Marble , Dolomite Calsite or doloite
marble
Quatzite
Quartz
Hornfels
Fine grained
micas

Follated
Parent rock
Shale
Shale
Shale

Metamorphic rock
Slate
Phyllite
Schist

Shale

Gneiss

Basalt

Amphibolite,
amphibole shcist

Dimonant minerals
Clay mineral , micas
Micas
Biotite,
muscovite,
amphiboles,
quartz,
feldspar
Feldspars,
micas,
quartz
Amphiboles
,
plagioclase

1.3 SEDIMENTARY ROCK


Definition :
A Rock that formed from material derived from preexisting rocks by surfacial
processes like erosion,transportation mineral dan deposition, Lithification
(consolidation). And Chemical Process
The sedimentary rock can be distinguish into two major rock classes by the origin
source

Clastic Sedimentary Rock


Siliclastic or Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

1.Clastic Sedimentary Rock


Clastic Sedimentary rock forming process can by

Weathering: the processes that change rocks rocks size and composition
at or near Earth Earths surface
Erosion and Transportation: removal of rock particles (clasts) from their
source by water, wind, or glacial ice
Deposition: the settling of clasts on Earth Earths surface as sediments,
leads to formation of a sedimentary bed
Compaction: pressing together of clasts, squeezing out pore water, by
pressure exerted by overlying beds
Lithification :cementation of clasts together to form a sedimentary rock
Diagenesis : a process of conversion of unconsolidated sediments to
coherent sedimentary rocks

Example: conglomerate,sandstone, siltstone, shale, and claystone

2. Siliclastic or Chemical Sedimentary Rocks


Siliclastic sedimentary rock was derived from material carried in solution to
lakes/ seas and precipitation from solution will form a chemical sediments
The chemical sediment can be form by

by precipitation from aqueous solution


from plant material
from animal material

Example:Limestone,Dolomite

3.Diagram Classification of Sedimentary rock


For easiest way to understand classification of sedimentary rock, you can see
this picture below

1.5 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKSSOME GENERAL


CHARACTERISTICS
Definition:
Petrophysics is suggested as the term pertaining to the physics of
particularrock types. . . . This subject is a study of the physical properties
of rock which are related to the pore and fluid distribution . . . (Archie
(1950).
physical rock properties (e.g., elastic, electrical,nuclear properties) can be
used to characterize rocks with respect to properties and parameters of
interest
Physical properties of rock can can be observed from all sidesbut in this
resume , i will leads the classification of rock properties into the following
two main groups:
1. Properties of direct interest for application:
reservoir properties (porosity,saturation, permeability),
geomechanical properties (deformation, strength),
mineralogical characteristics (shale content, fractional mineral
composition),
content of substances of interest (ore content)
Thermal Properties
2. Properties relevant to the various geophysical methods
elastic/seismic properties
density
electrical properties
nuclear properties,
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response
Radioactive Properties
Electrical Properties