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**Optimized Implementation of Logic Functions: Karnaugh Maps and Minimum Sum-of-Product Forms
**

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-1

Karnaugh map

• The key to finding a minimum cost SOP or POS form is applying the combining property (14a for SOP or 14b for POS) • The Karnaugh map (K-map) provides a systematic (and graphical) way of performing this operation • Minterms can be combined by 14a when they differ in only one variable

– f(x,y,z) = xyz+xyz’ = xy(z+z’) = xy(1) = xy

**• The K-map illustrates this combination graphically
**

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-2

Karnaugh map

• The K-map is an alternative to a truth table for representing an expression

– K-map consists of cells that correspond to rows of the truth table – Each cell corresponds to a minterm

**• A two variable truth table and the corresponding Kmap
**

x1 0 0 1 1

Electrical & Computer Engineering

x2 0 1 0 1

f m0 m1 m2 m3

x2

x1

0 m0 m1

1 m2 m3

0 1

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-3

Karnaugh map

x1 x2 0 1

Values for the first variable are listed across the top

0 m0 m1

1 m2 m3

**Values for the second variable are listed down the left side
**

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-4

**Karnaugh map groupings
**

• Minterms in adjacent squares on the map can be combined since they differ in only one variable • Indicated by looping the corresponding ‘1’s on the map (the ‘1’s must be adjacent) • Looping two ‘1’s together corresponds to eliminating a term and a variable from the output expression => x xy+xy’ = x

y 0 1 x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 f 0 0 1 1

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-5

0 1

0 0

1 1

f=xy’+xy=x

Electrical & Computer Engineering

**K-map groupings example
**

y x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 f 0 1 1 1 x 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

x

y

f=x+y

• Note that the bottom two cells differ in only one variable (x) and the right two cells differ in only one variable (y)

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-6

**K-map groupings example
**

• Draw the K-map and give the minimized logic expression for the following truth table. • Show the groupings made in the K-map

x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 f 1 1 1 0

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-7

**Three variable K-map
**

• A three-variable K-map is constructing by laying 2 two-variable maps side by side • K-map are always laid out such that adjacent squares only differ by one variable (i.e. by 1 bit in the binary expression of the minterm values) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Minterm m0=x’y’z’ m1=x’y’z m2=x’yz’ m3=x’yz m4=xy’z’ m5=xy’z m6=xyz’ m7=xyz

z 0 1

xy

00 m0 m1

01 m2 m3

11 m6 m7

10 m4 m5

**End cells are ‘adjacent’
**

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-8

Electrical & Computer Engineering

**Example three-variable K-maps
**

f(x,y,z)=Σm(0,1,2,4) =x’y’+x’z’+y’z’

z 0 1 xy 00 1 1 01 1 0 11 0 0 10 1 0

f(x,y,z)=Σm(0,1,2,3,4) =x’+y’z’

z 0 1

xy

00 1 1

01 1 1

11 0 0

10 1 0

**A grouping of four eliminates 2 variables
**

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-9

**Guidelines for combining terms
**

• • • • Can combine only adjacent ‘1’s Can group only in powers of 2 (1,2,4,8, etc.) Try to form as large a grouping as possible Do not generate more groups than are necessary to “cover” all the ‘1’s

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-10

Example groupings

xy 00 z 0 1 1 0 01 1 0 11 1 0 10 1 0 xy 00 z 0 0 1 0 01 1 0 11 1 1 10 1 1

f=z’

xy 00 z 0 1 1 1 01 1 0 11 1 0 10 1 1 xy 00 z 0 1 1 0

f=yz’+x

01 1 1 11 1 1 10 0 0

f=z’+y’

Electrical & Computer Engineering

f=y+x’z’

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-11

**K-map groupings example
**

• Draw the K-map and give the minimized logic expression for the following.

– f(a,b,c)=Σm(1,2,3,4,5,6)

• Show the groupings made in the K-map

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-12

**Four variable K-map
**

• A four-variable K-map is constructing by laying 2 three-variable maps together to create four rows

– f(a,b,c,d) ab cd 00 01 11 10 00 m0 m1 m3 m2 01 m4 m5 m7 m6 11 m12 m13 m15 m14 10 m8 m9 m11 m10

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-13

**Four variable K-map
**

• Adjacencies wrap around in the K-map

ab 00 cd 00 01 11 10 m0 m1 m3 m2 m4 m5 m7 m6 m12 m13 m15 m14 m8 m9 m11 m10 01 11 10

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-14

**Example four-variable K-maps
**

f(a,b,c,d)=Σm(2,3,9-11,13) =ac’d+b’c

ab 00 cd 00 0 01 11 10 0 1 1 01 0 0 0 0 01 1 1 1 1 11 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

f(a,b,c,d)=Σm(3-7,9,11,12-15) =b+cd+ad

ab 00 cd 00 0 01 11 10 0 1 0

11 10 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-15

Example groupings

ab 00 cd 00 1 01 11 10 1 1 1 ab 00 cd 00 0 01 11 10 1 1 0

01 1 0 0 1

11 10 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

01 1 0 0 1

11 10 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

f(a,b,c,d)=b’+d’

f(a,b,c,d)=b’d+bd’

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-16

Example groupings

ab 00 cd 00 1 01 11 10 0 0 1 ab 00 cd 00 1 01 11 10 1 1 1

01 0 1 1 0

11 10 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

01 1 0 0 1

11 10 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

f(a,b,c,d)=b’d’+bd

f(a,b,c,d)=b’d+bd’+a’b’

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-17

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