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Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Effects of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes


on mechanical and permeability properties of paving stone, kerb and
concrete pipes
Fatih zalp a, Halit Dilsad Ylmaz a, Mustafa Kara b, mer Kaya a, Aylin S ahin b,
a
b

_
ISTON, Istanbul Concrete Elements and Ready Mixed Concrete Factories, Istanbul,
Turkey
_
TBITAK
Marmara Research Centre, Materials Institute, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s
 Aggregate recycling from construction and demolition wastes.
 Concrete masonry production with recycled aggregate addition.
 Optimum waste addition ratio was determined in concrete products.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 11 September 2015
Received in revised form 15 January 2016
Accepted 20 January 2016

Keywords:
Aggregate
Concrete
Construction
Construction and demolition
Waste recycled aggregate
Recycling

a b s t r a c t
The main objective of this research is to investigate the utilization criteria of the recycled aggregates
gained from construction and demolition wastes, in the production of various ready-mixed and precast
concrete elements. Within this scope, construction and demolition waste materials were selectively separated to have homogeneous concrete wastes in the recycling plant. Then, fine and coarse aggregates
were achieved from concrete wastes. Recycled concrete aggregates were than crushed to specific sizes;
physical properties were determined and compared with those of normal aggregates. Finally, these recycled aggregates were investigated about their utility in the industrial production of various concrete
products like ready-mixed concrete, concrete pipe, paving stone and kerbs. Also some studies were done
to determine durability and permeability properties of these products. It can be concluded that the use of
recycled aggregates in the production of various concrete elements is possible with proper separation and
classification. Moreover, lower replacement rates should be applied to obtain sufficient conditions which
are specified in related product standards.
2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Solid wastes become one of the most important environmental
problems nowadays. As a result of increasing construction activities, construction and demolition waste represent a substantial
percentage of the overall solid waste.
After urban renewal programs or natural disasters like earthquakes, demolition of older buildings leads to environmental problems particularly in larger urban areas. In addition, scarcity of raw
material sources resulting from increased aggregate usage, have
motivated stakeholders in construction industry about utilization
of recycled aggregates [1]. Older buildings with expiring service
_
Corresponding author at: TBITAK
Marmara Research Centre, Materials Institute, P.K. 21, 41470, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.
E-mail address: aylin.sahin@tubitak.gov.tr (A. Sahin).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.01.030
0950-0618/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

life and the buildings which cannot meet new structural requirements and expectations are being demolished during the recent
years in Turkey.
Construction wastes mainly occur as a result of this demolition
activities and natural disasters like earthquakes. In a study, the
composition of construction and demolition wastes was given (in
Fig. 1) [2].
The European Union construction industry generates 531 million tonnes construction and demolition wastes per year which
represents nearly one quarter of the existing waste materials in
the world (Table 1) [3].
In the European Unions 27 member countries, approximately
46% of the construction and demolition waste is recycled.
After the examination of recycled aggregate standards, some
classification studies were performed based on the test results of
these aggregates, waste source and waste content. Table 2 shows

18

F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723

5% 5%

10 %

40 %

Metal

10 %

Plasc
Wood

30 %

Other
Ceramic
Concrete

Fig. 1. Composition of construction demolitions [2].

Table 1
EU construction and demolition waste quantity and recycling rates [3].
Country

CDW

Recycling %

Country

CDW

Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxemburg

5.27
1.51
5.21
85.65
72.40
11.04
10.12
2.54
46.31
2.32
3.45
0.67

94
92
26
45
86
5
16
80
0
46
60
46

Malta
0.8
Holland
23.9
Poland
38.19
Portuguese
11.42
Romania
21.71
Slovakia
5.38
Slovenia
2.00
Spain
31.34
Sweden
10.23
England
99.10
EU-27
531.38

Million tonnes

Recycling %
0
98
28
5
0
0
53
14
0
75
46

the allowed utilization rates of recycled aggregate in concrete production in different countries [4].
The most effective way to eliminate the waste problem in construction is reuse, recycling and reduces the construction materials
in construction activities. The most usual way to recycle concrete
rubble is indicated as bound (normal aggregate replacement in
new concrete) and unbound (road base, trench, etc.). According
to researches, acceptable recycled aggregate replacement is specified as 30% into new concrete products [5]. Silva et al. stated that
recycled aggregates usually belong to normal weight in terms of
density and almost always exhibit higher water absorption values
than normal aggregates. They concluded that selective demolition
should be promoted and enforced after their statistical analysis of
data available in the literature [6].
In a study, five mixes with water-to-cementing material (w/cm)
ratio of 0.40 were produced with various recycled aggregate contents and tested against two control mixes. The recycled aggregate
contents in the mixes were 10%, 20%, and 30% by coarse aggregate
volume replacement, as well as 10% and 20% fine and coarse (granular) aggregate volume replacement. The coarse recycled aggregate

mixes performed better than the granular recycled aggregate


mixes in terms of flexural and splitting tensile strengths, linear
drying shrinkage, water absorptivity and rapid chloride-ion permeability, where the test results were significantly affected by the
ultrafine present in the granular recycled aggregate [7].
In the study conducted by Tu et al., the recycled aggregates
achieved from C&D wastes were used in production of high performance concrete (HPC). From the results, it was seen that the
designed HPC with recycled aggregate had a slump as more than
180 mm and slump-flow as larger than 550 mm. These initial values were found feasible for HPC slump requirements, however
highly slump reduction occurred after 1 h because of the recycled
aggregates high absorption capacity [8].
Lpez-Gayarre et al. showed that water absorption increases up
to 34% with the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled ones
up to 50% and the percentage of replacement does not affect the
compressive strength of concrete, being affected only by the quality of the recycled aggregates employed [9]. However, Lovato et al.
concluded that the water absorption of concretes was more negatively affected by the fine aggregate replacement then the coarse
aggregate replacement [10].
The aim of this study is to determine the utilization criteria of the
recycled aggregates from construction and demolition (C&D) wastes
in the production of various concrete components. Within this
scope, construction and demolition waste materials, were selectively separated and fractured to specific sizes in the facilities of
ISTAC Istanbul Environmental Management Industry and Trading
Corporation and were investigated for their utility in the industrial
production of various concrete products like ready-mixed concrete,
concrete pipe, paving stone and some other prefabricated products.
The physical properties of the obtained aggregates were determined
and compared to normal aggregates. Also some studies were done to
determine durability and permeability properties of these products.

2. Experimental procedure
Some aggregate tests were conducted in order to determine the properties of
recycled aggregates and to compare with normal aggregates. In this scope, 49
experimental samples were prepared for 10 different aggregate tests, 42 experimental samples were prepared for 6 different fresh and hardened concrete tests
and 36 experimental samples were prepared to be used in 11 different industrial
products. Mechanical and durability properties of concrete mixes which were produced by substitution of normal aggregates with recycled aggregates were determined. At the final stage of the study, industrial scale productions were carried
out with these concrete mixtures containing recycled aggregates and properties
of the industrial products were determined.

2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Cement
The cement used is CEM I 42.5R type, while its specific weight is 3.14 g/cm3 and
the Blaine specific surface is 345 m2/kg. Its composition is shown in Table 3.

Table 2
Allowed recycled aggregate utilization in some countries [4].
Countries

Applications

Recycled aggregate
in volume (%)

Recycled fine aggregate utilization

Concrete grade

Other materials in weight


(%)

Belgium

In nonaggressive environmental
effects
In nonaggressive environmental
effects
Except in strong chemical effect
and reinforced concrete
In moisture free components

0100

In the states when it is provided of


normal aggregates standards
Permitted

Max C30/37 depending


on the aggregate
Max 21 MPa depending
aggregate
Max C35/45

<1 non-mineral mixes

Denmark
Germany
Japan
Holland
USA

In nonaggressive environmental
effects
In concrete and reinforced
concrete components

0100 for >4 mm


part
Only 042 for
broken concrete
Only 042 for
broken concrete
Only 020 for
broken concrete
Only 0100 for
broken concrete

Max 7% for <2 mm part


Permitted
Permitted up to 20%
Permitted

Max C30/37 depending


aggregate
According to all concrete
building standards
According to ACI 318-95

<0.2 wood and plastic


material
Max 10 kg/m3 gypsum and
max 2 kg/m3 asphalt
Max 1% bitumen and max
0.15 organic matter

F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723


2.1.2. Aggregate
Mixed construction and demolition wastes which were accepted by C&D Recycling Plant of ISTAC Istanbul Environmental Management Industry and Trading Corporation, occurred from demolished buildings and were transported to recycling
plant without any pre-treatment. To obtain the materials from concrete rubble,
concrete blocks were separated from mixed stacks and stocked individually with
using heavy equipment. Separated concrete blocks were fed into crushing unit, then
sieved to achieve required sizes. Recycled aggregates used in this study were chosen as recycled fine (05 mm) and coarse aggregates (512 and 1222 mm) of these
concrete waste blocks.
2.2. Methods
The physical properties of recycled aggregates were determined and compared
to those of normal aggregates. Close and loose unit weight, apparent specific
weight, water absorption, over fine material and fineness modules were defined
in conformation with EN 1097 [11] standard however, flakiness index, methylene
blue, sand equivalent, wear resistance tests were conducted in conformation with
EN 933 standard [12].
In the first part of the study, mixtures which belong to the S4 (1621 cm slump)
consistence class and which can be used in ready mixed and precast concretes were
prepared. In the second part, zero slump concrete mixtures which are being used in
the production of paving stone, kerb, concrete and reinforced concrete pipes were
prepared. Strength class for design of ready mixed and zero slump concrete were
determined as C 25/30 and C 30/37, respectively.
In the design of ready mixed concrete, which have the consistence class S4, total
replacement rates of recycled concrete aggregates were determined as 40%, 30% and
20%. In the notation, these replacement rates were expressed as double-digit numbers and type of replacements expressed as F, C and CF which are fine aggregate
replacement, coarse aggregate replacement and both fine and coarse aggregate
equally replacement, respectively.
In zero slump concrete mixtures, replacement rates were 25% and 15%. In addition, (512) mm and (1222) mm sized coarse aggregate replacements were
expressed as C1 and C2 respectively and only crushed-stone powder replacement
was expressed as F.
In ready-mixed concrete mixtures, a polycarboxylate-based super plasticizer,
which has a solid content of 30% and a density of 1.1 g/cm3, was used 1.8% of
cement weight. The same chemical additive was used as 1% of cement weight in
zero slump concrete mixtures. The water/cement ratio was determined as 0.55
and 0.40 in ready mixed and zero slump concrete mixtures respectively.
Compression tests were done on 150  150  150 mm sized cube samples in
accordance with EN 1340 [13] standard. 150  150  150 mm sized cube samples
were used for splitting tensile tests. Splitting strengths were calculated according
to EN 12390-6 [14]. Rapid chloride permeability tests were performed according
to ASTM C1202 [15].

3. Industrial scale-up studies


In industrial scale up studies, the aggregates which were recycled from concrete wastes were replaced in different rates to produce concrete products. Thereafter, tests and analyses according to
related product standards were performed.
3.1. Paving stone production with recycled aggregates
For the production of paving stones, recycled aggregates from
construction and demolition wastes were used. Replacement rate
of normal aggregates was 20% for both of (05) mm and (512)
mm sized aggregates. In total, the paving stone was produced with
40% replacement rate.

The splitting tensile strength, water absorption and wear resistance test were conducted according to EN 1338 [16]. The images
of the production and applications can be seen in the Figs. 2 and 3.
3.2. Kerb production with recycled aggregates
For the production of kerbs, the aggregates which are recycled
from construction and demolition wastes were used instead of fine
(05) mm and coarse (512) mm aggregates separately. Replacement ratios were 25% for both aggregate fractions. Product test
were conducted according to EN 1340 [13]. The images of the production can be seen in the Fig. 4.
3.3. Concrete and reinforced concrete pipes produced with recycled
aggregates
Aggregates which are recycled from construction and demolition were used in the production of concrete and reinforced concrete pipes. Replacement ratio was 10% for both (05) mm and
(512) mm sized aggregates. Thus the concrete and reinforced concrete pipes were produced with totally 20% replacement range of
normal aggregates. Diameters of 300 mm were selected for concrete and diameters of 800 mm were selected for reinforced concrete pipe productions.
Compression and pipe crushing strength tests were performed
according to EN 1916 [17]. The images of the concrete and reinforced concrete pipe products can be seen in the Figs. 5 and 6,
respectively.
4. Results and discussion
Particle size distributions of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) in 0
5 mm sized, recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) in 512 mm sized
and recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) in 1222 mm sized are represented in Fig. 7.
Based on experimental results, close and loose unit weights of
recycled aggregates have lower values than normal aggregates. It
might be because of the porous cement mortar which is adhered
to recycled aggregates. The water absorption values of recycled
aggregates were higher than that of normal aggregates (i.e. 12%
and 810% for normal and recycled aggregates, respectively). Los
Angeles wear test results of recycled aggregates increased 43%
than those of normal aggregates. Recycled and normal aggregates
showed similar results in sand equivalent, methylene blue, flakiness and determination of organic material tests.
Some physical properties of recycled and normal aggregates
were determined Experimental results of recycled and normal
aggregates are compared in Tables 4 and 5.

Table 3
Cement composition.
Composition

Composition percentage (%)

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
SO3
Na2O equivalent
Chloride (Cl )
Loss on ignition

19.80
4.43
3.20
63.70
1.08
2.59
0.50

2.77

19

Fig. 2. Production of paving stones from concrete wastes.

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F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723

Fig. 3. Application of paving stones produced from concrete wastes.

Fig. 4. Kerbs produced from C&D wastes.

Cummulative Undersize (%)

Fig. 6. Reinforced concrete pipe produced from C&D waste.

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0,1

Particle Size Distribution


RFA

(0-5 mm)

RCA

(5-12 mm)

RCA

(12-22 mm)

10

100

Sieve Size (mm)


Fig. 7. Particle size distributions of recycled fine and coarse aggregates.

Fig. 5. Concrete pipes and reinforced concrete pipe produced from C&D waste.

Table 6 shows the mix amounts of materials used in reference concrete. For C25/30, the mixing proportions are determined as follow.
Cement: water: sand (03 mm): stone powder (05 mm): crushed
aggregate
(512 mm):
crushed
aggregate
(1222 mm)
= 1:0.55:1.56:1.51:1.56:1.56. Also, the mixing proportions of
C30/37 concrete class are indicated as follow. Cement: water: sand
(03 mm): stone powder (05 mm): crushed aggregate (512 mm):
crushed aggregate (1222 mm) = 1:0.40:1.33:1.50:2.16:0.80.
In addition, specific weight of produced concretes is represented in Table 7. Since the recycled aggregates have lower specific
weight, considerable reduction is observed in the unit weight values of fresh concretes which are produced with recycled
aggregates.

Compression test results of S4 slump and 0-slump specimens


are shown in Table 8. After the compressive strength tests for ready
mixed concretes, 20% strength reduction was seen in the products
with using 20% recycled aggregate replacement rate, 30% strength
reduction was seen in the products with using 30% recycled aggregate replacement rate and finally 40% strength reduction was
determined in the products with using 40% recycled aggregate
replacement rate.
According to these results, there is a linear correlation between
the replacement rates of aggregates and compressive strength
reduction. The usage of recycled aggregates which have higher
water absorption affected strength of concretes negatively. In
zero-slump concretes, 11% compressive strength reduction was
observed in the mixes having 25% aggregate replacement rate
and 4% compressive strength reduction occurred in the mixes having 15% aggregate replacement rate. In addition, the mixes produced with the recycled coarse aggregates showed higher
strength results than the mixes with recycled fine aggregates.

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F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723


Table 4
Physical properties of recycled coarse aggregates and normal coarse crushed aggregates.
Physical properties

Recycled coarse
aggregate (1222 mm)

Normal crushed
aggregate (1222 mm)

Recycled coarse
aggregate (512 mm)

Normal crushed
aggregate (512 mm)

Close unit weight (kg/m3)


Loose unit weight (kg/m3)
Apparent specific weight (kg/m3)
Water absorption (%)
Over fine material content (%)
Flakiness index (%)
Los Angeles abrasion (%)

1350
1229
2700
7.9
1.2
7.1
38.5

1547
1352
2750
0.8
0.55
9
21.9

1278
1160
2700
9.0
0.70

1564
1381
2760
0.8
0.92

Table 5
Physical properties of recycled fine aggregates and normal fine crushed aggregates.
Physical properties

Recycled fine
aggregate (05 mm)

Recycled fine
aggregate (012 mm)

Normal stone
powder (05 mm)

Normal sand
(03 mm)

Close unit weight (kg/m3)


Loose unit weight (kg/m3)
Apparent specific weight (kg/m3)
Water absorption (%)
Fineness module
Methylene blue
Water content (%)
Over fine material content (%)
Sand equivalent (%)
Organic matter indication

1462
1298
2690
10.8
3.70
1.0
0.73
4.33
67

1469
1348
2690
8.5
4.00
1.25
0.55
6.15
62

1823
1540
2820
1.1
3.51
1.0
1.19
10.94
76

1554
1246
2700
1.1
2.04
0.75
6.76
0.6
92

Note: Lighter than reference color.

Table 6
Materials used in concrete (kg/m3).
Concrete class

Cement (kg)

Sand (kg)

Crushed-stone powder (kg)

Crushed-stone (512 mm) (kg)

Crushed-stone (1222 mm) (kg)

Slump class

C25/30
C30/37

310
360

483
480

469
465

483
671

485
288

S4
Zero slump

Table 7
Specific weight of concrete products.
Test (S4
slump)

Slump
(cm)

Unit weight
(kg/m3)

Test (0slump)

Slump
(cm)

Unit weight
(kg/m3)

40FC
40C
40F
30FC
30C
30F
20FC
20C
20F
Reference

19
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
19

2258
2266
2268
2273
2269
2265
2303
2301
2314
2391

25F
25C1
15F
15C1
15C2
Reference

5.5
6
5.5
5
5
5

2204
2225
2239
2295
2288
2331

Note: For S4 slump, F = fine aggregate replacement; C = coarse aggregate replacement; CF = both fine and coarse aggregate equally replacement; for 0-slump, C1 =
(512) mm sized coarse aggregate replacements; C2 = (1222) mm sized coarse
aggregate replacements; F = only crushed-stone powder replacement.

Replacement rates did not directly affect the shear-tensile


strength in ready-mixed concrete mixes. In zero-slump concretes,
the mixes with coarse aggregate replacement showed higher
results than the mixes with fine aggregate replacement. However,
the concretes which were produced with recycled aggregates had
higher rapid chloride permeability than concretes produced with
normal aggregates. Consequently, it was confirmed that the use
of recycled aggregates in concrete production caused loss of
mechanic and permeability properties.
When splitting tensile tests and results are reviewed, the
strength reductions in the substitution of fine aggregates are much
more obvious than substitution of coarse aggregates in the litera-

ture. It is mostly because of fine aggregates having higher water


absorption properties. However, in this study, there is no apparent
difference between splitting tensile strength values in C25/30 class
concretes. There is a significant difference was observed in 0slump concretes only, and it corresponds to the literature knowledge. The results of splitting tensile tests are shown in Table 9.
Rapid chloride permeability tests are presented in Table 10.
While some different results are observed in the experimental
study in rapid chloride permeability tests, a substantive difference
is not realized among the specimens with addition ratios of 30%,
40% and 20%. It is considered that these differences can occur from
experimental uncertainties like the condition of specimens and the
people who perform tests. However, there is no significant difference between substitution of coarse and fine aggregate in the same
substitution ratio for both C25/30 class concretes and 0-slump concretes in these tests. In literature, there is no definite differentiation for substitution of coarse and fine aggregate on permeability
properties.
Low current in the rapid chloride permeability test results are
evaluated as that concrete has more impermeable internal structure, while higher current shows that concrete has higher porous
and permeable internal structure. After the test results, the lowest
permeability values were observed in the reference concrete which
were produced without recycled aggregates. A similar decreasing
was observed in the current value within rapid chloride permeability test results with decreasing of recycled aggregate addition ratio.
It was seen that coarse or fine aggregate addition ratio did not
affect the permeability results.
Experiments were performed in compliance with product standards after the industrial productions and the following results

22

F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723

Table 8
Compression test results.
Test (S4 slump)

40FC
40C
40F
30FC
30C
30F
20FC
20C
20F
Ref.

Average compression strength (MPa)


7 days

28 days

SR (%)

SD

19
19
18
22
22
23
25
24
22
29

24
22
22
25
29
27
31
30
29
36

67
61
61
69
81
75
86
83
81
100

0.7
0.2
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.2
1.1
1.3
0.8
1.2

Test (0-slump)

Average compression strength (MPa)


7 days

28 days

SR (%)

SD

25F
25C1
15F
15C1
15C2
Ref.

26
28
25
32
31
32

28
33
27
34
37
38

74
87
71
89
97
100

2.5
2.3
1.7
2.1
1.3
1.8

Note: SD = standard deviation; Ref = reference results.

Table 9
Splitting tensile test results.
Mixtures (C25/30)

40FC
40C
40F
30FC
30C
30F
20FC
20C
20F
Ref.

Splitting tensile strength (MPa)


28 days

SR (%)

SD

2.9
3.1
3.4
3.6
3.0
3.2
3.2
2.9
3.2
3.9

74
79
87
92
77
82
82
74
82
100

0.2
0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1

Mixtures (0-slump)

Splitting tensile strength (MPa)


28 days

SR (%)

SD

25F
25C1
15F
15C1
15C2
Ref.

3.5
3.7
3.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

80
84
70
95
98
100

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1

Note: SR = strength reduction according to reference concrete; Ref = reference result.

Table 10
Rapid chloride permeability tests results.
Test

Total current passed (C) (Coulomb)

Permeability class

SD

Test (0-slump)

Total current passed (Coulomb)

Permeability class

SD

40FC
40C
40F
30FC
30C
30F
20FC
20C
20F
Ref.

6122
5627
8018
6345
6550
5816
4921
5442
3811
2941

High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Medium
Medium

420.1
214.0
104.5
216.9
236.2
130.0
375.0
183.5
159.6
123.0

25F
25C1
15F
15C1
15C2
Ref.

6710
4266
2630
3657
2366
2425

High
High
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium

91.0
261.1
215.8
140.6
201.8
139.0

were obtained. In the paving stone production replacement rate of


40% caused a decrease of splitting strength at a rate of 43%. Water
absorption values in the products with recycled aggregates were
higher than reference products. The kerbs which were produced
with recycled aggregates had higher wear and water absorption
values than reference samples.
22% strength reduction was observed in compressive strengths
of the mixtures which were used in concrete pipe production and
18% in mixtures which were used in reinforced concrete pipe
production. In water tightness experiments, it was determined that
all samples were provided water tightness. Experimental results of
crushing strength tests showed that reference concrete pipes had
higher crushing strength than pipes produced with the recycled
aggregates. The crushing strength values of the pipes which were
produced from recycled aggregates showed a reduction of 12%
and of 7.5% than reference pipes and reference reinforced concrete
pipes, respectively. However, there is a manufacturers declaration
of crushing strength grade based on EN 1916 [17] concretereinforced concrete pipe production standard.

For this reason, strength reduction of crushing strength is going


to cause a reduction in manufacturers declaration of strength
grade values. Tables 1113 represent the mix amounts and test
results of paving stones, bordure and concrete products
respectively.
Minimal water absorption performance of paving stones is not
measured according to the TS 2824 EN 1338 standard. However,
the water absorption performance of bordure is indicated as 66%
of mass according to the TS 436 EN 1340 standard.
5. Conclusion
In this study, recycled aggregates were separately gained from
C&D wastes. At the end of the experimental and industrial studies,
these recycled aggregates were found feasible to use in paving
stone, kerb, concrete pipe and reinforced concrete pipe elements
according to the related standards. In order to avoid repetitions,
many the replacement rates were initially defined and distributed
through different applications in an experimental plan. Thus, the

23

F. zalp et al. / Construction and Building Materials 110 (2016) 1723


Table 11
Mix amounts and test results of paving stones produced from recycled aggregates.
Mixture

Cement
content
(kg/m3)

Sand
(kg/m3)

(05 mm) Normal


crushedstone/(05 mm) waste
(kg/m3)

Normal crushed-stone
(512 mm)/waste (5
12 mm)
(kg/m3)

Splitting
strength
28 days (MPa)

Water
absorption
28 days (%)

Wear on 28th days


(mm)

Reference
40% Replacement

360
360

519
509

504/0
98/376

1037/0
608/378

4.2
2.4

5.4
8.7

23.0
25.0

Table 12
Amount of mixes and test results of bordure products.
Mixture

Cement
content
(kg/m3)

Sand
(kg/m3)

Normal crushedstone
(05 mm)/waste (0
5 mm) (kg/m3)

Normal crushed-stone
(512 mm)/waste (5
12 mm) (kg/m3)

Bending strength after


28 days (MPa)

Water absorption
28 days (%)

Wear on 28th
days (mm)

Reference
25% stone powder
25% no1

420
420
420

486
477
476

471/0
0/443
462/0

970/0
953/0
475/443

5.0
3.9
4.4

4.6
6.1
5.3

22.0
24.0
22.5

Table 13
Top load strength and other test results on concrete and reinforced concrete pipes produced from recycled aggregates.
Pipe diameter
(mm) and
replacement

Cement
content
(kg/m3)

Sand (kg/m3)

Normal crushed-stone (0
5 mm)/waste (05 mm)
(kg/m3)

Normal crushed-stone (5
12 mm)/waste (512 mm)
(kg/m3)

Crushed-stone
(1222 mm)
(kg/m3)

Compression
strength after
28 days (MPa)

Crushing
strength
(kN/m)

Ref. 300
300, 20%
Ref. 800
800, 20%

400
400
400
400

841
828
544
536

342/0
150/179
378/0
186/178

762/0
558/180
719/0
517/178

0
0
292
288

48.3
37.8
52.2
42.6

49
43
140.4
129.8

effect of using recycled aggregates at different applications and


replacement rates were tested. Mechanical and durability properties of the products were observed within the required limits. It
is obvious that the recycled aggregates gained from C&D wastes
can be utilized in new products as secondary raw material. It is
seen that the environmental problems which are originated from
construction sector can be eliminated and an alternative solution
can be provided by using these recycled aggregates into new construction products. Finally, it is suggested that lower replacement
rates should be applied to ensure requested mechanical properties
related to product standards.
Acknowledgments
This study was supported within Construction and Demolition
Wastes Recycling and Determination of Utilization Criteria project. Project owner is Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation,
Substructure and Urban Transformation Services General Manage_
ment. Project coordinator is TUBITAK
Marmara Research Centre.
The contributor institutions are ISTON Incorporated Company,
_
ISTA Incorporated Company, ISFALT
Incorporated Company and
AKANSA Cement Industry and Trading Incorporated Company.
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