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Discrete Math Propositional Logic

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and Applications

COT3100

Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Foundations of

Logic: Overview

Basic definitions.

Equivalence rules & derivations.

Predicates.

Quantified predicate expressions.

Equivalences & derivations.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Propositional Logic

Propositional Logic is the logic of compound statements built

from simpler statements using Boolean connectives.

Applications:

Expressing conditions in computer programs.

Queries to databases & search engines.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Propositional Logic

Propositional Logic is the logic of compound statements built

from simpler statements using Boolean connectives.

What are Boolean connectors?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Definition of a

Proposition

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Definition of a

Proposition

A proposition (p, q, r, ) is simply a statement (i.e.,

a declarative sentence) with a definite meaning,

having a truth value thats either true (T) or false

(F) (never both, neither, or somewhere in

between).

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Definition of a

Proposition

A proposition (p, q, r, ) is simply a statement (i.e.,

a declarative sentence) with a definite meaning,

having a truth value thats either true (T) or false

(F) (never both, neither, or somewhere in

between).

certainty to propositions. For now: True/False

only!

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

La la la la la. (meaningless interjection)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

La la la la la. (meaningless interjection)

Just do it! (imperative, command)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

La la la la la. (meaningless interjection)

Just do it! (imperative, command)

Yeah, I sorta dunno, whatever... (vague)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Examples of

Propositions

Beijing is the capital of China.

1 + 2 = 5

La la la la la. (meaningless interjection)

Just do it! (imperative, command)

Yeah, I sorta dunno, whatever... (vague)

1 +- 2

(expression

COT3100

Dr. Ungor

with a non-true/false

value)

6

Boolean operators

Negation (NOT)

Conjunction (AND)

Disjunction (OR)

Exclusive-Or (XOR)

Implication (IF)

Bi-conditional (IFF)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Operators /

Connectives

An operator or connective combines one or more

operand expressions into a larger expression. (e.g.,

+ in numeric exprs.)

operators take 2 operands (e.g., 3 4).

propositions or truth values instead of on numbers.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

The Negation

Operator

The unary negation operator (NOT) transforms

a prop. into its logical negation.

do not have brown hair.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

The Conjunction

Operator

The binary conjunction operator (AND)

combines two propositions to form their logical

conjunction.

E.g., If p=I will have salad for lunch. and q=I will

have steak for dinner., then pq=I will have

salad for lunch and I will have steak for dinner.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

10

Conjunction Truth

Table

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

11

Conjunction Truth

Table

Note that a

conjunction

p1 p2 pn

of n propositions

will have 2n rows

in its truth table.

sufficient to express any truth table!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

11

The Disjunction

Operator

The binary disjunction operator (OR) combines

two propositions to form their logical disjunction.

p=That car has a bad engine.

q=That car has a bad carburetor.

pq=Either that car has a bad engine, or

that car has a bad carburetor.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

12

Disjunction Truth

Table

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

13

Disjunction Truth

Table

that p is true, or q is

true, or both are true!

So this operation is

also called inclusive or,

because it includes the

possibility that both p and q are true.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

13

A Simple Exercise

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

14

A Simple Exercise

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

14

A Simple Exercise

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

14

A Simple Exercise

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

=

=

it didnt rain last night.

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

14

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

14

Let p=It rained last night,

q=The sprinklers came on last night,

r=The lawn was wet this morning.

Translate each of the following into English:

p

r p

rpq=

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

morning, or it rained last night, or the

sprinklers came on last night.

14

The Exclusive Or

Operator

The binary exclusive-or operator (XOR)

combines two propositions to form their logical

exclusive or (exjunction?).

p = I will earn an A in this course,

q = I will drop this course,

p q = I will either earn an A for this course, or I

will drop it (but not both!)

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

15

Exclusive-Or Truth

Table

that p is true, or q is

true, but not both!

This operation is

called exclusive or,

because it excludes the

possibility that both p and q are true.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

16

Natural Language is

Ambiguous

Note that in English or is by itself ambiguous

regarding the both case!

Pat is a singer or

Pat is a writer. Pat is rich or

Pat is poor. Need context to disambiguate the meaning!

For this class, assume or means inclusive.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

17

Natural Language is

Ambiguous

Note that in English or is by itself ambiguous

regarding the both case!

Pat is a singer or

Pat is a writer. -

Pat is rich or

Pat is poor. Need context to disambiguate the meaning!

For this class, assume or means inclusive.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

17

Natural Language is

Ambiguous

Note that in English or is by itself ambiguous

regarding the both case!

Pat is a singer or

Pat is a writer. -

Pat is rich or

Pat is poor. -

For this class, assume or means inclusive.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

17

The Implication

Operator

The implication p q states that p implies q.

It is FALSE only in the case that p is TRUE but q

is FALSE.

e.g., p=I am elected.

q=Taxes will be lowered.

p q = If I am elected, then taxes will be

lowered (else it could go either way)

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

18

The Implication

Operator

Terminology for the structure of implication p q

p: Hypothesis (antecedent or premise)

q: Conclusion (consequence)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

19

Implication Truth

Table

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

20

Implication Truth

Table

p q is false only when

p is true but q is not true.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

20

Implication Truth

Table

p q is false only when

p is true but q is not true.

p q does not imply

that p causes q!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

20

Implication Truth

Table

p q is false only when

p is true but q is not true.

p q does not imply

that p causes q!

p q does not imply

that p or q are ever true!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

20

Implication Truth

Table

p q is false only when

p is true but q is not true.

p q does not imply

that p causes q!

p q does not imply

that p or q are ever true!

E.g. (1=0) pigs can fly is TRUE!

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

20

Examples of

Implications

tomorrow. True or False?

teacher. True or False?

False?

richer than Bill Gates. True or False?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

21

Examples of

Implications

tomorrow. True or False?

teacher. True or False?

False?

richer than Bill Gates. True or False?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

21

Examples of

Implications

tomorrow. True or False?

teacher. True or False?

False?

richer than Bill Gates. True or False?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

21

Examples of

Implications

tomorrow. True or False?

teacher. True or False?

False?

richer than Bill Gates. True or False?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

21

Examples of

Implications

tomorrow. True or False?

teacher. True or False?

False?

richer than Bill Gates. True or False?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

21

Inverse, Converse,

Contrapositive

Some terminology:

The converse of p q is: q p.

The contrapositive of p q is: q p.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

22

Inverse, Converse,

Contrapositive

Some terminology:

The converse of p q is: q p.

The contrapositive of p q is: q p.

One of these has the same meaning

(same truth table) as p q. Can you

figure out which?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

22

Inverse, Converse,

Contrapositive

Some terminology:

The converse of p q is: q p.

The contrapositive of p q is: q p.

One of these has the same meaning

(same truth table) as p q. Can you

figure out which?

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Contrapositive

22

sure?

Proving the equivalence of p q and its

contrapositive using truth tables:

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

23

The biconditional

operator

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

The biconditional

operator

The biconditional p q states that p is true if and only if

(IFF) q is true.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

The biconditional

operator

The biconditional p q states that p is true if and only if

(IFF) q is true.

TRUE.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

The biconditional

operator

The biconditional p q states that p is true if and only if

(IFF) q is true.

TRUE.

p = It is raining.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

operator

The biconditional p q states that p is true if and only if

(IFF) q is true.

TRUE.

p = It is raining.

q = The home team wins.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

operator

The biconditional p q states that p is true if and only if

(IFF) q is true.

TRUE.

p = It is raining.

q = The home team wins.

p q = If and only if it is raining, the home team

wins.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

24

Biconditional Truth

Table

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

25

Biconditional Truth

Table

p q means that p and q

have the same truth value.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

25

Biconditional Truth

Table

p q means that p and q

have the same truth value.

exact opposite of s!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

25

Biconditional Truth

Table

p q means that p and q

have the same truth value.

exact opposite of s!

p q means (p q)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

25

Biconditional Truth

Table

p q means that p and q

have the same truth value.

exact opposite of s!

p q means (p q)

p and q are true, or cause each other.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

25

Boolean Operations

Summary

and 5 binary operators.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

26

Precedence of

Logical Operators

Operator

Precedence

1

2

3

4

5

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

27

Nested Propositional

Expressions

I just saw my old friend, and either hes grown or

Ive shrunk. = f (g s)

(f g) s

fgs

would be ambiguous

and .

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

28

Some Alternative

Notations

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

29

Operations

Bits may be used to represent truth values.

By convention: 1 represents true;

0 represents false.

that variables stand for bits, + means or, and

multiplication means and.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

30

Bit Strings

sequence of n0 bits.

right: e.g. the first bit of 1001101010 is 1.

by convention the first bit is the most significant

bit. Ex. 11012=8+4+1=13.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

31

Bitwise Operations

operate on bit strings as well as single bits.

E.g.:

01 1011 0110

11 0001 1101

11 1011 1111 Bit-wise OR

01 0001 0100 Bit-wise AND

10 1010 1011 Bit-wise XOR

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

32

Propositional

Equivalences

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Propositional

Equivalence

Two syntactically (i.e., textually) different compound

propositions may be semantically identical (i.e.,

have the same meaning). We call them

equivalent.

NEXT:

Learn how to prove equivalences using

symbolic derivations.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

34

Tautologies and

Contradictions

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

35

Tautologies and

Contradictions

A tautology is a compound proposition that is true

no matter what the truth values of its atomic

propositions are!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

35

Tautologies and

Contradictions

A tautology is a compound proposition that is true

no matter what the truth values of its atomic

propositions are!

Ex. p p [What is its truth table?]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

35

Tautologies and

Contradictions

A tautology is a compound proposition that is true

no matter what the truth values of its atomic

propositions are!

Ex. p p [What is its truth table?]

A contradiction is a comp. prop. that is false no

matter what! Ex. p p [Truth table?]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

35

Tautologies and

Contradictions

A tautology is a compound proposition that is true

no matter what the truth values of its atomic

propositions are!

Ex. p p [What is its truth table?]

A contradiction is a comp. prop. that is false no

matter what! Ex. p p [Truth table?]

Other comp. props. are contingencies.

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

35

Proving

Equivalences

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

36

Proving

Equivalences

Compound propositions P and Q are logically

equivalent to each other IFF P and Q contain

the same truth values as each other in all rows

of their truth tables.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

36

Proving

Equivalences

Compound propositions P and Q are logically

equivalent to each other IFF P and Q contain

the same truth values as each other in all rows

of their truth tables.

Compound proposition P is logically equivalent to

compound proposition Q, written PQ, IFF the

compound proposition PQ is a tautology.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

36

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

at pq (p q).

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

at pq (p q).

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

at pq (p q).

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

at pq (p q).

T

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

at pq (p q).

T

T

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

at pq (p q).

T

T

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T

at pq (p q).

T

T

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T

at pq (p q).

T

F

T

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T

at pq (p q).

T

F

T

F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T

at pq (p q).

T

F

T

F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F

T

F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

T

T

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

T

T

T

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

T

T

T

Proving Equivalence

via Truth Tables

Q

P

Ex. Prove that

pq (p q).

F

T

T

T

F

(p q).. Prove thEx. Prove that pq (!p q).

T

T F

at pq (p q).

T

F T

T

F F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

F

F

F

37

T

T

T

Equivalence Laws

you may have learned in algebra, but for

propositional equivalences instead.

used to match much more complicated

propositions and to find equivalences for them.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

38

Identity:

pT p

pF p

Domination:

pT T

pF F

Idempotent:

pp p

pp p

Double negation:

p p

Commutative: pq qp

Associative:

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

pq qp

(pq)r p(qr)

(pq)r p(qr)

39

More Equivalence

Laws

Distributive:

p(qr) (pq)(pr)

p(qr) (pq)(pr)

De Morgans:

" (pq) p q

" (pq) p q

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

40

More Equivalence

Laws

Absorption:

" p(pq) p

p (p q) p

Trivial tautology/contradiction:

p p T

p p F

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

41

Equivalences

Using equivalences, we can define operators in

terms of other operators.

Implication:

pq (pq)(qp)

pq (pq)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

pq p q

42

An Example

Problem

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

[Expand definition of ] (p q) (p r)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

[Expand definition of ] (p q) (p r)

[Defn. of ]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

[Expand definition of ] (p q) (p r)

[Defn. of ]

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

[DeMorgans Law]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

[Expand definition of ] (p q) (p r)

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

[Defn. of ]

[DeMorgans Law]

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

An Example

Problem

(p q) (p r) p q r.

(p q) (p r)

[Expand definition of ] (p q) (p r)

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

[Defn. of ]

[DeMorgans Law]

(p q) ((p r) (p r))

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

43

Example

Continued...

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

q (((p (p r)) (p (p r)))

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

q (((p (p r)) (p (p r)))

[assoc.] q (((p p) r) (p (p r)))

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

q (((p (p r)) (p (p r)))

[assoc.] q (((p p) r) (p (p r)))

[trivial taut.] q ((T r) (p (p r)))

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

q (((p (p r)) (p (p r)))

[assoc.] q (((p p) r) (p (p r)))

[trivial taut.] q ((T r) (p (p r)))

[domination] q (T (p (p r)))

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

44

Example

Continued...

(p q) ((p r) (p r)) [ commutes]

(q p) ((p r) (p r)) [ associative]

q (p ((p r) (p r))) [distrib. over ]

q (((p (p r)) (p (p r)))

[assoc.] q (((p p) r) (p (p r)))

[trivial taut.] q ((T r) (p (p r)))

[domination] q (T (p (p r)))

[identity]

q (p (p r)) cont.

44

End of Long

Example

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

[Assoc.]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

q ((p p) r)

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

[Assoc.]

q ((p p) r)

[Idempotent] q (p r)

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

[Assoc.]

q ((p p) r)

[Idempotent] q (p r)

[Assoc.]

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

(q p) r

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

[Assoc.]

q ((p p) r)

[Idempotent] q (p r)

[Assoc.]

(q p) r

[Commut.]

p q r

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

End of Long

Example

q (p (p r))

[DeMorgans] q (p (p r))

[Assoc.]

q ((p p) r)

[Idempotent] q (p r)

[Assoc.]

(q p) r

[Commut.]

p q r

COT3100 - Dr. Ungor

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

45

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