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1,337
1 AUTHOR:
Adrian Bejan
Duke University
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CITATIONS
SEE PROFILE
I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. SecondLaw Analysis in Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. SecondLaw Analysis in Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Irreversibility, Entropy Generation, and Lost Available Work
(Lost Exergy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Opensystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. The Absolute Temperature Factor To . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111. Local Entropy Generation in Convective Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Conductive versus Viscous Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Entropy Generation Profiles and Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. The Entropy Generation Number Ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. The Impact of Heat Transfer Augmentation on Entropy Generation . . .
IV. Entropy Generation Minimization in Heat Exchanger Design . . . . . . . . .
A. Heat Exchangers with Zero Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Heat Exchanger Geometry for Minimum Irreversibility . . . . . . . . . .
C. Sensible Heat Units for Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. Thermal Insulation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Minimization of Entropy Generation in an Insulation System
of Fixed Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Engineering Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VI. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Added in Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3
4
5
8
I1
12
13
16
21
25
27
29
34
38
39
43
51
53
54
58
I. Introduction
The objective of this contribution is to summarize an important contemporary trend in the field of heat transfer and thermal design. This trend is
represented by the infusion of the second law of thermodynamics and its
I
ADRIANBEJAN
YSlS I N
ENGINEERING
StcO N I )  L A W
ANALYSIS
sign of heating, ventilating. and airconditioning (HVAC) systems. Leidenfrost [ 13. 141 used the second law to analyze the potential for conserving available energy in a variety of power consuming processes.
The growing interest in irreversibility analysis in engineering is paralleled by a new emphasis placed on t h e teaching of the second law and its
applications in engineering thermodynamics. A significant effort in this direction was made by Kestin [IS. 161. Lu [17], and CravalhoandSmith[18].
B. SEWNDLAWAN.AL~YSIS
I N HF.AI TRANSFER
The place occupied by heat transfer and thermal design in the greater
picture described so far is central. Engineering components and devices
for heat transfer are inherently irreversible. For example. a twofluid
counterflow heat exchanger draws its irreversibility from two distinct
mechanisms, namely. heat transfer across the streamtostream temperature difference and fluid friction (pressure drop) in the two flow passages.
We shall consider this example in detail in Section I l l . For now, it is necessary to keep in mind how common and indispensable heat exchangers
are in power systems and in many other applications. This underlines the
important connection which muht be made between heat transfer and fluid
mechanics, on the one hand, and thermodynamic irreversibility. on the
other.
The ultimate motive behind the infusion of entropy generation analysis
in heat transfer and thermal design is economic. Consider for a moment
the many factors which affect the decision of whether one thermal system
design is better than another [ 191. A number of these factors are political
in nature, but, to a large extent, the decision is the result of a costbenefit
analysis, which takes into account the expense associated with manufacturing the device (capital cost) and the expense associated with running
the device (operating cost). The combination of design parameters which
yields the minimum cost subject to various constraints represents the economic optimum design. An important component in the cost analysis is
the degree of thermodynamic ineffectiveness exhibited by the device.
This component is the cost of electrical power required by the device
when it functions in t h e sense o f a workabsorbing thermal system. or the
revenue derived from the sale of electrical power when the device functions in the workproducing mode. I t is clear that minimizing irreversibility in the thermal system yields a decrease in the operating cost. This
effect is usually accompanied by a parallel increase in the capital cost,
which demonstrates that the least irreversible design is not necessarily the
economic optimum. However. in order to make a sound economic deci
ADRIANBEJAN
sion, the thermal designer must understand the true thermodynamic performance of the heat transfer device; in other words, the designer must
know the irre versibiliry picture .
The work which lies ahead of heat transfer engineers, researchers, and
educators is to finally make the connection, to fill the gap, between the
traditional practice of heat transfer and the contemporary implications of
the second law. This is an activity which must be pursued in engineering
schools as well as in industrial circles, at the fundamental and applied
level as well. In order to be able to minimize the thermodynamic irreversibility of heat transfer equipment, engineers must first understand the fundamentals of the entropy generation mechanism. Also, they must understand precisely "where" in the heat transfer device irreversibility is being
produced, and "how much" is being produced locally. This requirement
is very similar to the relevance of "local" Nusselt number and skin friction information to the conceptual design of efficient and compact heat exchangers.
In this contribution the reader is exposed to a summary of first steps in
the direction of secondlaw analysis in basic heat transfer and thermal tiesign. The presentation is intended to introduce the inexperienced reader
to the new methodology of irreversibility analysis and irreversibility minimization in heat transfer. At the same time, the article is intended to show
the experienced heat transfer researcher the wealth of research opportunity which exists in this growing sector of heat transfer. The monograph
stops short of investigating the relationship between irreversibility minimization in thermal design and economic optimization of heat transfer
equipment. However, a number of thoughts in this direction are offered in
Section VI.
In writing the article. this author made a special effort to bring together
as much of the existing heat transfer irreversibility work as possible.
Despite the relative absence of publications on this subject, it is possible
that many workers in heat transfer have entertained secondlaw ideas
over the recent past. If so, it is hoped that through this article a more effective dialogue is initiated.
(Lost Exergy)
It has been pointed out already that the concept of thermodynamic irreversibility and its relation to the oneway destruction of available work
are not new. Brief expositions of this subject are found in some of the
SEC O N I I  L A W ANALYSIS
1, which is the most general model of a heat transfer device such as a heat
exchanger. The system is said to operate in steady state and steady flow.
This means that the thermodynamic state of matter surrounded by the
control surface does not vary with time, although it can vary from one
point t o another inside the control surface. In addition, the mass streams
piercing the control surface. mi and m k , are constant in time. The thermodynamic state at each of the inlet or outlet ports is represented by properties averaged over the port cross section; in other words, the bulk flow
model applies. The energy transfer interactions exhibited by the system
are shaft (shear) work transfer at a rate W , and heat transfer at a rate Qo.
The positive sense of these interactions is assumed as shown in Fig. I .
The system is in thermal communication with the environment, which is
modeled as a heat reservoir o f temperature T o . Most importantly, however, the control surface is drawn to include the actual heat transfer device p/rr.s those immediately adjacent parts of the environment affected by
the functioning of the device. This choice makes the heat transfer interaction Qo reversible. as it takes place across an infinitely small temperature
difference. As will soon become apparent, this choice is motivated by the
cw
inlet
(I)
m,
rnz

 '1
'
To
FIG.
device.
SYSTEM
HEAT
TRANSFER
DEVICE
outlet
(k)
>
~i~L
Qo
.~
A D R I A NBEJAN
In writing the first law we assumed that the changes in kinetic energy and
gravitational potential energy experienced by streams mi and mk are negligible compared with the enthalpy changes retained in Eq. (2.1). The negative of the righthand 4ide of Eq. (2.2) is the net rate of entropy generation in the system, S,,,, , a quantity which is always positive and in fhe
reversible limit equal to zero:
S,en
(ms)k
C (ms)i  Qo/To
(2.3)
I=I
describing an upper bound for the work transfer* of which the system of
Fig. 1 is capable. As indicated in Eq. (2.4), the algebraically maximum
work W,,, is achieved through reversible operation, i.e.,
w,,
9 mi(h
!=I
T,S)i
mk(h
 ToS)k
(2..5)
k=l
* In what follows we use the terms"work transfer" and "heat transfer" for W and Q o ,
respectively, instead of the unit time terminology of "mechanical power transfer" and "heat
transfer rate."
SECONI)LAWANALYSIS
TJ,"
(2.7)
Expression (2.7) is a wellknown result discussed in the Introduction, result referred to by some authors as the GoiryStodolci r h e o r m [23]. We
use the same name in this monograph. There exists a general lack of
agreement concerning the terminology associated with result (2.7). For
example, for the difference (W,,,,,,  W ) Keenan [24] introduced the term
irrtwrsihility. This term will not be used here in order to avoid confusing
the irreversible features of a thermodynamic system with the quantity
irreversibility whose units are [ W ] .
Some authors prefer to discuss the above concepts by making extensive
use of the property "availability." defined as b = h  T,s. From Eq.
(2.51, the maximum available work becomes equal to the drop in availability across the system. Once more, the lost available work is that share of
the maximum available work no longer present due to system irreversibility. The situation is shown schematically in Fig. 2. Such diagrams are
usually found in availability analyses of complex engineering systems,
where the lost available work can be broken down according to the irreversibility of individual components [23].
The property "availability." made popular in the United States through
the work of Keenan. has a number of equivalents proposed overseas. In
Europe. the term "exergy" introduced by Rant [25] finds wider accepAVAI LAB1 LIT Y
IN
ACTUAL
WORK
YAXIYUY
AVAILABLE
WORK
'LOST
AVAILABILITY
OUT
AVAILABLE
WORK
ADRIANBEJAN
B. THE ABSOLUTE
TEMPERATURE
FACTORTo
Instead of Fig. 1, let u s focus on a system in communication with more
than one heat reservoir. The new system is shown in Fig. 3, where it is assumed that the system executes an integral number of cycles experiencing
the net energy interactions Qi (i = 0, 1, ..., n ) and W . For simplicity, we
consider a closed system. Again, the system boundary is chosen such that
all irreversibilities, if present, are located inside the system.
The analysis presented below is based on a communication by Jackson
[29]. In a manner identical to the preceding analysis, we apply the first and
second laws of thermodynamics to obtain
W = i Q i
i=l
i=O
(2.9)
S t c or.
1)
L. 4 w ANALYSIS
111
and
Wma,
1,/71)+
Qt(1
Qi(1
 Tj/Zi)
(2.1I )
1=i
(2.12)
WI,,s,j = 7iLYgt.,,
( . j = 0, 1,
..., n )
(2.13)
= (7J/To)w,0Sf,o
(2.14)
I0
ADRIANBEJAN
In this article we focus on the mechanism commonly responsible for entropy generation in heat exchange processes, namely, heat transfer across
a finite temperature difference and fluid friction. We also discuss specific
analytical methods aimed at minimizing entropy generation in engineering
components for heat exchange processes.
SkC.ONI)LAW
ANALYSIS
II
+ (dT/dz)2] + ( p / T ) @
(3.1)
(3.2)
In Eq. ( 3 . 2 ) .us, r u , and I > , are the local velocity components in the Cartesian system.
From examining Eqs. ( 3 . I ) and (3.2) it is evident that high temperature
and velocity gradients are the features responsible for entropy generation
in the convective heat transfer situation considered here. Another important effect likely to influence S"' .. is the variation in absolute temperature
through the continuum. For the same temperature and velocity gradients,
S"' increases as the temperature of the medium decreases. This effect is
exploited in Section V . in the minimization of entropy generation in
systems exposed to large variations in absolute temperature. In most heat
transfer applications. however. it is safe to replace T appearing as denom* Note that for the remainder of the altrcle we are dropping the subscrrpt "gen" in the
symbol for entropy generation rate. The prrnles indicate the local character of S. 1.e.. per
unit volume S " ' (W/m.'). per unit area .Y'" (Wlm'). or per unit length S ' t W / m ) .
ADRIANBEJAN
12
= SEnductive
+ s:l;,,,,,
(3.3)
one can show that the relative order of magnitude of the two terms is [34]
o(sIrls,,,,/s~,~,idurtive)
Ech/~
(3.4)
(u*)*/cp0*,
Pr = v / a ,
T =
0*/T*,
(3.5)
(3.6)
This is particularly true in the case of subsonic gas flow. It is easy to show
that the order of magnitude of p@ relative to the conduction part in Eq.
(3.8) is dictated by the dimensionless group EcPr [36]. In other words, in
convective heat transfer problems in which the energy conservation statement may be considered without the viscous dissipation term, the group
EcPr is much smaller than unity.
StcON [>LAWA Y A L Y S I S
13
Comparing this conclusion with Eq. (3.4) we see that the energy argument by which Eq. ( 3 . 8 ) is regularly simplified has absolutely no bearing
on the question on whether or not the viscous dissipation effect is negligible in the makeup of entropy generation. It is quite possible to have a
heat transfer problem where, although the energy equation can be simplified according to EcPr e I , the entropy generation figure is in fact dominated by viscous effects. This is the case in which T is so small that the aggregate group EcPr/T is actually of order one. This observation is motivated by the fact that sometimes, perhaps suggested by firstlaw rules of
thumb and the desire to simplify the analysis, the viscous effect is
neglected ( I priori in the secondlaw treatment of convective heat transfer
processes.
B . E N IROPY G E N F R AI OIN
h o t I I t.s A N D
MAPS
The local entropy generation formula. Eq. (3. I ) , or equivalent forms for
other systems of coordinates [ 371. can be applied to known solutions for
the velocity and temperature fields in convective heat transfer. Thus. entropy generation profiles or maps may be constructed, maps illustrating
the areas and features of the flow which act as sources of thermodynamic
irreversibility. Below, we reproduce two examples which are based on
known textbook solutions in laniinar heat transfer.
As a first example, consider the Poiseuille flow through a round tube
with uniform heat flux 4" around its circumference (see insert of Fig. 4).
The velocity and temperature profiles for this flow are particularly
simple [37]:
u, =
L.,,,,,,[
(3.9)
(r/r,,Y]
(4"r,/X) [ 4 (.u/xo)
(r/ro)*
+ +(r/ro)4]
(3.10)
where
L!,,,,,= (ro2/4p)(  tlP/d.r)
(3.11)
and
x,,/ro =
r ~ , i ~ L ~ , , ,=J ( Pe,
~
(3.12)
Combining these expressions with the equivalent of Eq. ( 3 . I ) in cylindrical coordinates, one obtains the entropy generation profile in the tube
.~"'kT*2/y"2
= (2R
(3.13)
ADRIANBEJAN
14
0.5
FIG.4. Entropy generation profiles for heat transfer to laminar pipe flow [34].
depends on the radial position R, on the Peclet number Pe, and on the
group EcPr/7, which determines the relative importance of viscous effects. The Peclet number governs the relative importance of irreversibility
due to conduction in the longitudinal direction. We see that when Pe < 4,
the axial conduction contribution dominates the radial conduction effect.
Figure 4 displays a family of entropy generation profiles in the cross
section, for cases in which the axial conduction effect is negligible, Pe 4
4.The value of ECPr/T increases gradually to the point where viscous effects take over. In all cases, the pipe wall region acts as a strong source of
irreversibility. When E3cPr/T = 0, the maximum S occurs inside the
the same place where due to the wall curvature effect
fluid, at R =
the maximum temperature gradient is located. As viscous effects take
over, the point of highest irreversibility migrates toward the wall and, for
EcPr/.r > f , it coincides with the wall.
As a second example, consider the development of laminar momentiim
and thermal boundary layers along a flat plate. The situation is shown
schematically in the horizontal plane of the isometric drawing of Fig. 5 . At
a sufficiently large distance away from the solid wall the velocity and temperature are uniform, vX,= and T , . The wall temperature is constant, I*.
The entropy generation surface presented in Fig. 5 is based on the c1,assical BlasiusPohlhausen solution [38] which, for the special case Pr = 1,
<+,
StC'ONl)l,,4W ANALYSIS
FIG. 5 . Entropy generation \urface foi laminar boundary flow and heat transfer over a
flat plate [34].
reduces to
HIH,
Ltfldr)
(3.14)
V J 1 J . X =
(ltldr)
(3.15)
ADRIANBEJAN
16
with the S"' formula (3.11, and neglecting the terms associated with gradients in the longitudinal direction x, yields
(1
+ Ec/7)fl12/Rez
(3.16)
c. THE ENTROPYGtVtRATlON N U M B E RN s
,,qr
WALL TEMPERATURE,
 1
m,P,T
''
',
m,PdP,T+
T+AT
dT
j j
1dxI
St C O N 01 A W A N A L Y S I S
17
the flow direction. I n such ciiseh, q ' represents the heat flux averaged
over a length L containing an integral number of periods, whereas A becomes the minimum flow area.
It can be shown that for ( i t / \ ' prrrc' . s r r h s r m n c . c ~ flowing through the
system, the rate of entropy generation per unit length is [40]
(3.17)
We recognize here the contribution due to fluid friction in the duct. the
first term in Eq. (3.17), and the irreversibility due to heat transfer across a
nonzero temperature difference. I n many cases the temperature difference number 7 = 1777' is much smaller than unity; hence. one can
write ap prox imatel y
(3.18)
q ' / ( pA r )
(3.19)
dP/il.\ = 2fG2//pD
(3.20)
Re
1)G/p
(3.21)
St
/ I : , ,/c,G
(3.32)
I)
4t,r/Gp
(3.23)
and
where h,,, , I ) , G . j'. and St are. respectively, the average heat transfer
coefficient. hydraulic diameter ( 4 A I p ) . mass velocity, friction factor. and
Stanton number. Therefore, if the friction and heat transfer information is
available (f'and St). i t is possible based on Eq. (3.17) to evaluate the rate
of entropy generation integrated over the duct cross section. This statement holds for both laminar ( i t i d turbulent flow.
Since the momentum transfer information is condensed in dimensionless groups such as friction factor. skin friction coefficient. or drag
coefficient, and since heat transfer results are expressed similarly in the
form of Nusselt or Stanton numbers, it is appropriate to define a dimensionless group for secondlaw analysis in heat transfer, the ctirrop\' gc'tic'rn t i o t i nirttihrr N , . This new group is defined in a manner similar to friction
18
ADRIANBEJAN
(3.24)
Thus, if in the system of Fig. 6 the heat transfer rate is fixed, the characteristic entropy transfer interaction across the system boundary is q ' / T .
Consequently, the entropy generation number derived from Eq. (3.1'7) is
N.5, ==
+ 7/( 1 + T )
(rn/pq') ( d P / d ~ )
(3.25)
(3.26)
+ ~ / ( 1 + T)
(3.27)
where parameter J plays the role of "duty" parameter for the duct:
= q'p/mp(c,n7':!
(3.28)
It is apparent that the AP and AT terms in Eq. (3.27) are coupled via the
temperature difference number T. Consequently, a minimization of the entropy generation number requires the optimum selection of 7 with respect
to the sum of friction and heat transfer contributions. In the limit A 3 0,
A I12
(3.29)
?iA
(3.30)
[ ( 3 / 3 7 )(.f/St)]l'2(Re/St)J
(3.31)
20
ADRIANBEJAN
(h,,pTp/m) ( dP/dx)
(3.32)
Expressing the entropy generation number in terms of R and A as independent parameters, we find
N s r = 32/R23
+ A (R/3) [ l
+ A (R/3)]
( 3 ..33)
2
4
FIG. 8. The entropy generation number as a function of A and the ratio of heat transfer
coefficient to fluid pumping power R , Eq. (3.31) [40].
3IA
(3.34)
Based o n Fig. 8 and Eq. (3.33). we conclude that increasing the ratio of
heat transfer coefficient to pumping power ( R )is not ,sii,jfic.ic,iir to ensure
improved thermodynamic performance, Since N s , depends o n more than
just R . the true effect of a proposed design change can only be evaluated
by estimating the changes induced in R and A , and eventually in N S , .
D. T H I IMPACT
O N E NI R O P Y
OF
H ~ . A IH&\scr
I
H A U G M E N T AI IO N
GFN t R 4 I I O N
ADRIANBEJAN
22
xi
iX , i
lb)
(0)
FIG. 9. Heat transfer augmentation by finning a bank of tubes in cross flow: (a) smooth
tubes; (b) finned tubes.
(3.35)
Ns,a = Sk/SA
N.t.A*
+ [+o/(l + &)I
(Ns,iip  N S A T )
(3.36)
with
Sh.A*/SA,aT =
(Sb/sta) DalDo
(3.37)
SL,A,/Sb
CfJfo)
(3.38)
Sh,u,/S,!,,AT
2 fStRe(p2cpT/p2D4) ( w z / ~ ) ~ (3.39)
Ns,AT =
Ns,Ap
$o
(Do/Da> (&/A,)*
Forms (3.37)(3.39) are all based on the standard definitions for a duct,
Eqs. (3.19)(3.23), plus the simplified expression (3.18). A special position is occupied by parameter +o, which describes the role played by fluid
friction in the irreversibility of the reference design. As shown below,
is a crucial parameter, which, in addition to the specific augmentation
(3.40)
Relations (3.36)(3.40)are general and can be used to evaluate the impact of augmentation on the irreversibility of ducts of diverse geometries.
As an example, we illustrate this procedure by considering the augmentation technique presented in Fig. Y . There are three finnedtube designs
( a l . a2. a3) being compared with the reference bank of smooth tubes. The
pertinent geometric parameters have been summarized in Table I [4850].
Despite a conscious effort to compare tube bank geometries which differ
only with regard to tin geometry. it was impossible to find friction and
heat transfer data for smooth and finned tubes having exactly the same
array geometry ( X , , A',).
The cases considered in Table I have approxi
Augmented \urface
(tinnedI
surface
(\moot h )
De\cription
112
2 00
I .91
1.91
1.91
1 (HI
2.09
2 00
2.01
4.52
5 hl
9.01
I .74
I 74
1.70
Suilxe n o .
10 I I I>
148. 491
11
0.0155
Surface no.
1079
(48. 501
0 0 155
Surface no
1080 ,A
[4x. 501
(I
0.01 17
Surface no.
1092 A
[48, 501
ADRIANBEJAN
24
o,l
l L l L
IU
 I1
L:
10
100
Re, x I 03
F I G . 10. Entropy generation number due to heat transfer augmentation, N,,,, versus reference surface parameters Re, and 4, .
mately the same array geometry, an inconsistency which does not affect
the main conclusions of this example.
The results of evaluating the available work conservation potential of
finning are summarized in Figs. 10 and 11. The entropy generation
number, Eq. (3.36), was plotted in Fig. 10 based on friction factor and
Stanton number data compiled by Kays and London [48]. It is evident
that, depending on the value of & , the augmentation techniques under
study can either decrease or increase the rate of available work destruction in the heat transfer device. There exists a special class of reference
<I

a1
a2
100
10
Re, x I O  ~
FIG. 11. The function &,,(Ke,) for Ns.a= I . corresponding to three different finning
techniques.
SICONI)LAW
ANALYSIS
25
26
ADRIANBEJAN
HEATER
p2
EXPANDER
REGENERATIVE
HEAT EXCHANGER
COMPRESSOR
COOLER
ENTROPY
FIG.12. Countertlow heat exchanger for a Brayton cycle heat engine [42].
pressure drop in the regenerative heat exchanger; (2) the inlet to the
heater is already as hot as possible, i.e., as hot as the expander outlet; and
(3) the inlet to the cooler is as cold as the compressor outlet. This limiting
case corresponds to a completely reversible regenerator (AT = 0, A P =
0). From this example it is apparent that the effective streamtostream
heat exchange in the regenerator is only one of the byproducts of its true
function, that of allowing the hot and cold ends of the power cycle to cornmunicate (trade fluid) in the least irreversible manner. As discussed in
Section V,B,3, the function of the regenerative heat exchanger is to
practically insulate the hot end of the cycle from the cold end.
McClintock [51] appears to have been the first to recognize that the
concept of irreversibility minimization has a definite place in heat exchanger design. In a generally unnoticed conference article, McClintock
establishes the connection between Keenans irreversibility quantity
as a means of measuring thermodynamic nonideality [24] and the engineering task of designing efficient heat exchangers. He discusses the irre* This remark is amplified by the oftenquoted example of a naturally occurring counterflow heat exchanger, the blood counterflow in the long legs of wading birds [52]. More visibly than anywhere else, the job of the counterflow is not to exchange heat but to permit the
birds body and its foot to exchange oxygenated blood for oxygendepleted blood, as required by metabolism. There are reasons to believe that the birds metabolism is ultimately
geared onto the conservation of available work in its organs, particularly in the legs.
S E C ~ N I )  I _ANALYSIS
AW
27
A. Ht.41 E X C H A N G E RWS I I H
% i . ~ oPRESSUREDROP
where T I , Tz are the inlet absolute temperatures of the two streams and
N,, is the number of heat transfer units UAlmc,. This result is shown
plotted in Fig. 13 as Sarn/tnc.,,versus the heat exchanger effectiveness E,
which in the example shown here is given by
=
Nt,/( 1 + N,,)
(4.2)
ADRIANBEJAN
28
0
0.2 0.5
0.2
Nt.
I
0.4
0.6
0.8
10 a
1.0
FIG. 13. Entropy generation rate in a balanced counterflow heat exchanger with zero
pressure drop. (After Tribus [54].)
The symmetry of Eq. (4.1) is reflected graphically in Fig. 13. The entropy generation rate is invariant to the transformation T 1 / T z+ T z / T , ,
meaning that in Fig. 14 the absolute temperature may be measured in
either direction on the abscissa. In other words, Tl may be assigned to
either the warm inlet or the cold inlet without changing the appearance of
result (4.1).
The entropy generation rate reaches a clear maximum when N,, = 1,
maximum given by
Sec"/ln('P =
(4.3)
This feature is not intuitively obvious since we would expect the heat
ii
STREAM
CONTROL
VOLUME
STREAM
TI
T*
TE M P E R ATUR E
FIG. 14. Schematic of counterflow heat exchanger with imbalanced capacity rates [42].
Sc( Y
N I) 1,A w
A NA L Y s I s
29
(4.4)
where subscripts C. H. out, and in refer to the cold stream, hot stream.
outlet, and inlet, respectively. The "+" sign applies to counteiflow and
sign to parallel flow. l h i s expression holds for ideal gases and
the
incompressible liquids. The same authors extended the eRconcept to the
local level, showing that when the longitudinal temperature variations
Tc(.r), T&) are known. one can evaluate locally the relative loss of availability (exergy) due to heat transfer across the streamtostream temperature difference.
L b _ ' '
B.
H t . 4 1 E X C H A N ( ; t R GF.OMI I K Y FOK M I N I M U M I R R E V t R S I R I I . I I Y
ADRIANBEJAN
30
2 have been associated with the minimum and maximum capacity rates
(rnc,) in counterflow. Defining the entropy generation number N, in the
manner indicated in Eq. (3.24),
= (Cmin/Crnax)
+
+
MTz/T,) +
(Cmin/CmaxY
[I 
(1 
(Crnin/Crnax)
(Crnin/Cmax)(R/(p)l
 (Cmin/Cmax) (1
T,/Td]
(1  T , / T J 2
x ex~[Ntu(l  C m i n / C m a x ) l
( 1  T1/TdI (1  (Cmin/Crnax)
x exP[Ntu(l  Crnin/Cmax)l}
Cmin/Cmax)
(4.7)
Here, R is the ideal gas constant, the rest of the symbols having been defined in Fig. 14 and in the Nomenclature.
Equation (4.7) is based on the assumption that the heat exchanger is
nearly ideal, in other words, (AP/P)l,ze 1 and 1  E 6 1, where E is
the effectiveness (Tl,out T1)/(Tz  T I ) .This assumption makes visible in
Eq. (4.7) the two mechanisms responsible for entropy generation. The
first two terms account for irreversibility due to heat transfer betwee:n
streams, across a nonzero temperature difference. The last two terms,
individually, represent the fluid friction effect in each of the two ducts of
the heat exchanger. It is easy to see that in the Ntu + limit the second
term vanishes, and the AT irreversibility is due solely to flow imbalance
(Cmax> Cmin).Figure 15 shows how the imbalance contribution to N F ,
the first term in Eq. (4.71, varies with the capacity ratio and the absolute
temperature ratio. From a practical fiesign viewpoint, it is important 1.0
know the magnitude of the imbalance contribution when one seeks to
minimize N, by increasing the N,, and by decreasing the friction APs: the
imbalance component tells the designer when he or she has reached the
point of diminishing returns in the minimization of overall Ns, since in the
limit N,, + 00, APl,z+ 0. the imbalance term is the sole survivor in
Eq. (4.7).
A further simplification of the Ns Eq. (4.7) is achieved when one con. Applying
siders the case of nearly balanced capacity rates, Cmin= CmaX
the calculus limits as C,,in C,,,, the number of entropy generation
units becomes
+
31
St,c ONIFLAWANALYSIS
10
10
05
1, 1,
F I G . IS. The entropy generation due l o capacity rate imbalance in a counterflow heat exchanger [4?].
where
NS.irnhalancv
N,y,
= [(~nla,/(,nln)
=
I I [(];/TI)  I  In
72/71]
(4.9)
[ ( T 2 / T 1 ) 1 2 (7,/7;)1]2 N,,
+ (cmin/crnax)
(Klc,,,),( A P / P ) ,
N,?, = (C,,,,,,/C,,,,,,)
[(72/71)12
(4.10)
(T1/T2)*12N& + ( R / ( . , ) , ( A P / P ) ,
(4.11)
In this limit Nshas separate terms describing the rate of entropy generation o n each of the two sides of the heat exchanger. Moreover, the irreversibility of each side N s , , , appears a s the sum of one contribution due to
heat exchanger A T and one contribution due to frictional AP losses:
N.5,
=:
Ns.A~r,:?
+
NS,AP,.P
(4.12)
1.
Nirttrtwr c ! f
E I I / ~ oG ~
< , t\ l ~
( , / i l / i o t l 1 J t l i t . y .fbr OtIc S i t l ~ K,,,
.
32
ADRIANBEJAN
= f(4L/D)
(4.13)
G/2pf
(4.14)
Ns1,2
1,270
(4L/D)l,,Stl,2
61.2 (;)l,,
f12
4L
(D)*.,
g:,2
(4.15)
Equation (4.15) contains the usual heat exchanger notation, where, in addition, we defined
a,
1,
a2
= Cmin/Crnax
b1
Crnin/ Cm ax
b,
70
[ ( T , / T , Y  (Tl/T2)]2,
g = G/(2pP)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
Thus, g plays the role of dimensionless mass velocity, while T~ has the
same significance as the temperature difference number ( 7 ) relative to the
difference between inlet temperatures, TI and T,.
The dependence of N s , , , on design parameters such as Re, 4L/D, andl g
is shown qualitatively on the threedimensional logarithmic plot of Fig.
16. The graphic construction of Fig. 16 is actually based on empirical data
on turbulent flow inside smooth tubes, where both St and f a r e proportional to Rep0.,; one can construct qualitatively similar threedimensional
plots for other heat exchanger surfaces.
2. Optimum Duct Geonrrtry, 4LID
From Fig. 16 and Eq. (4.15) it is evident that number of entropy generation units always increases when g increases, with 4L/D and Re remaining fixed. Unlike g, the duct slenderness ratio 4L/D plays a definite
tradeoff role: for constant g and Re, there exists a clearly defined optimum 4L/D for which the resulting N8,,*is a minimum. The optimum condition for each side is described by
(4.19)
and
=
(4.20)
For common heat exchanger surfaces the group (f/St)1/2is only a weak
function of the Reynolds number [42]. Therefore, Eq. (4.20) establishes a
SECONI)LAW
ANALYSIS
33
FIG. Ih. Number of entropy generation units for one side of the heat exchanger, as a
function of L / r , , . g. and hRt.
(hence r , , = 11/41 [4!].
ADRIANBEJAN
34
C . SENSIBLE
H E A I U U I T SFOR ENERGYSTORAGE
As a second example consider the minimization of irreversibility i.n a
sensible heat unit for energy storage. Traditionally, the thermal design
and optimization of a sensible heat storage unit relies on the view that the
system thermal Performance can be assessed based on how much thermal
energy the unit can store. In short, a unit is considered more efficient than
another iffor the same heat input and the same amount of storage
materialit is capable of storing more thermal energy. This point of view
is generally accepted and serves as basis for testing and evaluating the
thermal performance of sensible heat (fluid and solid) storage units [57].
Bejan [S8] analyzed t h e performance of such units by treating them as
systems intended to store available work, the function they perform in
most power applications.
Consider, for example, the system shown schematically in Fig. 17. It
consists of a large liquid bath of mass M and specific heat C placed in an
insulated vessel. Hot gas enters the system through one port, is cooled by
flowing through a gasliquid heat exchanger immersed in the bath, and is
eventually discharged into the atmosphere. Gradually, the bath temperature T as well as the gas outlet temperature To,, rise, approaching the hot
gas inlet temperature 7', . It is assumed initially that the bath temperature
equals the environment temperature T o . The bath is filled with an incompressible liquid such as water or oil. The stream m carries an ideal gas, for
example, hightemperat ure steam or air. The stream of hot gas is supplied
continuously at T , and P o ; before entering the unit, the stream is compressed to Po + AP in order to overcome the pressure drop caused by
friction in the heat exchanger.
The time dependence of the bath temperature and the gas outlet temperature can be derived analytically and the result is available in the engineering literature [S9]. Of interest here is the total amount of entropy generated from the beginning of the charging process until an arbitrary time r
(S/mc,t) = (R/c,,) In(l
+ 0'{ln[l
+ AP/Po)+ T
+ ~ ( 1 c ~ " ) ]
+ T)
(1
~ ( 1 e"")}
(4.21)
= mc,t/MC
(4.22)
exp(UA/mc,)
(4.23)
35
.1 1 q u ~ dh s a l
(trill l o i
exchanger
where A is the total heat transfer area on the gas side, U is the overall heat
transfer coefficient based on A . and UA/(rwc,) is the heat exchanger
number of transfer u n i t \ N,, .
According to the GouyStodola theorem (2.7), T,S given by Eq. (4.71)
equals the available work destroyed due to process irreversibility. We can
compare the lost portion of the ;ivailable work with the maximum available work associated with the same amount of hot gas, m(',,/.
ct',,,,, =
IW,J
I,,
[T 
In(l
+ TI]
(4.24)
Equation (4.24)is based o n calculating the drop if gas availability from the
inlet condition T , P,, , before compression to Po + A P . to the "dead"
state T o , P o . Dividing Eqs. (4.7I ) and (4.74)side by side, one arrives at the
number of entropy generation units
for the 0 + (3 heating (charging)
From Eqs. (4.21)and (4.24). i t is easy to see that .'V, will again
have two parts, one describing irreversibility caused by friction. the other
irreversibility due to heat transfer across the nonideal heat exchanger
surface:
ADRIANBEJAN
36
%AT
0 5
8FIG. 18. Entropy generation caused by heat transfer across a finite temperature difference, as a function of heat exchanger N , , , temperature difference T, and charging time 8:
(a) T = 0 ; ( b ) T = I : (c) T = 2 [5X].
S t u )hi I ) LAw A NA L Y S Is
37
!
0
T,  T<,
To
initially at 7 0 . In the c) + x limit, the gas stream exits the heat exchanger as hot as it enters: its available work content is again dissipated
entirely by direct heat transfer to atmospheric temperature.
The optimum time t),,,,
and the corresponding Ny,yT can be determined
as functions of N,,, and T. An interesting result associated with this optimum situation is the optimum temperature of the sensible heat u n i t , reproduced here in Fig. 19. We see that when the storage unit operates at
the optimum, the total amount of thermal energy stored as sensible heat at
the end of the charging proce\s. hlC(
 To),is far from the maximum
storage capability of the liquid bath. M C ( T ,  To). In accordance with
Fig. 18, if one seeks t o heat the liquid bath until the stored thermal energy
reaches its maximum ( 7 '  7 . x ) ,one runs the risk of storing none or a very
small fraction of the total available work drawn from the hightemperature
source.
Other design tradeoffs are brought to light by the entropy generation
analysis sketched above. For example, in Eq. (4.25), increasing the heat
exchanger N,, has the effect of decreasing NsSaTand that of increasing
N,.,, . Therefore. i t is possible to determine an optimum number of heat
transfer units N,, , which leads l o the mimimum overall N,, . The optimum
38
ADRIANBEJAN
N,, is derived purely from thermodynamic considerations before proceeding with the actual design of the heat exchanger. The analytical details of
finding the optimum N , , are left to the reader who is encouraged to consult Bejan [ 5 8 ] .
In conclusion, the irreversibility analysis summarized above outlines
the inherent inefficiency of storing available work as sensible heat. Even
under the most efficient of operating conditions, 8 =
and using a
pressure dropfree heat exchanger, the unit stores less than 50% of the
available work delivered by the hightemperature source. Again, the irreversibility analysis reveals the heat exchanger tradeoff between losses
due to fluid friction AP and heat transfer across a finite AT, tradeoff cliscussed in the preceding section on counterflow heat exchangers. Despite
the simplicity of the sensible heat unit analyzed (Fig. 17), the conclusions
reached here apply qualitatively to other, more complex, units such as
solid units for sensible heat storage [60].
V. Thermal Insulation Systems
,
TL
T,
'
tw
.,.
Q, I
''
/'"
(a1
ib,
(C)
Flc,. 2 0 Three examples of thern1;il in\ulation \ystems preventing two surfaces of different temperatures from corning into diicci thermal contact: (a) conducting layer: ( h ) heat
engine: (CI refrigerator.
20. The first conclusion is that thermal insulation systems. as a class. are
varied, numerous. and complex. There is considerably more to this class
than the textbookstyle example shown in Fig. 20a. The second conclusion which must be stressed in this article is that the heat transfer from 7k,
to 7; is ~ r o lticc~es.wrilyc . o r i . s f t i r r / across the insulation. In a heat engine.
for example, the heat transfer decreases in magnitude, a decrease which
accounts for the net work output of the engine. Therefore. applying again
the GouyStodola theorem ( 2 . 7 ) . i t makes perfect sense to inquire into
the possibility of reducing the irreversibility of an insulation system. particularly in largescale power refrigeration applications. The objective of
this design procedure is to squecre the most available work out of a given
insulation system, in the manner illustrated in Fig. 20b.
A. M I N I M I L A T I O N
OF
ENTROPk
1 N S l I L A l I O N S l S I t  M Of
G t N F R A T l O N IN A N
FIX1 1)
I1)F:NTITY
tl7/dx
(5.1)
where the proportionality factor h( 73 is the "effective" thermal conductivity o f the insulation material. Although Eq. (5.1) is identical to the
Fourier law of heat conduction, in this treatment its meaning is considerably more general. as it describes systems in which the heat transfer
mechanism is not necessarily conduction. In the analysis, the local temperature T and heat transfer y are controlled externally by placing the insulation in local thermal equilibrium with the T end of a reversible
40
ADRIANBEJAN
FIG. 21. Analysis of entropy generation in a continuous, onedimensional, thermal insulation system: (a) the "brake" effect buried in an insulation; (b) local extraction of available
work [62].
(5.3)
In mathematical terms, the ta\k of minimizing the irreversibility iissociated with a onedimensional continuous insulation of fixed identity boils
down to minimizing integral ( 5 . 2 ) subject to constraint (5.3) by properly
choosing the unknown function q( 7'). The result to this variational calculus problem is [63]
.'I2
y,,,,,(T)= 7 A 1 ' ( A / / )
(klP2IT)
tlT
(5.4)
(j
(A//)
'I1
.I2
'I I
(k"2/7)
dTj2
(5.5)
42
ADRIANBEJAN
s* /Smin
(5.6)
pT = 1
S L c o N I ) LAw A N A L Y sI s
43
sign. there exists an infinity ofde\igns in which q ( T ) may or may not come
close to q,,,,,(T).The ability of achieving a heat transfer distribution y ( T )
which closely resembles 4(,,,41)depends on the amount and distribution of
lateral heat transfer effect.
We learn by examining Fig. 2 2 that insulation systems exposed to large
absolute temperature ratios p,.\tand to benefit most from a de\ign where
the heat leak function is controlled externally via principle ( 5 . 4 ) . Cryogenic insulations are examples of such systems. Below. we review a
number of applications in which lowtemperature systems are thermodynamically optimized from the viewpoint of irreversibility minimiz a t ion
B. E N G I N E [  R I APPI
N G I(
AIIOV\
Considerable research is prrseiitly focused on the large scale applications of superconductivity and their possible role in the energy projects of
the future [64]. For example. giant superconducting magnets are being
developed for the purpose of creating the magnetic confinement vessel for
plasma in fusion reactors [ 6 5 ] . hven larger superconducting systems are
contemplated a s energy storage systems for peak powershaving applications [66]. In the electric power indu\try, significant resource\ are being
invested in the development of rotating electric machinery w i t h superconducting windings [67].
Since superconducting magnet\ must operate at liquid helium temperatures. applications of the type listcd above require thermodynamically efficient insulation \ystems to provide and maintain a working lowtemperature environment. We show below that the conceptual design of
such systems follows closely the principle of entropy generation minimization presented in the preceeciing section.
1.
M l J c . / l l r l l i c ~ t rSlr/pot
l
5
Large superconducting magnet4 must be supported from room temperature. The supports must be thick and strong to withstand the static
loading experienced by the cold space. At the same time, these supports
must be short enough to provide adequate stiffness to the assembly.
Overall. the task of thermodynamically optimizing this class of supports
consists of minimizing the irreversibility of an insulation system of fixed
geometry and identity. with t h e final objective of minimizing the refrigerator power input required to keep the cold space cold.
In practice, the optimum design of cryogenic mechanical supports may
involve the use of a stream of cold gas (helium) flowing in parallel with the
conduction path, again\t the conduction heat flow (see Fig. 23). If the
ADRIANBEJAN
44
WARM END
COLD ENC,
m,cp
COOLANT
8L
4,
t
 4
HEAT CURRENT
I\
A , k(T)
I
FIG. 23. Intermediate cooling effect provided by a stream of cold helium gas in counterflow with the conduction heat flow through a structural support [69].
capacity rate of this stream is mc,, then the support heat leak varies according to dq/dT = rnc,, . If the support conductivity is temperature independent and if the stream flow rate is selected such that m c , =
( A k l / r )In(T,/T,), then, from Table 11, the lateral cooling provided by ithe
cold stream is the optimum required for the job. In reality, the conductivity of most structural materials varies strongly with the temperature,
particularly at low temperatures. Consequently, the onestream intermediate cooling technique, which has been popular for some time starting
with the work of Scott [68], can only approximately approach the irreversibility minimum ( 5 . 5 ) . In such cases, one still faces the design question of using the best capacity rate mc,, which will differ from
( A K l / t ) In(T,/T,) listed in Table I1 for k = constant materials. The optimum capacity rate mc,, for actual structural supports is reported in Bejan
and Smith [69].
Another important aspect of the optimum design of cryogenic supports
is the design and fabrication of the streamtoconducting solid heat exchanger which houses the intermediate cooling effect dictated by 1he
variational principle. This is a difficult task when we think that bringing a
gaseous stream in good thermal contact with a conduction heat current in
a solid piece implies machining holes and channels in the solid, thereby
weakening the structural member. The entropy generation minimization
in this class of heat exchangers is discussed in Bejan and Smith [69]. The
heat exchanger fabrication is less difficult and more economic if, instead
of building a continuous heat exchanger from T1 to T, between gas stream
and mechanical support. one builds a succession of discrete heat exchangers (cooling stations). The optimum heat leak function required by
Eq. (5.4) is therefore approximated by a stepwisevarying function.
Hilal and Boom [70] addressed the question of optimum cooling and
spatial positioning of di.vcrete heat exchangers on conducting mechanical
supports. Their work was motivated by the need to design leastirreversible support structure\ for ;I stadiumsize superconducting energy
storage system [MI.
A s shown i n Fig. 24. Hilal and Boom considered a
support stretching from 7 , = 1.8 K (magnet temperature) to I , , , =
300 K (room temperature), the support being cooled at ( N t I ) discrete
points (nodes. cooling stations) hy contact with a refrigeration plant. Consequently. the conduction heat flow along the support has a stepwise variation in temperature. The refrigerator power input associated with cooling
each point along the support i4
Wi = A ~ i [ ( l l / A . r l ) ll,/A.rll]
for i
2 . .... !Y + I
(5.7)
W , = Aylll/A.r
for i
(5.8)
and
where
(5.10)
and Axi is the support length between the ith and (i + I ) t h cooling stations
(Fig. 24). A s in Fig. 23. A is the support crosssectional area. actor Ci appearing in Eq. (5.9) is the "Carnot efficiency" of the refrigerator cooling
node i; note that C', = 1 if the refrigerator is reversible. and I ' , '
, 1 if the
refrigerator is irreversible [7 I ] .
The total refrigerator power expen\e to be minimized is
'
.v+ 1
1 W l / A = C DilAxi
(5.11)
(5.12)
\ i I
W/A =
i=l
11
with
I)!
(YI
Yl+l)l,,
YN+2
Equation (5.11) muht be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed support length,
I.
\!
AXi
(5.13)
I=I
ADRIANBEJAN
46
ROCK
300K
TN+, T H
xil
SUPPORT
Ti = T c
\ \ \
Hilal and Boom [70]. The optimum node temperatures T 2 , ..., TNfl are
given by the solution to the following set of equations:
a&,
aD.
i = 2 ,..., N + 1
(5.14)
( 1 / D f F l ) a 7 ; + ( l / D : )jf = 0 ,
The optimum nodetonode spacing is then calculated from
. v i1
AxJL = Dii2,/E
Df12
(5.15)
i=l
.V+l
i=l
IZ
Df2
(5.16)
Hilal and Boom [70] applied this optimization procedure to various designs of superconducting systems. For example, for a 10,000 MW hr energy storage solenoid supported by a Narmco epoxy fiberglass structure
with two intermediate heat exchangers (nodes) the optimum node temperatures are T2 = 1I . I K , T3 = 70.3 K, while the optimum spacing between
cooling stations is AxJL = 0.305, Ax2/L = 0.325, Ax.JL = 0.370.
For the minimum refrigerator power requirement the authors found
WinLIA = 94.5 Wlcm, a value used later in the cost analysis of the proposed system.
It is worth pointing out that the choice of calculating and minimizing the
2 . Mirltrplc. ,
Optiiili I
/I\,
<
'(
i1
K t 1 rlitiI/( l t I
ShiPIdLS
It is known from elementary heat transfer that the effective conductivity of a stack of parallel radiating shields is proportional to the local
shield absolute temperature c u b e d . I n Fig. 22 this class of insulations is
approximately accounted for b y the 1 1
3 curve. Therefore. in cryogenic
radiation shielding more than anywhere else, t h e minimization of irreversibility according t o rule ( 5 . 4 ) i s likely to yield important savings in available work.
Imagine an insulation consisting of (,V  1) radiation shields suspended
in the evacuated space separating 'I.,and T 2 . If the number of shields is
very large. the insulation may be regarded a s continuous and the variational result (5.4) applies unchanged. I f the number of shields i s small so
that the temperature varies :rppreciably between two adjacent shields.
the variational result does n o t apply and must be replaced with a similar
principle valid f o r discontinuous insulations. This derivation i s presented
in detail in Bejan [67]. T h e insul:ition irreversibility reaches i t s minimum
when the ( N
1 ) shield temperattires are externally controlled such that
~
I =
I. 2.
.... N
(5.17)
ADRIAN
BEJAN
48
where
S=
2 vAF
Y
[pip
pilp]
[(l/T(il))  ~ / p ]
(5.18)
i= 1
[l
+ i(T0/T)4  4To/3T]e
(5.19)
[I
S(T0/T5)4 (4T0/3T5)( 1
cos 8)14]e
(5.20)
SECON [)LAW
ANALYSIS
49

i\
= !)I(,,
A7
(5.21)
(5.22)
50
A D R I A NBEJAN
ATIT
constant
(5.23)
300 K
refrigerator
I +
expansion
engines
min
heat
exchqer
FIG. 26. Intermediate cooling of the main counterflow heat exchanger of a helium refrigerator.
Srt ONI)I,AW
ANALYSIS
51
This review article was devoted to the introduction of secondlaw analysis in heat transfer, and entropy generation minimization in thermal design. The presentation proceeded from the derivation of the G o u y Stotiolli rhrorrm ( 2 . 7 ) ,the basi\ for entropy generation minimization in
the conceptual design of heat transfer equipment. Appropriate analytical
tools, such as the entropy generation number N , in Section 111, were devised for the task of estimating the destruction of available work in the
processes involving heat transfer. However, the entropy generation
number concept is considerably more general since it can be used to quantitatively describe the degree o f irreversibility of engineering components
and processes which do not draw their irreversibility solely from heat
transfer.
The examples considered in this article ranged from the irreversibility
associated with some of the most fundamental convective heat transfer
processes, to the minimum irreversibility design of onedimensional insulations such as the main counterflow heat exchanger of a helium liquefaction plant. This article summarized only the beginning of what can be
52
ADRIANBEJAN
+ CATSLT
(6.1)
McClintock argued that in the heat exchanger for a welldefined application, the unit costs CAPand CAT are known (in general, CM # CAT). Consequently, one can base the heat exchanger design optimization procedure on minimizing Eq. (6.l), the cost attributed directly to thermodynamic inefficiency. With CAPand CAT fixed, this optimization procedure
becomes analytically identical to the entropy generation minimization
procedure illustrated at various points in this monograph.
More recently, Fadden [90] proposed a similar procedure for taking into
account the cost of available work destroyed by fluid friction in piping and
valves. He addressed the simpler class of ducts in which the irreversibility
is due entirely to the AP term appearing in Eq. (3.17). In lieu of cost formula (6. l ) , Fadden proposes the use of an entropy increase cost (EIC) per
unit length of piping,
EIC
CwT0S&
(4.2)
S L C O N I )  L AANALYSIS
W
53
where C,,,is the current cost of electric power and the product T,S Ah represents the available power lost due to fluid friction. Conceptually,
Fadden's proposal is an extreme case of the more general cost formula visualized by McClintock. the extreme case where the cost of heat transfer
irreversibility is negligible compared with the cost of fluid friction irreversibility.
The above schemes for irreversibility cost calculation and minimization
stress one major difference between entropy generation analysis and cost
analysis. As pointed out by Urdaneta and Schmidt [86], the entropy generation analysis is irz\wriuJrt with time and place for a given process. The
invariant, fundamental character of secondlaw analysis stresses t h e importance of the material assembled in the present monograph. This material serves as starting point for thermal design engineers engaged not only
in irreversibility minimization. but also in cost minimization. The real
need for a reference work on the emerging subject of secondlaw analysis
in heat transfer was the motivation behind the writing of thi\ review.
NOhll N( I A I URE
u1.2
h
h,,*
1'D
c'
C,
C W
D
Di
Ec
.f
K
G
h
ha,
coefficients. Eq (4.16)
parameter. Eq. 13.31). also
heat exchanger area. Eq.
(4.23)
availability. energy. h  /(,s
coefficients. Eq. (4.17)
specific heat at constant pre\sure
capacity rate. m ,
C'arnot efficiency of refrigerator
unit cost of irreversibility
due t o fnction
unit cost of irrevercibility due
to heat transfer
unit CQSt of lost available work
hydraulic diameter
function, E q . ( 6 . 1 2 )
Eckert number, E q . (3.5)
friction factor
dimensionlehs mass velocity.
Eq. (4.18)
mass velocity
specific enthalpy
average heat transfer coefficient
ADRIANBEJAN
specific entropy
TgIT,
Subscripts
a
rnax
min
0
rev
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This article is partially based on research supported by Contract No. N0001479C0006
from the Office of Naval Rewarch, the Power Program.
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