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i

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE

1.1

Physical and Chemical Properties of Butyl Acetate

1.2

The Activity for Different Catalyst in the Esterification

Reaction of Acetic Acid and Butanol at 75C.


1.3

Summary of the Comparison between Four Processes

19

1.4

Major Global n-Butyl Acetate Capacity, 000 tonnes per year

22

1.5

Global Raw Material and Product Price

25

1.6

Specification of Optimal Integrated Petrochemical Complex

26

1.7

Summary of the Estimated Cost of Designing, Purchasing,

34

and Installing a Complete Continuous Ester Unit


1.8

Summary of Estimation of Indirect Cost

35

1.9

Summary of Raw Materials Cost

37

1.10

Summary of Utilities Cost

37

1.11

Summary of Calculation on Cost of Operating Labor

38

1.12

The Number of None Particulate Processing Steps and

38

Handing Steps, Nnp


1.13

Summary of Production Costs

40

1.14

Summary of TR, VC, FC and TC Values

41

1.15

Cash Flow ROROI Payback Period

43

1.16

Nondiscounted After Tax Cash Flows

44

1.17

Site Selection Comparisons

61

1.18

Weightage for Site Selection

64

2.1

Stream Table

80

2.2

Overall Plant Mass Balance

83

2.3

Major Equipments Mass Balance

83

2.4

Heat Capacity Constant for Liquid Phase

86

2.5

Heat Capacity Constant for Gas phase

86

2.6

Heat of Formation and Heat of Vaporization

86

2.7

Inlet-Outlet Enthalpy Table for Reactor

94

2.8

Inlet-Outlet Enthalpy Table for Esterification Column

103

2.9

Inlet-Outlet Enthalpy Table for Refining Column

112

ii
2.10

Comparison of Inlet-Outlet Enthalpy from Calculation and

112

HYSYS
3.0

Streams process data to be used in pinch analysis

116

3.1

CP for streams

117

3.2

Typical Tmin values for various types of processes

119

3.3

Typical Tmin values for process-utility matches

120

3.4

Shifted temperatures for the data from Table 9.0

121

3.5

Ranked order of interval temperatures

122

3.6

The temperature interval heat balance

123

3.7

Compare and contrast the utilities before and after heat

129

integration
4.1

Process and instrumentation diagram description

139

4.2

Control system for reactor (R-100)

141

4.3

Control system for esterification column (T-100)

143

4.4

Control system for refining column (T-101)

145

4.5

Control system for heater (E-100)

147

4.6

Control system for cooler (E-101)

148

4.7

Control system for cooler (E-102)

149

4.8

Control system for cooler (E-103)

150

4.9

Control system for cooler (E-104)

151

4.10

Control system for compressor (C-100)

152

4.11

Control system for compressor (C-101)

153

4.12

Control system for pump (P-100)

154

4.13

Control system for pump (P-101)

155

4.14

Control system for pump (P-102)

155

4.15

Control system for decanter (V-100)

156

5.1.1

Molecular weight for each reactants and products

161

5.1.2

Condition at stream inlet and outlet of the reactor

161

5.1.3

Table of composition of each component before and after

163

reaction
5.1.4

Summary of chemical design of R-100

181

5.2.1

Properties of inlet and outlet process stream of E-100.

182

5.2.2

Classification of stream for shell and tube side of E-100.

183

5.2.3

Selection on type of heat exchanger.

183

5.2.4

Selection on tube characteristics

184

iii
5.2.5

Allowable pressure drop for shell and tube side.

185

5.2.6

Physical properties of stream 5 and steam.

185

5.2.7

Temperature for each stream.

186

5.2.8

Summary of chemical design of E-100.

193

5.3.1

Specification of distillation column T-100

194

5.3.2

Antoine's coefficient

198

5.3.3

Trial and error for bubble point calculation, feed

198

5.3.4

Trial and error for dew point calculation, top

199

5.3.5

Trial and error for bubble point calculation, bottom

199

5.3.6

Equilibrium constants calculation, feed

200

5.3.7

Equilibrium constants calculation, top

200

5.3.8

Equilibrium constants calculation, bottom

200

5.3.9

Relative volatility calculation, feed

201

5.3.10

Relative volatility calculation, top

201

5.3.11

Relative volatility calculation, bottom

202

5.3.12

Average relative volatility calculation

202

5.3.13

Feed specifications

204

5.3.14

Calculation of value

205

5.3.15

Calculation of

5.3.16

Data of the column for using Winns method

206

5.3.17

Tabulated data of a calculation

208

5.3.18

Properties of the inlet and outlet streams

209

5.3.19

Summary of chemical design of T-100

225

5.4.1

Common types of packing criteria

227

5.4.2

Properties of feed, overhead and bottom products

231

5.4.3

Summary of chemical design values

238

5.5.1

The advantages and disadvantages of each type of heat

241

value

205

exchanger
5.5.2

Basis design procedure of heat exchanger

242

5.5.3

Selection dimensions for tubes

246

5.5.4

Physical properties in shell and tube side

248

5.5.5

Summary of chemical design of E-101

261

6.1.1

Summary of mechanical design of R-100

297

6.2.1

Design pressure and temperature for shell and tube, taking

299

safety factor as 10%

iv
6.2.2

Types of materials selected for construction for shell and

299

tube.
6.2.3

Design stress for shell and tube, taking safety factor as 10%

300

6.2.4

Specification for tube side (based on chemical design)

303

6.2.5

Specification for shell side (based on chemical design)

304

6.2.6

Total weight loads of E-100

310

6.2.7

Summary for mechanical design of E-100

312

6.3.1

Material of construction details

313

6.3.2

Welded joint efficiency

314

6.3.3

Insulating material specifications

319

6.3.4

Straight cylindrical skirt specifications

328

6.3.5

Data obtained from Hysys to calculate pipe diameter

334

6.3.6

Flanges Dimensions

335

6.3.7

Summary of mechanical design values

336

6.4.1

Details of material of construction

338

6.4.2

Summary of mechanical design of T-101

359

6.5.1

Design pressure of shell and tube

361

6.5.2

Design temperature of shell and tube

362

6.5.3

Design stress for material construction

364

6.5.4

Selection of heat and closure

366

6.5.5

Properties of shell side

373

6.5.6

Properties of pipe of shell side

373

6.5.7

Properties of tube side

374

6.5.8

Properties of pipe of tube side

374

6.5.9

Dimensions of flanged for nozzle

375

6.5.10

Dimensions for saddle support

377

6.5.11

Summary of mechanical design of E-101

378

10.1

Concentration of acetic acid

396

10.2

Summary of wastewater treatment plant

414

8.1

Estimation cost of purchased equipment

419

8.2

Calculation of Total Capital Investment

421

8.3

Labor Cost

432

8.4

Cost of Raw Material

437

8.5

Annual Cash Flow before tax

441

8.6

Depreciation Schedule for MACRS method

442

v
8.7

Annual cash flow after tax

443

8.8

Present worth value

445

8.9

After Tax Cumulative Cash Flow

446

8.10

Present value (RM) when i=30% and i=40%

448

8.11

Future worth (RM) when MARR = 15%

449

8.12

Simple Payback Period

451

8.13

Discounted Payback Period

452

9.1

Lists the EU Classification of Acetic Acid Solutions

461

9.2

Example of HAZOP Analysis

476

9.3

Types of emergencies in a plant

482

9.4

Guide words, meaning and example of deviation

493

9.5

Deviation and some typical causes

494

9.6

HAZOP study on reactor (R-100)

495

9.7

HAZOP study on heat exchanger (E-101)

497

9.8

HAZOP study on distillation column (T-100)

499

9.9

HAZOP study on distillation column (T-101)

501

9.10

HAZOP study on heater (E-100)

503

vi
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
1.1

TITLE

PAGE

Block Flow Diagram for Conventional Esterification

10

Process
1.2

Block Flow Diagram for Esterification by Reactive

12

Distillation Process
1.3

Block Flow Diagram for Conventional Transesterification

14

Process
1.4

Block Flow Diagram for Transesterification by Reactive

16

Distillation Process
1.5

World Consumption of Butyl Acetate

21

1.6

Graph of Butyl Acetate And Butanol Price

23

1.7

Malaysia Import and Export of n-Butyl Acetate in Year

27

2007-2009 (Quantity, kg)


1.8

Malaysia Import and Export of n-Butyl Acetate for Mid-

27

Term Year 2008-2010 (Quantity, kg)


1.9

Average Pricing of n-Butyl Acetate for Import, Year 2007-

28

2009
1.10

Average Pricing of Butyl Acetate for Import, Mid-Term

29

Year 2008-2010
1.11

Average Pricing of n-Butyl Acetate for Export, Year 2007

30

2009
1.12

Average Pricing of n-Butyl Acetate for Export, Mid-Term

30

Year 2008-2010
1.13

Graphical Breakeven Point

42

1.14

Graph of Cumulative Cash Flow versus End of Year

45

1.15

Location of Gebeng (Phase IV)

68

1.16

Transport Facilities Connecting Gebeng

69

3.0

Composite curve

118

3.1

Cascade surplus heat from high to low temperature

123

3.2

Grid diagram

125

3.3

Grid representation of process streams

126

vii
3.4

Network design below pinch

128

3.5

Process Flow Diagram before Heat Integration

130

3.6

Process flow diagram after heat integration

131

4.1

Process control loop

137

4.2

Control system design for reactor (R-100)

141

4.3

Control system design for esterification column (T-100)

144

4.4

Control system design for refining column (T-101)

146

4.5

Control system design for heater (E-100)

147

4.6

Control system design for cooler (E-101)

148

4.7

Control system design for cooler (E-102)

149

4.8

Control system design for cooler (E-103)

150

4.9

Control system design for cooler (E-104)

151

4.10

Control system design for compressor (C-100)

152

4.11

Control system design for compressor (C-101)

153

4.12

Control system design for pump (P-100)

154

4.13

Control system design for pump (P-101)

155

4.14

Control system design for pump (P-102)

155

4.15

Control system design for decanter (V-100)

156

5.1.1

Schematic design of CSTR

161

5.1.2

Temperature and pressure data of R-100

163

5.1.3

Schematic design of cooling jacket of R-100

169

5.2.1

Model input and output of heater, E-100

182

5.2.2

AES, Channel and removable cover, one pass shell,

184

floating head with backing device.


5.3.1

Configuration of distillation column T-100

194

5.4.1

Configuration of distillation column T-101

231

5.5.1

Design procedure of shell and tube heat exchanger

243

5.5.2

Schematic diagram of shell and tube heat exchanger E-

245

101
5.5.3

E-101 Configuration

245

5.5.4

Triangular tube pattern

246

5.5.5

Heat Exchanger (E-101)

247

6.1.1

Analysis of stresses

285

6.1.2

The resultant principal stresses

288

6.2.1

Welding-neck flanges

305

viii
6.2.2

Single segmental baffles design

306

6.2.3

Standard steel saddles

311

6.3.1

Steel slip-on boss flange for welding

335

6.5.1

Typical standard flange design

376

6.5.2

Design of support saddle

377

10.1

Hierarchy of waste management

384

10.2

Source of liquid waste from butyl acetate plant

387

10.3

Source of gaseous waste from reboiler at stream 11

387

10.4

Gaseous waste treatment process flow

390

10.5

Conventional

wastewater

treatment

system

using

392

activated sludge system


10.6

Neutralization tank configuration

397

10.7

Primary settling basin configuration

399

10.8

Activated sludge system

400

10.9

Mixer configuration

403

10.10

Plant layout for the conventional wastewater treatment

412

system
8.1

Cumulative Cash Flow vs. Year

447

9.1

HAZOP Techniques

491

9.2

Plant Layout

511

ix
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES

Fi

Molar flowrate of ith component

[kmol/min]

Conversion

Molar ratio

Temperature

[oC]

CI

Concentration of ith component

[kmol/m3]

DT

Tank diameter

[m]

HT/j

Height of tank / Height of jacket

[m]

Rotational speed

[rps]

NP

Power number

Distance between reactor bottom and impeller

[m]

Diameter of one coil

[m]

Po

Operating power

[W]

Heat taken/given from the reactor

[W]

U0

Overall heat transfer coefficient

[W/m2.K]

Dji

Inner diameter of jacket

[m]

Djo

Outer diameter of jacket

[m]

Mass flux

[kg/m2.s]

Re

Reynolds number

Vtank

Volume of tank

[m3]

Vliq

Volume of reaction mixture

[m3]

dag

Agitator diameter

[m]

-rA

Rate of reaction with respect to component A

[kmol/m3min]

Specific reaction rate

mi

Mass flowrate of ith component

[kg/h]

do

Outer diameter of coil

[m]

di

Inner diameter of coil

[m]

hi

Convective heat transfer coefficient inner fluid

[W/m2 .K]

ho

Convective heat transfer coefficient outer fluid

[W/m2 .K]

Dv

Diameter vessel

Di

Diameter inlet

Do

Diameter outlet

x
Do

Diameter outlet

Design stress

N/mm2

Gravitational acceleration

m/s2

Joint factor

Lv / Hv

Length vessel / Height vessel

ti`/ e

Thickness

mm

dnominal

Nominal diameter

mm

Pi

Pressure

bar /N/mm2

Heat transfer

kJ/s

Subscript i

Internal

Temperature

K / C

Volume

m3

Wi

Weight

kN

Flow rate

kg/s

Density

kg/m3

Eb

Distance bottom reactor and blade

db

Diameter blade

Power motor

kW

Torque

N/mm2

Bending Moment

N/mm2

Stress

N/mm2

Fw

Wind loading

N/mm2

Dm

Mean Diameter

Hs

Height skirt

Young Modulus

N/mm2

Heat transfer area

Ao

Clearance area between bundle and shell

Tube external surface area

Acs

Tube cross-sectional area

At

Total flows area

Effective sealing width of gasket

Cp

heat capacity at constant pressure

Cv

Factor weight of nozzle

Db

Bundle diameter

de

Equivalent diameter

xi
Ds

Shell diameter

Dh

diameter of tube holes in baffles

Dms

Mean diameter of vessel

Dmt

Mean diameter of tube

do

tube outside diameter

di

tube inside diameter

es

cylindrical shell thickness

eH

head thickness

design stress

Ft

Log mean temperature difference correction factor

Gravitational acceleration

Gt

Steam mass flow rate

Gs

Shell side mass flow rate per unit area

hv

length between tangent lines heat transfer coefficient in condensation

hi

Film heat transfer coefficient inside a tube

ho

Heat transfer coefficient outside a tube

hod

Fouling coefficient on outside of tube

hid

Fouling coefficient on inside of tube

hs

Shell-side heat transfer coefficient

IB

Baffle spacing (pitch)

Iw

insulation of mineral wool

welded joint efficiency

Jh

Heat transfer factor

k1

constant value for tube arrangement

Thermal conductivity

kf

Thermal conductivity of fluids

kw

Thermal conductivity of tube wall material

Length of the tube

LMTD

Log mean temperature different

Nb

number of baffle segmental

Np

number of tubes per pass

Nt

Number of tubes

n1

constant value for tube arrangement

Total pressure

pt

Tube pitch

xii
Pt

Tube-side pressure drop

Ps

Shell-side pressure drop

Heat transfer in unit time

Shell side temperature

Temperature of surface

T1

Shell-side inlet temperature

T2

Shell-side outlet temperature

Tlm

Logarithmic mean temperature difference

Tm

Mean temperature different

Tube side temperature

t1

Tube-side inlet temperature

t2

Tube side exit temperature

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Uo

Overall heat transfer coefficient based on tube side area

fluid velocity

us

Shell-side fluid velocity

ut

Tube side fluid velocity

Latent heat

Viscosity

Density

Viscosity at wall temperature

Surface Tension

Pr

Prandtl number

Re

Reynold number

HK

Heavy key component

LK

Light key component

xi

Concentration in liquid phase

Ki

Equilibrium constant

Psat

Saturated pressure

kPa

Pt

Total pressure

kPa

Relative volatility

Rm

Minimum reflux ratio

Tb

Bubble-point temperature

Reflux ratio

Minimum number of stages

xiii
Column efficiency

Molar average liquid viscosity


Average relative volatility for light key

VISA

Constant of viscosity equation

VISB

Constant of viscosity equation

Liquid density

kg/m3

Vapor density

kg/m3

RMM

Relative Molecular Mass

MW

Molecular Weight

Vapor velocity

m/s

Plate Spacing

Di

Internal diameter

Dm

Mean diameter

Ds

Skirt diameter

dh

Hole diameter

mm

Minimum thickness

mm

Design stress

N/mm2

lW

Weir length

Joint factor

Mx

Bending moment

kNm

Ms

Bending moment at base skirt

kNm

Rc

Crown radius

Rk

Knuckle radius

Superficial velocity

m/s

Uf

Flooding vapor velocity

m/s

Longitudinal stress

N/mm2

Hoop stress

N/mm2

Thickness

mm

Dead weight stress

N/mm2

Weight of vessel

Wind loading

N/m

Bending stress

N/mm2

Bolt area

mm2

Number of bolt

CTC

Total Capital Cost

xiv
CFC

Fixed Capital Cost

CWC

Working Capital Cost

CL

Cost of Land

FP

Pressure Factor

FM

Material Factor

CoP

Purchased Cost

FBM

Bare Module Cost Factor

CBM

Bare Module Equipment Cost for base condition

CoBM

Bare Module Equipment Cost for actual condition

Capacity Size

Operating Pressure

Column Diameter

B1, B2

Constant

Fq

Quantity Factor for Trays

tvessel

Vessel thickness

dr

Efficiency of drives

CFBT

Cash Flow before tax

GI

Gross Income

Expenses

Initial Investment

Salvage value

MACRS

Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System

MARR

Minimum Attractive Rate of Return

ROR

Rate of Return

AW

Annual Worth

FW

Future Worth

Mass flow rate

kg/s

Cp

Mass heat capacity

kJ/kgC

Ts

Source temperature

Tt

Target temparature

CP

Heat capacity

kW/C

Tmin

Minimum Temperature Difference

Tint

Temparature interval

Tact

Actual temperature

Tn

Internal temperature difference

xv
Hn

heat required in the nth interval

CPc

Sum of the heat capacities of all the cold streams in the kW

kW

interval
CPh

Sum of the heat capacities of all the hot streams in the

kW

interval
QHmin

Minimum hot utility

kW

QCmin

Minimum cold utility

kW