CHAPTER 6
MECHANICAL DESIGN
6.1
6.1.1
The esterification reactor is designed as a vertical vessel. Since we are dealing with
boiling process, this vertical orientation will provide bigger surface area for
vaporization of the liquid reactants. Bigger surface will hence increases the rate of
products formation per unit time.
6.1.2
The material of construction selected for the reactor system is stainless steel (316).
Acetic acid and paratoluene sulphonic acid utilized in this process give a very
significant corrosion effect to the reactor. Hence, stainless steel is the best material
to be used since it can resist such effect very well. The components in the stainless
steel (316) has provide following functions.
a) Nickel increases toughness and improves low temperature properties and
corrosion resistance.
b) Chromium improves hardness, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance and
resistance to oxidation.
c) Molybdenum provides strength at elevated temperature. Greater strength
can permits thinner walls in process equipments.
6.1.3
The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is suited to the vast
majority of mixing duties up to 100,000 cP or so at high pumping capacity. Because
of that the turbine with flat vertical blades is selected [Sinnot 1999].
62
Size of impeller depends on the type of impeller and operating conditions.
For turbine impeller, the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel is in the range of
d/D = 0.3 to 0.6.
d 0.4 2.435
(6.1.1)
d 0.974 m
The width of impeller,
d 8
(6.1.2)
0.974 8 0.12m
The offset of baffle
d 2
(6.1.3)
D 12
(6.1.4)
2.435 12 0.203 m
The space between impeller and vessel bottom
= H/6
(6.1.5)
= 7.305/6 = 1.2175 m
H H 6
7.305m 1.2175m 6.0875m
(6.1.6)
63
The space between impeller
H 3
(6.1.7)
7.305 3 2.435m
6.1.3.1
Shaft Design
Before shaft design can begin, the motor horsepower, shaft speed and impeller
must be selected first for a turbine agitator application. Shaft design requires two
steps:
1) Establishing the minimum shaft diameter to withstand the forces
acting upon the shaft
2) Determining the natural frequency of vibration for the shaft and
turbines
The shaft and impeller must not rotate close to their natural frequency, N c. As stated
in Journal of Liquid Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C.
Zoller, the operating speed,N of the shaft must be sufficiently far from the systems
natural frequency to prevent the deflections that exceed the yield stress. Then,
Nc N .
6.1.3.2
Speed Impeller
D 394 (
Hp
nS g N
)5
3
(6.1.8)
For typical power consumption for blending of low viscosity liquids. It is about 0.2
kW/m3 (Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, page 293)
64
Then, power for the agitator,P is;
P p xV
(6.1.9)
P 0.2
kW
x 34 m3
3
m
P = 6.8 kW @ 9.1189 hp
0.974 394 (
1
9.1189
5
)
4(0.887) N 3
9.2324 1014
2.5702
N3
N 3 30307.54
Speed impeller, N 158.63 rpm
The torque transmitted by the shaft will have the maximum value above the
uppermost turbine. Since the power drawn by sealing devices is in significant, the
maximum torque,TQ becomes:
TQ (max) 63025
Where
Hp
(6.1.10)
N = speed impeller
TQ (max) 63025
9.1189
158.63
TQ(max) 3623.014
The maximum bending moment, Mmax, is the sum of product of the hydraulic forces
and the distance from individual impellers to the first bearing
M max 19000
H p L'
ND
(6.1.11)
65
Where
M max 19000
9.1189 7.305
158.63 0.974
M max 8191.6614
The minimum shaft diameter values can be calculated due to relationship to meet
the shear stress and tensile stress, respectively:
Shear stress diameter;
16 TQ (max) M max 1
ds [
] 3
2
(6.1.12)
Then, the shear stress and tensile stress can be calculated as below:
16 3623.0142 8191.66142 13
ds [
]
6000
d s 1.9664 inc
16(8191.6614 3623.0142 8191.66142 ) 13
dt [
]
10000
(6.1.13)
66
To meet the shear and tensile requirement, a 12 cm of shaft diameter would be
recommended.
Then, estimate the hub weight from the table on page 103 (Journal of Liquid
Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller) and the blade
weight by substituiting into below;
Wb (
0.35D 3 H p
N
(6.1.14)
= speed impeller
Then
Wb (
0.35(0.974) 3 9.1189 12
]
158.63
Wb 0.1363 kg
W 11.34 0.1363 kg
W 11.4763kg
Nc
0.388 x 106 (d 2 Fm )
Where
L' W L' S b
d = diameter shaft
Fm = stainless steel factor
W = equivalent weight
Sb = bearing span
(6.1.15)
67
Then;
Nc
Nc
0.388 x 10 6 (0.12 2 1)
7.305 11.4763 7.305 30.5
119017
152.1583
N c 782.1947 rpm
Since the natural frequency of 782.1947 rpm for the shaft and impeller is more than
the operating speed of 158.63 rpm, then the 12 cm shaft is acceptable.
6.1.4
For cooling of the reactants, an internal helical coil is used. The coil is the simplest
and cheapest form of heat transfer surface and it is installed inside the reactor
vessel. The utility supplied to the coil is cooling water.
Now, the length of the cooling coil is determined using following formula [Incropera,
2002];
As Dt ,i L mC P Tm,o Tm,i Q Ar
Q A D
r
t ,i
Where, As is the heat transfer area of the coil, A r is the heat transfer area of the
reactor and Dt,i is the inside diameter of the coil (which is assumed to be 0.3 m)
= 3.495 106 /
Q absorbed by the process is 3.495x10 6 kJ/hr per unit area of the vessel.
By using equation [Incorpera, 2002].
= = ( )
68
By assuming the inlet cooling water at 22C, the outlet cooling water at 80C with
Cp= 4.18 kJ/kg.K.
3.495 106 /
=
= 14,412.49 /
(80 22) 4.181 . 80 22 .
Assume no heat loss from the coils wall, Q transferred by the coil is equal to the Q
absorbed by the process in the vessel.
= = 2.435 7.305
= 55.8616 2
=
(6.1.18)
The number spiral formed by the cooling coil around the reactor can be calculated
by dividing the length of the coil by the reactor circumference,
6.1.5
59.29
= 7.75 8
2.435
There is a minimum thickness requires to ensure that any vessel is sufficient rigid to
withstand its own weight and any accidental loads. For a cylindrical vessel, the
minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure can be determined from the
following equation:
(6.1.19)
The design conditions for esterification process between acrylic acid and
2EHOL is set to be: 6 bar as the design pressure and the design temperature is at
10% above operating temperature which is 132C.
69
pressure and it is also due to avoid counterfeit operation during minor process upset
and safety condition.
Therefore, the design stress for stainless steel (316) is taken as 140.4 N/mm2 at
132C.
,
= 6 = 5.9215 = 6 = 0.6
, =
0.6 (2435)
2 140.4 (0.5)
= 5.2123 5.3
The reactor is insulated to avoid loss of heat from the reactor (to conserve
energy) and to keep process conditions from fluctuating with ambient conditions.
Type of insulator used is rockwool. Rockwool is a ceramic material conceived with
fibres of molten stone. Its main features are its thermal insulation (low thermal
conductivity), noncombustible, fireresistance and environmental friendly material.
Thickness of insulation is depends on process temperature as shown in the
following table 1.6.
Table 6.1
T(C)
93
205
316
t (mm)
12.7
25.4
31.75
610
200 93
t insulation
( 25.4 12.7) 12.7
205 93
24.8330 mm 25 mm
T (C) t (mm)
93
12.7
200
t insulation
205
25.4
The end of a cylindrical vessel is closed by heads of various shapes. The common
types used are:
a) Flat heads
b) Hemispherical heads
c) Ellipsoidal heads
d) Torispherical heads
The heads used for the vessel may be flat if they are suitably buttressed, but
preferably they are some curved shape as the hemispherical, ellipsoidal or
torispherical heads. However, the hemispherical heads are commonly used for high
pressures hence they are not suitable to be used for this esterification reactor. To
calculate the thickness of the head, the following equations can be used:
I.
Ellipsoidal heads
=
2 0.2
(6.1.20)
By taking the value of joint factor, J as 1 which implies that the joint is equally
as strong as the virgin plate which achieve by radiographing the complete weld
length and cutting out and remaking any defects. The use of lower joint factors in
design, though saving cost on radiography, but it will result in thicker, heavier &
increase the cost of materials.
Assume J=1,
=
0.6 (2435)
= 5.075 5.1
2 1 140.4 0.2 (0.5)
611
II.
Torrispherical heads
=
2 0.2
1
3 +
4
(6.1.21)
(6.1.22)
Since the crown radius, Rc should not be greater than the diameter of the
cylindrical section, Rc is taken as equal to Di. The ratio of the knuckle to crown
radius should not be less than 0.06 to avoid buckling. Hence, Rk is taken as 6% of
Rc.
Rc = Di =2.435m.
Rk = (0.06)(2.435) = 0.1461 m.
1
3 +
4
2.435
= 1.7706
0.1461
III.
Flat heads
=
(6.1.23)
By assuming plate welded to the end of the shell with a fillet weld is used, C p is
taken as 0.55 and De = Di.
= 0.55 2435
0.5
= 86.4482 mm 86.5 mm
120
The largest value of the thickness obtained by using flat head shows the
inefficiency of a flat cover. Hence, for the head of the vessel, ellipsoidal head is
much preferred since it is the most economical whereby the thickness of the head is
the same as the thickness of the vessel.
612
6.1.7
Stainless steel pipe is used for the inlet and outlet pipe of the reactor. Optimum
diameter for the pipe can be calculated using the following equation:
= 260 0.52 0.37
I.
(6.1.24)
22920.8736
=
=
= 924.2921 3
3
24.7983
22920.8736
= 260
3600
0.52
924.2931
0.37
5052.2543
= 979.4227
=
=
3
3
5.1584
5052.2543
= 260
3600
0.52
979.4227
0.37
III.
17868.6194
=
=
= 904.5250 3
3
19.7547
17868.6194
= 260
3600
0.52
904.5250
0.37
613
6.1.8
Flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instrument to vessel, for manholes
cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. Flanged also
used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for
transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipe to the
equipments such as pumps and valves.
Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and
the bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service. For the design of this heat
exchanger, weldingneck flange are used. It is because weldingneck flanges have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual
transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and
branch. It is also can increase the strength of the flange assembly.
Table 6.2
Nominal
size
55
Flange
d1
65.6
Face
d4
146.7
14
38.
96.7
Table 6.3
Nominal
size
25
d1
33.7
Bolting
M12
Drilling
Boss
No.
d2
d3
14
116.7 78.7
Flange
Face
Bolting
d4
100
14
35
60
M12
Drilling
Boss
No.
d2
d3
11
75
42
614
Table 6.4
Nominal
size
50
Flange
d1
140
Face
Bolting
d4
320
14
28
90
Figure 6.1
M12
Drilling
Boss
No
d2
D3
14
110
80
615
6.1.9
Instead of the pressure, the vessel is also subject to other loads. Hence, it must be
designed to withstand these loads without failure. The main sources of load to be
considered are:
a) Dead weight of vessel and contents
b) Wind
c) Earthquake (seismic)
d) External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment
From the previous page, the minimum thickness required for pressure loading is
9 mm. A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind
and dead weight loads. As a first trial, divide column into five sections, with the
thickness increasing by 2mm per section. Try 11.1, 13.1, 15.1, 17.1, 19.1 mm.
I.
Weight Loads
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed head ends and
uniform thickness steel vessel can be estimated from the following equation:
= 240 + 0.8
(6.1.25)
By taking:
II.
Weight Of Insulation
Rock wool density = 800 kg/m3.
Approximate volume of insulation
(6.1.26)
616
Weight Of Insulation,
9.81 2 = 10,963.656
3
(1.25)
= = 1.3970 3 800
= 10.9637
External fitting used at the reactor is a plain steel ladder. From Nelson
(1963), weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150 N/m length.
Hence, = 150
IV.
(6.1.28)
=
9.81
, 2,
3
2
(6.1.29)
= 18.1584 103 3
9.81 = 1425.0712
V.
1
2.453 2.4353 = 0.02343 3
36
(6.1.30)
617
= .
(6.1.31)
(6.1.32)
VI.
Wind Loads
, /2
(6.1.33)
= , /
160 2
= 0.05 (
) = 1280
(6.1.34)
(6.1.35)
618
Bending moment at bottom tangent line
=
=
VII.
2
2
(6.1.36)
3219.456 7.3052
= 85,899.956 85.90
2
Analysis of stresses
At bottom tangent line
Pressure stresses:
0.5
2 2435
=
=
= 15.9359
4
419.1
2
(6.1.37)
0.5
2435
2
=
=
= 31.8717
2
219.1
2
(6.1.38)
83,091.9522
=
+
2435 + 19.1 19.1 2
= 0.5643
(6.1.39)
Bending stress:
= + 2 = 2435 + 2 19.1
= 2473.2
=
4 4 =
2473.24 24354 = 1.1087 1011 4
64
64
=
+
2
(6.1.40)
(6.1.41)
(6.1.42)
1000
85,899.956
2435
1
=
+ 19.1 = 0.9581
11
4
1.1087 10
2
2
The resultant longitudinal stress is
= +
,
(6.1.43)
619
= 0.25
2
2
16.3297
14.4135
31.8717
30.2632
Downwind
Upwind
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side
whereby, [31.8717 14.4135] = 17.4582
design stress.
VIII.
= 2104
= 2104
(6.1.44)
19.1
= 154.4558
2473.2
2
Maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure
= + = 0.5643 + 0.9581 = 1.5224,
620
6.1.10 Reactor Support
The method used to support a vessel depends on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement;
and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Since the design reactor is a
vertical vessel, a skirt support is recommended as it does not impose concentrated
loads on the vessel shell. Supports will impose localized loads on the vessel wall,
and the design must be checked to ensure that the resulting stress concentrations
are below the maximum allowable design stress.
I.
, = 200,000
2
, = 135
=
=
2
4
(6.1.45)
1000
2.4352 7.305
9.81 2 = 333,716.0082 333.72
3
4
(6.1.46)
II.
+
2
7.305 + 1
(6.1.47)
2
= 111,027.8096 111.03
621
, =
4
+
(6.1.48)
1000
1
=
= .
2435 + 19.1 2435 19.1
4 111,027.8096
,
=
=
(6.1.49)
333,716.0082
= .
2435 + 19.1 19.1
,
=
=
III.
(6.1.50)
+
83,091.9522
= .
2435 + 19.1 19.1
(6.1.51)
=
= 1.2386 0.5643 = .
(6.1.52)
Take joint factor, J as 0.85 (doublewelded butt/equivalent type of joint with spot
degree of radiography).
IV.
0.6743 135
0.85 90
2
0.6743 114.75
(6.1.53)
622
(6.1.54)
19
90
2 2300
3.5048 215.9091
Both criteria satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion allowance in which gives
design thickness, ts= 19.1+2 =21.1 mm
The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base
ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by the wind and other lateral loads will
tend to overturn the vessel: this will be opposed by the couple set up by the weight
of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts. Since reactor is considered as
small vessels, the simplest type rolled angle rings is recommended.
Scheimans method can be used for preliminary design. Scheiman gives the
following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts.
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used
2. Minimum number of bolts = 8
3. Use multiples of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm
2500
= 13.089 14
600
623
,
I.
=
II.
1 4
1
16 125
(6.1.55)
4 111,027.8096
83,091.9522N = 47.2763 2
2.5
III.
(6.1.56)
4 111,027.8096 83,091.9522
+
= 23,842.07004 + 10,862.0082
2
2.435
2.435
= 34,704.0782
= 34.70
Take fc, bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2 is one of the concrete foundation pad.
IV.
103
(6.1.57)
34,704.0782
=
= 6.9408 7
3
5
10
2
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) where the root area is 353 mm2. This
is the minimum width required; actual width depends on the chair
design.
V.
Lr + ts + 50mm
76 + 21 + 50
147 mm
(6.1.58)
624
VI.
fc =
Fb
Aw
VII.
(6.1.59)
34.70 103
= 0.2361 N/mm2
147 103
Minimum thickness,
t b = Lr
3 fc
fr
(6.1.60)
Where,
Lr
distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the
ring (mm)
tb
fc
fr
N/mm
t b = 76
3 (0.2361)
= 5.4058 mm 5.5 mm
140
Chair dimension as tabulated in the tables A12 for bolt size M24.
6.1.12 Gasket
Gaskets are used to make a leaktight joint between two surfaces. It is impractical to
machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required to make a
satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. Gaskets are made from semiplastic materials; which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface
irregularities between the flange faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the
changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. The following factors must be
considered when selecting a gasket material:
625
1. The process conditions: pressure, temperature, corrosive nature of the
process fluid.
2. Whether repeated assembly and disassembly of the joint is required.
3. The type of flange and flange face
In the spigot and socket, and tongue and grooved faces, the gasket is confined
in a groove, which prevents failure by blowout. Matched pairs of flanges are
required, which increases the cost, but this type is suitable for high pressure and
high vacuum service.
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
626
3. Solid construction provides stability and seallability even when the sealing
surfaces are slightly corroded or bent
4. Easy installation
Figure 6.4
9
Ellipsoidal head
Stainless steel (316)
9
55
25
50
19.1
627
Table 6.6
SPECIFICATION DATA
MECHANICAL DESIGN
Identification
Item no
Design orientation
R101
Vertical
Operating Condition
Operating temperature, oC
110
Operating pressure, bar
0.29
Design temperature, oC
132
Design pressure, bar
6
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
2
Design stress, kN/m
140.4
Wall thickness, mm
10
Thickness insulation, mm
25
Wind loading, N/m
3222
Head and Closure Design
Type
Ellipsoidal Head
Thickness, mm
10
Internal Cooling Coil
Length, m
60
Number of spiral
8
Impeller Arrangement
Type of impeller
Turbine with flat vertical blades
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
Diameter of impeller, m
0.974
Width of impeller, m
0.12
Offset of baffle, m
0.50
Baffle width, m
0.203
Baffle height, m
6.0875
Shaft Design
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
Speed impeller, rpm
158.63
Maximum torque
3623.014
Maximum bending moment
8191.6614
Diameter of shaft, cm
12
Weight of Load
Vessel, kN
58.865
Insulation, kN
21.9274
External fittings, kN
1.0958
628
Internal Coil, kN
Ellipsoidal head, kN
Total weight, kN
5.584
3.924
91.396
Analysis of stress
6.2
6.2.1
Material of construction
The material used for esterification reactor R102 is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2
%, 316). The stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant
materials in the chemical industry. The important corrosion resistance the chromium
content must be above 12%, and the higher the chromium content, the more
resistant is the alloy to corrosion in oxidizing conditions. Nickel is added to improve
the corrosion resistance in nonoxidizing environment.
629
6.2.2
(6.2.1)
Design conditions for esterification process between Acrylic Acid and 2Ethylhexanol
is set to be:
Pressure, Pi
Temperature
2000C
Design stress, f
120 N/mm2
Inner diameter, Di
2632.2 mm
Corrosion allowance
4 mm
Calculation of thickness;
0.4987 2632.2
= 5.4809 6
2 1 120 0.4987
= 6 + 4 =
The total thickness obtained is appropriate referring to table below, for a
vessel diameter of 2.5m to 3.0m, the minimum wall thickness required should not be
less than 10 mm. So, the thickness of 10mm esterification reactor is appropriate.
630
Table 6.7: Minimum thickness required corresponds to vessel diameter
Vessel Diameter (m)
1.0
1.0 to 2.0
2.0 to 2.5
2.5 to 3.0
3.0 to 3.5
6.2.3
The material used for insulator on this esterification reactor is mineral wool. Mineral
wool is made from molten glass, stone or slag that is spun into a fiberlike structure.
The reactor is insulated to avoid heat loss from the reactor (to conserve energy) and
to keep the process conditions from fluctuating with the ambient conditions.
t (mm)
93
12.7
205
25.4
316
31.75
0
t insulationfor the process with T = 120 C can be estimated through interpolation:
T (0C)
t (mm)
93
12.7
200
t insulation
205
25.4
200 93
t insulation
(25.4 12.7) 12.7
205
93
24.83 mm 25 mm
631
6.2.4
Internal coil
For cooling purposes of reactants inside the reactor, an internal helical coil is used.
The coil is the simplest and cheapest form of heat transfer surface and it is installed
inside the reactor vessel. The utility supplied to the coil is cooling water. The
assumptions as listed below:1. No heat loss from the coils wall
2. Heat transferred by process is equal to heat absorbed by coils
30
2.6322
= 0.0877
30
(6.2.2)
632
Energy, Q produced by the process is 9.7616105 kJ/h per unit area of the vessel.
By assuming no heat loss from the coils wall, Q transferred by the process is equal
to Q absorbed by the coils.
(6.2.3)
= 9.7616 105
= 7167.9
9.7616 105
=
7167.9
= 136.1849
/. oC
.
8.9342 104 (65.3)
=
= 5.9765 2
9.7616 105
5.9765
=
= 21.69
(0.0877)
633
6.2.5
Actually head and closure has a few types such as ellipsoidal heads, torispherical
heads, and flat heads. So, the calculation of the thickness below is to choose the
best of head and closure for esterification reactor, R102.
1. Ellipsoidal heads
2 0.2
(6.2.6)
0.4987 2632.2
= 5.47 6
2 1 120 0.2 0.4987
2 ( 0.2)
1
= 4 3 +
(6.2.7)
(6.2.8)
Since the crown radius, Rc should not be greater than the diameter of the cylindrical
section; therefore Rc is taken to be equal to Di. The ratio of knuckle to crown radius
should not be less than 0.06 to avoid buckling. Hence Rk is taken as 6% of Rc.
= = 2.6322
= 0.06 2.6322 = 0.1579
=
1
2.6322
3+
= 1.7707
4
0.1579
So,
=
634
3. Flat heads
(6.2.9)
By assuming plate welded to the end of the shell with a fillet weld is used, C p is
taken as 0.55 and De = Di.
= 0.55 2632.2
0.4987
= 93.33 94
120
6.2.6
Material types used for inlet and outlet pipe also stainless steel. The formula to
determine the pipe size as shown below;
= 260 0.52 0.37
(6.2.10)
(6.2.11)
Inlet Pipe S6
= 1.677 104
= 20.79
1.677 104
= 806.6378
3
20.79
635
1.677 104
= 260
3600
0.52
(806.6378)0.37 = 48.64
Outlet Pipe S7
= 874.8
= 1506
874.8
=
= 0.5809
3
1506
= 260
874.8
3600
0.52
(0.5809)0.37 = 152
Outlet Pipe S8
= 1.59 104
= 20.06
1.59 104
= 792.622
3
20.06
1.59 104
= 260
3600
0.52
(792.622)0.37 = 47.62
6.2.7
Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers, and for removable wessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanges may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to
connect pipes to other equipment, such as pumps and valves. Flanges range in size
from a few millimeters diameter for small pipes, to several metres diameter for those
used as body or head flanges on vessels. Standards flanges are available in a
range of types, sizes and materials; and are used extensively for pipes, nozzles and
other attachments to pressure vessel
636
D nominal = 50 mm
Table 6.9: Values for bolt and flange of the inlet pipe (S4)
d1
60.3
S7:
Flange
Raised Face
d4
140
14
28
90
Bolting
M12
Drilling
Boss
No.
d2
d3
14
110
80
D nominal = 200 mm
Table 6.10: Values for bolt and flange of the outlet pipe (S6)
d1
219.1
S8:
Flange
Raised Face
d4
320
20
44
258
Bolting
M16
Drilling
Boss
No.
d2
d3
18
280
240
D nominal = 50 mm
Table 6.11: Values for bolt and flange of the outlet pipe (S8)
d1
60.3
Flange
Raised Face
d4
140
14
28
90
Bolting
M12
Drilling
Boss
No.
d2
d3
14
110
80
637
6.2.8
1. Weight of vessel
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed head ends and
uniform thickness can be estimated from the following equation:
= 240 + 0.8
(6.2.12)
= 1.08 ,
= 10
= 8000
=
(6.2.13)
, =
9.81
, = 10
638
3. Weight of insulation
= 8000
, =
9.81
, = 2
Plain steel ladder is used for external fitting at the reactor. From Nelson
(1963), weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150 N/m length.
= 150 7.8966 = 1184.49 = 1.18
Total weight of the vessel;
= + + + +
= 68556.77 + 4195.48 + 1184.49 + 1883.52 + 5744.74 = 81565
639
6.2.8.2 Wind Loading
Dynamic wind pressure is 1280 N/m2
= 2.6322 + 2 10 + 25 103 = 2.7022
So, loading per linear meter of vessel, is;
=
1280
2.7022 = 3458.82/
2
(6.2.16)
= ( )
= 3458.82 7.8966 = 107839.60
6.2.9
Analysis of Stress
(6.2.17)
=
0.4987 2702.2
= 67.38 /2
2(10)
(6.2.18)
=
0.4987 2702.2
= 33.69
4(10)
(6.2.19)
=
81565
= 0.98 /2
2632.2 + 10 (10)
640
4. Bending stress
= 2632.2 + 2 10 = 2652.2
4 4
64
(6.2.20)
107839.60 103 2632.2
+ ==
+ 10 = 1.97/2
2
7.2437 1010
2
From the above resultant longitudinal stress, the highest difference between the
principle stresses will be on the downwind side which is . /.
6.2.10 Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)
= 2 104
(6.2.21)
= 2 104
10
= 75.64 /2
2644.2
The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under
pressure which exceeds the total value of dead weight and bending stress, 2.95
N/mm2, well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, we can say the design of R102 is satisfactory.
6.2.11 Vessel Support Design
Skirt supports are used for tall and vertical columns. The support must be designed
to carry the weight of the vessel and contents and any superimposed load, such as
wind loads. In 2EHA plant, the reactor used is cylindrical and vertical vessel. So,
the type of skirt used is straight cylindrical support.
641
Type of support
: 900
Design stress, fs
Skirt height
: 1.0 m
: 200,000 N/mm2
=
2.63222 7.8966 1000 9.81 = 160146.67
4
Young modulus
= 160.15
= 81565 + 160146.67 = 241711.67 = 241.71
(6.2.22)
8.89662
= 3458.2
= 136881.92 = 136.88
2
4
+
(6.2.23)
=
4(136.88 106 )
= 2.47/2
[ 2652.2 + 10 10 2652.2]
Where;
Ms
ts
= skirt thickness
Dv
642
= [ (
2
+ ]
(6.2.24)
=
2(160146.67)
= 3.83 /2
[( 2652.2 + 10 10]
= [ (
2
+ ]
(6.2.25)
2(81565)
= 1.95 /2
[( 2652.2 + 10 10]
<
0.42
< 135 1 90
2
0.42
< 135/2
2
ii)
< 0.125
6.3
10
< 0.125 200,000
90
2
2652.2
6.3
< 94.26 /2
2
643
6.2.12 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts
=3m
=3000
=125 N/ mm2
=600 mm
=3000/600=15.71
Closest multiple of 4
= 16
=136881.92 N
=81565 N
1. Area of bolt;
=
=
(6.2.26)
1
4(136881.92)
81565 = 50.47 3
16(125)
3
4(50.47)
= 8.02 9
4
2
(6.2.27)
=
4(136881.92)
81565
+
= 34565.92 /
2
(2.6522)
(2.6522)
1
34565.92
3=
= .
10
4 103
644
6.3
6.3.1
Introduction
Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.
6.3.1.2 Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.
645
6.3.1.3 Material of Construction
Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. The chosen material of construction must meet the
several purposes, such as:
1.
Readily available
2.
Low cost
3.
Subjected to welding
4.
5.
Easily fabricated
6.
High strength
It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can
withstand without failure under operating condition.
6.3.1.5 Wall Thickness
e =
Pi Di
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
(6.3.1)
Where,
e
Pi
internal pressure
Di
internal diameter
design stress
646
6.3.1.6 Welded Joint Efficiency
The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the
welding. Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the
virgin plate; this is achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting
out and remarking any.
6.3.1.7 Analysis of Stresses
The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and
weight of liquid to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by
using formula:
WV = 240 CV Dm
HV + 0.8 Dm t 103 kN
(6.3.2)
Where,
Wv
Cv
Dm
Hv
wall thickness
a.
Wind loading
Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open. Columns are
usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to structural steel
work.
b.
Pressure stress
PD
PD
and h =
4t
2t
Where,
P
operating pressure
column diameter
(6.3.3)
647
t
thickness
c.
Bending stresses
2.
3.
M
Iv
Dc
+ t
2
(6.3.4)
Where,
Iv =
Do 4 Di 4
64
Do = (Di + 2t)
6.3.2
8.9 m
(8.9 + 2) m
10.9 m 11 m
Internal diameter, Dc
2.04 m
0.04 bar
Bottom column =
0.11 bar
Material of column
Stainless steel
Tray type
Material of tray
Operating temperature
120 0C
648
(i)
Design Pressure
(ii)
0.1 N
mm2
1 bar
mm2
Design Temperature
Material of Construction
The material used for construction of this column is Stainless Steel 316. Grade 316
is the standard molybdenumbearing grade and gives better overall corrosion
resistant properties. It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily
brake or roll formed into a variety of parts for applications in the industrial,
architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 316 also has outstanding welding
characteristics. Postweld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.
t =
t =
P (Dc )
2 des P
(6.3.5)
649
thickness should be added 4mm to withstand its own weight and any incidental
loads. Therefore,
t = 5.37 mm + 4mm
= 9.37 mm
it is assumed to be 10 mm
HV + 0.8 Dm t 103
Where,
Wv
Cv
Dm
Hv
wall thickness
Therefore,
Dm = 2.04 +
10 103
= 2.05 m
WV = 71.52 kN
6.3.2.3 Weight of Plates
Plate area =
Plate area =
D2
4
(2.04)2
4
650
(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in
kN/m2)
For 15 plates
15 x 3.92
58.8 kN
Dc Hv (75 103)
5.29 m3
6.75 kN
13.5 kN
Weight
71.52 kN
Plates
58.80 kN
Insulation
13.50 kN
Total
143.82 kN
651
6.3.2.5 Wind Loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2, corresponding to 160 kph.
Mean diameter, including insulation
Dc + Dc (tinsulation + twall)
2.21 m
2828.8 N/m
x2
2
112
2
(6.3.6)
= 171 142 N/m
PD
4t
and
h =
PD
2t
Where,
P
L =
0.6 (2040)
= 30.6 N/mm2
4 (10)
h =
0.6 (2040)
= 61.2 N/mm2
2 (10)
652
(i) Dead Weight Stress
w =
w =
(ii)
Wv
Dc + t t
(6.3.7)
71.52 kN
= 1.11 N/mm2 (compressive stress)
2040 + 10 mm (10mm)
Bending Stress
b =
M
lv
Dc
+ t
2
Where,
lv
Do =
64
Do 4 Di 4
Di + 2t
= 2040 + 2 10
lv
= 2060 mm
64
2060 4 2040 4
2040
+ 10 mm
2
Therefore,
b =
b = 5.22 N/mm2
The resultant longitudinal stress is:
z = L + W + b
(6.3.8)
z downwind
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side:
h  z (downwind) = (61.2  24.27) N/mm2
= 36.93 N/mm2
Design stress
The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the maximum
allowable design stress.
653
(iii)
10
2060
t
Do
= 97.1 N/mm2
When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur):
Maximum stress
w + h
62.31 N/mm2
The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore, design is
satisfactory.
Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in
petrochemical equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of
construction for ellipsoidal head is stainless steel.
e =
Pi Di
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
Where,
e
Pi
Di
0.6 (2040)
= 4.36 mm
2 1 140.33 0.2(0.6)
(4.36 + 4) mm
8.36 mm
654
9 mm
So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is taken as 10mm which is
same as wall thickness.
6.3.2.8 Design for the Skirt Support
140.33 N/mm2
Youngs modulus
200000 N/mm2
Dc 2 Hv
4
Aprroximate weight =
L g
2.042 11
4
Aprroximate weight =
(6.3.9)
(801.7) (9.81)
Total weight
(282.76 + 143.82) kN
426.58 kN
(11 + 3)2
= 277.1 kNm
2
bs  ws
s (compressive)
bs + ws
Where,
bs
ws
655
bs =
Ds
4 Ms
W
and ws test =
+ t s t s Ds
Ds + t s t s
(6.3.10)
Where,
Ms
Ds
ts
skirt thickness
Therefore,
4 277.1 103 kNmm
= 8.44 N/mm2
2040 + 10 (10) (2040)
bs =
ws test =
282.76 103 N
2040 + 10 10
ws operating =
143.82 103 N
2040 + 10 10
Maximum s (compressive) =
Maximum s (tensile)
= 4.39 N/mm2
= 2.23 N/mm2
bs + ws
8.44 + 4.39
12.83 N/mm2
bs
8.44  2.23
6.21 N/mm2
ws
<
fs J sin
6.21
<
6.21
<
140.33
<
0.125 EY
s (compressive)
ts
Ds
sin
12.83 <
0.125 (200000)
12.83 <
122.55
10
2040
sin 90
656
Both criteria are satisfied and 4 mm is added for corrosion allowance. Therefore for
the design stress thickness (10 + 4) mm is 14 mm.
6.3.2.9 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
(i)
2.2m
2200
(ii)
By follow Scheiman rules (Coulson & Richardsons, 1999) bolt used most be
multiple of 4. Closest multiple of 4
125 N/mm2
12 bolts
(iii)
At operating value,
Ms
277.1 kNm
WTotal vessel
282.76 kN
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt
area required is given by:
Ab =
1
Nb fb
4 Ms
W
Db
(6.11)
Where,
Ab
Nb
number of bolts
fb
Ms
Db
N/mm2
657
1
4(277.1 103 )
Ab =
12 125
2.2
282.76 103
= 147.37 mm2
4 (147.37)
13.7 mm
14mm
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) where the root area is 353 mm 2.
(iv)
Fb =
4 Ms
Ds
W
Ds
(6.3.12)
Where,
Fb
Ds
Fb =
4 (277.1 103 )
282.76 103
+
(2.04)2
(2.04)
= 128.9 kN/m
(v)
Lb =
Fb 1
fc 103
(6.3.13)
Where,
Lb
fc
658
pad, which will depend on the mix used, and will typically range from
3.5
to 7 N/mm2
Take the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2,
128.9 103
Lb =
5 103
= 25.78 mm
This is the minimum width required; actual width depends on the chair design.
Actual width required
Lr + ts + 50mm
76 + 14 + 50
140 mm
fc =
Fb
128.9 103
=
= 0.921 N/mm2
Aw
140 103
Minimum thickness,
t b = Lr
3 fc
fr
(6.3.14)
Where,
Lr
distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring (mm)
tb
fc
fr
t b = 76
6.3.2.10
3 (0.921)
= 10.67 11mm
140
(6.3.15)
659
Where,
G
(i)
Feed inlet
Flowrate
Density
17.56 kg/m3
Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (4.64)0.52 (17.56)0.37 = 200mm
(ii)
Flowrate
2292 kg/h
Density
0.1167 kg/m3
Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (0.64)0.52 (0.1167)0.37 = 456mm
As reference to typical standard flange design table, so the standard diameter size
of flange is taken as 500mm.
(iii)
Flowrate
Density
801.7 kg/m3
Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (4.00)0.52 (801.7)0.37 = 45mm
As reference to typical standard flange design table, so the standard diameter size
of flange is taken as 50mm.
660
661
Table 6.12 :
dopt
Pipe
(mm)
d1
d4
Feed
200
219.1
320
20
55
258
Top
500
508
645
24
68
570
Bottom
50
60.3
140
14
38
90
Stream
Flange
Raised Face
Table 6.13 :
Bolting
Drilling
No
d2
d3
M16
18
280
236
M20
20
22
600
538
M12
14
110
74
Operating Condition
Dimensions
Design Pressure
0.6 N/mm2
Design Temperature
132.22 oC
Plate
Material
Design Stress
Cylindrical Section
10 mm
Column Weight
Mean Diameter
2.05 m
Dead Weight
71.52 kN
Weight of Plates
58.8 kN
Weight of Insulations
13.5 kN
Total Weight
143.82 kN
Wind Loading
Mean Diameter
2.21 m
Loading
2828.8 N/m
Vessel Supports
Material
Stainless Steel
Design Stress
140.33 N/mm2
Total Weight
426.58 kN
Wind Loading
2.828 kN/m
Boss
3m
Bending Moment
277.1 kNm
4.39 N/mm2
2.23 N/mm2
662
Thickness
14 mm
Anchor Bolts
Bolts
12
Design Stress
125 N/mm2
Bending Moment
277.1 kNm
Area
147.37 mm2
6.4
13.7 mm
M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967)
6.4.1
Introduction
6.4.2
663
Take column operating at = 6.5 x 10 3 bar (at vacuum condition)
Operating temperature = 390.4K
Material of column = stainless steel
Tray type = sieve tray (20 trays)
Material of type = stainless steel
Corrosion allowance = 4 mm (for corrosive material)
Insulation column = mineral wool 75 mm thick
6.4.3
Design Pressure
In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and pressure
are important properties in order evaluate the thickness and the stress of material.
Therefore, the safety factor is added as precaution and determined by certain
consideration such as corrosion factor, location and process characteristics.
Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid serious operating during minor process upsets. Take
design pressure as 10% above operating pressure,
Design Pressure, Pi = 6.5 x 102 bar x 1.1
= 7.15 x 102 bar
= 7.15 x103 N/mm2
Noted that this column operate at vacuum condition as the design pressure is at
vacuum pressure.
6.4.4
Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material, with due allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.
Operating Temperature, T = 390.4 K = 153.3 oC
Design Temperature, T = operating temperature (oC) x 1.1
= 153.3oC x 1.1
= 168.6oC
664
6.4.5
Material of Construction
Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni,304) as the
material are suitable for handling refined acetate esters, in high temperature and
vacuum pressure. For this material, the design stress at 168.6 oC is obtained from
Table 13.2, page 809, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6
Design stress, f = 101 N/mm2
Diameter vessel, Di = 1.22 m
Tensile strength = 517 N/mm2
6.4.6
Vessel Thickness
The minimum thickness of column and other design are calculated based on
equation below:
e = Pi Di /(2f Pi)
where, Pi = Design pressure
Di = Column diameter
f = design stress
e =(7.15 x 103)(1.22 x 103)/[2(101) 7.15 x 103]
= 0.043mm + 4 mm (corrosion allowance)
= 4.043 mm
= 4.0 mm (approximately)
A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the
wind and dead weigh load. Divide the column into five sections, with the thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section upwards.
6.4.7
Torispherical head had been choosen because of operating pressure below 10 bars
and suitable for liquid vapour phase process. The calculation as below with take
Crown Radius, RC = Di = 1.22 m
Knuckle Radius, Rk = 6%RC = 0.0732 m
A head of this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so E = 1.0. Then the
minimum thickness, t is
665
t=
t=
6.4.8
0.885Pi R c
SE 0.1Pi
= 1.224 m
Hv = 12.6 m
So, W v = 240 (1.15) (1.224) (12.6 + 0.8 (1.224)) (0.004)
= 18.3 kN
6.4.9
Weight of Plate, Wp
From Nelson Guide, page 833, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering,
Volume 6; take contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m2.
Plate area = D2/4
666
= (1.22)2/4
= 1.17 m2
Weight of plate = 1.2 kN/m2 x 1.17 m2
= 1.4 Kn
= 28.06 kN
6.4.10
Weight of insulation, Wi
The mineral wool was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson and
Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 833;
Density, of mineral wool = 130 kg/m3
Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m
Approximate volume of insulation = x Dm x Hv x thickness of insulation
= (1.224) (12.6) (0.05)
= 2.42 m3
Weight of insulation, W i = volume of insulation x x g
= 2.42 x 130 x 9.81
= 3089.47 N
= 3.089 kN
667
6.4.11
Wind Loading
Wind loading will only be important on tall columns installed in the open. Columns
are usually free standing, mounted on skirt supports and not attached to structural
steel work. The wind load is calculated based on location and the weather of
surrounding.
Dynamic wind pressure, Pw =(1/2)CdaUw2
where, Pw = wind pressure (load per unit area)
Cd = drag coefficient (shape factor)
a = density of air
Uw = wind velocity
Wind speed, Uw = 160 km/h
For a smooth cylindrical column, the following semiempirical equation can be used
to estimate the wind pressure,
Pw = 0.05 Uw2
where, Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Uw = wind speed, km/h
Pw = 0.05 (1602)
= 1280 N/m2
668
6.4.12
Analysis of stresses
Bending stresses,
M Di
+t
Iv 2
669
Iv =
4
D D4i
64 o
Iv =
Therefore,
b =
The value of difference between the principal stresses is well below the maximum
allowable design stress.
670
When the column is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur)
Maximum stress = w + h
= 16.98 + 5.74
= 22.72 N/mm2
6.4.13
671
Take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom section of the vessel, t s
= 50 mm.
4
+
where, Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt (due to
the wind, seismic and eccentric loads)
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
Therefore,
=
217.078 103
= 11.8 /2
1220 + 4.76 4.76
49.499 103
=
= 2.7/2
1220 + 4.76 4.76
Maximum s (compressive) = bs + ws
= 66 + 11.8
= 77.8 N/mm2
Maximum s (tensile) = bs  ws
= 66 11.8
= 54.2 N/mm2
672
Take joint factor, E = 1
6.4.14
Ms = 762.76 kNm
Take W = operating value = 308.716 kN
Ab = 1 [ 4Ms/Db W] / Nb fb
where, Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typically design value 125
N/mm2 (18,000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m
673
So, Ab = 1 [ 4 (368.76 x 103)/1.25 (18.3 x 103] / 11.78 (125)
= 656 mm2
Bolt root diameter = (656 x 4)/ = 12.8 mm
674
Assume bolt circle diameter = 1.25 m
This is the minimum width required, actual width will depend on the chair design.
Actual width required (Figure 13.30),
= Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 76 + 52 + 50
= 178 mm
675
tb = Lr ((3fc/fr)
= 76 (3) (0.79)/(140)
= 9.9 mm
6.4.15
The plate is supported on rings 75 mm wide and 10 mm deep. The plate spacing is
0.6 m. Take design pressure as 1 bar external or 105 N/m2. The load each ring,
Fr = Pe Ls
where, Pe = external pressure
Ls = spacing between the rings
Therefore, the load per unit length on the ring,
Fr = 105 N/m2 x 0.6 m
= 0.6 x 105 N/m
Taking Youngs Modulus, E = 210,000 N/mm2
= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2
Factor of safety = 6
The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,
PcLs = 24 E Ir / Dr3 x factor of safety
where, Ir = second moment of area of the ring crosssection
Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the shell outside diameter)
0.6 x 105 N/m = 24 (2.1 x 1011) Ir / 2 x 6
Ir = 1.43 x 107 m4
For a rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:
I = breath x depth3 /12
So, Ir for the support rings = 10 x (75) 3 x 1012/12
= 3.51 x 107 m4
676
L / Do = 0.5 / 3.0 = 0.25
Where, L = plate spacing
Do = internal diameter
Do /t = 2000 / 50 = 40
From Figure 13.13, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, volume 6,
Kc = 68
From equation 13.53, Coulson & Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, volume 6,
Pc = Kc x EY x (t / Do)3
= 68 x 2.1 x 1011 x (40)3.
= 2.23 x 108 N/m2.
This is above the maximum design pressure of 2.12 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design of the
support rings to support the plate is satisfied.
6.4.16
Piping Sizing
By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow, therefore to determine
optimum duct diameter is
Optimum duct diameter, dopt = 260 G0.52 0.37 (for stainless steel)
where, G = flow rate, kg/s
= density, kg/m3
Flow rates, G
= 16612 kg/h
= 4.61 kg/s
677
Therefore, dopt
Therefore, t
= 2855 kg/h
= 0.79 kg/s
Therefore, dopt
Therefore, t
678
So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.0012 mm
= 4 + 0.0005
= 4.0005 mm
= 4 mm
= 82.9 kg/h
= 0.023 kg/s
mix
0.0005(724.98)
Therefore, dopt
Therefore, t
Flange Design
The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design
pressure and temperature and the flange material.
679
Table 6.14: Summary of Mechanical Design of Distillation Column (T103)
Operating condition and Material
Symbol
Value
Unit
bar
Construction
Operating Pressure
6.5 x 102
Operating Temperature
117
Design Pressure
Po
7.15 x 102
Design temperature
To
168.6
Material Construction
bar
o
Stainless steel
hc
14.6
Shell thickness
Typed of domed
Domed thickness
m
mm
Torispherical
eD
0.76
mm
Wv
18.3
kN
Weight of plate
Wp
28.06
kN
Weight of insulation
WI
3.089
kN
Total weight
WT
49.499
kN
Wind loading
Fw
1641
kN/mm
Wind pressure
Pw
1280
N/m2
Bending moment
Mx
1221
kNm
2.87
N/mm
5.74
N/mm
16.98
N/mm
Bending stress
1.374
N/mm
Upwind stress
z (upwind)
12.736
N/mm
Downwind stress
z(downwind)
15.848
N/mm
12.45
N/mm
Column Weight
Stress Analysis
Vessel support
Type
Straight Skirt
Material construction
Stainless steel
Skirt thickness
ts
0.76
Mm
Skirt diameter
Ds
Skirt height
hs
Skirt weight
Ws
167.629
kN
680
Insulation
Material construction
Thickness
ti
50.76
Mm
Flowrate
4.61
Kg/s
o.di
50.39
mm
Flowrate
0.0079
Kg/s
o.di
16.2
mm
Flowrate
0.023
Kg/s
o.di
7.39
mm
Piping sizing
Feed pipe sizing
6.5
6.5.1
Design Pressure
Usually, the design pressure is taken above the normal working operation. The
purpose is to avoid counterfeit operation during minor process upset and safety
condition.
6.5.2
Shell side
0.1
0.6
Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of material with due allowance for any
uncertainty involve in predicting vessel wall temperature. Adding 10% from
681
operating temperature to cover the uncertainties in temperature prediction, the
design temperature should be:
Operating temperature, C
o
Design temperature, C
6.5.3
Shell side
Tube side
117.2
20
130
22
Exchanger Type
For heat exchanger design, the specification and type of heat exchanger was
discussed in chemical design section. Exchanger with internal floating head is
versatile than other type of heat exchangers. Internal floating head is suitable for
high temperature difference between shell and tubes.
The tubes can be rod from to ends and the bundle are easier to clean and
can be used for fouling liquids. The tube bundle is removable and the floating tube
sheet moves to accommodate differential expansion between shell and tubes.
6.5.4
Material of Construction
For tube and shell side, Austenitic stainless steel is also called 316 type or
18/8 stainless steel was used. It contains the minimum chromium and nickel that
682
give a stable austenitic structure. The carbon content is low enough for heat
treatment and not to be normally needed with this section to prevent weld decay.
They typically have reasonable cryogenic and high temperature strength properties.
It is also highly ductile and tensile strength.
6.5.5
The strength of welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of the
welding. The soundness of weld is then checked by visual inspection and by
nondestructive testing called radiography. The value of welded joint factor, J can be
assumed as 1.0 which the joint is equally as strong as the virgin steel plate.
6.5.6
Design Stress
6.5.7
Material Used
136 @ 130 oC
Design Criteria
To ensure that the vessel is adequately rigid to withstand its own weight and any
incidental loads.
683
For cylinder shell the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure
can be determined as follows:
(6.5.1)
Where Pi
Di
fs
0.6 454.7217
2 1 (136) 0.6
= 0.96
Heads closes the ends of cylindrical vessel. For the design, Ellipsoidal heads are
chosen because to save cost since it is more economical. The standard type is with
a major and minor axis ratio 2:1. For this ratio, the following equation can be used:
2 0.2
Where Pi
Di
= Ds = Shell diameter, mm
fs
0.6 434.7560
2 1 (136)2(0.6)
= 0.957
(6.5.2)
684
Adding Corrosion allowance: 3 mm
= 0.957 + 3
= . ~ 4.0
Same as the wall thickness
6.5.7.3 Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid
velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, its improving the rate of heat transfer.
The assembly of baffles and tubes is hold together by support rods and spacers.
4.5
0.1735
(6.5.3)
1
= 24.94~
Nozzles are used as inlet and outlet stream of the cooler. The nozzles are for
channel side and the shell side of the heat exchanger.
Standard steel pipe are used for the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is important to
avoid flow restrictions at the inlet and outlet nozzles to prevent excessive pressure
drop and flowinduced vibrations of the tubes. Material of construction for nozzles is
same as shell material which is carbon steel.
685
Tube side nozzles
Table 6.18: Fluid: Chilled water
Equation
Material of
construction
Temperature, oC
Density, kg/m3
Flow rate, Gwater, kg/s
Fluid velocity, m/s
Flow area, A, m2
Inside diameter pipe,
m
Inlet
Outlet
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
10
999.7
21.05
1.23
0.02
20
999.7
21.05
1.23
0.02
0.20
0.20
G/( )
4 1/2
Table 6.19: Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of Chilled Water
Normal pipe
size, in.
8
OD, in
Schedule No.
ID, in
8.63
40
7.98
Inlet
Stainless steel
117.2
802.2
3.894
0.622
0.01
0.11
Outlet
Stainless steel
20
894
3.894
0.622
0.01
0.11
By taking ID = 4.33 in
Table 6.21: Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of Hydrocarbon Mixture
Normal pipe
size, in.
6
OD, in
Schedule No.
ID, in
6.625
40
6.065
686
6.5.7.5 Flanged Nozzle
Flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instrument to vessel, for manholes
cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. Flanged also
used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for
transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipe to the
equipments such as pumps and valves.
Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and
the bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service. For the design of this heat
exchanger, weldingneck flange are used. It is because weldingneck flanges have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual
transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and
branch. It is also can increase the strength of the flange assembly.
Flange
Raised
face
d4
f
Bolt
Drilling
Neck
Nom
Pipe
Pipe
OD
203
18 228.3
150
168.3
18
265
18
44
202
3 M16
No.
d2
225
d3
h2
187.1
12.2
10
184
12
10
687
Vessel Shell
Tubes
Insulator
(6.5.4)
688
(6.5.5)
Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tubeside, m
di = inside diameter of tubeside, m
L = length, m
m = density of tube material, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2
(6.5.6)
689
4. Weight of water to fill the tubes
= 2 2
Where
(6.5.7)
Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tubeside, m
di = inside diameter of tubeside, m
L = length, m
t = density of tubeside, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
5. Weight of insulator
=
Where
(6.5.8)
Ds = diameter of shellside, m
L = length, m
lw = thickness of insulation, m
m = density of material insulation, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
= 0.434 4.5 0.025 180 9.81
= .
Values (N)
2244.74
30.1462
5257.0827
470.9073
Weight of insulator
60.2943
Total Weight
8063.170
8466.3290
690
6.5.8
Vessel Support
A
330
Dimensions (mm)
C
D
10
13
B
410
E
130
F
13
Dimensions (mm)
H
62
J

Bolt size
No. of ribs
M.20
Weight
(kg)
26
691
6.5.9
Specification
Material of construction
Shell
Stainless Steel
Tube
Stainless Steel
Shell thickness
Head
4.0 mm
Type
Ellipsoidal
Thickness
4.0 mm
Support
Type
Saddle
Flange
Type
Welding Neck
(Nominal pressure 6 bar)
Nozzles
Baffles
200.00 mm
110.00 mm
Type
Segmental
Number of baffles
Total Weight
25
8.466 kN
692
6.5.10 Specification sheet of Heat Exchanger (E104)
Descript. : HEAT
EXCHANGE BETWEEN
S13 AND S14
Operating Data
0.435
Size
Shell per unit
Type
Surface per Shell
Shell and
tube
2
No. of units
TUBE SIDE
LIQUID (2EHA)
IN
OUT
LIQUID
LIQUID
WATER
VISCOSITY LIQUID
IN
OUT
LIQUID
LIQUID
0.00043
0.00131
SPECIFIC HEAT
THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY
2.336
4.1950
0.10500
0.5815
TEMPERATURE
117.2
OPERATING PRESSURE
1 bar
VELOCITY
20
0.3225
NO. OF PASSES
10
1.060
65
PRESSURE DROP
0.1061
0.0972
HEAT EXCHANGED
36.043
Construction of one Shell
6 bar
DESIGN PRESSURE
128.92
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
DUTY
TUBES
SHELL
TUBE SHEET
STATIONARY
BAFFLES CROSS
884.1549 kW
No. OD: 0.02223
LENGTH: 4.5
PITCH
0.028
SPACING %
CUT
25
FLOATING
TYPE
SEGMENTAL
0.03
2244.7399
TUBE SIDE
OPERATING
ROCKWOOL
* Units in SI unit
THICKNESS
:0.04
0.435
I.D
20
0.03
8466.329
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