This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE TWO YEAR FULL-TIME POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME.
Submitted by AVINASH CHANDRA GUPTA Roll No: FT-08-635 Batch: 2008-2010
Institute For Integrated Learning in Management Graduate School of Management 16, Knowledge Park Greater Noida– 201 306 April 2010
I hereby declare that the Project work entitled “FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BIO-FUEL AS AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF TRANSPORTATION ENERGY IN INDIA” submitted by me for the partial fulfillment of the Post Graduate Diploma in Management Program to Institute for Integrated Learning in Management, Greater Noida is my own original work and has not been submitted earlier either to IILM GSM or to any other Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement for any course of study. I also declare that no chapter of this manuscript in whole or in part is lifted and incorporated in this report from any earlier / other work done by me or others.
Place : Greater Noida Date : 08-04-2010 Signature of Student
Name of Student
: AVINASH CHANDRA GUPTA
: 11 / 1A HASTINGS ROAD ASHOKNAGAR, ALLAHABAD (UP) 211001
This is certified that Mr. AVINASH CHANDRA GUPTA student
DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO INSTITUTE FOR INTEGRATED LEARNING IN MANAGEMENT, GREATER NOIDA from IILM-GSM, Greater Noida was working under my
supervision and guidance for his project work as part of partial fulfillment of the said program entitled “FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BIO-FUEL AS AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY IN INDIA . The work which he is submitting is his genuine and
Place: Date: signature of Faculty
I want to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to my real life project guide Prof. A N BHATTACHARYA who has been of immense support and guidance in enabling me to do this project. His deep understanding and valuable insights have been of great help in the successful completion of my project.
I would also like to thank all those people, without whose help and support I would not have been able to do justice to the project.
Table of content
1. Abstract 2 Introduction 3. Objective 4 Literature Review 5 Methodology 6 Petroleum 7 CNG 8 LPG 9 Bio-Fuel 10 Jatropha 11 Bio-Diesel 12 Ethanol 13 Conclusion 14 Bibliography
6 7 8 9 25 26 31 36 38 49 59 66 75 76
A search of alternate source of transportation energy is very necessary as natural petroleum stock is depleting rapidly. Petroleum fuel lasts only for next 50-70 years if no new sources of energy are found. The combustion of petroleum fuel releases huge amount of air pollution. This results in global warming and causes many diseases. Also we are dependent on foreign countries for more than 70% of petroleum fuel, so it is necessary to search a good alternate source of energy which can fulfill our energy needs, release less pollution, saves money and generate more employment. Now Govt. has taken initiative to search for such fuel which can fulfill our above said requirements. Bio-fuel is emerging as an alternate source of energy; it has many advantages which must be utilized to fulfill alternate energy sources requirements. Although it has some disadvantages but we have to overcome for utilizing it as best available alternate source for transportation energy. We have realized various needs and odds about bio-fuel, and we shorted out them as follows: To find out whether Bio-fuel is an alternate source of transportation energy in India. To find out whether it is feasible to produce Bio-fuel at an economical cost. To find out whether Bio-fuel production has impact on food prices. To find out consumption of important resources in Bio-fuel production. For this we have to find out whether it is economical to switch over to Bio-fuel from petroleum This would require a comprehensive study of all existing sources of energy; their production; their ill effects; their sustainability; bio fuels as an alternate source; technology; costing; marketing strategy; market potential etc.
This study examined the feasibility of the bio fuel as an alternative fuel for transportation purposes in the India. The emphasis in this examination with respect to alternative transportation fuels was on bio-diesel, ethanol, alcohol gasoline mixtures, and liquid natural gas. Feasibility was assessed within the context of environmental concerns, performance of vehicle, cost of fuel, and associated government regulations that are driving technology to meet demands related to air pollution control that may be able to be met though the use of alternative fuels for transportation purposes. A heavy dependence on foreign sources for transportation fuels continues to characterize an important component of the supply side of the Indian energy equation. Further, our reliance on foreign sources for transportation fuels is expected to continue to increase as long as crude oil remains the dominant source of transportation fuels in the India. Additionally, environmental concerns are expected to be manifested in future demands for a curtailment of the use of crude oil based transportation fuels. The successful introduction of the use of alternative fuels for transportation purposes, however, is likely to be heavily dependent up consumer acceptance. Thus, such factors as the cost of use of an alternative fuel and the characteristics of such fuel with respect to the operational performance of vehicles in comparison to current fuel (petrol, diesel) must be positive. Then only it is accepted otherwise we have stick to our present fuels or we have to search for some other options for energy.
To find out whether Bio-fuel is an alternate source of transportation energy in India. To find out whether it is feasible to produce Bio-fuel at an economical cost. To find out whether Bio-fuel production has impact on food prices. To find out consumption of important resources in Bio-fuel production. To find out whether it is economical to switch over to Bio-fuel from petroleum.
Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution and availability of domestic energy sources. All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insulation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.
SOURCES OF ENERGY IN INDIA:
The various energy resources used in India include fossil fuels providing petroleum and natural gas and coal mining that cater to the coal energy demands in India.
The sun is the source for solar energy that is converted to electrical energy using solar panels.
The vast water resources in and around India are utilized by conversion of the kinetic energy from the flowing water as in waterfalls and the dams built on various rivers into electric energy.
The energy of the tides and tidal waves is also utilized for electrical energy harvesting.
The usage of wind energy comes in the form of windmills and huge wind energy farms for generation of usable energy forms by transformation of the kinetic energy of the wind into energy units.
Other sources of energy in India include biomass energy by burning bio-fuels available in large quantities owing to the huge domestic cattle population in India.
Energy is also derived from the vast timber resources of the country. This forms the wood energy.
Nuclear energy or atomic energy from radioactive materials has been developed into a vast industry in itself.
Geothermal energy is an unlimited natural energy source that utilizes the steam from hot water springs that acts as energy boosters to drive turbines of power plants.
The various chemicals are used for chemical energy generation used in batteries.
Even the hydrogen available in large quantities in the environment has been captured and utilized as an energy source by reacting hydrogen with oxygen.
Nearly 90 percent of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels. Because fossil fuels are the main source, they are not alternative energy sources. Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas, and petroleum, which is often called oil. People use fossil fuels to meet nearly all of their energy needs, such as powering cars, producing electricity for light and heat, and running factories. Because their use is so widespread, it is important to understand fossil fuels in order to make informed decisions about present and future alternative energy sources.
Fossil fuels are a popular source of energy because they are considered convenient, effective, plentiful, and inexpensive, but a few nations have most of the world’s fossil fuels, a fact that often causes conflicts. Nevertheless, as of 2006, there are no practical and available alternatives to fossil fuels for most energy needs, so they continue to be heavily used.
Fossil fuels sources burn coal or hydrocarbon fuels, which are the remains of the decomposition of plants and animals. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Another fossil fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is principally derived from the production of natural gas. Heat from burning fossil fuel is used either directly for space heating and process heating, or converted to mechanical energy for vehicles, industrial processes, or electrical power generation. Earth has a lot of fossil fuels. Scientists in 2005 estimated that the ground contains about ten trillion metric tons of coal, enough to fuel human energy needs for hundreds of years. Petroleum and natural gas deposits are not nearly so extensive. Most scientists believe that if people keep using up oil and gas at 2005 rates, all known petroleum and gas reserves will be used up by the beginning of the twenty-second century. Most fossil fuel-powered operations, however, use the burning of the fossil fuel to power much more complex machines, such as internal combustion engines. In many cases, other fuels could supply the necessary heat; for example, locomotives could be powered by burning wood instead of burning coal, and power plants can be powered by water instead of coal. The advantage of fossil fuels in these situations is that they produce large amounts of heat for their volume, and they are currently widely available, with some liquid and gas fuels available at pumps
The technology and infrastructure already exist for the use of fossil fuels. Petroleum energy density in terms of volume (cubic space) and mass (weight) is superior to some alternative energy sources (or energy storage devices, like a battery (electricity)).
Fossil fuels are currently more economical, and more suitable for decentralized energy use.
Petroleum-powered vehicles are very inefficient. Only about 30% of the energy from the fuel they consume is converted into mechanical energy. The rest of the fuel-source energy is inefficiently expended as waste heat. The heat and gaseous pollution emissions harm our environment.
The inefficient atmospheric combustion (burning) of fossil fuels in vehicles, buildings, and power plants contributes to urban heat islands. The combustion of fossil fuels leads to the release of pollution into the atmosphere. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a typical coal plant produces in one year. Dependence on fossil fuels from volatile regions or countries creates energy security risks for dependent countries. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, un-sustainable resources, which will eventually decline in production and become exhausted. Extracting fossil fuels is becoming more difficult as we consume the most accessible fuel deposits. Extraction of fossil fuels is becoming more expensive and more dangerous as mines get deeper and oil rigs must drill deeper, and go further out to sea. Extraction of fossil fuels results in extensive environmental degradation, such as the strip mining and mountaintop removal of coal.
Since these power plants are thermal engines, and are typically quite large, waste heat disposal becomes an issue at high ambient temperature. Thus, at a time of peak demand, a power plant may need to be shut down or operate at a reduced power level, as sometimes do nuclear power plants, for the same reasons.
Nearly 63 percent of the India’s total energy requirements are met from coal. The available coal reserves in India are sufficient to meet our needs for at least another 100 years. India now ranks 3rd amongst the coal producing countries in the world. Taking the above facts into consideration it is obvious that coal is one of the potential energy substitutes in India.
The Advantages of Coal:
Coal is one of the most abundant sources of energy, more so than oil and natural gas. Coal is inexpensive when compared to other fossil fuels (or alternative energy sources) Coal is versatile enough to be used for recreational activities such as BBQ’s or simply for home fires.
Burning coal can produce useful by-products that can be used for other industries or products
Electricity produced from coal is reliable. Coal can be safely stored and can be drawn upon to create energy in time of emergency. Coal based power is not dependent on weather which cannot be said for alternative forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar power.
Transporting coal does not require the upkeep of high-pressure pipelines and there is no requirement for extra security when transporting coal.
Using coal reduces the dependence on using oil, which is often found in nations where there is unstable political regimes.
The Disadvantages of Coal:
Burning coal emits harmful waste. It also emits twice as much carbon dioxide when compared with natural gas to produce the same level of heat. Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels now account for about 65 per cent of the extra carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.
The burning of coal by large-scale factories to power industry has led to acid rain in some regions
Coal can be cleaned and/or turned into a liquid of gas but this technology has yet to be fully developed and adds to the expense of creating fuel via coal
Coal mining can scar the landscape and the equipment used for mining is large and noisy which may affect local wildlife
Transporting coal can be problematic because it requires an extensive transportation system and can also cause additional pollution in the form of emissions from transportation vehicles such as lorries, etc
There are limited stocks of coal remaining – they will be entirely depleted this millennium if we continue to burn coal in the future at the same rate we are today coal can be considered as a non-renewable energy source
The mining industry can cause health difficulties for miners and fatalities due to the potentially dangerous nature of the work
Burning dirty coal can create significant pollution problems
Nuclear fission:Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium rods, the atoms of which are split in the process of fission, releasing a large amount of energy. The process continues as a chain reaction with other nuclei. The energy heats water to create steam, which spins a turbine generator, producing electricity.
Depending on the type of fission fuel considered, estimates for existing supply at known usage rates varies from several decades for the currently popular Uranium-235 to thousands of years for uranium-238. At the present rate of use, there are (as of 2007) about 70 years left of known uranium-235 reserves economically recoverable at a uranium price of US$ 130/kg. The nuclear industry argue that the cost of fuel is a minor cost factor for fission power, more expensive, more difficult to extract sources of uranium could be used in the future, such as lower-grade ores, and if prices increased enough, from sources such as granite and seawater. Increasing the price of uranium would have little effect on the overall cost of nuclear power; a doubling in the cost of natural uranium would increase the total cost of nuclear power by 5 percent. On the other hand, if the price of natural gas was doubled, the cost of gas-fired power would increase by about 60 percent. Current light water reactors burn the nuclear fuel poorly, leading to energy waste. Nuclear reprocessing or burning the fuel better using different reactor designs would reduce the amount of waste material generated and allow better use of the available resources. As opposed to current light water reactors which use uranium-235 (0.7 percent of all natural uranium), fast breeder reactors convert the more abundant uranium-238 (99.3 percent of all natural uranium) into plutonium for fuel. It has been estimated that there is anywhere from 10,000 to five billion years worth of Uranium-238 for use in these power plants. Fast breeder technology has been used in several reactors. India has run out of uranium and is building thermal breeders that can convert Th-232 into U-233 and burn it. The long-term radioactive waste storage problems of nuclear power have not been fully solved. Several countries have considered using underground repositories. Nuclear waste takes up little space compared to wastes from the chemical industry which remains toxic indefinitely. Spent fuel rods are now stored in concrete casks close to the nuclear reactors. The amounts of waste could be reduced in several ways. Both nuclear reprocessing and fast breeder reactors could reduce the amounts of waste. Subcritical reactors or fusion reactors could greatly reduce the time the waste has to be stored. Subcritical reactors may also be able to do the same to already existing waste. The only long-term way of dealing with waste today is by geological storage. The economics of nuclear power is not simple to evaluate, because of high capital costs for building and very low fuel costs. Comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear plants.
Pros: The energy content of a kilogram of uranium or thorium, if spent nuclear fuel is reprocessed and fully utilized, is equivalent to about 3.5 million kilograms of coal. The cost of making nuclear power, is about the same as making coal power, which is considered very inexpensive. Raw material extraction is much safer for nuclear power compared to coal. Coal mining is the second most dangerous occupation in the United States. For the same amount of electricity, the life cycle emission of nuclear is about 4% of coal power. According to a Stanford study, fast breeder reactors have the potential to power humans on earth for billions of years, making it sustainable
The improper operation of a nuclear reactor with no containment vessel can be catastrophic in the event of an uncontrolled power increase in the reactor.
Trans-uranic waste produced from nuclear fission of uranium is poisonous and highly radioactive.
Fusion power could solve many of the problems of fission power (the technology mentioned above) but, despite research having started in the 1950s, no commercial fusion reactor is expected before 2050. Many technical problems remain unsolved. Proposed fusion reactors commonly use deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, as fuel and in most current designs also lithium. Assuming a fusion energy output equal to the current global output and that this does not increase in the future, then the known current lithium reserves would last 3000 years, lithium from sea water would last 60 million years, and a more complicated fusion process using only deuterium from sea water would have fuel for 150 billion years.
BIOMASS, BIOFUELS, AND VEGETABLE OIL
Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as corn or other vegetation to generate electricity. When garbage decomposes, the methane produced is captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation and wood can be burned directly to generate energy, like fossil fuels, or processed to form alcohols. Vegetable oil is generated from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 by plants. It is safer to use and store than gasoline or diesel as it has a higher flash point. Straight vegetable oil works in diesel engines if it is heated first. Vegetable oil can also be transesterified to make biodiesel, which burns like normal diesel. Bio-fuels are renewable. They come from plants and other currently growing organic material, so it is possible to generate new ones constantly. This makes them more environmentally problems, such as habitat destruction and fertilizer runoff. Farmers use large amounts of fossil fuels to grow crops such as corn, which decreases the value of the energy made from those crops. In some cases, producing bio-fuels such as ethanol actually uses more energy than the ethanol yields. Biomass is abundant on Earth and is renewable. Biomass is found throughout the world, a fact that should alleviate energy pressures in third world nations. Alcohols and other fuels produced by these alternative methods are clean burning and are feasible replacements to fossil fuels. Since CO2 is first taken out of the atmosphere to make the vegetable oil and then put back after it is burned in the engine, there is no net increase in CO2. However, there is still the emissions due to fossil fuel used in growing and producing bio-fuel. Vegetable oil has a higher flash point and therefore is safer than most fossil fuels. Transitioning to vegetable oil could be relatively easy as biodiesel works where diesel works, and straight vegetable oil takes relatively minor modifications. The world already produces more than 100 billion gallons a year for the food industry, so we have experience making it. Direct combustion of any carbon-based fuel leads to air pollution similar to that from fossil fuels.
Direct competition with land use for food production and water use. As this decreases food supply, the price of food increases worldwide. Current production methods would require enormous amounts of land to replace all gasoline and diesel. With current technology, it is not feasible for bio-fuels to replace the demand for petroleum.
Geothermal energy is energy created by the heat of the Earth. Under the Earth’s crust lies a layer of thick, hot rock with occasional pockets of water. This water sometimes seeps up to the surface in the form of hot springs. Even where the water does not travel naturally to the Earth’s surface, it is sometimes possible to reach it by drilling. This hot water can be used as a virtually free source of energy, either directly as hot water, steam, or heat or as a means of generating power. Geothermal energy is nonpolluting, inexpensive, and in most cases renewable, which makes it a promising source of power for the future. Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Two wells are drilled. One well injects water into the ground to provide water. The hot rocks heat the water to produce steam. The steam that shoots back up the other hole(s) is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. When the water temperature is below the boiling point of water a binary system is used. A low boiling point liquid is used to drive a turbine and generator in a closed system similar to a refrigeration unit running in reverse.
Geothermal energy is base load power. Economically feasible in high grade areas now. Low deployment costs. Geothermal power plants have a high capacity factor; they run continuously day and night with an uptime typically exceeding 95%.
Once a geothermal power station is implemented, there is no cost for fuel, only for operations, maintenance and return on capital investment.
Since geothermal power stations consume no fuel, there is no environmental impact associated with emissions or fuel handling.
Geothermal is now feasible in areas where the Earth's crust is thicker. Using enhanced geothermal technology, it is possible to drill deeper and injects water to generate geothermal power.
Geothermal energy does not produce air or water pollution if performed correctly.
Geothermal power extracts small amounts of minerals such as sulfur that are removed prior to feeding the turbine and re-injecting the water back into the injection well.
Geothermal power requires locations that have suitable subterranean temperatures with in 5 km of surface.
Some geothermal stations have created geological instability, even causing earthquakes strong enough to damage buildings.
In hydro energy, the gravitational descent of a river is compressed from a long run to a single location with a dam or a flume. This creates a location where concentrated pressure and flow can be used to turn turbines or water wheels, which drive a mechanical mill or an electric generator.
Hydroelectric power stations can promptly increase to full capacity, unlike other types of power stations. This is because water can be accumulated above the dam and released to coincide with peak demand.
Electricity can be generated constantly, so long as sufficient water is available. Hydroelectric power produces no primary waste or pollution. Hydropower is a renewable resource. Much hydroelectric capacity is still undeveloped, such as in Africa. The resulting lake can have additional benefits such as doubling as a reservoir for irrigation, and leisure activities such as water sports and fishing.
The construction of a dam can have a serious environmental impact on the surrounding areas. The amount and the quality of water downstream can be affected, which affects plant life both aquatic, and land-based. Because a river valley is being flooded, the local habitant of many species is destroyed, while people living nearby may have to relocate their homes.
Hydroelectricity can only be used in areas where there is a sufficient and continuing supply of water.
Flooding submerges large forests (if they have not been harvested). The resulting anaerobic decomposition of the carboniferous materials releases methane, a greenhouse gas.
Dams can contain huge amounts of water. As with every energy storage system, failure of containment can lead to catastrophic results, e.g. flooding
Dams create large lakes that may have adverse effects on Earth tectonic system causing intense earthquakes.
Hydroelectric plants rarely can be erected near load centers, requiring long transmission lines.
India is both densely populated and has high solar isolation, providing an ideal combination for solar power in India. Much of the country does not have an electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping; to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km² area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatts. Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting a parabolic mirror to heat water (producing steam), or using sunlight entering windows for passive solar heating of a building. It would be advantageous to place solar panels in the regions of highest solar radiation.
Solar power imparts no fuel costs. Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth. Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is no combustion of fuels.
In sunny countries, solar power can be used in remote locations, like a wind turbine. This way, isolated places can receive electricity, when there is no way to connect to the power lines from a plant.
Solar energy can be used very efficiently for heating (solar ovens, solar water and home heaters) and day lighting.
Coincidentally, solar energy is abundant in regions that have the largest number of people living off grid — in developing regions of Africa, Indian subcontinent and Latin America.
Passive solar building design and zero energy buildings are demonstrating significant energy bill reduction, and some are cost-effectively off the grid.
Photovoltaic equipment cost has been steadily falling and the production capacity is rapidly rising.
Distributed point-of-use photovoltaic systems eliminate expensive long-distance electric power transmission losses.
Photovoltaic are much more efficient in their conversion of solar energy to usable energy than bio-fuel from plant materials.
Solar electricity is currently more expensive than grid electricity. Solar heat and electricity are not available at night and may be unavailable because of weather conditions; therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required for off-the-grid applications.
Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4–12%.
The energy payback time — the time necessary for producing the same amount of energy as needed for building the power device — for photovoltaic cells is about 1–5 years, depending primarily on location.
Tidal Power Generation
Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current, or by building impoundment pond dams that admit-or-release water through a turbine. The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy. Tides are caused through a combination of forces created by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon, and the rotation of the earth. Energy naturally present in water bodies or in their movement can be used for generation of electricity.
Indian context:India being surrounded by sea on three sides has a high potential to harness tidal energy. The three most potential locations in this regard are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kutch (west coast) and Ganges Delta, Sunderbans, WestBengal (eastcoast). The total potential of tidal energy in India is estimated at 8,000 mw with Gulf of Cambay accounting for over 90 per cent.
Tidal power is free once the dam is built. This is because tidal power harnesses the natural power of tides and does not consume fuel. In addition, the maintenance costs associated with running a tidal station are relatively inexpensive.
Tides are very reliable because it is easy to predict when high and low tides will occur. The tide goes in and out twice a day usually at the predicted times. This makes tidal energy easy to maintain, and positive and negative spikes in energy can be managed.
Tidal energy is renewable, because nothing is consumed in the rising of tides. Tidal power relies on the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun, which pull the sea backwards and forwards, generating tides.
Tidal power is not currently economically feasible, because the initial costs of building a dam are tremendous. Furthermore, it only provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is moving in or out of the basin.
The barrage construction can affect the transportation system in water. Boats may not be able to cross the barrage, and commercial ships, used for transport or fishery, need to find alternative routes or costly systems to go through the barrage.
Maximum energy production is limited to 2.5 terawatts. This is the total amount of tidal dissipation or the friction measured by the slowing of the lunar orbit.
This type of energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. The installed capacity of wind power in India was 10,925 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (4301.63 MW), Maharashtra (1942.25 MW), Gujarat (1565.61 MW), Karnataka (1340.23 MW), Rajasthan (738.5 MW), Madhya Pradesh (212.8 MW), Andhra Pradesh (122.45 MW), Kerala (26.5 MW), West Bengal (1.1 MW) and other states (3.20 MW).It is estimated that 6,000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. Initial cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators. Noise produced by the rotor blades. There is interference on television signals. It causes significant bird and other avian deaths. Wind resources might not be available near cities and, even so, the space might be used for other purposes that can generate larger profits. Wind cannot be stored (unless batteries are used) Not all winds can be harnessed to meet the timing of electricity demands.
Wind power produces no water or air pollution that can contaminate the environment, because there are no chemical processes involved in wind power generation. Hence, there are no waste by-products, such as carbon dioxide.
Power from the wind does not contribute to global warming because it does not generate greenhouse gases.
Wind generation is a renewable source of energy, which means that we will never run out of it.
Wind towers can be beneficial for people living permanently, or temporarily, in remote areas. It may be difficult to transport electricity through wires from a power plant to a faraway location and thus, wind towers can be set up at the remote setting.
Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines. Those utilizing wind powers in a grid-tie configuration will have backup power in the event of a power outage.
Because of the ability of wind turbines to coexist within agricultural fields, sitting costs are frequently low.
Wind is unpredictable; therefore, wind power is not predictably available. When the wind speed decreases less electricity is generated. This makes wind power unsuitable for base load generation.
Wind farms may be challenged in communities that consider them an eyesore or obstruction.
Wind farms, depending on the location and type of turbine, may negatively affect bird migration patterns, and may pose a danger to the birds themselves (primarily an issue with older/smaller turbines).
Wind farms may interfere with radar creating a hole in radar coverage and so affect national security.
Tall wind turbines have been proven to impact Doppler radar towers and affect weather forecasting in a negative way. This can be prevented by not having the wind turbines in the radar's line of sight.
Mainly petrol, diesel, CNG, LPG and now bio-fuels are used for transportation purpose.
For this research firstly we have to understand the requirement of alternative energy. Then analyze all the available resources, their advantages, disadvantages and their feasibility. Then it is required to find out whether it is economical to go for alternative sources of energy. We will find the crops which are used to produce bio-fuel. We will also find whether producing bio-fuel on small scale is feasible or not. We have to collect data and secondary info. From various Govt. and other websites.
Petroleum (Petrol/diesel/Kerosene):Diesel fuel is widely used in most types of transportation. The gasoline-powered passenger automobile is the major exception. Petroleum derived diesel (called as petro diesel) is a mixture of straight run product (150 °C and 350 °C) with varying amount of selected cracked distillates and is composed of saturated hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons Petroleum is the most widely used fossil fuel, supplying about 40 percent of the world’s energy. Petroleum is also called oil. One of the most important uses of petroleum is as fuel for motor vehicles. It can also be used to pave roads, to make other chemicals, and to moisturize skin.
Petroleum is a hydrocarbon, which means it is made up mostly of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. It also contains some oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and metal salts. The term petroleum encompasses several different kinds of liquid hydrocarbons. The main ones are oil, tar, and natural gas.
Diesel is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine. Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel, but oil proved more effective. Diesel engines are used in cars, motorcycles, boats and locomotives. Automotive diesel fuel serves to power trains, buses, trucks, and automobiles, to run construction, petroleum drilling and other off-road equipment and to be the prime mover in a wide range of power generation & pumping applications. The diesel engine is high compression, self-ignition engine. Fuel is ignited by the heat of high compression and no spark plug is used. Diesel fuel often contains higher quantities of sulphur. In India, emission standards (equivalent
to Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV) have necessitated oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulphur in diesel in view of the auto fuel policy brought in force by Govt. of India. A majority of the rural population in India continues to rely on kerosene for domestic lighting. Measures to promote inter-fuel substitution in domestic lighting by promoting rural electrification have met with partial success. Electrified households in rural areas also use kerosene as a backup fuel because of erratic and poor electricity supply. Kerosene is subsidized, and an extensive network has been put in place for its distribution. Both these measures are meant to facilitate access and affordability by the poor. However, this is not the case at the grass-roots level. Further, use of traditional lighting devices has also had an adverse affect on the quality of life of the people for these devices are inefficient, emit smoke, and give poor-quality light. In this the poorest of the poor, who have limited choices and options are worst affected. Kerosene is widely used to power jet-engine aircraft (jet fuel) and some rockets, but is also commonly used as a heating fuel and for fire toys. Kerosene is sometimes used as an additive in diesel fuel to prevent gelling or waxing in cold temperatures.
Exploration and Production:Exploration and distribution is done through ONGC, GAIL, and some private companies namely RIL. Some of the incentives announced by the government were:
No custom duty on imports required for petroleum operations. No minimum expenditure commitment during the exploration period. No mandatory state participation. No carried interest by National Oil Companies Freedom to sell crude oil and natural gas in domestic market at market related prices. Biddable cost recovery limit up to 100% Royalty payment: 12.5% for on land areas, 10% for offshore and 5% for deep water areas. Liberal depreciation provisions Seven years tax holidays from the commencement of production.
The liberalization policies followed so far has not shown any positive result in exploration and production sector. In a desperate bid, the government has accelerated the space of reform. How the national oil companies adjust to this rapid changing situation is to be watched closely.
Refining:Private and joint sector refineries have been permitted to import crude oil freely without import license for actual use in their own refineries. This will have adverse effect on the operating cost of public sector refineries should international crude price falls below the domestic crude price.
Marketing:In the nineties, major policies as under in the marketing of petroleum products with far reaching implications have been announced by the government. To attract private investment in exploration, the government has announced that any company investing nearly US$400 million (Rs20 billion) in exploration and production or other specified avenue, would be eligible for marketing rights for petroleum products in India. This will allow the international oil majors to enter into the lucrative marketing sector.
Cross subsidized petroleum products competed with other energy sources like coal , and penetrated into their domain. Thus low priced kerosene has replaced vegetable oil for illuminating lamps and coal for cooking, subsidized LPG has become an essential household fuel, long distance trucks fed with cheap diesel easily competed with the railways in freight movement and subsidized naphtha made the coal technology unviable for fertilizer production. This pricing policy backed with elaborate distribution system has made the entire economy almost completely dependent on petroleum products. In this changed situation, the refining and marketing PSUs with old refineries and decades of 'retention' culture might find it difficult to face competition in the post APM (Administered Pricing Mechanism) phase. And if international crude price falls as we saw during late eighties, ONGCL and OIL will also become uncompetitive unless they adjust themselves quickly with the changing situation. Since these power plants are thermal engines, and are typically quite large, waste heat disposal becomes an issue at high ambient temperature. Thus, at a time of peak demand, a power plant may
need to be shut down or operate at a reduced power level, as sometimes do nuclear power plants, for the same reasons
Advantages: Highly compact portable source of energy used for most forms of mechanical transportation. Excellent source of organic molecules for building plastics, medicines, rubber, fiber, etc. Can withstand high heats without breakdown making it useful as lubricants like motor oil and grease. Residuals make excellent surface for asphalt roads and waterproof roofing materials Certain components make excellent solvents for paint, industrial use etc. Other components (propane, butane) make excellent compact source of portable cooking fuel and heating in areas that do not have infrastructure for natural gas delivery. Natural gas is used to make fertilizers used in agriculture and household detergents. Compared to most other fuel sources it is still one of the most economical -in other words the costs to produce it are relatively cheap compared to other energy sources. Production of oil has much less impact and a smaller footprint on the earth surface than production of coal from strip mining. If not for the discovery of oil, all whales would likely be extinct, because they were the primary source of lamp oil for lighting before oil, and are still recovering from hunting in the 1800's. The oil industry has been a source of much advanced technology and many new products that have changed our lives for the better. Natural gas wells are the world's supply of helium gas. Oil refining produces the world's supply of elemental sulphur as a byproduct, used for many industrial applications.
Disadvantages: Oil is a carbon based fuel and the primary way it is used is to burn it, releasing more than its weight in CO2 because of the added oxygen. Estimates vary from 50 to 150 years before we run out of oil. This is impossible to predict, but most major oil companies have been failing to discover new reserves equal to the amount of oil they are producing for the last few years. Much of the remaining oil in the world is in politically unstable areas including Africa, Middle East, Russia, and parts of Southeast Asia. Oil must be transported in ever increasing quantities. Pipelines are one common method but where no pipeline exist oil can become 'stranded', in other words there is no way to get it to market. Oil spills do serious environmental damage that takes decades to recover from. Our consumption of oil is increasing at the same time our production is falling. The world is currently consuming 83 million barrels of oil per day. We aren't producing that much. Many oil producing areas are subject to severe weather and this can interrupt production. Oil does contain some cancer causing compounds, benzene is one of those. Volatile components of oil and natural gas can contribute to smog. Drilling for oil is getting more difficult and expensive because we are now drilling as deep or deeper than 20,000 feet to find new reserves. Some oil is now being strip mined in the form of tar sands. This will be very hard to restore these areas.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), diesel, or propane fuel. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released). CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4]), to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, at a normal pressure of 200–248 bar (2900–3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in auto and pickup trucks, transit and school buses, and trains. The Natural Gas has less energy density as compared to Liquid Fuel and hence it is compressed to over 200 Kg/cm² (g) pressure to make it CNG for use in the automobile sector. In its natural form it is colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-carcinogenic. However, this natural gas is mixed with an odorant to add flavour similar to the odour of LPG from a domestic cylinder so as to facilitate detection of its leakage. The typical composition and physical properties of CNG (i.e. Compressed Natural Gas) is as follows:
Methane Ethane Propane CO2 Others
: : : : :
88% 5% 1% 5% 1% ____
Advantage: Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs is eliminated. CNG-powered vehicles have lower maintenance costs when compared with other fuelpowered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed, which prevents any spill or evaporation losses. Increased life of oils is another advantage. CNG mixes easily and evenly in air being a gaseous fuel. CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 °C) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of inflammability. CNG produces significantly lesser emissions of pollutants.
Drawbacks: Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be less safer than gasoline-powered vehicles CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of LNG's (because it is not liquefied), and 25% of diesel's. For Developing CNG Infrastructure
The following difficulties are faced in developing CNG infrastructure: Limited natural gas allocation leading to delay in management decisions on expenditure commitment. Uncertainty about conversion of vehicles & CNG demand. Lack of indigenous technology. Capital intensive project-a mother station cost would be 5-6 times the cost of a petrol pump and pipeline need to be in place.
Infrastructural constraints (Electricity, land etc.) Delay in getting permission from statutory authorities. Objection from local people, encroachment. Low storage capacity of on-board cylinders, thus requiring frequent refills.
Environment and Climate Protection :Compressed Natural Gas has been accepted as an alternative fuel by the public at large. The stage is set for expanding the network to other cities. The success of CNG Expansion Program would depend on many factors. The key factors being the economy of CNG vis-à-vis other conventional fuels, adherence to safety guidelines and the Government Support.
Auto LPG is also launched on a large scale in the country. At the end of the day, it will be the quality of the fuel and economics which would be important parameters for the commercial success of auto fuel. The emphasis would be on fuels with lowest emissions. However, CNG is here for the time being till a better fuel is discovered offering better economics to the users.
Distribution:Mother Station:- Mother stations are connected to the pipeline and have high compression capacity. These stations supply CNG to both vehicles and daughter stations (through mobile cascades). Typically they have the facility of filling all types of vehicles – buses/autos/cars. The Mother station requires heavy investment towards compressor, dispensers, cascades, pipelines, tubing etc
Online Station: CNG vehicle storage cylinders need to be filled at a pressure of 200 bars. “On line Stations” are equipped with a compressor of relatively small capacity, which compresses low pressure pipeline gas to the pressure of 250 bar for dispensing CNG to the vehicle cylinder. The investment in an online station is midway between daughter station and mother station.
Daughter Station: The “Daughter Stations” dispense CNG using mobile cascades. These mobile cascades at daughter stations are replaced when pressure falls and pressure depleted mobile cascade is refilled at the “Mother Station”. The investment in a daughter station is least among all types of CNG stations. There is reduction in storage pressure at daughter stations with each successive filling. Once the storage pressure drops, the refueling time increases, while the quantity of CNG dispensed to vehicle also decreases.
Daughter-Booster Station: Installing a booster compressor can eliminate drawbacks of daughter stations. The mobile cascade can be connected to the dispensing system through a booster. Daughter booster (compressor) is designed to take variable suction pressure and discharge at constant pressure of 200 bars to the vehicle being filled with CNG. The investment in daughter booster station is slightly higher than that of daughter station.
Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or auto gas) is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and the more common, mixes including both propane C3H8 (60%) and butane C4H10 (40%), depending on the season – in winter more propane, in summer more butane. Propylene and butylenes are usually also present in small concentration. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol , is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The international standard is EN 589. In the United States, thiophene or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants. LPG is a low carbon emitting hydrocarbon fuel available in rural areas, Being a mix of propane and butane, LPG emits less carbon per joule than butane but more carbon per joule than propane. As a low carbon, low polluting fossil fuel. LPG is widely available and can be used for hundreds of commercial and domestic applications.
Motor fuel:When LPG is used to fuel internal combustion engines, it is often referred to as autogas or auto propane. In some countries, it has been used since the 1940s as a petrol alternative for spark ignition engines. Its advantage is that it is non-toxic, non-corrosive and free of tetra-ethyl lead or any additives, and has a high octane rating (108 RON). It burns more cleanly than petrol or diesel and is especially free of the particulates from the latter. LPG has a lower energy density than either petrol or diesel, so the equivalent fuel consumption is higher. Many governments impose less tax on LPG than on petrol or diesel, which helps offset the greater consumption of LPG than of petrol or diesel. However, in many European countries this tax break is often compensated by a much higher annual road tax on cars using LPG than on cars using petrol or diesel. Propane is the third most widely used motor fuel in the world.
Distribution:Distribution of LPG is made through agencies (outlets). IOCL, BPCL, HPCL all have their different distribution outlets. From these outlets one can get LPG cylinder of any one company, it may be of HPCL, BPCL or IOCL. For getting LPG cylinder one has to take a connection from any one of these companies. In almost each district there is a plant, where empty cylinders were filled and send it to the agencies for distribution. To continue the refilling these plants gets supply through LPG tankers from nearby LPG depot of the respective company.
LPG – A BETTER FUEL THAN CNG:LPG Producers are suggesting the government to stop issuing CNG License for compresses natural gas (CNG) filling stations and instead LPG in domestic , commercial and automobile market. Although government has slowed down this process, there is a need to completely ban CNG license as natural gas reserves were depleting. Since the import of natural gas is very expensive and is not viable where as LPG can be imported within a short span of time. Instead of supplying natural gas to CNG stations, the government is planning to ensure the gas is provided to industrial sector, which are generating revenues and producing export surplus for the country. Proving cheaper fuel will enable industries to complete international markets and boost their exports, resulting in generating more revenue for the country. Parameters CNG LPG Average 90% lesser than petrol/diesel Almost same as petrol/diesel vehicles
Average 70% lesser petrol/diesel
Reduces by about 20% as gas carburetors are often used
Volume of Fuel Tank
Large tanks average 6 times that of petrol/diesel for same mileage: additional weight and eats up boot space Taxi/Car: PKR 6,000 ~ 14, 000 5-7 bar, comparable to conventional fuel Same as petrol/diesel
Taxi/Car: PKR 25,000 ~ 45, 000
200 ~ 245 bar, high pressure can be a safety concern Requires special equipment. A
compressor alone cost PKR 20 Million and a complete station could cost up to 30 Million
Average LPG station cost PKR 4.5 Million
Distribution & Transportation
Easily transported by road Dependent on pipe line networks tanker equipment with PTO like liquid fuel Heavily dependent on SN pipe line networks, lead time is high Average USD 250,000 and upwards for just a dispensing station with compressor of suitable capacity Average USD 65, 000 Easy to develop, lead time is 5-6 months
Network Development Initial investment in infrastructure Global Experience
5.0 Million Vehicles
10.0 Million Vehicles
Bio-fuel development and use is a complex issue because there are many bio-fuel options which are available. Bio-fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are currently produced from the products of conventional food crops such as the starch, sugar and oil feed-tocks from crops that include wheat, maize, sugar cane, palm oil and oilseed rape. Any major switch to bio-fuels from such crops would create a direct competition with their use for food and animal feed, and in some parts of the world we are already seeing the economic consequences of such competition. Bio-fuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Bio-fuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security. Bio-ethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feed stocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bio-ethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common bio-fuel in Europe. Bio-fuels provided 1.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. Investment into bio-fuels production capacity exceeded $4 billion worldwide in 2007 and is growing.
Different Types of Bio-Fuel:There are many different bio-fuels available in the UK. One of the most common worldwide is E10 fuel, which is actually a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% petroleum. This formula has been
improved in recent years with the introduction of E15 fuel (15% ethanol, 85% petroleum); E20 fuel (20% ethanol, 80% petroleum); E85 fuel (85% ethanol, 15% petroleum); E95 fuel (95% ethanol, 15% petroleum) and E100 fuel which is ethanol with up to 4% water. There are many other types of biofuel available including vegetable oil, which is used in many older diesel engines; butanol, which is seen as a replacement for petroleum; and biogas which is produced from biodegradable waste materials.
Bio-fuel in India:Bio-fuel development in India centers mainly around the cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are very rich in oil (40%). The drivers for this are historic, functional, economic, environmental, moral and political. Jatropha oil has been used in India for several decades as biodiesel to cater to the diesel fuel requirements of remote rural and forest communities; jatropha oil can be used directly after extraction (i.e. without refining) in diesel generators and engines. Jatropha has the potential to provide economic benefits at the local level since under suitable management it has the potential to grow in dry marginal non-agricultural lands, thereby allowing villagers and farmers to leverage non-farm land for income generation. As well, increased Jatropha oil production delivers economic benefits to India on the macroeconomic or national level as it reduces the nation's fossil fuel import bill for diesel production (the main transportation fuel used in the country); minimizing the expenditure of India's foreign-currency reserves for fuel allowing India to increase its growing foreign currency reserves (which can be better spent on capital expenditures for industrial inputs and production). And since Jatropha oil is carbon-neutral, large-scale production will improve the country's carbon emissions profile. Finally, since no food producing farmland is required for producing this biofuel (unlike corn or sugar cane ethanol, or palm oil diesel), it is considered the most politically and morally acceptable choice among India's current bio-fuel options; it has no known negative impact on the production of the massive amounts grains and other vital agriculture goods India produces to meet the food requirements of its massive population (1.1 Billion people as of 2008). Seeds from the Jatropha curcas plant are used for the production of biofuel, a crucial part of India's plan to attain energy sustainability.
India's total biodiesel requirement is projected to grow to 3.6 Million Metric Tons in 2011-12, with the positive performance of the domestic automobile industry. The Government is currently implementing an ethanol-blending program and considering initiatives in the form of mandates for biodiesel. Due to these strategies, the rising population, and the growing energy demand from the transport sector, bio-fuels can be assured of a significant market in India. On 12 September 2008, the Indian Government announced its 'National Bio-fuel Policy'. It aims to meet 20% of India's diesel demand with fuel derived from plants. That will mean setting aside 140,000 square kilometers of land. Presently fuel yielding plants cover less than 5,000 square kilometers
Jatropha incentives in India
Jatropha incentives in India are a part of India's goal to achieve energy independence by the year 2012. Jatropha oil is produced from the seeds of the Jatropha curcas, a plant that can grow in wastelands across India, and the oil is considered to be an excellent source of bio-diesel. India is keen on reducing its dependence on coal and petroleum to meet its increasing energy demand and encouraging Jatropha cultivation is a crucial component of its energy policy. Large plots of waste land have been selected for Jatropha cultivation and will provide much needed employment to the rural poor of India. Businesses are also seeing the planting of Jatropha as a good business opportunity. The Government of India has identified 400,000 square kilometres (98 million acres) of land where Jatropha can be grown, hoping it will replace 20% of India's diesel consumption by 2011.
Indian Railways:The Indian Railways has started to use the oil (blended with diesel fuel in various ratios) from the Jatropha plant to power its diesel engines with great success. Currently the diesel locomotives that run from Thanjavur to Nagore section and Tiruchirapalli to Lalgudi, Dindigul and Karur sections run on a blend of Jatropha and diesel oil.
Biofuels Production Cycle:-
Bio-fuel production from biomass:Bio-fuel consist of two major categories of fuels-Bio-ethanol and Biodiesel, therefore there are two different procedures of producing bio-fuel from biomass. The methods followed have a strong impact on the end results that are achieved. There are two key reactions that are involved in the production of Bio-ethanol, one is Hydrolysis and the other is Fermentation.
For years, some critics have claimed that corn-based ethanol has a negative "net energy balance" -that is, that ethanol requires more energy to produce than it delivers as fuel. But as bio-fuel production efficiencies have improved, critics have turned their focus to broader sustainability issues.
Bio-Fuels Do Harm, Aren't They?
Bio-fuels have been hailed as a green alternative to oil by some, but in the US, where there are massive plants converting maize (corn), it has been criticized for making food more expensive and being environmentally unfriendly. Britain produces about 55,000 tons a year of bio-ethanol, which is added to petrol, mostly from sugar beet, and 75,000 tons of biodiesel, added to diesel, from tallow and rape, soya and palm oil. Two million tons a year would be needed to meet the 5 per cent target.
Commercial Bio-Fuel Production In India:Cultivation of feedstock for bio-fuels can destroy habitat and contribute to reducing biological diversity: De-forestation (alarm for palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia). Habitat stress and loss of biodiversity from spreading of monocultures, use of water resources and pesticides. Compaction and erosion of soil.
Invasive species (often high-growth plants that need no input of fertilizers, such as miscanthus). Second-generation fuels: indication that some diverse systems will give higher yields than monocultures.
Commercial Bio-Fuel Production In India:Apart from the environmental problems, there are a few social problems as well. Competition for land use Competition for land use. Increase in prices for food, feed and industrial fibres. Some areas, people and industries may gain – others will loose without compensating measures. Working conditions at plantations. General agricultural industry problem – substandard wages and poor working conditions. Local community conditions. Lack of trickle down effects. Increasing concentration of lands in the ownership of a few large landowners in developing countries. Takeover of land for bio-fuel cultivation by large international agribusinesses, wiping out traditional ways of living and sending people into poverty
Sustainable Bio-fuel Production:A senior scientist at the Land Institute, Cox and his organization work to develop agricultural systems that are both sustainable and produce strong grain yields for food.
The reason for his invitation, however, became clear to him, as food riots erupted around the globe this year. Cox and fellow scientists argue that a "perfect storm" has formed, one in which high petroleum prices combined with soil erosion, the increase in price of nitrogen-based fertilizer,
government waste and corruption, crop failures in Australia, and growing food demand have strained the world's ability to feed itself, especially in developing nations. The resulting increase in food prices has led to violent unrest across Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America.
The United Nations World Food Program yesterday said high food prices have caused "a silent tsunami threatening to plunge more than 100 million people on every continent into hunger."
Agricultural staples such as corn and soybeans are increasingly used to produce bio-fuels like ethanol and biodiesel, respectively, rather than food. The United States has ramped up its foodbased bio-fuel production in an effort to end its dependence on foreign oil and combat global warming. According to the White House, ethanol production has quadrupled from 1.6 billion gallons in 2000 to 6.4 billion gallons in 2007. The increased production of ethanol comes primarily from corn, and it has made the United States the number one producer of the alternative fuel worldwide. But this shift from producing corn and soybeans for fuel rather than food has affected global food supplies. A 2006 paper published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) said that “Neither bio-fuel [ethanol or biodiesel] can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies.” With increased demand for already scarce foodstuffs, prices have soared; benefitting corn and soybean producers but harming poor consumers internationally. The PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) study agreed, stating, “Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to bio-fuels would meet only 12 percent of gasoline demand and 6 percent of diesel demand.”A partial solution to this increasingly complex problem would be to produce bio-fuel from nonfood sources. Bio-fuel production from non-grain biomass such as sugarcane would be less destructive than grain biofuels. Even then, he said, non-grain bio-fuel would not satisfy our future fuel demand unless we sharply reduced our overall demand for fuel across the board.
The following table shows the vegetable oil yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to ethanol production, which relies on starch, sugar and cellulose content instead of oil yields.
Crop maize (corn) cashew nut oats lupin (lupine) kenaf calendula cotton hemp soybean coffee flax (linseed) hazelnuts euphorbia pumpkin seed coriander mustard seed camelina sesame safflower rice tung tree
kg oil/ha/yr 145 148 183 195 230 256 273 305 375 386 402 405 440 449 450 481 490 585 655 696 790
liters oil/ha 172 176 217 232 273 305 325 363 446 459 478 482 524 534 536 572 583 696 779 828 940
lbs oil/acre 129 132 163 175 205 229 244 272 335 345 359 362 393 401 402 430 438 522 585 622 705
US gal/acre 18 19 23 25 29 33 35 39 48 49 51 51 56 57 57 61 62 74 83 88 100
sunflowers cacao (cocoa) peanut opium poppy rapeseed olives castor beans pecan nuts jojoba jatropha macadamia nuts brazil nuts avocado coconut chinese tallow oil palm Copaifera langsdorffii algae (open pond)
800 863 890 978 1000 1019 1188 1505 1528 1590 1887 2010 2217 2260 3950 5000
952 1026 1059 1163 1190 1212 1413 1791 1818 1892 2246 2392 2638 2689 4700 5950 12000
714 771 795 873 893 910 1061 1344 1365 1420 1685 1795 1980 2018 3500 4465
102 110 113 124 127 129 151 191 194 202 240 255 282 287 500 635 1283
Advantage of Bio- Fuel:
Bio-fuel being produced from plants, vegetable sources, grains, corns, is a superior fuel than fossil fuel from the environmental point of view.
Use of bio-fuel becomes compelling in view of the tightening of automotive vehicle emission standards and court interventions.
The need to provide energy security, specially for the rural areas. The need to create employment for the rural people through plantation, seed
procurement, oil extraction.
The plantation of the bio-diesel crops provide nutrients to soil, checking soil erosion and land degradation.
Rehabilitating degraded lands through greening. Addressing global concern relating to containing Carbon emissions as provided in the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Reduce dependence on crude oil imports
Disadvantages of Bio-Fuels: Biodiversity - A fear among environmentalists is that by adapting more land to produce crops for bio-fuels, more habitats will be lost for animals and wild plants. It is feared for example, that some Asian countries will sacrifice their rainforests to build more oil plantations. The food V fuel debate - Another concern is that if bio-fuels become lucrative for farmers, they may grow crops for bio-fuel production instead of food production. Less food production will increase prices and cause a rise in inflation. Burning of rapeseed or corn can contribute as much to nitrous oxide emissions than cooling through fossil fuel savings. Non-sustainable bio-fuel production – Many first generation bio-fuels are not sustainable. It is necessary to create sustainable bio-fuel production that does not affect food production, and that doesn’t cause environmental problems.
The Pros and Cons of Bio-fuels:
Despite the upsides, however, experts point out that bio-fuels are far from a cure for our addiction to petroleum. A wholesale societal shift from gasoline to bio-fuels, given the
number of gas-only cars already on the road and the lack of ethanol or biodiesel pumps at existing filling stations, would take some time.
Are There Enough Farms and Crops to Support a Switch to Bio-fuels? Another major hurdle for widespread adoption of bio-fuels is the challenge of growing enough crops to meet demand, something skeptics say might well require converting just about all of the world’s remaining forests and open spaces over to agricultural land. Replacing only five percent of the nation’s diesel consumption with biodiesel would require diverting approximately 60 percent of today’s soy crops to biodiesel production.
Another dark cloud looming over bio-fuels is whether producing them actually requires more energy than they can generate. After factoring in the energy needed to grow crops and then convert them into bio-fuels. Producing ethanol from corn required 29 percent more energy than the end product itself is capable of generating. He found similarly troubling numbers in making biodiesel from soybeans.
Conservation is a Key Strategy for Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels. There is no one quick-fix for weaning ourselves off of fossil fuels and the future will likely see a combination of sources--from wind and ocean currents to hydrogen, solar and some use of bio-fuels: powering our energy needs. We must reduce our consumption, not just replace it with something else. Indeed, conservation is probably the largest single “alternative fuel” available to us.
Best Bio-Fuel Crops For India:There are a number of emerging bio-fuel crops - jatropha, algae, switch grass, arundo donax, camelina, chinese tallow, kudzu and more. Jatropha is the ideal bio-fuel crop for India as it can grow on arid land and India cannot afford to divert its agricultural lands towards energy production.
WHAT IS JATROPHA?
Jatropha is a quick maturing plant species that starts bearing fruits within a year of its planting and following the extraction of the oil can be blended with petroleum diesel for use. It is a very hardy plant and grows in a wide variety of agro-climatic conditions from arid to high rainfall areas and on lands with thin soil cover to good lands. It is also not browsed by cattle and so its plantation can be easily under taken in the farmers’ fields and their boundaries, under-stocked forests, public lands and denuded lands facing increasing degradation. Its plantation, seed collection, oil extraction etc. will create employment opportunities for a large number of people, particularly the poor, and will help rehabilitate unproductive and wastelands and save precious foreign exchange by substituting imported crude.
Jatropha is a tall bush or small tree (up to 6 m height). The genus Jatropha contains approximately 170 known species. The genus name Jatropha derives from the Greek jatrós (doctor),trophé (food), which implies medicinal uses. The seeds are toxic and they contain about 35 % of non-edible oil. The plant is planted as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads, gardens and fields, because it is not browsed by animals.
Jatropha curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 50 years.
It is found to be growing in many parts of the country, rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate.
This highly drought-resistant species is adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. The current distribution shows that introduction has been most successful in the drier regions of the tropics with annual rainfall of 300-1000 mm.
It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average annual temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and tolerates slight frost.
Jatropha seedcakes, produced as a by-product of pressing the oil, make an excellent organic fertilizer or protein-rich livestock feed. Another by-product is glycerin.
Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 37%. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also insecticide. By the year 2011 a planned 20% of the total diesel consumption is to come from Jatropha biodiesel, with biodiesel production planned to reach around 13 million tons annually by 2013. Average yields quoted in their projection are 1.5 kg per plant per year, oil recovery from the seeds is expected to be 91%, and the oil cake and glycerol are to be sold to compensate for the cost of processing the seeds into biodiesel. Because of its mineral content, which is similar to that of chicken manure, it is valuable as organic manure. In practical terms an application of 1 ton of Jatropha press cake is equivalent to 200 kg of mineral fertilizer. About one-third of the energy in the fruit of Jatropha can be extracted as oil that has a similar energy value to diesel fuel. Jatropha oil can be used directly in diesel engines added to diesel fuel as an extender or trans-esterised to a bio-diesel fuel.
Possible Uses of the Jatropha
Jatropha press cake
The comparison of properties of Jatropha oil and standard specifications of diesel
Standard specification of Jatropha oil
Standard specification of Diesel
0.15 or less
> 2.7 cp
1.2 % or less
4 or less
Physical and chemical properties of diesel fuel and Jatropha
Viscosity (cp) (30°C)
Speciflc gravity (15°C/4°C)
0.841 / 0.85
Solidfying Point (°C)
47.8 to 59
Flash Point (°C)
110 / 340
Carbon Residue (%)
< 0.05 to < 0.15
284 to 295
< 350 to < 370
0.13 to 0.16
< 1.0 to 1.2
1.0 to 38.2
90.8 to 112.5
Refractive Index (30°C)
Pictures of Jatropha
Bio-Fuel –Alternative to Transport Fuel:In bio-diesel the country has a ray of hope. Bio-fuels are renewable liquid fuels coming from biological raw material and have been proved to be good substitutes for oil in the transportation sector. As such bio-fuels: bio-ethanol and bio-diesel are gaining worldwide acceptance as a solution to environmental problems, energy security, reducing imports, rural employment and improving agricultural economy.
Ethanol is one such substitute that can be produced from Sugarcane, Sweet Sorghum and used in blend with gasoline for automobiles. Similarly, bio-diesel can be produced from oil bearing seeds of many plants grown in the wild like Jatropha curcas, Pongamia, Neem, Mahua and blended with High Speed Diesel for transport vehicles, generators, railway engines, irrigation pumps, etc. Large volumes of such oils can also substitute imported oil for making soap.
Bio-diesel is made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible & non-edible) and animal fats through trans-esterification and is a diesel substitute and requires very little or no engine modifications up to 20% blend and minor modification for higher percentage blends. The use of bio-diesel results in substantial reduction of un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matters. It has almost no sulphur, no aromatics and has about 10% built in oxygen, which helps it to burn fully. Its higher cetane number improves the combustion.
Environmentally and socially there are significant benefits to bio-diesel over petroleum products. When oil crops grow, they take carbon dioxide from the air and store it in their structure - both in the plant and in the oil. When they are burnt, the carbon is released back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. However, no new carbon dioxide is released; rather it is just a release of what was taken in whist the plant grew. Therefore, on balance, very little carbon is released. This is quite different to the burning of a fossil fuel where new carbon has been taken from its store underground and released anew into the atmosphere.
The total wasteland available for cultivation of crops for bio-fuel is 638518.31 sq km which constitutes 20.17 percent of the total geographical area in the country. Gullied and/or Revinous land 20,553.35sqkm Upland with or without scrub 194,014.29 sq km, Waterlogged and Marshy land 16,568.45 km, Land affected by salinity/alkalinity-coastal/inland 20,477 sq km, Shifting Cultivation Area 35,142.20 sq km, Underutilized/ degraded notified forest land 1,40,652.31 sq km, Degraded pastures/grazing land 25,978.91 sq km, Degraded land under plantation crop 5,828.069 sq km, sand-Inland/coastal 50,021.65 sq km, mining industrial wastelands 1,252.13 sq km, barren rocky/stony waste/sheet rock area 64,584.77 sq km steep sloping area 7,656.29.
Recycled Oil Solar energy Plantation Oil Extration
Economic Benefit: Its higher cetane number improves the combustion and higher viscosity maintains better lubrication of the engine. Bio-diesel is completely harmless to the environment; especially the groundwater and flush point of bio-diesel is more than 100°C. So storage of bio-diesel is simple and it doesn’t need any different infrastructure than petro-diesel. Bio-diesel can fulfill need to provide energy security, specially for the rural areas. Reduces dependence on crude oil import and out-go of foreign exchange for oil import.
Social Benefits: Large scale bio-diesel tree plantation (Jatropha / Karanja) can create employment for the rural people. Besides It can also generate employment for Seed procurement, Oil Extraction & packaging. The plantation of the bio-diesel crops provide nutrients to soil, checking soil erosion and land degradation and it rehabilitates degraded lands through greening.
Economics of Jatropha Bio-Diesel : In order to promote bio-diesel and to help it to compete with petroleum diesel, govt. of India should reward tax incentives to the bio-diesel manufacturers at least for the first 10 years. The economics of Bio-diesel depends highly on the cost of the raw materials / seeds. The cost of Bio-diesel produced from Jatropha seed has been worked out as Rs.23.3 / kg or Rs.19.80 / liter, considering the cost of 1 kg Jatropha seed is Rs.5/- per kg, as shown in the table below: Particulars Jatropha Seed Cost of collection & Oil extraction Cost of Oil cake produced Cost of Glycerin produced Cost of Transesterfication Cost of bio-diesel per kg after deduction of the cost of oil cake and glycerin Cost of bio-diesel per liter (sp. Gravity .85) The cost components of Bio-diesel are the price of seed, seed collection and oil extraction, oil trans-esterification, transport of seed and oil. As mentioned earlier, cost
Rate (Rs./Kg) 5.00 2
Quantity (KG) 4 4
Cost (Cost) 20 8
recovery will be through sale of oil-cake and of glycerol. Taking these elements into account, the price of Bio-diesel has been worked out assuming raw material cost of Rs. 3 per kg and varying prices of by-products. The cost of Bio-diesel varies between Rs. 9.37 per litre to Rs. 16.02 per litre depending upon the price assumed for the oil- cake and glycerol. The use of Bio-diesel is thus economically feasible.
INCOME FROM 1000 HECT LAND
1. Quantity of Jatropha seeds yield = 5000 tonnes
2. Quantity of Jatropha oil (@ 30%) = 1500 tonnes / 1.755 million liters (@ Sp. Gr. 0.85%)
3. Quantity of Bio-diesel (@ 95% of Jatropha oil) = 1.668 million liters
4. Cost of Bio-diesel (announced by the Govt. of India @ Rs.26.50 / liter) = Rs.4.42 crore
5. Cost of Bio-diesel (US$) = US$ 1 million
6. Quantity of De-Oiled cake (70%) = 3500 tonnes
7. Cost of the De-oiled Cake (@ Rs.2000/- per tonne) = Rs.70 lakh
8. Cost of the De-oiled Cake (US$) = US$ 0.16 million
9. Total Income from Bio-diesel & De-oiled Cake = Rs.5.12 crore
10. Total Income from Bio-diesel & De-oiled Cake (US$) = US$ 1.16 million
Marketing framework: The blending of biodiesel can be taken up at the depot level of the diesel distribution and marketing company. However, it should be emphasized that marketing of biodiesel blended diesel should be done as an organized trade and this activity should be handed by the diesel distributing companies. The biodiesel to be blended has to mandatorily tested for its quality. This will also keep in check any adulteration activity. The storage of biodiesel does not need any specialized tanking and the storage tanks used for biodiesel can also be used for biodiesel. The blending of biodiesel is also a simple affair and the circulatory pumps generally available in any diesel storage depot are sufficient to make a homogenous blend. Another option for marketing of biodiesel blended diesel is for specialized fleet operations e.g. bus fleets etc. For this blending may be taken up at these locations.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat) with an alcohol. Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petro-diesel. Bio-diesel is a fatty acid of ethyl or methyl ester made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fats. The main commodity sources for Bio-diesel in India can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevcca brasiliensis (Rubber) etc. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a Bio-diesel blend or can be used in its pure form. Just like petroleum diesel, Bio-diesel Operates in compression engine; which essentially require very little or no engine modifications because
Bio-diesel has properties similar to petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use of Bio-diesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction of un-brunt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particular matters. Bio-diesel is considered clean fuel since it has almost no sulphur, no aromatics and has about 10% built-in oxygen, which helps it to burn fully. Its higher cetane number improves the ignition quality even when blended in the petroleum diesel
What is biodiesel fuel?
Biodiesel is a fuel that is made from soy beans, or waste vegetable oil (cooking oil). It can be used in place of petroleum diesel fuel for vehicles or heating oil for buildings. Unlike petroleum diesel, biodiesel is a renewable resource, and it creates less pollution than petroleum diesel. It can be used alone or in combination with petroleum diesel, or with heating oil. Generally, no expensive modifications to the engines are required. This makes it easier to integrate biodiesel into current systems than other alternative energy sources, which often require new equipment.
How is biodiesel made?
Biodiesel fuel is made from oils or fats, which are both hydrocarbons, most commonly soybean oil. These hydrocarbons are filtered, and then mixed with an alcohol, which is usually methanol, and a catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide). The major products of this reaction are the biodiesel fuel, which is an ester, and glycerol, which has commercial uses, such as in cosmetics
Sulphuric Acid + Methanol Recycled Greases Vegetable Oil Dilute Acid Esterification
Methanol + KOH
Transesterification Crude Glycerin Crude Biodiesel Refining
Biodiesel Labeled:Biodiesel is designated by the letter B and a number representing the percent of the fuel that is biodiesel. The rest of the fuel is petroleum diesel. For example, a mixture of 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel would be labeled B20. This ratio of biodiesel to petroleum diesel is commonly used.
Space-filling model of ethyl stearate, or stearic acid ethyl ester, an ethyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and ethanol.
Advantages of Biodiesel Fuel:
Biodiesel fuel is a renewable energy source that can be made from soy beans grown for fuel, or from cooking oils recycled from restaurants.
Biodiesel is less polluting than petroleum diesel. The absence of sulfur in 100% biodiesel should extend the life of catalytic converters. Biodiesel fuel can also be used in combination with heating oil to heat residential and industrial buildings. This can reduce dependence on non-renewable and increasingly expensive heating oil.
Biodiesel fuel can generally be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel engines without modification, and it can be distributed through existing diesel fuel pumps. This is an advantage over other alternative fuels.
The lubricating effects of the biodiesel may extend the lifetime of engines. They are non-toxic. Bio-fuels are biodegradable. Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel boasts of a zero total emissions production facility Bio-diesel have much higher flash point that makes a vehicle fueled by pure biodiesel far safer in an accident than one powered by petroleum diesel or the explosively combustible gasoline.
Disadvantages of Biodiesel Fuel:
Biodiesel is currently about one and a half times more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel. Part of this cost is because the most common source of oil is the soybean, which only is only 20% oil.
It takes energy to produce biodiesel fuel from soy crops, including the energy of sowing, fertilizing and harvesting.
Biodiesel fuel can damage rubber hoses in some engines, particularly in cars built before 1994.
Biodiesel cleans the dirt from the engine. This dirt then collects in the fuel filter, which can clog it.
Biodiesel is not distributed as widely as traditional, petroleum diesel, but distribution infrastructure is improving.
Biodiesel produced from agricultural crops involve additional land use. It gives out more nitrogen oxide emissions. Pure biodiesel doesn't flow well at low temperatures, because of its nature, can’t be transported in pipelines. It has to be transported by truck or rail, which increases the cost.
Biodiesel is less suitable for use in low temperatures, than petro-diesel. At even lower temperatures, the fuel becomes a gel that cannot be pumped.
Biodiesel is that it tends to reduce fuel economy. The energy content per gallon of biodiesel is approximately 11 percent lower than that of petroleum diesel
There have been a few concerns regarding biodiesel’s impact on engine durability
Contamination by water:Biodiesel may contain small but problematic quantities of water. One of the reasons biodiesel can absorb water is the persistence of mono and di-glycerides left over from an incomplete reaction. These molecules can act as an emulsifier, allowing water to mix with the biodiesel. In addition, there may be water that is residual to processing or resulting from storage tank condensation. The presence of water is a problem because:
Water reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel. This means more smoke, harder starting, less power.
Water causes corrosion of vital fuel system components: fuel pumps, injector pumps, fuel lines, etc.
Water & microbes cause the paper element filters in the system to fail , which in turn results in premature failure of the fuel pump due to ingestion of large particles.
Water freezes to form ice crystals near 0 °C (32 °F). These crystals provide sites for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the residual fuel.
Water accelerates the growth of microbe colonies, which can plug up a fuel system. Biodiesel users who have heated fuel tanks therefore face a year-round microbe problem.
Additionally, water can cause pitting in the pistons on a diesel engine.
Production:Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods. A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole. Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing vacuum distillation. This is rather energy intensive. The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can then be utilized directly, or converted into other products.
Environmental effects:The surge of interest in biodiesels has highlighted a number of environmental effects associated with its use. These potentially include reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, pollution and the rate of biodegradation. Bio-diesel from soy oil results, on average, in a 57% reduction in greenhouse gases compared to fossil diesel, and biodiesel produced from waste grease results in an 86% reduction.
Food, land and water vs. Fuel:In some poor countries the rising price of vegetable oil is causing problems. Some propose that fuel only be made from non-edible vegetable oils such as camelina, jatropha or seashore mallow which can thrive on marginal agricultural land where many trees and crops will not grow, or would produce only low yields.
Farmers may switch from producing food crops to producing bio-fuel crops to make more money, even if the new crops are not edible. The law of supply and demand predicts that if fewer farmers are producing food the price of food will rise. It may take some time, as farmers can take some time to change which things they are growing, but increasing demand for first generation bio-fuels is likely to result in price increases for many kinds of food. Some have pointed out that there are poor farmers and poor countries that are making more money because of the higher price of vegetable oil. Biodiesel from sea algae would not necessarily displace terrestrial land currently used for food production and new algaculture jobs could be created.
India’s Biodiesel Scene:Economic development in India has led to huge increases in energy demand, which in-turn has encouraged development of the Jatropha Cultivation and Biodiesel Production Systems. Communities in rural India need to develop alternative energy options that will be good for the environment and help promote sustainable livelihoods in the region, without exposing them to such adverse effects of modernization as cultural transformations, and allowing them to retain independence in the face of globalization. The establishment of the Jatropha cultivation and local, community-based production of environmentally friendly biodiesel fuel can lead to income improvement in these regions. Establishment and ongoing improvement of a Jatropha System will benefit four main aspects of development and secure a sustainable way of life for village farmers and the land that supports them.
Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It can be used as a transport fuel, mainly as a bio-fuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion litres. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type fuel use increased from 3.7% to 5.4%. In 2009 worldwide ethanol fuel production reached 19,5 billion gallons (73.9 billion liters). Ethanol is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 89 percent of the world's ethanol fuel production in 2009.Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and the use of 10% ethanol gasoline is mandated in some U.S. states and cities.
Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline (known as E25). In addition, by late 2009 Brazil had a fleet of more than 9 million flexible-fuel vehicles regularly using neat ethanol fuel (known as E100). Bio-ethanol, unlike petroleum, is a form of renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feed-stocks. It can be made from very common crops such as sugar cane, potato, manioc and maize. However, there has been considerable debate about how useful bio-ethanol will be in replacing gasoline. Concerns about its production and use relate to the large amount of arable land required for crops, as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol production.
WHAT IS FUEL ETHANOL:Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol) is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is an alcohol, a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon atom. Ethanol melts at -114.1°C, boils at 78.5°C, and has a density of 0.789 g/mL at 20°C. Its low freezing point has made it useful as the fluid in thermometers for temperatures below -40°C.
ETHANOL AS A FUEL:In the first phase of the project, ethanol- blended petrol is being supplied through retail outlets in nine States and four Union Territories. These states are Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. The four Union Territories include Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry. Petrol blended with 5 per cent ethanol would be supplied by petrol pumps all over the country under the second phase towards the end of the year. The content of ethanol blending would be increased to 10 per cent in the third phase of the programme scheduled for 2005. Ethanol is used as an automotive fuel by itself and can be mixed with gasoline to form what has been called "gasohol" Fuel Ethanol- the most common blends contain 10% ethanol and 85% ethanol mixed with gasoline. Because the ethanol molecule contains oxygen, it allows the engine to more completely combust the fuel, resulting in fewer emissions. Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered a renewable fuel. Therefore, ethanol has many advantages as an automotive fuel.
Alcohol Through Corn, Maize, Grain, Starch etc.: etc.:In India production of alcohol apart from molasses & sugarcane route the non non-molasses route like maize, starch, corn grain, sweet sorghum, tapioca, and sugar beet are also equally gett getting importance as the climatic conditions for such type of agricultural crops suits in India. It is a right time for the central government through ministry of agriculture to encourage and assist state governments to introduce a policy of using only grain based alcohol for potable purpose. grain-based Molasses based alcohol may be used for industrial use as well as fuel blending.
Ethanol In India:India imports nearly 70% of its annual crude petroleum requirement, which is approximately 110 million tons. The prices are in the range of US$ 50 70 per barrel, and the expenditure on crude 50-70 purchase is in the range of Rs.1600 billion per year, impacting in a big way, the country's foreign exchange reserves. The petroleum industry now looks very committed to the use of etha ethanol as fuel, as it is expected to benefit sugarcane farmers as well as the oil industry in the long run. Ethanol (FUEL ETHANOL) can also be produced from wheat, corn, beet, sweet sorghum etc. Ethanol is one of the best tools to fight vehicular pollution, contains 35% oxygen that helps contains complete combustion of fuel and thus reduces harmful tailpipe emissions. It also reduces particulate emissions that pose a health hazard. DEMAND SUPPLY FOR ETHANOL ETHANOL:-
PETROL CONSUMPTION 10000000 500000 500000000 KILO Liters KILO Liters - 5% ALCOHOL required Ltrs.
Demand all over Country Existing Production Total demand Demand in Maharashtra
5000 1840 2460 700
Lac liters Lac liters Lac liters Lac liters
In parts of 4 states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh & Goa 5% of ethanol blended petrol has already been started and till 30th June 2003, it will be fully covered. Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territories of Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman and Div and Pondicherry are also covered till end of July 2003. The entire country will be covered in 2nd Phase and ethanol content to be increased to 10% in 3rd Phase. Most important R & D Studies are successful of blending ethanol with Diesel, which itself is a very significant point in developing ethanol. All this significance shows a definite assured market for the industry leading the project to most viable and safe for financial assistance.
ANHYDROUS ETHANOL POTENTIAL FOR GASOLINE BLENDING :The statistics published by the Ministry of Petroleum the potential is as follows: For 5% Blend in Gasoline Requirement on all India Basis Requirement in 8 States – 500 million ltrs. Per annum – 300 million ltrs. Per annum
Requirement in UP & Maharashtra – 40 & 70 million ltrs. Per annum respectively This statistics show a direct potential. Due to govt. promoting ethanol to mix in petrol there is drastic demand for ethanol, which could overcome the existing unutilized capacity and thus creating an excess demand.
Impact on developing countries:Demand for fuel in rich countries is now competing against demand for food in poor countries. The increase in world grain consumption in 2006 happened due to the increase in consumption for fuel, not human consumption. The grain required to fill a 25 US gallons (95 L) fuel tank with ethanol will feed one person for a year. Several factors combine to make recent grain and oilseed price increases impact poor countries more:
Poor people buy more grains (e.g. wheat), and are more exposed to grain price changes. Poor people spend a higher portion of their income on food, so increasing food prices influence them more.
Aid organizations which buy food and send it to poor countries see more need when prices go up but are able to buy less food on the same budget.
The impact is not all negative. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recognizes the potential opportunities that the growing bio-fuel market offers to small farmers and aquacultures
around the world and has recommended small-scale financing to help farmers in poor countries produce local bio-fuel. On the other hand, poor countries that do substantial farming have increased profits due to bio-fuels. If vegetable oil prices double, the profit margin could more than double. In the past rich countries have been dumping subsidized grains at below cost prices into poor countries and hurting the local farming industries. With bio-fuels using grains the rich countries no longer have grain surpluses to get rid of. Farming in poor countries is seeing healthier profit margins and expanding. Interviews with local peasants in southern Ecuador provide strong anecdotal evidence that the high price of corn is encouraging the burning of tropical forests. The destruction of tropical forests now account for 20% of all greenhouse gas emissions.
Disadvantages:However, there are several problems with the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel. First, It is costly to produce and use. Ethanol has a smaller energy density than gasoline. It takes about 1.5 times more ethanol than gasoline to travel the same distance. It requires vast amounts of land to grow the crops needed to generate fuel. Production of ethanol itself uses energy. Ethanol production uses land that will compete directly with food production. Another problem is that ethanol burning may increase emission of certain types of pollutants. Some of the ethanol will be only partially oxidized and emitted as acetylaldehyde. Aldehyde, a function of ethanol volume, is a threat to nose, eyes, throat & possibly causes cancer. Finally, ethanol production, like all processes, generates waste products that must be disposed. The waste product from ethanol production, called swill is extremely toxic to aquatic life.
Negative technical dimensions : Driving ability of ethanol is lower: Lower per litre energy value (EV). Takes more to drive the same distance. Consumers have to fill their cars more often. And they have to pay more for ethanol fuel.
When blended above E10, consumers: Driving regular cars have to pay at least $1,200 U.S. to have their engines adopted. Have to drive extra distances to special service stations to buy ethanol. Ethanol can absorb water and it dilutes ethanol, reducing its value as a fuel; It causes problems with corrosion and phase separation in the gasoline mixture. It absorbs and carries dirt inside the fuel lines and fuel tank, thus contaminanting the car engine system. It is highly flammable and explosive compared to gasoline. It requires more attention to handle in daily life.
Advantages: Positive health and political impacts : Replaces bad gasoline additives ,which are sources of surface and ground water contamination, and dangerous to human health.
It potentially replaces crude oil, which is a finite, non-renewable resource.
It can be domestically produced, thus reducing dependence on oil imports. It can potentially cut oil import costs.
Positive socio-economic impacts: Ethanol uses agri-products as a feed-stock. It is a renewable source of energy, which can replace fossil fuel in the future. It increases value added and price of agri-products. Which increases net farm income. It creates more jobs in the rural sector. Strengthens rural economies. It can potentially reduce government subsidies to the farm sector. Strategic implications : Changing consumer choice to ethanol can: Reduce dependence on foreign oil. Reduce local pollution and clean the atmosphere. Slow climate change. Provide a more renewable fuel source. The automobile industry will react to growing future demand for ethanol by producing new engines.
Conclusion:It is feasible to use bio-fuel as an alternate source of transportation energy in India. So we must go for bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy. There are many advantages of bio-fuel like: Reducing the speed of global warming. Fulfilling the fuel demand of India. Handling the rising price of fuel. Utilizing un-utilized arid land. Reduce the dépendances on foreign petroleum; Provide a more renewable fuel source Generating more employments.
Although there are many problems in using it like : Increasing the food prices that will affect negatively the food supply for the developing countries. Farmers may grow crops for bio-fuel production instead of food production. Producing bio-fuel actually requires more energy than they can generate. With high population growth rates the bio-fuels negative effects on food prices Biodiesel is 1.5 times more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel.
ARTICLE CNG vs LPG Comparision - Team-BHP.mht Bio fuel efficient alternative by Mesbahuddin Biofuel in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_files Ethanol & Biodiesel (Biofuels) India Market News Useful information for Fuel Ethanol Plants & Ethanol Conferences in india.mht India Renewable Energy - Project Prefeasibility Report - Wind, Solar, Biofuels Research, Investment.mht. Neil Schlager and Jayne Weisblatt, editors. Alternative Energy Volume 1 The Market Potential of CNG as a Transportation Fuel ASPO-USA Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas http://www.eai.in/ http://environment.about.com http://www.ethanolindia.net http://pellets-wood.com
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.