You are on page 1of 24

FACULTY OF SCIENCE &

TECHNOLOGY
MAY SEMESTER 2015

EMSH 5104

SAFETY,HEALTH AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
PREPARED BY
: N RAMALOO A/L
R NOOAYAH
MATRICULATION NO
: CGS00835317
IDENTIFICATION CARD : 670527-10-6091
TELEPHONE NO
: 019-4548569
E-MAIL
:
marjism@yahoo.com
LEARNING CENTRE
: KUALA LUMPUR

Contents

Page
TASK I

1.1.0

2.1.0

3.0.0

4.0.0

5.0.0

Introduction
1.1.0

General

1.2.0

Problem Statement

Literature Review
2.1.0

General

2.2.0

Definitions of Stress

2.3.0

Descriptions and Sources of Stress in workplace

2.4.0

Sources of Stress

A)
3.1.0

Gap between Sitis expectation and her reality

3.2.0

Gap between Mr.Alis expectation and his reality

B)
4.1.0

Impact on Sitis stress level

4.2.0

Impact on Mr.Alis stress level

C)

Actions which could close the expectation gap and reduction


of workplace stress by ABC Engineering.

6.0.0

Conclusion

Reference

Contents

Page

TASK II
1.0.0 Introduction
1.1.0 General
1.2.0 Problem Statements
2.0.0

Identification of Work Area

3.0.0

Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control


(HIRARC) Study

4.0.0 The Overall Findings from HIRARC Study


5.0.0 The Number of Identified Hazards
6.0.0

Conclusion

HIRARC Form
Reference

TASK I

1.1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.2.0

General
Safety, health and environment are becoming more important subjects in Malaysia
industries. The movement of those subjects have developed steadily and the working
conditions for employees today have improved significantly.
Recently, the government has taken significant steps by establishing a few
government agencies to improve the safety and health at the workplaces. Those
government agencies have introduced safety programs for all industries in this
country and one of the most important elements in safety programs is safety training.

1.3.0

Problem Statement
The problem statement of this assignment is to find out whether OSH training can
contribute to the reduction of injury and illness at the workplace. The aim of this task
is to elaborate my opinion on how the stress management and stress control in work
place could affect the employer and employee. We will also look at how OSH practice
in work place could contribute towards the reduction of accident that can cause injury
and illness at the workplace.

2.0.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.0

General
This literature review will outline the theoretical framework to understand the
background of the stress management in OSH and define the important elements in
the process of overcoming through OSH methods of practise. Work-related stress is a
pattern of physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioural reactions to some
extremely taxing aspects of work content, work organization and work environment.

2.2.0

Definitions
Stress means the reaction of the human body towards external stimuli (David
L.Goetsch). The word stress is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as a State of affair
involving demand on physical or mental energy.
HSE's formal definition of work related stress is:

"The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of


demand placed on them at work."
The World Health Organisation defines stress as the reaction people may have when
presented with demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and
abilities and which challenge their ability to cope.
Stress can occur in a wide range of situations, but is often made worse when
employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues or little
control over their work.
Stress is not an illness it is a state. However, if stress becomes too excessive and
prolonged, mental and physical illness may develop.

2.3.0

Description of Stress
Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively
affect an individuals performance or overall well-being of his body and mind. In
some cases, job stress can be disabling. In chronic cases, a psychiatric consultation is
usually required to validate the reason and degree of work related stress.
Work related stress develops because a person is unable to cope with the demands
being placed on them. Stress, including work related stress, can be a significant cause
of illness and is known to be linked with high levels of sickness absence, staff
turnover and other issues such as more errors.
6

There is a difference between pressure and stress. Pressure can be positive and a
motivating factor, and is often essential in a job. It can help us achieve our goals and
perform better. Stress occurs when this pressure becomes excessive. Stress is a natural
reaction to too much pressure.
A person experiences stress when they perceive that the demands of their work are
greater than their ability to cope. Coping means balancing the demands and pressures
placed on you (i.e. the job requirements) with your skills and knowledge (i.e. your
capabilities). For example, if you give a member of your team a tight deadline on a
project they feel they have neither the skills nor ability to do well, they may begin to
feel undue pressure which could result in work related stress.
Stress can also resulted due to from having too few demands, as people will become
bored, feel undervalued and lack recognition. If they feel they have little or no say
over the work they do or how they do it, this may cause them stress.
Stress affects people in different ways and what one person finds stressful can be
normal to another. With each new situation a person will decide what the challenge is
and whether they have the resources to cope. If they decide they don't have the
resources, they will begin to feel stressed. How they appraise the situation will depend
on various factors, including:
i)

their background and culture;

ii)

their skills and experience;

iii)

their personality;

iv)

their personal circumstances;

v)

their individual characteristics;

vi)

their health status;

vii)

their ethnicity, gender, age or disability; and other demands both in and outside
work.

2.4.0

Sources of Stress
Some of the most common sources of job-related stress include:
Environmental Stress - Some stress that people experience in the workplace is
related to the physical environment in which they work. This type of stress can be
associated with workplace safety issues, the configuration of one's work area, the type
of furniture or equipment that must be used in order to perform job functions, and
other variables.
Uncertainty - People who aren't sure where they stand in their jobs often experience
a high degree of work stress. This issue can be tied to fear of job loss, hoping for
recognition or a promotion, a lack of feedback on one's performance, or other issues.
People Issues - A great deal of workplace stress is related to people problems, such as
coping with difficult co-workers, dealing with a negative or uncommunicative
supervisor, peer pressure, and more.
Performance Pressure- Feeling pressure to produce a certain quality or quantity of
work can be a workplace stressor. This can be tied to sales or production quotas,
manufacturing standards, impending deadlines, and other factors.
Task Complexity relates to different demands on job scope from the employee.
Job Security it involves the risk of unemployment.
Feeling of responsibility involves family commitment.
Control the freedom in managing their workload.

3.0.0

A)
This is a case study on ABC Civil Engineering firm. The case study revolved around
ABC civil engineering firm. The firm has recently made significant cut in staff and
the work load on existing employees has increased considerably as a result. The two
main

characters of the case study were Mr.Ali Managing Director of ABC Engineering &
Ms.Siti Civil Engineer. In the case, Siti is under lot of stress as she is overburdened
with the work and has to meet a deadline. She is also not able to pay attention to her
family as a result of too much work. To add to it the internal environment of ABC
engineering was far from normal, annual raises and bonuses were deferred. Apart
from Ms.Siti, the other one who was under lot of mental stress was Mr.Ali as he was
the one who had to make the staff cuts, termination discussions and try to keep the
business profitable. He had never faced such a situation in his life before. He was
facing challenges on both personal and professional front.
3.1.0

Gap between Sitis expectation and her reality


3.1.1

Normal working hours like any other employers working hours like
9am to 5pm. But what has happened at her workplace is very much
different where she needs to work long hours.

3.1.2

She expect much leverage in completing each tasks at workplace. It


means she is given ample time to complete each tasks. What has
happened at her workplace is, she was expected to completed bigger
tasks in very short deadline.

3.1.3

She expects to have enough working colleague and work with


collaboration with others to complete her tasks which is crucial. What
has happened in her company is, she has to do all tasks on her own as
they have lack of manpower.

3.1.4

She expects the company will grow and increase the size of
manpower and this would help her career advancement too. What has
actually happened is that the employer has slashed about 35% of their
workforce.

3.1.5

She was expecting to have lesser work load as when they have
enough or more staffs to do the workload. What actually happened
was, she has to do more workload and cover many others task too as
she is one of the senior and experienced staff and also because less
staffs.

3.1.6

She was expecting to work according to her passion and liking. But
now, she has to do or complete tasks which she normally dont enjoy
doing as there is less people to do the tasks.

3.1.7

She was expecting a good annual pay rise and bonuses which will
motivate and give her enthusiasm. What has happened really
disappoint her as all pay rise and bonuses were deferred.

3.1.8

She was also expecting her employer to send her for some
professional development conference and training. This could help
her increasing her knowledge and help her in advancing in her career.
She was also expecting her company to upgrade her computer system
and update the software for enhancing her working performance.
What has happened has really disappointed her when her employer
has indefinitely put hold on all training and upgrading equipment
indefinitely.

3.1.9

She was expecting a good working climate in her workplace but what
actually happened was, it went from poor to non-existent.

3.2.0

Gap between Mr.Alis expectation and his reality


3.2.1

He was expecting a good and smooth sailing scenario in handling the


company which he was in for the last 25 years. What the challenges he
was facing both professionally and personal made him to struggle .

3.2.2

He was expecting to be the main player in developing their companys


business by bringing more project into their companys folder. But
what
actually happened was, he has to put more of his time into
administrative tasks as their company have slashed staffs especially
administrative staffs. So, he has to pay more attention to that
department
as the Managing Director.

3.2.3

He was expecting to bring more new business and help in companys


growth. But, actually he was facing the most challenging moments of
his working life time in helping his company to survive. He was also
had to abandon a strategic new market just because lack of time and
workforce.

3.2.4

He was very keen to assist, nurture and build new blood in his
workforce in order to train them to develop them and his company

10

.But what happened was, he has much less time with his technical
guys and has to spend more time in administrative work.
3.2.5

He was keen to have good control of his work and be proud of his
achievement in one company from start of career and to end his career
too. But, now he has the feeling of retiring since he do not feel like
having the control of his job.

3.2.6

He was very concern about building his staffs knowledge and very
passionate about their wellbeing of his staffs and vendors but now he
has to put up with his staffs on their worries , giving consoling words
and need to convince their vendors for more terms and etc.

4.0.0

B)
"Workplace stress" then is the harmful physical and emotional responses that can
happen when there is a conflict between job demands on the employee and the
amount of control an employee has over meeting these demands. In general, the
combination of high demands in a job and a low amount of control over the situation
can lead to stress. Stress in the workplace can have many origins or come from one
single event. It can impact on both employees and employers alike. As stated by the
Canadian Mental Health Association:
When in a state of stress, one often feels tense, concerned, less vigilant and less
efficient
in performing tasks. Fear of job redundancy, layoffs due to an uncertain economy,
increased demands for overtime due to staff cutbacks act as negative stressors.
Employees who start to feel the "pressure to perform" can get caught in a downward
spiral of increasing effort to meet rising expectations with no increase in job
satisfaction. The relentless requirement to work at optimum performance takes its toll
in job dissatisfaction, employee turnover, reduced efficiency, illness and even death.
Absenteeism, illness, alcoholism, "petty internal politics", bad or snap decisions,
indifference and apathy, lack of motivation or creativity are all by-products of an over
stressed workplace.
4.1.0

Impact on Sitis stress level

11

4.1.1

She had high stress because increased job insecurity and less benefits.

4.1.2

She was sad because could not attend her sons school concert.

4.1.3

She had role ambiguity as she had many roles to do now than

previous.
4.1.4

She had extra workload, working time pressures.

4.1.5

She has the worries of lack career development opportunity.

4.1.6

She had difficulties in delegating her responsibilities.

4.1.7

Little support from colleagues and supervisor.

4.1.8

High level of anxiety

4.1.9

High level of neuroticism.

4.1.10 She had type A behavioural pattern


4.1.11 She had family problems.
4.1.12 Less time for co-workers and socialising.
4.1.13 She felt the lack of subordinate support in work./lack of team work.
4.1.14 There is an increased demands of learning new skills.
4.1.15 The need to adopt new ways of working.
4.1.16 The pressure of the demand for higher productivity.
4.1.17 The demands for increased quality of work.
4.1.18 Increased time pressure and hectic jobs.
4.2.0

Impact on Mr.Alis stress level


4.2.1

Facing challenges in handling his company business.

4.2.2

Facing the challenge to convince his co-worker and motivate them.

4.2.3

Facing challenge to convince his vendors to delay in payment.

4.2.4

Facing the worst working condition in his life time.

4.2.5

Cant stay focus to bring new business.

4.2.6

Cant spend on his interest in building his peoples ability.

4.2.7

Feeling wanted to resign.

4.2.8

He dont have much control on his job scope.

4.2.9

He is to lose his pride as a successful employee of his company.

4.2.10 He feels hopeless when he cant help to develop his company.


4.2.11 He felt that this is his worst moment in working life.
5.0.0

C)

Actions which could close the expectation gap and reduction of

12

workplace stress by ABC Engineering.


It's in a manager's best interest to keep stress levels in the workplace to a minimum.
Managers can act as positive role models, especially in times of high stress. Mr.Ali ,as a
senior and most respected manager can remain calm in stressful work situations, it is much
easier for his employees to also remain calm.
Additionally, there are a number of organizational changes that managers and employers can
make to reduce workplace stress. These includes:
5.1.0

Improve communication
5.1.1

Share information with employees to reduce uncertainty about their

jobs
and futures.
5.1.2

Clearly define employees roles and responsibilities with clear and


appropriate demands.

5.1.3

Make communication friendly and efficient with employee, not meanspirited or petty.

5.1.4

Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions that affect their


jobs.

5.2.0

5.1.5

Offer a training course (e.g. on stress or time management).

5.1.6

Redistribution of work among colleagues in the company.

Consult your employees


5.2.1

Consult employees about scheduling and work rules.

5.2.2

Be sure the workload is suitable to employees abilities and resources;


avoid unrealistic deadlines.

5.2.3

Show that individual workers contribution are valued.

5.2.4

Offer rewards and incentives.

5.2.5

Praise good work performance, both verbally and officially, through


schemes such as Employee of the Month.

5.2.6

Arrange regular meetings in which work problems can be


discussed and solved (together).

13

5.3.0

Cultivate a friendly social climate


5.3.1

Provide opportunities for career development.

5.3.2

Promote an entrepreneurial work climate that gives employees more


control over their work.

5.3.3

Cultivate a friendly social climate

5.3.4

Provide opportunities for social interaction among employees.

5.3.5

Make management actions consistent with organizational values.

5.3.6

Make sure that where possible workers have some control


over work pace.

5.3.7

Stimulate and reward team work.

5.3.8

Teleworking/working from home especially works like preparing

tender
documents which can be done from home too.
The advantage of this approach is that it deals directly with the causes of stress in the work
environment, and may have a positive effect on the total workforce of a company.
The organisation should provide their employees with timely information to enable them to
understand the reasons for proposed changes. The company also should ensure adequate
employee consultation on changes and provides opportunities for employees to influence
proposals. This will make employees aware of the probable impact of any changes to their
jobs. If necessary, employees are given training to support any changes in their jobs and the
employees are aware of timetables for changes. The employees must be given access to
relevant support during changes.

6.0.0

Conclusion
In the present scenario human resource management had got very much importance
for any organization employees is the key holders who do the work for the industry
with great responsibility. So the top management has to look after the stress
management activities for the employees. The study reveals that most of the
employees in the organization are not feeling stress in reaching their objectives. Very
few are feeling stress, nervousness to meet the organization expectations .Narrow
deadlines are the most stressful aspects in this organization. The management is

14

providing excellent stress free techniques for the improvement of the employee
behaviour towards the attainment of the organizations objectives.

Reference
1. Aleo, N. D., Stebbins, P., Lees, D., Ham, D., Lowe, R., Thatcher, S., Gridley, D.
(2007). Managing Workplace Stress: Psychosocial Hazard Risk Profiles in Public and
Private Sector Australia Managing Workplace Stress: Psychosocial Hazard Risk
Profiles in Public and Private Sector Australia.
2. Bickford, M. (2005). Stress in the Workplace: A General Overview of the Causes, the
Effects, and the Solutions. Canadian Mental Health Association Newfoundland and
Labrador Division, (August), 144.
3. Gaumer, C. J., Shah, A. J., & Ashley-Cotleur, C. (2005). Enhancing Organizational
Competitiveness: Causes and Effects of Stress on Women. Journal of Workplace
Behavioral Health, 21(2), 3143. doi:10.1300/J490v21n02
4. Howard, D. (2003). Managing workplace stress. doi:10.1016/S0965-2302(02)00122-4
5. Karimi, R., & Alipour, F. (2011). Reduce Job stress in Organizations: Role of Locus
of Control. International Journal of Business & Social Science, 2(18), 232239.
Retrieved

from

http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?

url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=bth&AN=66726547&site=ehost-live&scope=site

15

6. Sakatsume, H. (1997). Stress Management at Work. Japanese Journal of


Administrative Science, 11(1), 112. doi:10.5651/jaas.11.1
7. Sisley, R., Marcus, a H., Hawken, S. J., & Moir, F. (2010). A conceptual model of
workplace stress: The issue of accumulation and recovery and the health professional.
New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 35(2), 315.
8. World Health Organization. (2003). Work organisation and Stress. Protecting Workers
Health, (3), 127. doi:9241590475 1729-3499
9. NIOSH (1999). Stress at work. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Heath,
DHHS (NIOSH), Publication No. 99-101.
10. Primm, Dave (2005). What Workplace Stress Research is Telling Technical
Communication? Technical Communication, 52: 449-455.
11. Richardson, K.M. and Rothsetin, H.K. (2008). Effects of occupational stress
management. Interventional Programmes: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational
Health Psychology, 13(1): 69-93.

TASK II
16

1.1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.2.0

General
In Malaysia, the Construction Industry Contributes significantly to the economy, and
yet construction activities are extremely dangerous, highly risky and hazardous to all
workers. To cope with those alarming issues, the Malaysian government through
DOSH has given the commitment and attention to implement the objective of
achieving zero accident at workplace. Hazard Identification, risk assessment and risk
control (HIRARC) has been established to manage safety and reducing accidents on
construction projects.

1.3.0

Problem Statements
The problem statement for this assignment is to conduct a complete HIRARC study
based on the Guidelines for Hazard, Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control
(HIRARC) published by the DOSH (2008). The assignment will include.

17

The identification of one facility / work area / project area which is related to
my workplace / working environment.

2.0.0

To fill up the HIRARC forms (appendix C of the guidelines)

To discuss the overall findings from the HIRARC study conducted.

To determine the number of hazards to be identified.

IDENTIFICATION OF WORK AREA


One of the purposes of this assignment is to identify one facility/work area/project
area which is related to my workplace. For this purpose, a work area has been chosen
to elaborate the safety and health risk management plan. The work area is as follows:
The foundation work of a single storey building in Sekolah Kebangsaan Bukit
Rahman Putra, Sg.Buloh ,Selangor
The work area was chosen due to complexity of the work trades involved and various
safety techniques and procedures are used.

3.0.0

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK


CONTROL (HIRARC) STUDY
The form in appendix c of guidelines for HIRARC published by Department of
Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) has been used to study the selected work
area. The completed fill-up form is attached below:

4.0.0

THE OVERALL FINDINGS FROM HIRARC STUDY


From HIRARC study, we are able to identify hazards, analyse the risk and then to
apply appropriate control measures. This study will form a safety risk register for the
management to monitor and control the risk.
The study shows that a few hazards are at higher and medium level of risks. The
management must ensure that the workers make appropriate action to follow the
recommended control measures. For example, during excavation work, the workers

18

must follow the recommended measures; to make sloping or benching on the sides of
the excavation using plunks, and/or to support the side of the excavation and/or to use
excavator machinery for this work.
Among the hazards found in the study, the employees must take immediate action to
control the hazards of high risk level. The person-in-charge will make the inspection
and recoding for the action taken to control the risks. In this study, there are two types
of hazards with high risk level; they are cave-ins during excavation and object fall
during steel rebar reinforcement.
For hazards with medium level of risks; the employees must control the risks by
implementing the control measures recommended in the register. The person-incharge is responsible to control the risks at workplace.
For low level risks; the person-in-charge will monitor the situation at workplace, he
may require the workers to follow the recommended control measures.
The person-in-charge and the risk register or HIRARC form are important in
controlling the safety risks because the low level risk can become high level risk if
there is no appropriate action taken to control the risk.

5.0.0

THE NUMBER OF IDENTIFIED HAZARDS


There are six hazards identified in the study. They as follows:

Cave-ins hazard during excavation work

Land slide hazard during excavation work

Heavy load hazard during formwork, steel rebar reinforcement, concrete,


removing formwork and back filling works

Uneven floor hazard during pouring concrete

Sharp object hazard during steel rebar reinforcement and removing formwork

Object fall hazard during steel rebar reinforcement.

19

Those hazards can be classified into two types. Cave-ins, land slide, uneven floor,
sharp object and object fall hazards are included in work environment. Heavy load is
included in manual handling.

6.0.0

CONCLUSION
This study has elaborated the integrated safety management plan. The plan is
necessary to maintain a safe workplace through the identification of safety hazards
and the development of hazard controls. The safety matters should continually be
monitored and update as the workplace conditions change.

HIRARC FORM
Company:
Process / Location:

Malarus Constuction Sdn. Bhd.


Foundation Work

Conducted By:

Approved By:

En. Mohd.Sani b. Abdullah

Date: (fromto )

(Name, designation)

(Site Manager)

(Name, designation)

Date:

Review Date

1. Hazard Identification
No.

Work Activity

Excavation

Hazard

Cave-ins

2. Risk Analysis
Which can cause

Existing

Risk

/ effect

Control (if any)

Bury / fatal

Excavation

of

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

C
4

20 (High)

trenches and open


excavation
procedure

20

Land Slide

Fall of person /fatal

Warning signs

12
( Medium)

21

1. Hazard Identification
No.

Work Activity

Formwork

Pour

Hazard

Heavy load

Lean

Heavy load

Concrete

Steel

rebar

2. Risk Analysis
Which can cause

Existing

/ effect

Control (if any)

Muscular strain/ Back

Manual

Pain

Procedure

Muscular strain/ Back

Manual

Pain

Procedure

Uneven

Fall

floor

broken leg

Heavy load

Muscular

reinforcement

Sharp

of

person

Risk

Lifting

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

C
2

4 (Low)

Lifting

3 (Low)

shoes,

3 (Low)

Safety

Manual

Housekeeping

strain

Lifting

6 (Medium)

Back Pain

Procedure

Injury / finger cut

Safe work practice

3 (Low)

Head injury / fatal

Safety

16 ( High)

object

Object fall

helmet,

housekeeping

Pour concrete

Heavy Load

Muscular

strain

Work Activity

Removing

Lifting

3 (Low)

shoes,

3 (Low)

Back pain

procedure

Uneven

Fall of person / broke

Safety

floor

leg

housekeeping

1. Hazard Identification
No.

Manual

Hazard

Heavy load

Formwork

Sharp

2. Risk Analysis
Which can cause

Existing

/ effect

Control (if any)

Muscular strain/ Back

Manual

Pain

Procedure

Injury / foot cut

Safety

object

Risk

Lifting

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

C
2

4 (Low)

shoes,

4 (Low)

housekeeping

Back filling

Heavy load

Muscular

strain

22

Manual

Lifting

3 (Low)

Back Pain

Procedure

23

REFERENCE
1. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (2008), ministry of Human
Resources, Guidelines for Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk
Control. (HIRARC).
2. David Goetsch (2014), Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists,
engineers and manager, ( 7th edition), Pearson.

3. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) USA, (1985),
Occupational Safety and Health Guidance manual for Hazardous waste Site
Activities.
4. Guide to Development Your Workplace Injury and Illness Prevention Program with
Checklists for Self-Inspection, Department of Industrial Relation, California
http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh_publications/iipp.html

24