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Tutorial

1. Density can be defined as mass per unit volume and it which relying on temperature and
pressure for gaseous material while and as for liquid, it is highly dependent on temperature
than pressure. The S.I Units used for density is kg/m.
2. Other units for density are g/cm and Ibm/ft
3. Specific gravity of a liquid can be defined as the ration of density of a substance to the density
of some standard substance at a specified temperature (Water at 4C; normal temperature for
which H2O is 1000 kg/m3 )
4. Density of liquid is not constant because density of liquid will be affected by change in
temperature and pressure.
5. In a normal hydrometer, there is a calibrated glass tube ending in a weighted glass sphere that
makes the tube stand upright when placed in a liquid. The lower the density of the liquid, the
deeper the tube sinks.
6. Hydrostatic pressure is directly proportional to density. Therefore as density increases the
pressure increases as well
7. Hydrometer
8. Besides the method shown, the other method is by using density bottle method, where it
requires to fill the bottle with an unknown liquid and separately with water and measuring the
respective masses can be used, with constant temperature.
9. The calibration of pressure transmitter is necessary to the old power plant might reduce its
efficiency.
10. Errors that had been identified are parallax and technical errors. Hydrometer showed
inaccurate reading so the exact reading could not be reliable. This may due to the refraction
in the tube of hydrometer. Meanwhile, technical errors lied on the material plant that was
used for the experiment might be a material that had been used for a long period so the
accurate value of density as well could not be exactly identified.

References

1. Experiment Manual DMC 200. QDR Marketing SDN BHD


2. Industrial Pressure, Level, and Density Measurement, Donald R. Gillum, ISA 2009,
3. Instrumentation for Process Measurement and Control, Third Edition,
Norman A. Anderson, CRC Press, 22 Oct 1997
4. Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume One: Process
Measurement and Analysis, Bela G. Liptak, CRC Press, 27 Jun 2003

Conclusions and Recommendations

The objective of this experiment was achieved. The following parameters were
compared. The type of tank which is open tank and closed tank shows difference is density as
well as specific gravity measurement. Besides that, the condition of the water heater whether its
on or off also shows significant change in the results obtained. The highest density and highest
calculated specific gravity can be observed in closed tank with the heater on whereas the lowest
deviation with hydrometer is achieved in open tank with heater off.
There were several problems that were identified in the experiment. The first, is the level
of overflow which was difficult to observe. Besides that, the position of certain valve out of
reach causes error while adjusting. The level of pressure entering is also difficult to monitor. All
this valves as well as measuring tool should be placed within reach to aid the experiment to be
conducted. Take reading of the meter at least three times to avoid reading error and to make sure
the reading is precise an accurate.