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PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Doc. No. : NDE-OS-MSC-01


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NDE PROCEDURE FOR CASTING

TABLE OF CONTENTS []
1.0

SCOPE [ ] ......................................................................................................... 3

2.0

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS [ ] .......................................................................... 3

3.0

DEFINITIONS [] ....................................................................................................... 3

4.0

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS [ ] .................................................................. 4

5.0

TIME AND AREA OF EXAMINATION [ ] ................................................ 5

6.0

SURFACE CONDISION [ ] ................................................................................. 5

7.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR UT [ ] ..................................................... 6

8.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR MT [ ] ..................................................... 10

9.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR PT [ ] ...................................................... 15

10.0 ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS [] ........................................................................ 17


11.0 RECORDS [] .......................................................................................................... 18

APPENDIX
1. EXTENT AND METHODS OF EXAMINATION TO BE APPLIED TO NODE CASTINGS (SAMPLE)

Prepared by

Reviewed by

Approved by

Name

Sae Jun. Park

Jong Hwan. Sung

Yun Sick. Yang

Date

2015-11-27

2015-11-27

2015-11-27

Position / Level

NDE Level II

NDE Level II

NDE Level III

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

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NDE PROCEDURE FOR CASTING

Revision Status :
Rev

Issue Date

2015.11.27

Description
First issue

Prepared
by

Reviewed
by

Approved
by

S.J, Park

J.H, Sung

Y.S, Yang

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

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NDE PROCEDURE FOR CASTING


1.0
1.1

SCOPE [ ]
This procedure shall be applied to castings.
[ .]

1.2

This procedure describes the requirements and techniques for the Ultrasonic examination
(hereinafter referred to UT) and Surface discontinuity examination (hereinafter referred to ST)
to be used for casting materials. Unless otherwise specified in order, NDE shall be performed
on a casting in the final surface condition and final thermally treated condition.
[ .
,
.]

1.3

This procedure can be applied to raw material, in-process material and finished materials,
regardless of heat treatment state.
[ , .]

1.4

The required inspection surface and acceptance criteria per location are specified in the
applicable NDE procedure, part specification and/or part drawing for the casting.
[ , , .]

2.0

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS [ ]

2.1

Lloyds Register (LR)


Rules for the manufacture, Testing and certification of materials

2.2

SNT-TC-1A
ASNT document "personnel qualification and certification in non-destructive testing"

2.3

ISO 9712
NDT-Qualification and certification of NDT personnel

2.4

ASTM E709
Standard guide for magnetic particle testing

2.5

ASTM E165
Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry.

2.6

ASTM A609
Standard practice for casting, carbon, low-alloy, and martensitic stainless steel, ultrasonic
examination thereof

2.7

ISO 4992-1
Steel castings-UT-Part 1. Steel castings for general purposes

3.0

DEFINITIONS []

3.1

Definition of UT [ ]

3.1.1

DAC (Distance-Amplitude Correction) Method [ ]


Distance-Amplitude Correction calibration method that uses the reflection from FBHs or SDHs
to correlate echo amplitude to distance from the transducer.
[ ]

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3.1.2

DGS (Distance-Gain-Size) Method [ ]


Distance-Gain-Size calibration method that uses the back reflection from flat and parallel
surfaces to relate echo amplitude to flat bottom hole diameter.
[ ]

3.1.3

Flat Bottom Hole (Disc Shape Reflector) [ (FBH)]


A cylindrical hole having a flat bottom that is perpendicular to the axis of the hole. The disc
shaped hole bottom is typically used as a reference reflector.
[ . .]

3.1.4

Side Drill Hole (SDH) [ (SDH)]


A cylindrical hole with axis parallel to the test surface.
[ ]

3.1.5

Full Screen Height (FSH) [ (FSH)]


The maximum value of the vertical scale on the display screen of the ultrasonic test instrument
representing 100% of the height of the scale.
[ 100% ]

3.1.6

Loss of Back Reflection [ ]


Any localized reduction of the back reflection amplitude not attributed to coupling or variation in
part geometry.
[ ]

3.1.7

Reference discontinuity echo size [ ]


Smallest indication to be recorded during the assessment phase of an ultrasonic examination,
usually expressed as an equivalent flat-bottomed hole diameter
[ .]

3.2

Definition of ST [ ]

3.2.1

Relevant indication [ ]
An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity that requires evaluation. Only
the indications which have any dimension greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered relevant.
[ . 1.5 mm
.]

3.2.2

Linear indication [ ]
An indication in which the length is at least three times the width.
[ 3 ]

3.2.3

Non-linear indication [ ]
An indication of circular or elliptical shape with a length less than three times the width.
[ 3 ]

3.2.4

Aligned indication [ ]
Three or more indications in a line, separated by 2 mm or less edge-to-edge.
[3 2 mm ]

4.0

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS [ ]

4.1

The personnel shall be qualified and certified in accordance with requirement of SNT-TC-1A or
ISO 9712.
[ SNT-TC-1A ISO9712 .]

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4.2

All subcontractor NDE personnel performing examination to this specification shall be approved
by Doosan NDE Team General Manager.
[
.]

4.3

NDE Level II or Level III personnel shall interpret examination results to determine acceptability.
[ Level II Level III .]

5.0

TIME AND AREA OF EXAMINATION [ ]

5.1

Non-destructive examination (hereinafter referred to NDE) shall be performed to the castings


completed at the shop of these manufacturers. NDE during manufacturing (after quality heat
treatment) may be left their self-check.
[ . .]

5.1.1

UT and MT shall be performed after all quality heat treatment and at point when surface
requirements are met. The examination shall be conducted on all accessible surfaces of the
examined portion. (Refer to Appendix I)
[ .
. ( I )]

5.1.2

After defect elimination, the area is examination by the ST to assure that the defect has been
removed or the indication has been reduced to an acceptable size.
[ .]

5.1.3

Repair welds require examination, major repair weld and repair weld of the UT indication shall
be examined by UT. Each repair weld shall be examined by ST.
[ ,
. .]

5.1.4

UT and MT shall be performed after final heat treatment. (Refer to Appendix I)


[ . ( I )]

6.0

SURFACE CONDISION [ ]

6.1

Unless otherwise indicated on the drawings, surface finish not exceeding 12.5 Ra (m) is
required.
[ , 12.5 Ra (m) .]

6.2

Cleaning may be accomplished suing detergents, organic solvents, descaling solutions, paint
removers, vapor degreasing, sand or grit blasting or ultrasonic cleaning methods. Surface
preparation by grinding, machining, or other methods may be necessary where surface
irregularities could mask indications of non-acceptable discontinuities.
[ , , , , ,
.
.]

6.3

After cleaning, drying of the surfaces to be examined shall be accomplished by normal


evaporation or with forced hot or cold air.
[ .]

6.4

A rectilinear grid pattern shall be established on the test surfaces and used to show areas that
have been inspected.
[ , .]

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7.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR UT [ ]

7.1

Ultrasonic equipment [ ]

7.1.1

Pulse-echo type ultrasonic instruments, such as USN 60 or Epoch series or equivalent


equipment shall be used.
[- USN60 Epoch
.]

7.1.2

Ultrasonic instruments is to be equipped with Distance Gain Size (DGS) curves display
presentation function of DGS scales attached to the screen. (if applicable)
[(DGS) DGS .
( )]

7.1.3

Calibration checking linearity [ ]


The ultrasonic instrument shall be provided the screen height linearity and amplitude control
linearity as required T-561 of ASME BPVC Section V, Article 5.
[ ASME BPVC Section V, Article 5 T-561
.]

7.2

Probes []
The following transducers should be used. Plastic shoes may be used if necessary.
[ . , .]

Testing

Frequency

Model

Major size (mm)

Reference angle

Straight Beam

2 MHz

B2S or equivalent

Dia. 24

0 deg.

Straight Beam (Dual)

4 MHz

SEB4 or equivalent

6 20

0 deg.

Angle Beam (Dual)

4 MHz

VS 60 or equivalent

3.510

60 deg.

Fit the probe shoes always due to the casting shape when applying probes. In additionally,
search unit of other sizes, frequencies and other refraction angles may be used to assure
adequate penetration or better resolution.
[ .
.]

7.3

Couplant [ ]
The viscosity of the liquid couplant used shall be adequate to provide good coupling between
the transducer and surface of the casting. Glycerin, CMC(paste), oil and other equivalent
couplant. The same couplant to be used during the examination shall be used for calibration.
[ .
, CMC(), .
.]

7.4

Test and inspection requirements [ ]

7.4.1

Straight beam test method [ ]


The DGS or DAC technique shall be used to establish the proper test sensitivity such that 6 mm
flat bottomed hole(s) in a reference block (or series of blocks).
[(DGS) (DAC) 6 mm ( )
.]

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7.4.1.1

DAC technique [(DAC) ]

7.4.1.1.1 The calibration block must contain reflectors to the depth of the maximum test distance in the
casting.
[ .]

7.4.1.1.2 The calibration block used to establish the DAC must have a surface condition and sound
attenuation similar or worse than the casting being inspected. Otherwise the instrument gain
must be increased (transfer) to account for differences between the calibration block and the
casting.
[ .
.]

7.4.1.1.3 The probe is placed in a way to obtain the maximum pulse echo on the reflector giving the
strongest pulse and the adjustment is made so as to bring its amplitude to 80% approx. of the
height of the screen.
[ 80%
.]

7.4.1.1.4 The maximum amplitude of the echoes received on each of the other reflectors is noted. The
curve joining these points constitutes the DAC curve. Except in the case of small thicknesses,
this curve is plotted with a minimum of 3 points.
[ .
(DAC) . , 3
.]

7.4.1.2

DGS technique [(DGS) ]

7.4.1.2.1 Test sensitivity must be established on the casting where the surface is essentially flat and
parallel to an opposing flat surface. The reference back reflection shall be obtained at the
position on the reference surface that produces the weakest back reflection not attributed to
geometric interference.
[ .
.]

7.4.1.2.2 A calibration block may be used to establish the test sensitivity if the casting has no suitable
surface for establishing the reference back reflection. The surface condition and sound
attenuation of the calibration block must be similar or worse than the casting being inspected.
Otherwise the instrument gain must be increased (transfer) to account for differences between
the calibration block and the casting.
[ .
.]

7.4.1.2.3 For most of the standard probes and for probes with separate transmitter / receiver, the
manufacturers suggest using abacus type DGS screens which are placed on the apparatus
screen (supported each electronic curve in digital equipment). Acoustic absorption resulting
from the material must not be neglected and the method of correction of ultrasonic energy
absorption described in the DAC method is applicable. The adjustment of sensitivity is obtained
from the reference echo which is brought to the screen of the ultrasonic apparatus to a given
reference height.
[ / () (Screen) ()
DGS (Screen) . ( )
(DAC)
. (screen)
.]

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7.4.2

Angle beam test method [ ]


The sensitivity and the testing system for dual angle beam probes are checked by watching the
dynamic characteristic at an as cast rough surface and/or machined surface standing
perpendicular to the incident surface.
[ /
.]

7.4.2.1

Test sensitivity shall be established on the casting by increasing the instrument gain until the
acoustic noise level is 5 % FSH at the maximum test distance.
[ FSH 5 % .]

7.5

Test Procedure [ ]

7.5.1

Periodically check the testing sensitivity of the equipment. Make these checks prior to
equipment shutdown after examination and at least every four hours of continuous equipment
operation. If during any check the test sensitivity is more than 10 % from the requirement, all of
the product that has been tested since the last valid check shall be reexamined.
[ .
4 . 10 % ,
.]

7.5.2

The search for defects is made with an adjustment corresponding to as great a sensitivity as
possible considering the electronic noise (grass) (approximately + 6 dB).
[ . ( + 6 dB)]

7.6

Method of searching for defects [ ]

7.6.1

Scanning direction [ ]
A manual contact scanning method shall be used. All surfaces specified for ultrasonic shall be
completely inspected from both side, whenever both sides are accessible. When testing from
one side only, dual probes shall be used additionally for the detection of discontinuities close to
the surface. Testing with dual probes is only adequate for wall thicknesses up to 50 mm.
[ .
. ,
. 50 mm
.]

7.6.2

Scan Speed [ ]
The scanning speed shall not exceed 150 mm per second.
[ 150 mm/sec .]

7.6.3

Scan overlap [ ]
The Search unit shall overlap by at least 10 % of the width of the transducer for each
successive scanning pass.
[ 10 % .]

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7.7

Extent of testing [ ]
Testing areas [ ]

Scope of Inspection [ ]
Section thickness > 50 mm
[ 50 mm ]

Test surface of Appendix 1

Section thickness up to 50 mm
or at one-sided accessible areas

[ 1 ]

Transducer []
Normal straight
Dual straight

[ 50 mm ]

Additional test surface [ ]


- riser position and fillets [ ]
- at pronounced changes in cross section wall thickness transition radius (concave)
[ ()]

- joint weld preparations for a distance of 50 mm from the edge [ 50 mm ]


- machined area (bolt hole positions, bore inside surface) [ ( , )]
Additional test surface
[ ]

Machined area (bore inside surface)


[ ( )]

up to depth 50 mm [ 50 mm ]

Dual straight

up to depth 50 mm [ 50 mm ]

Dual angle

7.8

Indications to be investigated [ ]
The indications to be investigated are: [ ]

7.8.1

Intermediate echoes (echo indications of discontinuities) [ ( )]

7.8.1.1

Dimensioning in amplitude from the distance amplitude curve (DAC) obtained over the FBH.
[(DAC) .]

7.8.1.2

Dimensioning of amplification using the DGS technique [(DGS) ]


The maximum amplitude obtained on the indication is supported each electronic curve in digital
equipment or compared to the DGS abacus curves for the same sonic path and in the original
adjustment conditions. The degree of the indication is expressed in equivalent diameter
[
(DGS abacus screen) .
.]

7.8.2

Reduction of backwall echo [ ]


During the examination of the casting, monitor the back reflection for any significant reduction in
amplitude. Reduction in back-reflection amplitude may indicate not only the presence of a
discontinuity but also poor coupling of the search unit with the surface of the casting,
nonparallel back-reflection surface, or local variations of attenuation in the casting. Recheck any
areas causing loss of back reflection.
[ .
,
. .]

7.9

Method for sizing indications [ ]

7.9.1

Where indications are detected at the scanning sensitivity, the examination shall be performed
on the same area against at the sensitivity for evaluation. If necessary, other procedures or
scanning methods are to be employed to investigate the nature of indication.
[ , . ,
.]

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7.9.2

A probe should be selected that produces the smallest possible beam width at the location of
the indication. If a suitable probe is not available, then the probe used for detection may be
used.
[ . ,
, .]

7.9.3

The length of indication shall be measured using the half-amplitude (6 dB-drop) technique and
corrected considering the transducer beam divergence (- 6 dB beam width) at the estimated
indication depth.
[ 6 dB-drop (- 6 dB beam width)
.]

7.10

Evaluation []
All Relevant indication shall be investigated to the extent that they can be evaluated in terms of
the acceptance criteria of para.10.0.
[ 10.0 .]

8.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR MT [ ]

8.1

Equipment []
The equipment described in below the table or equivalent equipment shall be used and the
identification number of the equipment used shall be noted on the examination report.
[ ,
.]
Technique
Prod

Yoke
a

Manufacture

Model

Current type

Kyung Do (Korea)

K1500 or equivalent

HW

Magnaflux (GmbH)

Ferrotest GWH 40 or equivalent

HW

Kyung Do (Korea)

MP-A3, MP-A2 or equivalent

AC

MY-2 or equivalent

AC

Nawoo (Korea)

Alternating Current (AC) electromagnetic yoke shall be utilized for final surface inspections.
[ .]

8.1.1

Prod method []

8.1.1.1

Magnetizing technique [ ]
A remote control switch shall be used to turn the current on after the prods have been properly
positioned and to turn it off before the prods are removed in order to prevent arcing.
[
.]

8.1.1.2

Local areas of complex components may be magnetized by electrical contacts manually


clamped or attached with magnetic leeches to the part.
[ (Clamp)
.]

8.1.1.3

Prod spacing shall not be less than 50 mm (2 in.) or greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
[ 50 mm (2 in.) 200 mm (8 in.) .]

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8.1.1.4

8.1.1.5

Magnetizing current shall be adjusted the following value.


[ .]
Material Thickness [ ]

Current []

Up to 19 mm (3/4 in.)

3.5 ~ 4.5 A/mm (90 ~ 110 A/in.) of prod spacing.

Over 19 mm (3/4 in.)

4 ~ 5 A/mm (100 ~ 125 A/in.) of prod spacing.

The prod method shall not be applied after final heat treatment and final surface.
[ .]

8.1.1.6

An external ammeter may be used in place of the magnetic particle testing units internal
ammeter. Ammeter should be monitored frequently during the application of the magnetizing
current.
[ .
.]

8.1.2

Yoke method []
AC electromagnetic yokes (or a permanent magnet) shall be used to magnetize provided that
the lifting power of the yoke is at least 4.5 kg (10 lb) with maximum pole spacing. If a Hall-effect
(tangential field strength) probe is used, it shall be placed on the surface midway between the
poles. The requirement field strength is minimum 2.4 KA/m.
[(AC) ( ) 4.5 kg (10 lb) .
( ) , (Pole) .
2.4 KA/m .]

8.2

Verification of magnetization [ ]
The ASTM E709 Pie field indicator, CX-230 or CX-430 shim type or equivalent indicators
should be used to determine the adequacy of the magnetic field direction. Indicator shall be
positioned/attached to the surface to be examined, such that the copper plate/artificial flaw side
is toward the inspection surface.
[ ASTM E 709 , CX-230 CX-430
. / ,
/ .]

8.3

Magnetic particles []
Magnetic particles shall be used as the dry (for Prod technique) or wet (for Yoke technique)
magnetic particle. The magnetic particles shall be the product of the Magnaflux, spray can type
materials or equivalent. A thin coating of contrast paint is permissible when using magnetic
particle techniques. As follows;
[ ( ) ( ) , ,
. .]
Type

Manufacture

Model

Remark

Dry Non fluorescent

Magnaflux (USA)

8A or equivalent

Powders (Red)

Wet - Fluorescent

Magnaflux (USA)

14A or equivalent

Powders (Yellow green)

Wet Non fluorescent

Nawoo (Korea)

NMP-B or equivalent

Can (Black)

Wet - Fluorescent

Nawoo (Korea)

NMP-F or equivalent

Can (Yellow green)

Contrast paint

Nawoo (Korea)

NMP-1 or equivalent

Can (white)

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8.3.1

For visible magnetic particles, the color of the particles shall be selected to yield the highest
contrast with the part. The lighting shall meet the requirements of 8.4.1.
[ ,
8.4.1 .]

8.3.2

When using a dry magnetic particle method, the particles are applied using a dry powder
applicator. The particles may be mobilized once applied to the part using an air bulb or
equivalent source which will provide a low velocity, low pressure air flow.
[ . ,
(air bulb) .]

8.3.3

Petroleum distillate or water is to be used as the vehicle, suitable conditioning agents should be
added as per manufacturer recommendations.
[ .]

8.3.3.1

If water is to be used as the vehicle, suitable conditioning agents should be added such as
wetting agents, corrosion and rust inhibitors, dispersing agents, and anti-foaming agents.
[ , , ,
.]

8.3.3.2

Before the use of a suspension, the concentration of particles and contamination of the
suspension must be checked. These checks shall be made after initial mixing, daily and at any
time the mixing motor is turned off. The suspension shall be allowed to circulate for 30 minutes
minimum, then the concentration shall be checked using a centrifuge tube. A 100 ml sample
shall be allowed to settle for 60 minutes and shall result in a concentration of 1.2 ml to 2.4 ml for
non-fluorescent particles and 0.1 ml to 0.4 ml for fluorescent unless otherwise specified by the
specific instruction being applied. Contamination shall not interfere with testing.
[ , . ,
. 30 , .
100 ml 60
1.2~2.4 ml 0.1~0.4 ml . .]

8.3.4

For fluorescent magnetic particles, an UV-A (black) light is required. This light shall meet the
requirements of 8.4.2.
[ UV-A() . 8.4.2 .]

8.4

Viewing conditions [ ]

8.4.1

The test surface shall be inspected under daylight or under artificial white light with an
illuminance of not less than 1,076 lux on the surface of the tested part. The viewing conditions
shall be such that glare and reflections are avoided.
[ 1,076 lux
. .]

8.4.2

UV-A (including UV-A LED: Peak wavelength at 365 ~ 370 nanometers) light shall be employed
for fluorescent magnetic particle. The UV-A light shall be achieved a minimum of 1,000 W/cm2
on the surface of the part being examined throughout the examination. The background light
intensity shall be no more than 21.5 lux (2 foot-candles) at the part surface.
[ UV-A()(UV-A LED: 365 ~ 370 nm ) .
(UV-A) 1,000 W/cm2 .
21.5 lux (2 foot-candles) .]

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8.5

Test and inspection requirements [ ]

8.5.1

Surface preparation and drying after cleaning. [ ]


It shall be as shown in Para. 6.0. [6.0 .]

8.5.2

Extent of testing [ ]
All examinations shall be conducted with sufficient field overlap to ensure 100 % coverage at
the required sensitivity.
[ 100% .]
Testing areas [ ]
Test surface of Appendix 1 [ 1 ]
Additional test surface [ ]
- at all accessible fillets and changes of section [ ]
- joint weld preparations for a distance of 50 mm from the edge [ 50 mm ]
- chaplet area [ ]

8.5.3

White Contrast Paint Application [ ]


When required or applied with non-fluorescent magnetic particles, the white contrast paint
should be sprayed on the uncoated surfaces, only in amounts sufficient to enhance particle
contrast.
[ ,
.]

8.5.4

Magnetization []
Unless otherwise specified, the prods and dry powder method shall be used for initial testing
and in process stages of manufacture. The prods and wet medium suspension method should
be used for tests on ground surfaces prior to welding or blending surfaces. The yokes and wet
medium suspension method shall be used for final surfaces inspections or hardly accessible
areas.
[ , (prod) .
(ground) (blending) .
.]

8.5.5

Direction of magnetization [ ]

8.5.5.1

To facilitate the control of large parts through local magnetization, the surfaces can be marked
out in squares in elementary areas using chalk. The poles of a yoke (fig. 1) or the Prod (fig. 2)
are placed as shown in the following examples:
[(local)
. (. 1) (. 2) (Pole) .]

Fig. 1 Yoke []

Fig. 2 Prod []

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8.5.5.2

Inspection area is limited to a maximum distance of one quarter of the pole spacing on either
side of a line joining the two poles. Overlapping of pole spacing shall be at least 25 mm.
[ 1/4 .
25 mm .]

8.5.5.3

Magnetic particle testing should be performed in a systematic manner to insure that all areas of
the component are tested in at least two directions, 90 apart, unless a specific specification for
a component dictates otherwise. Particular attention should be made to changes in section,
inside and outside radii and other locations of stress concentration.
[ , 90
, ,
.]

8.5.6

Application of Magnetic Particle [ ]


Magnetic particle must be done while the current is being applied using the true continuous
method. The current shall not be turned off before the magnetic particle solution stop flowing.
[ .
.]

8.5.7

Excess Particle Removal [ ]


Accumulations of excess particles in examinations shall be removed with a light air stream from
a bulb or syringe or other source of low pressure dry air. The examination current or power shall
be maintained while removing the excess particles.
[ ,
. .]

8.5.8

Indications to be investigated [ ]
The interpretation shall identify if an indication as false, non-relevant or relevant. False and nonrelevant indications shall be proven as false or non-relevant. Interpretation shall be carried out
to identify the locations of indications and character of the indication.
[ , .
. .]

8.5.9

Evaluation of Indication [ ]
All Relevant indication shall be investigated to the extent that they can be evaluated in terms of
the acceptance criteria of para.10.0.
[ 10.0 .]

8.5.10

Demagnetization []

8.5.10.1

Demagnetizing operation is not required, unless otherwise specified in the part specification,
part drawing and/or purchase order.
[ , , .]

8.5.10.2

When required, demagnetizing shall be performed after the final inspection.


[ , .]

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9.0

REQUIREMENTS FOR PT [ ]

9.1

Detection media [ ]
A product family is understood as a combination of the following testing materials: penetrant,
excess penetrant remover and developer(Type II, Method C, Form d). The following spray can
type materials shall be used.
[ : ,
(Type II, Method C, Form d). .]
Material

9.1.1

Manufacturer

Model

Remarks

Penetrant

Colour contrast

Type II

Nawoo

NPP2

Solvent remover

Remover

Solvent

Method C

Nawoo

NPR1-3

Developer

Solvent-based

Form d

Nawoo

NPD4

Viewing conditions [ ]
The test surface shall be inspected under daylight or under artificial white light with an
illuminance of not less than 1,076 lux (100 foot-candles) on the surface of the tested part. The
viewing conditions shall be such that glare and reflections are avoided.
[ 1,076 lux (100 foot-candles)
. .]

9.2

Test and inspection requirements [ ]

9.2.1

Surface preparation and drying after cleaning. [ ]


It shall be as shown in Para. 6.0. [6.0 .]

9.2.2

Application of penetrant [ ]

9.2.2.1

Methods of application [ ]
The penetrant can be applied to the part to be tested by spraying, brushing, flooding, dipping or
immersion. Care shall be taken to ensure that the test surface remains completely wetted
throughout the entire penetration time.
[ , , , .
.]

9.2.2.2

Temperature []
The temperature of the penetrant and the surface of the part to be processed shall not be below
10 C not above 50 C throughout the examination period. Where it is not practical to comply
with these temperature limitations, Local heating or cooling is permitted provided the part
temperature remains in the range of 10 C to 50 C during the examination. For temperatures
from 5 C to 10 C, minimum penetrant dwell time shall be 2 times the value listed. In special
cases temperatures as low as 5 C may be used.
[ 10 C 50 C .
, 10 C 50 C
. 5 C 10 C 2 .
5C .]

9.2.2.3

Duration of penetration [ ]
The penetration time can vary from 5 min to 60 min. The duration of penetration is at least 5 ~
10 minutes, if not otherwise specified. Under no circumstances may the penetrant dry during
the penetrant process.
[ 5 60 . 5 ~ 10 .
.]

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9.2.3

Excess penetrant removal [ ]


Excess penetrant shall be removed first by using a clean lint & free cloth. Subsequent cleaning
with a clean lint & free cloth lightly moistened with solvent shall then be carried out.
[ .
.]

9.2.4

Drying []
The test surface shall be dried as quickly as possible after excess penetrant removal using by
nomal evaporation, blotting, wiping, or forced air.
[ , ,
.]

9.2.5

Application of developer [ ]

9.2.5.1

The developer shall be maintained in a uniform condition during use and shall be evenly applied
to the test surface. The application of the developer shall be carried out as soon as possible
after the removal of excess penetrant.
[ , .
.]

9.2.5.2

The developer shall be applied by spraying uniformly. The spray shall be such that the
developer arrives slightly wet on the surface, giving a thin, uniform layer.
[ .
.]

9.2.5.3

The development time should be between 10 min and 60 min; The duration of Development is
at least 10 ~ 15 minutes, if not otherwise specified.
[ 10 60 ; 10 ~ 15 .]

9.2.6

Interpretation []

9.2.6.1

Interpretation of indications should begin as soon as the developer is applied in order to more
properly evaluate indications that diffuse excessively in the developer.
[
.]

9.2.6.2

Final interpretation shall be made only after allowing the penetrant to bleed out for 10-15
minutes.
[ 10~15 .]

9.2.7

Indications to be investigated [ ]
The interpretation shall identify if an indication as false, non-relevant or relevant. False and nonrelevant indications shall be proven as false or non-relevant. Interpretation shall be carried out
to identify the locations of indications and character of the indication.
[ , .
. .]

9.2.8

Evaluation of Indication [ ]
All Relevant indication shall be investigated to the extent that they can be evaluated in terms of
the acceptance criteria of para.10.0.
[ 10.0 .]

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10.0

ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS []

10.1

The acceptance standards listed in a NDE specification, part specification and/or part drawing
shall apply.
[ , / .]

10.2

Acceptance criteria of UT [ ]

10.2.1

Quality level 1 [ 1]
1) Fabrication weld preparations for a distance of 50 mm.
[ 50 mm ]

2) 50 mm depth from the final machined surface including bolt holes.


[ 50 mm ]

3) Fillet radii to a depth of 50 mm and within distance of 50 mm from the radius end.
[ 50 mm , 50 mm ]

4) The outer one third of thickness in the zones nominated for Appendix 1.
[ 1 1/3 ]

5) Discontinuities within the examined zones interpreted to be cracks or hot tears.


[ ]

10.2.2

Quality level 2 [ 2]
1) Other locations nominated for ultrasonic testing in Appendix 1 or on the inspection plan.
[ 1 ]

2) Positions outside locations nominated for level UT1 examination where feeders and gates
have been removed.
[(feeder) (gate) , UT1 )]

3) At the central one third of thickness in the zones of nominated for Appendix 1.
[ 1 1/3 ]

Table 1. Acceptance criteria for ultrasonic testing [ ]


Quality
Level

Allowable disc shape


according to DGS

Max. number of indications


to be registered 1)

Allowable length of linear


indications 2)

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

> 6 mm

12 - 15 mm
> 15 mm

5
0

50 mm
0

Notes :
1)
grouped in an area measuring 300 x 300 mm [ 300 x 300 mm]
2)
measured on the scanning surface [ ]
In case of other diameter FBHs such as 12 mm or 15 mm. Calculations can be used for evaluation
purpose to establish the difference sensitivity level (dB).
[12mm 15mm . (dB)
.]

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10.3

Acceptance criteria of ST [ ]

10.3.1

Cracks and hot tears are not acceptable. [ (hot teat) .]

10.3.2

Quality level 1 [ 1]
1) Fabrication welds preparation and weld repairs. [ ]

10.3.3

Quality level 2 [ 2]
1) Other Location indicated for surface discontinuity testing in appendix I.
[ I ]

Table 2. Acceptance criteria for Surface discontinuity testing [ ]


Quality
Level

Max. number of
indications

[ ]

[ ]

4 in
150 mm length

20 in
22,500 mm2 area

Type of indication
[ ]

Max. number for


each type

Max. dimension of
single indication 2)

[ ]

[ ]

Non-linear
Linear
Aligned
Non-linear
Linear
Aligned

1)

4
41)
41)
10
6
6

5 mm
3 mm
3 mm
7 mm
5 mm
5 mm

Note :
1)
30 mm min. between relevant indications. [ 30 mm]
2)
In weld repairs, the maximum dimension is 2 mm. [ , 2 mm]

11.0

RECORDS []

11.1

The result of examination shall be recorded on the Report. Acceptable indications shall not be
recorded.
[ . .]

11.2

For each examination, the following information should be recorded as a minimum;


[ .]

11.2.1

General information [ ]
(1) Date of testing. [ ]
(2) Names and qualification level of inspection personnel. [ ]
(3) Type of casting. [ ]
(4) Product number for identification. [ ]
(5) Grade of steel. [ ]
(6) Heat treatment. []
(7) Stage of testing. [ ]
(8) Locations for testing. [ ]
(9) Surface condition. [ ]
(10) Test standards used. [ ]
(11) Results. []
(12) Statement of acceptance / non-acceptance. [/ ]
(13) Locations of reportable indications. [ ]
(14) Details of weld repairs including sketches. [ ]

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11.2.2

Ultrasonic examination []
(1) Flaw detector, probes and calibration blocks used. [ , , ]

11.2.3

Magnetic particle examination []


(1) Method of magnetizing, test media and magnetic field strength [ , ]

11.2.4

Penetrant examination []
(1) The consumables used [ ]

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Appendix 1. Extent and methods of examination to be applied to Node castings (sample)
[(Node) ()]

Product name []

Examination area [

: ]

Method []

All accessible surface


[ ]

Node [

Magnetic particle and Ultrasonic examination


[ ]