Compiled and edited by


Krishi Vigyan Kendra, kapurthala
Punjab Agricultural University
Ludhiana ± 141 004


2 The Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK), as part of the National Research System (NARS) and spearheaded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research System (ICAR), are involved in the application of science and technology of agriculture in the field. Till now, the ICAR has established 570 KVKs at the rural district level. Recently, the Government of India has approved one additional KVK in the 50 larger districts of the country. Over the years, the ICAR has strengthened and structured the KVK system as an innovative institutional model for assessment, refinement and onfarm demonstration of agricultural technologies and training of farmers and extension personnel. For strengthening number of facilities are being provided to KVKs including e-connectivity for availability of web enabled technology, facilities for soil and water testing, plant health diagnostic and minimal agro-processing, and additional demonstration units on rainwater harvesting structures with microirrigation system and integrated farming system. Ever since the establishment of KVKs, they have continued their efforts for assessment and refinement of various techniques and technologies for productivity enhancement on farmer's field. ICAR is also planning to provide Wi-Fi enabled mobile diagnostic cum exhibition units at Directorate of Extension for use of the KVKs, besides continuation of support to the Directorate for knowledge empowerment, technological backstopping and human resource development. KVKs are now focusing on diverse information needs of farmers not only for the production procedures, but also for quality certification and reporting, grading, packaging, storage, transportation and other requirements for both domestic and export markets. KVKs take up the technology interventions in the emerging areas of technology development including crops, horticulture, conservation and management of natural resources, animal husbandry and fisheries.
ABOUT THE DISTRICT LOCATION Kapurthala is a district of Punjab state in northern India. The

district is divided into two noncontiguous parts, the main Kapurthala-Sultanpur Lodhi portion and the Phagwara block. The Kapurthala-Sultanpur Lodhi part lies between north latitude 31° 07' and 31° 22' and east longitude 75° 36'. Phagwara tehsil lies between north latitude 31° 22' and east longitude 75° 40' and 75° 55'. Phagwara lies on the National Highway No 1, and is much more industrially developed than the other tehsils of the District. TEHSILS The district has three subdivisions/tehsils: Kapurthala, Phagwara, and Sultanpur Lodhi. AREA The total area of the district is 1633 km² (630 mi²) POPULATION Kapurthala district is one of the smallest districts of Punjab in terms of both area and population, with 754,521 people (2001 census).



The economy of the district is still predominantly agricultural. The major crops are wheat, rice, sugarcane, potato and maize.

MAJOR CROPPING SYSTEMS Sr. No Cropping system / enterprise 1. Paddy-Wheat 2. Paddy-Potato-Muskmelon 3. Paddy-Potato-Sunflower 4. Paddy-Potato-Maize 5. Paddy-Peas-Sunflower 6. Paddy-Peas-Late Wheat 7. Paddy-Cauliflower-Sunflower 8. Sugarcane -Ratoon While dairy is the major subsidiary occupation adopted by the farmers, enterprises like bee keeping, floriculture, horticulture, fish farming and mushroom growing are also practiced by farmers. BET The major portion of Kapurthala district lies between the Beas River and the Kali-Bein River and is called the µBET¶ area. This area is prone to floods. Flood protection bundh called µDhussi Bundh¶ has been constructed along the left bank of the Beas River, and it has saved the area from the ravages of flood. The entire district is an alluvial plain. To the south of the river Black Bein lies the tract known as µDONA¶ meaning the soil formed of two constituents i.e. the sand and clay. The climate is typical of the Punjab plains i.e. hot in summers and cold in winters. It has sub-tropical continental monsoon type climate. Intensive cultivation in the district leaves no scope for forest cover and the wild life is practically nonexistent.





District Kapurthala falls in central plain agro-ecological climatic zone. The soil of this zone has developed under semi-arid condition. The soil of the central zone generally recognized as alluvial, falls into two categories. Water logging and alkalinity in the soil is the major problem of the area. The soil is sandy loam to clay with pH from 7.8 to 8.5.

4 a) Arid And Brown Soil: This type of soil is found in Sultanpur tehsil of Kapurthala. The texture is sandy-loam and the fertility is from medium to high. The soil is calcareous and lacks nitrogen but contains a fair amount of phosphorus and potash. b) Tropical Arid Brown Soil: This soil covers parts of Kapurthala district except Sultanpur. The soil is deficient in nitrogen, potash and phosphorus. Waterlogging, alkalinity and salinity pose serious problems. The texture of the soil is sandy loam in south-western half but in the north-western half the texture becomes clay. The fertility of the soil varies from medium to high.

Crop A Paddy Maize Wheat Sugarcane Potato Muskmelon
110.0 3.0 109.0 4.0 5.3 3.1

2006-07 P Y
414.0 11.0 444.0 24.0 1157.0 1039.5 3768.0 3849.0 4077.0 5932.0 21780.0 33000.0

114.0 3.0 111.0 3.4 6.7 1.2

2007-08 P Y
428.0 10.8 506.0 28.0 1778.9 NA 3753.0 3608.0 4556.0 8320.0 25440.0 NA

A= Area µ000¶ ha,

P=Production in µ000¶ tonnes,

Y= Yield in Kg/ha


KVK, Kapurthala was established in 1992. It is situated on Kapurthala Sultanpur main road about 4 Kms from the bus stand adjacent to new grain market. KVK Kapurthala is spearheaded by ICAR and is under the control of Director of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana is working for the well fare of the farming community. KVK Kapurthala provides technological backstopping for new schemes initiated by Government in XI plan viz; Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), National Food Security Mission (NFSM) and other such projects.

1. Assessment and refinement of technologies through ³On farm testing´ (OFT) according to the problems in the area. 2. Capacity building of extension personnel by imparting training to field level extension workers. 3. To organize short and long term vocational courses in agriculture and allied occupations for the farmers and rural youth with emphasis on ³learning by doing´ for higher production on farms and generating selfemployment.

5 4. To conduct Front line demonstrations (FLD) at farmers field for exposing farmers to new technologies

KVK organize various training programmes for farmers, farmwomen, rural youth and extension personnel. The content of training programmes is decided through brain storming session in Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) meeting which is held under the chairmanship of honourable Vice Chancellor of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Training courses arranged on the KVK premises but some courses are arranged off campus the basis or need and requirement of rural people. Short Duration Training Courses: These training courses are of 1 to 3 day duration. Knowledge and skill in spraying techniques, animal feed preparation, insect pest and disease control, horticulture, marketing, etc. is imparted in these training courses. Vocational Training Courses: For the unemployed rural youth vocational training courses are arranged time to time. These courses are of 10 days to 3 month duration. To provide practical skill in various agricultural and allied enterprises demonstration units has been established at KVK. Farmers are provided training in the beekeeping, mushroom growing, dairy farming and seed production. Farm women are trained in soft toy making, preservation of fruits and vegetables, fabric painting, and embroidery etc. Refresher Training course: Field extension workers of various line departments viz; Department of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Department of Animal Husbandry, etc are provided training to upgrade their skills. Front Line Demonstrations (FLD): Front line demonstrations are conducted by KVK scientists, to encourage farmers for adoption of latest innovations at farmer¶s field, to reduce adoption gap between recommended and farmer¶s practice and to promote diversification in the district. FLDs are conducted on pulses, oilseed crops, laser leveler, happy seeder, tensiometer, artificial induction and urea mineral molasses licks (UMMB) etc. On farm testing (OFT): On farm testing is done to solve the location specific problems of the farmers and to assess and refine new technologies according to needs of local farmers. KVK test efficacy of different pesticides/weedicides.

DEPUTY DIRECTOR Assistant Professor (Agronomy) Assistant Professor (Horticulture) Assistant Professor (Animal Science) Assistant Professor (Plant Protection) Assistant Professor (Home science) Assistant Professor (Extension)

Programme Assistant Office Superintendent Steno Cum Comp. Op

Farm manager Peon

Programme Assistant (Computer) Driver - 2

Sr. Sanctioned post No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . Programme Coordinator Subject Matter Specialist Subject Matter Specialist Subject Matter Specialist Subject Matter Specialist Subject Matter Specialist Subject Matter Specialist Demonstrator Demonstrator Demonstrator Driver Driver Senior Assistant Stenographer Supporting Staff Supporting Staff


Animal Nutrition Agronomy Food Science & Nutrition Soil Fertility Plant Pathology Extension Education Horticulture Home Science Agricultural Engineering Animal Science Tractor Jeep Sr. Assistant Steno-typist Beldar Beldar


Sr. No 1.

Name of building Administrative Building E-connectivity lab Soil & Water testing laboratory

Plinth area (m2)


7 Basic plant health diagnostic lab Home Science Lab Farmers Hostel Staff Quarters (4) Demonstration Units (4) Implement Shed Dairy Shed Poultry Shed Bee-keeping Integrated fish farm Threshing floor Farm godown

2. 3. 4.

305.0 240.0 50.0 100.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 82¶X82¶ -

5. 6.


Area Crops

Major Problems -Depleting underground water without any recharge -Deterioration of soil health. -Burning of Paddy straw. -Use of higher doses of nitrogenous and potash fertilizers. -Use of un-recommended varieties -Use of un-recommended brands of pesticides and weedicides -Increased incidence of seed borne diseases. -Indiscriminate use of insecticides. -Low milk production. -Prevalence of mastitis in cows. -Poor knowledge about internal and external parasites. -Non availability of veterinary doctor in the villages. -Non conception of crossbred cows after 3rd

Thrust Areas -Motivating farmers for seed production of cereal, vegetable, oilseed and pulse crops. -Transfer of Integrated pest management technologies in various cereals, vegetables oilseed and pulse crops. -Promoting seed treatment. -Proper spraying techniques. -Popularizing use of resource conservation technologies like laser leveler, rotavator, zero till drill, happy seeder. -Sensitizing farmers about environmental pollution and climate change -Promoting use of mineral mixture in daily feeding schedule of dairy animals. -Making farmers aware about control of internal and external parasites. -Imparting skill in cattle feed formulation at farmers¶ level. -Clean milk production. -Artificial induction of milk in crossbred cattle.

Animal Husbandry

8 lactation. -Anoestrus & repeat breeding in cross bred cows. Horticulture Non availability of quality vegetable seeds. Poor knowledge of production technology of vegetables. Harvesting of vegetable at improper stage. Fruit drop in Kinnow Attack of fruit fly in Guava orchard during rainy season. Frost damage to vegetable crops. Home Unaware of balanced diet Science and nutritious foods. Low shelf life of homemade preserved products. Poor knowledge about proper upkeep of household gadgets. Low decision making ability among farm women due to weak financial position. Other Lack of interest of rural youth in agriculture due diminishing returns from agriculture Loss of traditional wealth and local varieties with the advancement of agriculture -Cultivation of leguminous and non leguminous fodders. Seed production of Chilies, Okra, Onion and Peas. Training on cultivation of seasonal vegetables. Proper harvesting techniques in vegetables. Management of Kinnow orchards. IPM in Guava Cultivation of vegetables under low tunnel technique and poly house.

Preparation of low cost balanced foods. Preservation of seasonal fruits & vegetables. Care of various domestic appliances. Subsidiary occupations for women to increase family income.

Developing entrepreneurship development qualities among rural youth Compilation of traditional technologies in Annual Progress Report of KVK and awareness of farmers about Intellectual property rights Lack of proper marketing Training on marketing strategies to infrastructure faremrs



Short Duration Training courses (1 to 3 days duration)
*Preparation of urea mineral molasses block

Vocational courses

Refresher courses
*Scope of organic farming in context of Punjab agriculture


*Hybrid seed production of sunflower (3)

*Handling and maintenance of plant protection equipments *Entrepreneurship development *Balanced feed for broilers and layers *Value addition to farm based products *Diet planning for the family *Training course on beekeeping (10) *Cultivation of tropical mushroom (March to July) *Formation of wax sheets (3) *Formulation of compound cattle feed (4) *Specialized training course on stitching & hand embroidery (70) *Extraction, filtration, packing and marketing of honey (4) *Seed production of cereal, pulses and oil seed crops (4) *Specialized training course in dairy farming (10) *Specialized training course in dairy farming (10) * Farming approach system


*Establishment of nursery for self employment (3) *Specialized training course on poultry farming (10)

*Participatory appraisal (1)



*Seed production of berseem *Management of orchards *Detergent making *Care of newly planted orchards in summer season *Urea feeding in dairy animals *Laser leveling and its benefits

*Importance balanced diet preparation (2)

of and


*Formulation of economical and balanced ration for dairy cattle *Role of green manure and FYM in maintaining soil health


*Maximization of yield in kharif pulses *Weed management in kharif crops *Management of broilers and layers during hot months *Role of global warming in agriculture

*IPM in paddy *Global warming


*Summer management dairy animals *Children technologies


*Hybrid seed production of maize (3)


* Scope of organic farming in context of Punjab agriculture *Improved seed production techniques *Integrated weed management *Reproductive problems in animals and their preventive measures *Nutrient deficiency symptoms-

*Judicious use of pesticides *Use of leaf colour chart (LCC) in paddy *Efficient water management in paddy with tensiometer * Role of crop diversification

viz a viz. resource conservation for best profit margin. identification & remedial measures in Kharif crops * Role of conservation agriculture and rational use of resources. *Nutritional diseases of young and lactating dairy animals


*Layout, digging and filling of pits for planting of fruit plants *Important diseases of dairy animals and their preventive measures *Use of agro-industrial by products in dairy and poultry rations *Supplementation of mineral and vitamins in diary animals *Important diseases of poultry and their preventive measures *Food hygiene and sanitation *Participatory rural appraisal *Technology of raising oilseed crops *Raising of vegetable and fruit nursery *Preparation of nutritious recipes from locally available food stuffs *Marketing strategies

*Specialized training course on poultry farming (10)


*Formulation of compound cattle feed (4)

*Effective use of multimedia for transfer of technology *Establishment and management of integrated nutrition unit *Silage preparation

Septembe r

*Specialized training course in dairy farming (10) *Establishment of nursery for self employment (3) *Specialized training course on mushroom growing (Sept to Dec.) *Training course on beekeeping (10) *Value addition to household linens through fabric painting (10)

*Child health care *Compost preparation from paddy straw


*Identification of nutrient deficiency symptoms & judicious use of fertilizers

*Artificial induction of milk in cross bred *Carbon sequestration *Farming system approach *Intercropping in orchards *Proper diet of mothers *Infants and preschool children in special conditions *Nutrient deficiency symptomsidentification &

Novembe r

*Management of calves, heifers and lactating animals *Management of late blight in potato *Credit facilities available for farmers, *Weed management in Rabi crops

*Development of skill in making soft toys (15)

Decembe r

*Hybrid seed production of sunflower (10)

*Rejuvenation orchards of senile remedial measures

*Balanced feed computation for dairy animals *Preservation of fruits and vegetables Note : Figures in parenthesis are duration of training course


Sr. No.





Field Day

Field days provide opportunity to the farmers and extension personnel of seeing the results of new practices, demonstration, implements etc.

To give them an idea regarding the suitability & application of these things in their own area or at their field.




Is used for discussing problems which affect the whole group of people. Exhibition An exhibition is a systematic display of information, actual specimens, models, posters, photographs, and charts, etc in a logical sequence. Method It is used to show the how to do new practice or an old practice in a better demonstration way. / Result Result demonstration is used to demonstration show the results of a new technology

Kisan Ghosthi

For creating awareness about new technologies

For skill development or up-gradation



To motivate farmers for adoption of new practices or varieties by comparing and showing their performance at the farmers¶ field It is a presentation delivered to an For educating the audience on a particular topic or set farmers and clearing of topics that are educational in their doubts. nature. Discussion is held after the presentation. These are usually held for passing For training of farmers on certain information to group of on topic which are


Group meetings

12 people for future action. It is method of training in which speaker deliver information and participation of the audience is limited. Radio and TV are the powerful medium for communication of message to rural masses in short period of time. common to group For training of farmers in areas which does not require skill upgradation For approaching masses and for quick dissemination of the message and in case of emergency Newspapers, magazines, bulletins, For publicity and leaflets, folders, pamphlets & wall awareness paintings are set of mass media for communicating information to a large number of literate people. It is the method of individual To solve specific counseling to solve the problem of problem of the farmer the farmer which is more complex in nature These are conducted to find and To identify diseases, identify the specific problem in the deficiencies or toxic area. effects in crops and animals. In this meeting is held with ex- To keep follow up of trainees of the KVK to get feedback the trainees and to about the impact of trainings and to solve their problems get their suggestions in improving related to credit and the efficiency. marketing etc. Campaigns are used to focus the For moving farmers attention of the people on a for judicious use of particular problem which are fertilizers common to the community Training involves increasing knowledge, improving skill or inculcating new skills and changing attitude for improving the overall working efficiency of the person.




Radio talks / TV talks


Extension Literature

10. Field visits/Office visits 11. Diagnostic visits


Ex-trainees Sammelan


Soil test campaigns




Seed multiplication : KVK produce certified seed of improved varieties of wheat, rice for distribution among farmers Kitchen Gardening : KVK Kapurthala is running a special project on kitchen gardening sponsored by Sir Ratan Tata Trust. Under this project 50 kitchen gardens has been established in village Balerkhanpur. Seed kits of summer and winter vegetables are provided free of cost to the beneficiaries.


FIG: KVK¶s liaison with other development departments/ Agencies

Bee Association Potato Association Self Help (SHGs)

Keepers Growers


Department of Agriculture Department of Horticulture Department of Soil Conservation Department of Forestry

Regional Research Station (RRS) Farm
Service (FASS)


Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kapurthala
Department of Animal Husbandry Department Fisheries of
NABARD and other Banks Small Scale industries and other vocational institutes

IFFCO KRIBHCO Pesticide companies

For more information contact

Dr Manoj Sharma
Deputy Director (Training) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala Contact : 98727-45890 (M), 01822-233056 (O) drmanojsh1@gmail.com kvkkapurthala@gmail.com