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# CHAPTER 27 WIND LOADS ON BUILDINGS—MWFRS (DIRECTIONAL PROCEDURE

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0.25 £ h/L £ 1.0

Main Wind Force Resisting System – Part 1
Figure 27.4-5

Net Pressure Coefficient, CN

Pitched Free Roofs
q £ 45°, g = 0°, 180°

Open Buildings

Wind Direction, γ = 0o, 180o
Roof
Angle, θ
7.5o
15o
22.5o
30o
37.5o
45o

Case
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B

Clear Wind Flow
CNW
CNL

Obstructed Wind Flow
CNW
CNL

1.1
0.2
1.1
0.1
1.1
-0.1
1.3
-0.1
1.3
-0.2
1.1
-0.3

-1.6
-0.9
-1.2
-0.6
-1.2
-0.8
-0.7
-0.2
-0.6
-0.3
-0.5
-0.3

-0.3
-1.2
-0.4
-1.1
0.1
-0.8
0.3
-0.9
0.6
-0.6
0.9
-0.5

-1
-1.7
-1
-1.6
-1.2
-1.7
-0.7
-1.1
-0.6
-0.9
-0.5
-0.7

Notes:
1.
CNW and CNL denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces) for windward and leeward half of
roof surfaces, respectively.
2.
Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed
wind flow denotes objects below roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3.
For values of θ between 7.5o and 45o, linear interpolation is permitted.
For values of θ less than 7.5o, use
4.
Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5.
All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.
6.
Notation:
L
: horizontal dimension of roof, measured in the along wind direction, ft. (m)
h
: mean roof height, ft. (m)
γ
: direction of wind, degrees
θ
: angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

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< 2h > 2h Roof Angle θ Load Case Free Roofs q £ 45°.9 θ < 45o B 0.0 Main Wind Force Resisting System – Part 1 Figure 27. CN denotes net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces).05 less than or equal to h/L less than or equal to 0.CHAPTER 27 WIND LOADS ON BUILDINGS—MWFRS (DIRECTIONAL PROCEDURE) 0. For monoslope roofs with theta less than 5 degrees.4-7 Net Pressure Coefficient.3 0.25 £ h/L £ 1. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage). 4.4-5 or 27. See Figures 27. See Figure 27.6 -0. degrees θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal. g = 90°. Cn values shown apply also for cases where gamma = 0 degrees and 0.6 θ < 45o B 0.5 All Shapes A -0. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated. (m) h : mean roof height. ft.8 0. 27. Notation: L : horizontal dimension of roof.4-6 for a graphical depiction of this dimension. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. ft. (m). CN Open Buildings Horizontal Distance from Windward Edge <h > h. degrees 270 .2 θ < 45 B 0.5 0. 5. 3.3 o Notes: 1.4-4.8 -1.4-4 for other h/L values.5 All Shapes A -0. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface. 270° Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow CN CN All Shapes A -0. γ : direction of wind. 2.3 -0.25. measured in the along wind direction. 6. respectively.

9 CN = net pressure coefﬁcient given in: – Fig. Kz or Kh.8-1 for monosloped roof – Fig. pitched. CN ➢ Monosloped roof. see Fig.6 and Table 26.7. V. monoslope or troughed roofs. monosloped free roof.8. see Table 30.8-1.8-1) where qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height h using the exposure as deﬁned in Section 26.8 are applicable to an open building of all heights having a pitched free roof. see Table 1. 30.8-2 for pitched roof – Fig. see Fig.7 ➢ Topographic factor. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.8.3-1 Step 6: Determine net pressure coefﬁcients. qh. respectively. 30.8-2 ➢ Troughed roof. 30.8-1 ➢ Pitched roof.5-1A. Kzt.MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS PART 5: OPEN BUILDINGS 30.8-1 Net pressure coefﬁcients CN include contributions from top and bottom surfaces. Eq. Table 30. Eq. Kd . B or C Step 3: Determine wind load parameters: ➢ Wind directionality factor. p. 30. for applicable risk category. 30. 30.8-1 Steps to Determine C&C Wind Loads Open Buildings Step 1: Determine risk category.6-1 ➢ Exposure category B.8 and Figure 26. 30. see Section 26.1 Conditions For the determination of the design wind pressures on components and claddings using the provisions of Section 30.8-3 for troughed roof User Note: Use Part 5 of Chapter 30 for determining wind pressures for C&C of open buildings having pitched. 30.2.5-1 Step 2: Determine the basic wind speed. These provisions are based on the Directional Procedure with wind pressures calculated from the speciﬁed equation applicable to each roof surface.8-1 ➢ Gust effect factor.9 Step 4: Determine velocity pressure exposure coefﬁcient. and troughed roofs shall be determined by the following equation: p = qhGCN (30. Plus and minus signs signify pressure acting toward and away from the top surface of the roof. C or D. The steps required for the determination of wind loads on components and cladding for these building types is shown in Table 30. see Section 26. the conditions indicated on the selected ﬁgure(s) shall be applicable to the building under consideration. or troughed free roof. 30.8-3 Step 7: Calculate wind pressure. see Figure 26. see Fig. see Section 26.3-1 Step 5: Determine velocity pressure.8. 331 .2 Design Wind Pressures The net design wind pressure for component and cladding elements of open buildings of all heights with monoslope. G. 30.3 that results in the highest wind loads for any wind direction at the site G = gust-effect factor from Section 26.8 BUILDING TYPES The provisions of Section 30. see Section 26.

9 1.2 Notes: 1.1 0.5 -1.8 -2.5 -1. linear interpolation is permitted.1 -0.9 0.1 0. Notation: a : 10% of least horizontal dimension or 0.0a > 4. respectively.8 -2.2 1.5 -1.8 0.1 0.8 -2.9 1.6 0.7 -1.8 1. degrees 352 .6 0.1 -0.6 0.9 1 -2.5 -1. 4.5 -1.7 -1.4 0.8 -1.2 1.5 -1.2 -1.5 -1. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface.25 £ h/L £ 1.8 -1.8 -1.6 1.7 -1.3 -0.7 -1.5 -1.1 -1.1 -1.7 -1.8 1.2 0. (m) L : horizontal dimension of building.1 -1.6 0.0a 45 o 2 2 > a . Dimension “a” is as shown in Fig.0a 30 2 > a .8 -1.5 -1.CHAPTER 30 WIND LOADS – COMPONENTS AND CLADDING 2 0.4 -3.2 1.7 1.1 1 -3.8 0.5 -1.7 1.2 1 -5.2 0.8 -1. ft. (0.2 -1.1 -1.0a <a 2 2 2 > 4.7 -1.5 -1.0a > 4.8 1.2 1.8 -2.1 1 -3.8 1.7 -1.4 0. < 4.2 1.6 2. For values of θ other than those shown.5 -1.2 0.1 1.2 -1.0 Components and Cladding Figure 30.6 -1.5 2 2 > 4.8 -2.3 -0.8 -1.1 0.5 -1. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%.7 -1.7 1.7 1.8 -1.2 1. (m) θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal.1 -1.2 0.3 1.2 0.5 -1. ft.0a 2 2 Obstructed Wind Flow Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 2. 2.1 -1.8 0.2 -1.7 2.1 1.8 0.2 -1. measured in along wind direction. Components and cladding elements shall be designed for positive and negative pressure coefficients shown.5 -1.0a <a o 7.5 -1.1 -0.5 -1.5 -1.0a <a o 2 2 > 4.7 1.3 -0. CN denotes net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces).4 0.8 0. < 4.8 -1. 5.8 0.7 1. < 4.8 0.0a <a 2 2 2 2 2 > a . < 4.8-2 Net Pressure Coefficient.2 -1.8 0.7 0.3 -0.2 0.6 0.2 2 -1. 6.8 -1.7 1.4 1.6 1.2 2.5 -1.2 1.2 -2.8 -1.1 -1.2 2. < 4.0a 15 o 2 > a .7 0.6 1. h : mean roof height.8 1.5 1.1 0.8 2 -1.3 -0.1 -0.4 1.2 0.2 0.2 -1.2 1.2 1.2 1.8-1.8 -1. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).5 -1.9 0.1 1.1 -0.1 -1. CN Pitched Free Roofs q £ 45° Open Buildings 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 CN Roof Effective Angle Wind Area Clear Wind Flow θ Zone 3 <a 0 o 2 2 > a .1 -1.1 -1.8 0.2 -3.7 -1.4 0.2 0. whichever is smaller but not less than 4% of least horizontal dimension or 3 ft.4h.5 -1.4 0.5 -1. 3.5 -1.8 -2.8 -1.8 1 -2. 30.1 1.6 1.6 0.8 0.9 m).8 0.4 2 -1.5 -1.7 1.