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MATRIC NUMBER: 950422016213001
NRIC: 950422016213


………….0.………….………….Explain how Operant Conditioning being used to change human behavior and give example…11-14 4.………….………….………….0-Reference………….0.Description of Learning Theory with relevant example………………………………………………………………3-7 2.…………. ………….………….0.0-Summary………….Discuss the concept of Operant Conditioning in details and provide example of application……8-10 3.16 PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . ………….………….………….………….…………….BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 Content 1.………….………….………….………….…15 5.………….………….

emotional. The three main theories of learning are shown in Figure Figures: The major theories of learning A) Classical Conditioning B) Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning learning theory. is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. and automatically triggers a response. naturally. For example. learning need to place or happened in the relationship between the individual identify the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus. processed. This response requires no learning. and environmental influences. The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally.0- Description of Learning Theory with relevant example. and retained during learning. it simply happens automatically. Cognitive. when you smell one of your favorite foods. you may immediately feel very hungry. Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 1. as well as prior experience. or a world view. all play a part in how understanding. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 .

Through operant conditioning. As such.  Pollen from grass and flowers causes you to sneeze. The dog is now accustomed to this method. the parents rewarding a child’s excellent grades with candy or some other prize. C) Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Types Desirable organization behavior i) Description Positive Reinforcement is giving positive consequences to employees who produce such behavior. This may come in the form of praise. The pollen from the grass and flowers is the unconditioned stimulus. rewards. The conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that. the dog will salivate when it hears the sound of the bell even when no food had been prepared for it. an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence. This reaction is known as a conditioned response or reaction. it means that food (as the unconditioned stimulus) had been prepared for it. Example: When a hungry dog hears the sound of the bell (conditioned stimulus). eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus. It also favorable events or outcomes that are given to the individual after the desired behavior. For examples. The feather tickling your nose is the unconditioned stimulus. etc PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . It consists of any environment that does not produce any reaction or response.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 Some more examples of the unconditioned stimulus include:  A feather tickling your nose causes you to sneeze.

Punishment is giving negative consequences to employees who produce such behavior and characterized by when a favorable event or outcome is removed father an undesired behavior occurs. A response is strengthened as something Undesirable organizational behavior (i) considered negative is removed. The cognitive processes is the thinking processes of an individual in finding the reasons for their own behavior. Elimination is removing anything that is reinforcing (ii) the behavior. It is characterized by the removal of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired behavior. Social learning theory recognizes the importance of individuals in the process of learning by taking into account the cognitive process. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 .BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 ii) Negative Reinforcement is removing negative consequences from employees who produce such behavior. Types of Operant Conditioning D) Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory considers the factors that involve cognition and feelings that influence learning.

instruction. However we also had a life outside of school where we learned a lot by observing our parents and siblings. Self-reinforcement - is the consequence or reward given to the individual. neighbors. hands-on. The individual must set goals that determine when self reinforcement will take place.we watched them do everyday tasks and pursue hobbies. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . rather than direct. interests. that is. and acquaintances .Control Self-control is a form of self-discipline that allows an individual to learn for the purpose of performing a particular behavior even when he or she does not receive any external pressure. There are four conditions that show an individual is exercising self-control: - The individual must be involved in low probability behavior. friends. behavior that - is not normally exhibited by the individual in question. Self-reinforcement must be readily available to the individual.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 i) Vicarious Learning Vicarious Learning is learning that is derived from indirect sources such as hearing or observation. ii) Self. and physical skills that we also learned from even if we weren't actively trying to. While growing up we went to school where we received direct instruction in many subjects.

The individual will pursue other matters only when he or she had successfully attained these goals. It affects learning by influencing the individual’s determination towards work. An employee may - choose a simple activity if his or her level of self-efficacy/self-confidence is low. Employees who possess high self-efficacy/self-confidence will work harder to learn a new behavior. Employees with high efficacy/confidence believe that they can learn to perform tasks and usually PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . Self-efficacy/self-confidence affects three aspects of learning: - It affects the activities and goals chosen by the individual. and It affects the perseverance of an individual who tries to master/overcome a new or difficult task. iii) Self-efficacy/Self-confidence Self-efficiency/self-confidence is an individual’s beliefs of his or her ability to perform behavior successfully. if they are confident that their efforts will be successful.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 - And the individual must direct the reinforcement when the goals have been achieved.

Operant Conditioning Theory Examples  “A professor has a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they maintain perfect attendance. because something is taken away that increases the behavior (attendance). In the future it hits its siblings much less. Later these points result in refunds of their class fees. Behavior modification as a therapy method is intensively used in the case of students with learning difficulties.  “In a weight loss class. he will praise any answer close to the right one. as long as the information is provided in small chunks so that responses can be reinforced.” The exemption from the final exam is a negative reinforcement. participants earn points for every healthy meal they consume and every exercise session they complete.” This is the process of shaping an operant behavior through the use of positive reinforcement (praise).” In a negative condition. His students’ attendance increases dramatically. However. encouraging and applauding students in order to alter their behavior in a desired manner.  “When a professor first starts teaching about a concept.0- Discuss the concept of Operant Conditioning in details and provide example of the application.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 2. punishment is considered successful when the behavior is weakened. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . one way of providing positive reinforcement is by complimenting.” Point awarding is a positive reinforcement and the refund of fees is a negative reinforcement. in regular students it can shape their skill performance. while it also helps with student management. Operant conditioning can be applied in teaching in the form of programmed instruction. As mentioned above.  “A child hits a sibling and its parents make it stand in a corner.

such as pressing a lever.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. Examples are:  It is very noisy outside so you turn on the television to mask the noise.2- Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement is taking away something unpleasant as a result of the behavior that is acceptable. a child throws a tantrum because he did not get a candy bar. He stopped the tantrum so he took away something unpleasant and Dad’s behavior of getting candy bars will increase. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . the teacher is taking away something unpleasant to increase behavior. 2. This is also meant to increase the behavior. Examples are:  Having a job and going to work every day to receive a paycheck.  A teacher exempts student from the final test if they have perfect attendance. Dad finally gets him one. positive punishment and negative punishment.1- Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement is giving something pleasant after a behavior.  In the Skinner box experiment. 2.  At a gym. Turning on the radio decreased the unpleasant noise. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement.  At a store. a rat got food as a reward for acceptable behavior. So.  Receiving praise after a musical performance would increase the amount that you perform.  A teacher complimenting students when they answer correctly will increase that behavior. customers receive a discount if they work out a certain number of times and eat healthy. This increases the probability that the behavior will continue.

Examples are:  An employee exhibits bad behavior at work and the boss criticizes him. the subject received a slight electric shock when they got an answer wrong. so the unpleasant noise was taken away. a loud noise continuously sounded inside the cage until the rat did what Skinner wanted him to do.4- Negative Punishment Negative punishment is also used to decrease a behavior and is removing something pleasant after the behavior. When he did. 2.  A child gets a spanking when he puts his hand in the cookie jar.  Ted gets a $500 fine and suspension of his driving license for driving under the influence.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016  In the Skinner box experiment. Examples are:  An employee is habitually late for work so begins losing the privilege of listening to music while working. The parents took away something pleasant to decrease behavior.  In an experiment. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . Money and his license were removed to decrease behavior.  In a biology class. The behavior will decrease because of losing a privilege. he has to do ten extra minutes of chores. students who made an "A" on the test did not have to dissect a frog.  A child doesn’t put his bike away so the parents lock it up for a certain time. the noise stopped.  When a child does not out his clothes in the hamper. The behavior will decrease because of the boss’s criticism.  When a student misbehaves in class.3- Positive Punishment Positive punishment is used to decrease a behavior and is presenting something unpleasant after the behavior. she receives a time out. 2.

make sure you reward yourself after doing something positive. a reward is introduced (=positive reinforcement) or something undesirable is taken away (=negative reinforcement). behavior. Sounds simple. they have to put a dollar in the jar. but it is a powerful means of reinforcing something good. rather than reflexive.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016  A family has a "swear jar. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . If the targeted behavior occurs.Operant conditioning Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and consequences. which is something pleasant.0- Explain how Operant Conditioning being used to change human behavior and give examples. This process has a wider application than the classical conditioning approach as it provides shaping of behavior in particular patterns. If the targeted behavior does not occur.1. The basic assumption of operant conditioning is that behavior is influenced by its consequences One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. So.  Kevin trashes his sister’s room and Mom told him he could not go camping with his friends. Operant Conditioning is another type of learning process that uses reinforcement or punishment to shape desired behavior. a consequence can be introduced in the form of a “positive punishment” (=a negative stimulus) or “negative punishment” (=the removal of something desirable)." Every time someone swears. Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. and decreases the behavior of swearing. if you’re trying to make a change. One big difference here compared to classical conditioning is that operant conditioning focuses on voluntary. This is taking away money. For example. 3. 3.

Instead of beating yourself up about this. When making changes. rather than dwell on it. You could make yourself eat healthier that day or take a 10-minute walk.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 I’m not a big fan of “punishment” per se. whereby one offsets their carbon emissions by reducing them elsewhere. A sense of momentum can do wonders with regards to motivation. The key here is to anticipate and learn from the relapse. For example. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . but are there to help you keep you moving forward. by doing something beneficial to your overall health. Doing these alternative activities aren’t designed to enable the behavior you’re trying to change. say you’re trying to quit smoking and you’re successful for 1 week. “relapse” (reverting to old habits) is likely to happen at some point. then you slip and have a cigarette. acknowledge the disappointment and “offset” the hit to your lungs. You can also turn a “relapse” into a positive. Let’s take the analogy of the “carbon offset” programs. but having consequences for one’s actions (or lack thereof) can often prove helpful.

For example. 3. For Egg. It is increasingly used PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . It can be used to improve employee's performance. Many organizations uses positive reinforcements to increase productivity. Firstly.POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Managers often use positive reinforce to influence behavior.2. chemical bank has set up programs to positively reinforce employee actions that lead to better customer service.PUNISHMENT It relates to unpleasant reward for particular behaviors. It strengthens the response as response removes some painful stimulus and enables the organization to avoid it. It is defined as presenting an uncomfortable consequence for a particular behavioral response. exerting high degrees of efforts to complete a job may be negatively reinforced by not listening to boss. strengthens the probability of a behavioral response.2.2. An insurance company offered incentives at end of each month if the agent succeed to reach their target.2- PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Some of the important principles of operant conditioning that can aid the manager to influence behavior:3.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 3. Positive reinforcement can be monetary rewards as well as non-financial rewards such as recognition. Another example. decrease absenteeism and workplace accidents. when added to the situation. merchandise incentives etc.2.3. Positive reinforcement is highly effective and used for two reasons.NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a response following removal of a negative reinforce immediately after the response. When positive reinforcements are used. the desired outcome is that the behavior is reinforced.1. it is used for the direction or motivation of the actions of other people and secondly it uses versatile concept of reinforcement as an explanation of behavior. A positive reinforce is a stimulus which. 3.

grunts. transfer to another job For example. Organizations typically use several types of unpleasant events to punish individuals.4. An example would be a teacher who pretends not to see a student raise his or her hand out of spite.Elimination Elimination can be described as the reduction of undesirable behavior by removing the resources of reinforcement. personal grudges and aggressive body language of an employee. final punishment can be firing of an employee. and another problem is control of undesirable behavior becomes restricted to manager's presence only. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . Punishments can also be materialistic i. This forms of reinforcements decreases the occurrence of the behavior in question. 3. another example can be "loss of pay.2. cut in pay. the action of hand raising will be stopped/eliminated due to the reinforcement carried out by the teacher.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 managerial strategy. it can cause undesirable emotional reaction.e. Sooner or later. demotion. Interpersonal punisher are used extensively including frowns. punishing a worker who slows down the work may be an economically necessary step to alter behavior." There can be negative effects of punishment..

one way of providing positive reinforcement is by complimenting. As mentioned above. However. while it also helps with student management. Behavior modification as a therapy method is intensively used in the case of students with learning difficulties.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 4. Another that. One basic learning theory is Operant Conditioning. The negative reinforcement that increases the proximity of desirable behavior by removing the negative consequences and results when a person behaves in such a way. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . this assignment has explain the concept of operant conditioning. Then. Learning is a relatively permanent change in terms of knowledge or behavior. which happens as a result of training or even the experience of an individual. Punishment is the administration of negative consequences and results when undesirable behavior takes place. The first method is Reinforcement that increases the probability of desirable behavior through positive consequences and results towards employees who act in such a manner. Operant conditioning can be applied in teaching in the form of programmed instruction. in regular students it can shape their skill performance.0- Summary Learning begins with a cognitive activity about a certain knowledge that subsequently leads to a change in behavior. Elimination can be described as the reduction of undesirable behavior by removing the resources of reinforcement. encouraging and applauding students in order to alter their behavior in a desired manner. this assignment also explain the operant conditioning being used to change the human behavior. as long as the information is provided in small chunks so that responses can be reinforced.

com/operant-conditioningexamples. from.html 2. PREPARED BY TEE JIA BAO 950422016213 . Retrieved September 26.BDGO 4103 ASSIGNMENT JANUARY 2016 Reference B.yourdictionary. NJ: Prentice Hall. Wong Voong Englewood 7.Operant Conditioning (2007). 6. Simply Psychology. 503– American 3.Availed: http://www.html 4. S. Social learning theory.htm 5. A. (1963).Availed: http://healthypsych.utexas. (1977). Operant behavior. 2013.McLeod. Skinner . 18.Availed: http://examples. Ovum Business School.Bandura.Availed: http://www.simplypsychology.Ovum Printer Module. F. 8. Availed: http://www.