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I S AT 5 P E R C E N T,


M AY 1, 2016


M AS S.?

J O BS G O ?



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Live on Manhattan’s new cultural coast in
West Chelsea – the center of New York’s art
world and home to the Whitney Museum, The
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of ARTS and

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STROLL through
connecting 3 PARKS
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What happens when Americans stop believing in them? By Charles Homans 12 5. they have become increasingly difficult to find. In Worcester. is growing.P.. deficits are down and G. Today a much more complicated economy is taking shape in the city.16 The Obama Recovery Unemployment is 5 percent. What happened to all the working-class TV characters? By Annie Lowrey By Adam Davidson By Wesley Morris Continued on Page 14 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.D.The End of the American Daydream Middle-class aspirations have shaped the country’s politics for decades. Mass. Why do so many voters feel left behind? By Andrew Ross Sorkin 76 68 64 54 50 THE MONEY ISSUE Where Did the Government Jobs Go? Our Town Moving On Up Long a ticket to the middle class. especially for African-Americans. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . my father’s family had a simple middle-class life.1.

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By Mark O’Connell By ZP Dala Eat A hero shop’s gigantic fried-eggplant sandwich. What happens when they are scattered or sold — and then found by a stranger? By Teju Cole By Sam Sifton Voyages Twenty-five miles off the Normandy coast. What does it mean for the rest of us if even a ‘‘bully’’ can be pushed around? The Ethicist Should a friend have been told that his date was H.’’ First Words Incredibly powerful people still love to claim they’ve been bullied. Lives Raising eyebrows in Durban. 600 residents live on a few square miles with no automobiles. South Africa. On Photography Family photos are precious repositories of intimacy. hands in pockets — subtly suggests his imminent freedom from the burdens of the past eight years.I. Interview by Ana Marie Cox Contributors The Thread Poem Tip Judge John Hodgman 82 Puzzles 84 Puzzles (Puzzle answers on Page 85) 16 18 29 32 38 Copyright © 2016 The New York Times Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.V. positive? By Heather Havrilesky Letter of Recommendation Photograph by Katy Grannan By Kwame Anthony Appiah ‘‘The Rabbit Who Wants to Fall Asleep’’ makes explicit the hypnotic intentions most bedtime stories keep hidden. remade for the home. director of photography: ‘‘Katy Grannan says she always tries to make her photographs ‘as nuanced and particular as possible. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .16 Talk The radio personality Angie Martinez doesn’t like to crush people’s hopes.1.26 21 34 30 42 38 86 46 THE MONEY ISSUE Behind the Cover Kathy Ryan. no streetlights — and no light pollution.’ The president’s informal pose — jacket off. Photographs by Jon Tonks 14 5. with the mention of a traditional dish.

WILMINGTON WOODBRIDGE Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e it’s not good enough for yours. Have you ever wondered if your investment advisors would behave differently if it were their own money they were investing ? Would things change if they actually had “skin in the game”? Privately owned and independent.C. Because the way we see it. D. if it’s not good enough for our portfolio. Bessemer Trust is a multifamily ofce that has helped individuals and families achieve peace of mind through comprehensive investment management. ATLANTA BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS DENVER GRAND CAYMAN GREENWICH HOUSTON LONDON LOS ANGELES MIAMI NAPLES NEW YORK PALM BEACH SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE WASHINGTON. And since the beginning. our approach has been to invest our clients’ money right alongside our own. and family ofce services for over 100 years.bessemer. YOU BE NE F I T F ROM SOME VERY C A REF UL T HINKING. wealth planning. Please call our President. Minimum relationship $10 million. at 212-603-3222 or visit us at www.W E IN V E S T YOUR MONE Y RIGH T A L ONGSIDE OURS. NEEDL E SS TO SAY. George Wilcox. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

First Words. HILARY SHANAHAN Editorial Assistant LIZ GERECITANO BRINN Publisher: ANDY WRIGHT Associate Publisher: DOUG LATINO Advertising Directors: JACQUELYN L.’’ As the author of the book ‘‘Too Big to Fail. reflecting the opinions of 2. BEN GRANDGENETT Digital Designer Associate Photo Editors LINSEY FIELDS STACEY BAKER.’’ In his reporting for this week’s cover article on President Obama’s economy. His last article was about Vicks nasal spray.’’ Photographed by Kathy Ryan at The New York Times on April CHRISTINE WALSH Virtual-Reality Editor Photo Assistant JENNA PIROG KAREN HANLEY Copy Chief ROB HOERBURGER Copy Editors HARVEY DICKSON.Contributors Andrew Ross Sorkin ‘‘The Obama Recovery. RENÉE MICHAEL. ‘‘Everyone has an opinion about today’s economy. EMILY BAZELON. MARK VAN DE WALLE Production Chief 8% Occasionally 1% Never Production Editors ANICK PLEVEN PATTY RUSH. email karen. JAZMINE HUGHES Chief National Correspondent MARK LEIBOVICH Staff Writers SAM ANDERSON. His book ‘‘To Be a Machine’’ will be published in March 2017. MAUREEN DOWD. LUKE MITCHELL.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. CAMERON (Advocacy) ⬤ SHARI KAPLAN (Live Entertainment and Books) ⬤ NANCY KARPF (Fine Arts) ⬤ MAGGIE KISELICK (Automotive. SHEILA GLASER. ANDREW WILLETT Head of Research Research Editors Every week the magazine publishes the results of a study conducted online in July and August by The New York Times’s research-and-analytics department. WILLY STALEY. Health Care. KUNZ (International Fashion) ⬤ SHERRY MAHER (Department Stores.’’ Page 50 Charles Homans is the politics editor for the magazine. SUSAN DOMINUS.’’ which will be published in July. To advertise.1. Page 21 Heather Havrilesky Heather Havrilesky is a columnist for New York magazine and the author of ‘‘How to Be a Person in the World. Advertising) ⬤ MARILYN M C CAULEY (Managing Director. Designers GREG HOWARD MATT WILLEY JASON SFETKO FRANK AUGUGLIARO. LIA MILLER. but it has to be measured against where it used to be. SASHA WEISS Associate Editors JEANNIE CHOI. Specialty Printing) ⬤ THOMAS GILLESPIE (Manager. DEAN ROBINSON. at 5:47 p. Writers at Large JIM RUTENBERG David Carr Fellow Art Director Deputy Art Director Annie Lowrey ‘‘Where Did the Government Jobs Go?’’ Page 64 Annie Lowrey is a contributing editor at New York magazine and a former business reporter for The New York Times. Dear Reader: Do You Vote on Hometown Matters? MARGARET PREBULA.farina@nytimes. This week’s question: Do you vote in local elections? 70% Always 21% Frequently NANDI RODRIGO NANA ASFOUR. Education.’’ Sorkin chronicled the financial crisis of 2008. ‘‘People forget about those dark days. 16 5.987 subscribers who chose to participate. Magazine Layout) ⬤ CHRIS RISO (Publisher’s Assistant). Beauty and American Fashion) ⬤ CHRISTOPHER REAM (Studios) ⬤ JASON RHYNE (Recruitment) ⬤ JOHN RIGGIO (Legal Branding) ⬤ JOSH SCHANEN (Media and Travel) ⬤ SARAH THORPE (Corporate. DANIEL FROMSON. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . C. founder and editor at large of DealBook and co-anchor of CNBC’s ‘‘Squawk Box. MICHAEL BENOIST. CLAIRE GUTIERREZ. AMY KELLNER. Technology and Telecom) ⬤ SCOTT M. Advertising) ⬤ MICHAEL ANTHONY VILLASEÑOR (Creative Director. Page 30 Mark O’Connell lives in Dublin. CHIVERS. Liquor and Packaged Goods) ⬤ BRENDAN WALSH (Finance and Real Estate) National Sales Office Advertising Directors: KYLE AMICK (Atlanta/Southeast) ⬤ JACQUELYN L. NIKOLE HANNAH-JONES. CAMERON (Washington) ⬤ LAUREN FUNKE (Florida/Southeast) ⬤ DOUG LATINO (Detroit) ⬤ CHRISTOPHER REAM (Los Angeles/San Francisco/Northwest) ⬤ JEAN ROBERTS (Boston/Northeast) ⬤ JIMMY SAUNDERS (Chicago/Midwest) ⬤ KAREN FARINA (Magazine Director) ⬤ LAURA BOURGEOIS (Marketing Director. WESLEY MORRIS. Mark O’Connell Letter of Recommendation.m. JENNA WORTHAM Charles Homans ‘‘The End of the American Daydream. 2016.’’ Page 54 Editor in Chief Deputy Editors JAKE SILVERSTEIN JESSICA LUSTIG.’’ he said. BILL WASIK Andrew Ross Sorkin is a financial columnist for The New York Times. J. Managing Editor Design Director Director of Photography Features Editor Politics Editor Story Editors ERIKA SOMMER GAIL BICHLER KATHY RYAN ILENA SILVERMAN CHARLES HOMANS NITSUH ABEBE. Sorkin said he was drawn to the topic in hopes of ‘‘putting the state of the economy and Obama’s role in it in context’’ and wanting to ‘‘better understand how Obama himself thinks about it.

and collaborating with innovators across the globe to explore cancer genomes as never before. Together. we can find solutions to the toughest problems. Videos.Who will crack the cancer code? It’s the question that millions of people are discoveries that help all of us develop more targeted therapies. Leading us to identify cancer mutations and mechanisms. continually refining our approach. because the more answers we find. Pushing us to explore every idea. the more lives we save. like PD-1 interactions and EGFR. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . whitepapers and more at DiscoverCareBelieve. © 2015 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.

computer-programming game with social elements and logic puzzles. apnea is not a disorder of the trachea.17. I believe that the disproportionate amount of time that children today spend in front of screens deprives them of direct experience with the rest of the physical and interpersonal world. grain and smell of wood. The bill did not apply to SoCalGas in this particular case because the leak occurred at an underground storage facility. which the Republicans love to attack. therefore the law could not have prevented the leak. Scott Klavan. but it misses that similar arguments could be made of other early massively multiplayer online role-playing games. A computer game can never capture the sensations of working with real materials. ‘‘The Power of Positive Thinking. (My kids are 8 and 4. Send your thoughts to magazine@nytimes. because it made me rethink — grudgingly. Santa Fe. the reality of class domination — and instead focus on a magnetic. The book is straightforward. Mich. however.M. in this case. Even the online ‘‘human’’ interactions are often one step removed from actual people and address a limited range of social and emotional issues. compassionate. pointless time-suck of a ‘‘game’’ with no objective and no reward. computational thinking and the development of civic literacy). San Jose. Jeff Sharlet wrote. The Pipeline Safety Bill. but miraculously. Part 2 Minecraft didn’t come from nowhere as a video game.16 TWITTER Part 1 Really liked the Minecraft piece. is actually a mere puppet to the wealthy. It is better than the article’s assessment of it. H. An article on April 17 about a patient who had obstructive sleep apnea described the disorder incorrectly. The soft tissue at the back of the throat collapses during sleep. signed by President Obama in 2012.) Which is why I enjoyed the Minecraft article. the reality of class domination. comfortable and joyful. 5. Epstein. Lydia Markoff. the weight. Roger Carasso.’’ It’s no longer an A quotation from a newspaper editor also erroneously linked the law to the SoCalGas leak. Ann S. For an adult. They’ll need a lot of luck. he declared.The Thread RE: MINECRAFT Clive Thompson wrote about the vast and expanding world of the popular computer game that is teaching millions of children to master the digital world. ugly. @chayak RE: DONALD TRUMP Jeff Sharlet considered Donald Trump as a preacher of the prosperity gospel whose success is based largely on the power to persuade people that his story can be theirs. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . But Peale’s book does not extol greed. but as a developmental psychologist. many of Trump’s followers don’t even think in terms of great wealth but rather yearn for just a decent job. unpretentious and smart. Calif. CORRECTIONS: ‘Trump’s followers ignore the implications.’ An article on April 3 about the SoCalGas methane leak in Los Angeles included an erroneous reference to a pipeline-safety law. Illustrations by Tom Gauld Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.1. or reading for the first time. does not support any form of hatred and is not about superficial ‘‘magical thinking. ugly.’’ The lust for success and wealth. directly contradicts the Christian New Testament. Ann Arbor. which favors the weak and the poor and condemns the wealthy and the pursuit of wealth. ‘‘doesn’t reject faith. Actually. he returns it to the roots of Christian business conservatism. messianic personality.2016 issue. Clive Thompson does not acknowledge the major and undesirable differences. cooperative experience. While pointing out the admirable similarities between block play and Minecraft (each of which provides opportunities for creative problem solving. Cover illustration by Christoph Niemann Readers respond to the 4. Trump himself gave them a clue concerning the real problem: The political class. ON Instead. Jeff Sharlet’s article is unfair to the writings of Norman Vincent Peale and his book ‘‘The Power of Positive Thinking. the only thing more boring and baffling than Minecraft is listening to your kid talk about Minecraft. R.’’ Donald Trump. and yes. N. contemporary and useful. applied to pipelines that transport oil and natural gas. Trump’s followers ignore the implications.’’ It merely gives suggestions on how you can make an unpredictable and often deeply painful life on earth more successful.’’ Sharlet implies that Peale’s book deals in the kind of anger. better than Trump. 18 THE STORY. Leading a meaningful life and benefiting society require more than a generation of adept coders. no self-indulgent pronouncements of personal power. It is worth rereading. 2845. which will help set my daughter and son up for successful futures! Right! Yes! I’m going to go with that from now on. bitterness and financial and personal entitlement that the writer believes characterizes Trump’s campaign. I wish the article presented a more balanced perspective. the Bronx Highly influenced by Norman Vincent Peale’s 1952 best seller. texture. Their sense of powerlessness is palpable. There are no shallow guarantees in it. yes. now it’s an awful. considering the depth of my loathing — my attitude toward ‘‘Minecrack. Technology has its place. However. nor did a semieducational online social.

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a Republican who supports the bill. Kylie Jenner. In 2009.’’ thereby joining a growing chorus of people who seem to have mixed up their Davids and Goliaths. ¶ A few days later. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . police chief refused to attend a community meeting on the one-year anniversary of the death of Walter Scott because of what he called the ‘‘bullying tactics’’ of its (black) members at previous meetings. S. In response.. the blogger Heather Armstrong tweeted that no one should buy a Maytag washer because of what she called the 5..16 21 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. among other things. a (white) North Charleston. Springsteen released a statement saying he wanted to ‘‘show solidarity’’ with those waging a ‘‘fight against prejudice and bigotry’’ against trans people.C.C. Last September. claimed that she was being cyberbullied by commenters on social media. told The Hollywood Reporter that Springsteen’s boycott was ‘‘a bully tactic. N.First Words Incredibly powerful people still love to claim they’ve been bullied.1. Bruce Springsteen canceled a concert in Greensboro. What does it mean for the rest of us if even a ‘bully’ can be pushed around? By Heather Havrilesky Picked On Last month. a reality star worth millions. United States Representative Mark Walker. to protest a new state law that. requires people to use the bathrooms of the biological sex reflected on their birth certificates.

all the better to set up that final. who reported from the scene that day and studied the event for the next 10 years. had many friends. killed 13 people and then themselves.16 This new order has a way of making us feel more powerful than ever and more powerless than ever in rapid succession. it also loses much of its power. especially as a relatively laughable bully archetype has been supplanted by the specter of mass murder and suicide. the lead perpetrator. alienated geeks seeking their revenge against popular jocks who’d tormented them for years. In the 16th century. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . As a result. meaning ‘‘harasser of the weak. Increasingly. feeling diminished (by commenters) or merely feeling exposed to potential profit losses. But as the word spreads beyond its original childhood boundaries. feeling unfairly criticized (by a professional critic). two seniors at Columbine High School in Littleton. and from there into a term meaning ‘‘worthy’’ or ‘‘jolly. He was just a psychopath. For decades.’’ Dave Cullen. and onlookers on Twitter accused her of bullying Whirlpool. The roots of the word ‘‘bully’’ never foretold such a gloomy outcome. such offenses range from ‘‘being mean’’ and ‘‘hurting someone’s feelings’’ to ‘‘teasing. an alternate usage.’’ The word evolved into a greeting for a male friend. triumphant scene in which the bully gets his comeuppance. when Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold.. 22 Illustration by Matt Dorfman 5. Harris. was popular with girls and was rarely bullied. with the advent of social media came the rise of ‘‘cyberbullying. Picture Bluto. with even its insults and injuries mined for laughs. or ‘‘brother. and Harris and Klebold had nothing to do with it. asserted that the trench-coat mafia was marginal. imperiling Olive Oyl time and again so our favorite sailor man could eat his spinach and save the day. an unpleasant but surmountable obstacle on the path to glory. It came to be acknowledged as a serious threat to the emotional and physical health of its victims. bullies were tough guys who picked on wimpy guys. ego injuries or points of view that run counter to your own. According to Cullen. And then. In the old days. a predictable. Colo. then blow up the entire school. ‘‘bully’’ was originally a term of endearment. Today this meaning is utterly dominant. Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. the company’s $19 billion parent corporation. According to my daughter. ‘‘feeling bullied’’ is used broadly by the powerful and the powerless alike to describe feeling insulted (by a peer).’’ and broeder. That dark scene foreshadowed the radical transformation of our view of bullying that came 11 years later. Picture the brute kicking sand in the face of the scrawny wimp in the Charles Atlas comic-book ads. A fundamental misunderstanding of the event remains in place 17 years later. bullying has long been a rich source of comedy. The media painted a dramatic portrait of bullying culture gone wild at the high school.1. with an imagined ‘‘trench coat mafia’’ of angry.First Words company’s inadequate response to her broken appliance. The 1989 cult hit ‘‘Heathers’’ took this final act of vengeance to an extreme: A merciless group of high-school girls harasses their peers until the characters played by Winona Ryder and Christian Slater murder them one by one. inspiring our hero to pump up his muscles and seek revenge. arising from the Dutch word boel. but this misreading nonetheless helped to incite a seismic — but necessary — shift in the common wisdom on bullying.’’ harassment that felt at once private and public.’’ This positive connotation lived on into 19th-century congratulatory slang — ‘‘Bully for you!’’ — but back in the mid-17th century. Popeye’s hulking nemesis.’’ The linguistic creep evident here has often struck me as troubling. But in the 2009 book ‘‘Columbine. ephemeral yet deeply personal. My 9-year-old daughter is currently serving as an antibullying ‘‘ambassador’’ at her school. campaigns and organizations make up a fundamental piece of education culture. and antibullying slogans. Western culture treated bullying as an expected rite of passage that tested a man’s mettle.’’ had already caught on. one of a gaggle of fourth-graders charged with (gently) confronting their peers on any and all bullying behavior. archetypal clash that inevitably led to a heroic outcome. armed with pipe bombs and a small arsenal of firearms. or ‘‘lover.

our antagonists seem to toggle between invincible. Locating the real bully means deciding who has more power: Banks or government? Celebrities or their huge fandoms? Corporations or customers? Teachers or parents? Sovereign nations or terrorist organizations? A staff blogger or a public figure she covers? With so many voices crying out. he described a recurring sense that. everyone has power that they didn’t have just a few years ago. thanks to the distribution of technologies across the populace. The presidential campaign has evolved into an all-against-all dog pile. Time magazine put the word next to Trump’s face on its cover. Trump. superpowered bullies who could easily crush us and laughably archaic relics of the past. But isn’t that the nature of bullies. This twisted perspective has a certain logic in a digital world where. Jeb. This new order has a way of making us feel more powerful than ever and more powerless than ever in rapid succession.C. and threatens to disrupt the July convention if he doesn’t win the nomination. he would be destroyed forever. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . Even history’s traditional bullies are feeling bullied these days. Likewise. I know. no wonder so many of us can’t seem to tell if we’re the bullied or the bullies. These days we tend to see power less as the rightful inheritance of the world’s winners (us!) and more as the end product of a disgraceful cycle of opportunists oppressing their way to the top of the human heap. Everyone from Jeb Bush to Ted Cruz to Hillary Clinton has called Donald Trump a bully. Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. memorably jeered at Bush in true bully style in a December debate: ‘‘Oh.’s ‘‘corrupt’’ nominating rules. Real tough. you’re a tough guy. who in ‘‘The Art of the Deal’’ boasts about giving his second-grade music teacher a black eye. to see bullying wherever they turn? The only person who ever called me a bully was an ex-boyfriend who was bigger and stronger than I was and lost his temper when things didn’t go his way.N. In couples therapy. if he allowed me to speak. in which bullies claim that they are powerless to represent themselves against this new bullying mob that bullies bullies.’’ Yet Trump now casts himself as the victim of the R.This frequent misapplication of the term reflects a larger sea change in the way we view our social positions on an emotional level.

This became the foundation   . But it was in the 1970s that two Israeli psychologists.” says John Coates. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. Body and Mind. began studying an approach to decision making based on human behavior.PA I D F O R A N D P O S T E D B Y OPPENHEIMERFUNDS GOING BELOW THE SURFACE Can C an B Biometrics iome Improve Decision on n Making? “It turns out that what’s really driving our performance is taking place below the level of consciousness. a Wall Street traderturned-neuroscientist and author of “The Hour Between Dog and Wolf: How Risk Taking Transforms Us.” Since before the time of Plato. humans have been wondering what it is exactly that compels us to make the choices we make.

neuroscientists and others are making new    ways we make decisions and When confronted with certain types of     THE FRONTAL LOBE Becomes active when making rational decisions based on logic. THE LIMBIC REGION Influences decisions based on emotion or instinct. produced with Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.    behavioral economics. Building on that work. psychologists. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

we can have greater insight into how our bodies react to certain choices and get a better sense of how we’re feeling below the surface. But now with the help of biosensing technology.  .com/oppenheimerfunds An analytical approach based on examining the pros and cons of each potential course of action. Potentially disastrous if misinformed. but our own bodies as well. “The gut ut iiss jjust ust part of a body-brain system yst that’s encoding emotion and      out what to do. The implications could be tremendous for investors: an additional source of data that reveals not only how the market is behaving.” gut. BUT OUR OWN BODIES AS WELL. neuroeconomist at the California Institute nstitute o off Technology.PA I D F O R A N D P O S T E D B Y OPPENHEIMERFUNDS                            what ha at ssome ome m might ight ssimply imply ccall all our “gut. Time consuming.” Data-driven and thorough. Find out more about how to improve decision making at: nytimes. HEURISTICS Rules of thumb based on prior experiences and intuition.” ssays ays C Colin olin oeconomist Camerer.” DECISION ANALYSIS “There are e cclearly learly b biological iological processes. THE IMPLICATIONS COULD BE TREMENDOUS FOR INVESTORS: AN ADDITIONAL SOURCE OF DATA THAT REVEALS NOT ONLY HOW THE MARKET IS BEHAVING.

or both. is scarce.    .    time.

HORMONES The stress response hormones testosterone    .       make a less than optimal choice. We may make better choices within a social context thanks to emotions.  NEUROECONOMICS  rational prefrontal cortex. as well as the more emotional limbic region of the brain.



         enough to make bold decisions with high rewards. Cortisol can make us cagey and too  .


   Photography by Martin Klimas. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . For Lee. the story of his orphaned Polaroids took a surprising turn. Lee was raised in Germany by Korean parents. In his 30s. relaxing in the yard. To make sense of his personal loss. the social network’s facial-recognition technology immediately began to match them with real people. that project led to a book. Most of them depicted African-Americans: people wearing stylish clothes.’’ Found photographs have long been important to artists like Lee. she refused to tell her son more about him. he sent a message to one individual who was tagged Next Week: On Sports by Jay Caspian Kang Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. But because her relationship with that man. Photos taken by amateurs can sometimes acquire new value on account of their uniqueness. Intrigued and wary. I became friends with Lee around the time he began making pictures of black fathers and their children in the Bronx and elsewhere. his mother told him that the man who raised him was not his biological father. and to explore his connectedness to black America. ‘‘Father Figure. All the photographs had somehow been separated from their original owners and had become what Lee calls ‘‘orphaned Polaroids. In Lee’s case. The absence of this information is bittersweet: We are bewildered. their age or simply the knowledge that they were once meaningful to a stranger.’’ for which I wrote a preface.’’ Who took these photos? Who do they depict? The basic contextual details we would usually expect from snapshots are missing here. celebrating birthdays. at garage sales or on eBay. had been fleeting. they can evoke a collector’s sensibility or tell us something about a historical period in a way professional photographs might not. As part of a group. A few depicted people in prison uniforms. taken between the 1970s and the 2000s. Lee began to collect the Polaroids — thousands of them — that ended up in ‘‘Fade Resistance.On Photography By Teju Cole Family photos are precious repositories of intimacy.16 Photograph by Jens Mortensen The photographs were Polaroids. changed Lee’s life. at once momentous and limited. Lee was not sure who was doing the tagging. collecting found photographs of African-Americans — a project he called ‘‘Fade Resistance’’ — had an additional and deeply personal meaning.1. When he uploaded some of them to Facebook. What happens when they are scattered or sold — and then found by a stranger? 26 5. who was black. Zun Lee bought them at flea markets. but we are also ferried over from imagery into imagination. he took up photography. This revelation. Later.

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in picture after picture. Opening page: The backs of found photos from the writer’s ‘‘Mrs. he might fly to Los Angeles and hand the photos over in person. I didn’t put my images of Mrs.) And yet. digitally scanned and put out in public. as something that is surveilled. ‘‘I completely understood. I. Teju Cole is a photographer. ‘No. Is this woman still alive? It’s possible. who cared about her. he got a message from the same man: a curt request that he take the pictures down. But there she was. We have color pictures now. I bought a cache of photographs from a thrift store in Brooklyn. I am aware that I am touching a photograph that Mrs. ‘‘This man was saying. toothy smile and cheeks that rose high on her face. Lee was disappointed but sympathetic. I also felt a little guilty: ‘‘my’’ images of Mrs.’’ Lee told me. The man was telling me. from as far back as the late 1930s until at least 1980. only their custodian. ‘‘Open City’’ and ‘‘Every Day Is for the Thief. A few of these photos had inscriptions. and the husband (?) is no longer there. Here she is abroad. and pictures of blurred landscapes. X also touched. in part because I didn’t want anyone to recognize her. how they can wind up being hostile toward communities of color. I was also happy to have the pictures. in pencil or pen. X online.On Photography in several of the pictures. The photos Zun Lee collected. her son (?). Lee offered. Black people in particular. The man said no. you’re not welcome. May 1939. against the historical Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Twenty-two of the pictures I bought that day featured the same woman at different stages in her life. X’’ collection. ‘‘Rock of Gibralter [sic] — Margaret. too. get the hell out of our lives.’’ He teaches at Bard College. essayist and the author of two works of fiction. Here she is in 1939 in her bathing suit. here she is with her husband (?). After all. he did not consider himself the owner of the photos.’’ I felt I was somehow rescuing these pictures from the anonymity of the pile. collect found photographs. Kate & myself. with Westerners in military uniforms.1. I looked at each of the photographs through a mesh of question marks. have had a different life from the photos in my collection. There were pictures of babies. 35 or so pictures that I selected out of a pile of hundreds. returning to the pictures. the better to know whom to ask for donations. I named the woman Mrs. Perhaps. several weeks later. He said he’d already been thinking about how databases and tags are not neutral. but there are friends (?) and relatives (?). but I doubt it. Then she’s noticeably older. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . this is not art. A few years ago. X’s absolutely distinctive smile. She was sometimes alone and sometimes with family. Shops match your face to a database so that they can greet you by name — or identify you as a potential shoplifter. but my collection is in the dozens.’’ People have a right to be skeptical about the encounter between the analog experience of life and the futuristic algorithms that often prioritize what is possible over what it desirable. From time to time. There was a photo of a group of well-dressed Asians in a restaurant. The black paper suggests that it was pasted into an album and then ripped out. on the back or along the white border on the front. He wrote back to the man who was tagged in some of them and suggested meeting.’ And I understood it. Already there are reports of churches scanning worshipers’ faces to determine who attends regularly. not willing participants. They should be in the keeping of people who knew this woman. despite my doubts.’’ ‘‘Lake Huntington. sustained by Mrs. (Imagine your own most precious family photos permanently in the hands of a complete stranger. I buy not with any idea that I might show them to anyone. She was dark-haired (was she Italian?) and had an unmistakable. X? I had the sense that my possession of these pictures was not their ideal posterity. but because I like the way certain pictures look.16 Above: The back of a found photo of a seated woman. not in the thousands.’ The black body is used as a commodity. Then. X. There was no response. ‘We are 28 Photograph by Jens Mortensen 5.

backdrop of surveillance and state hostility and corporate disregard, have a right
to doubt these technologies. There was a
recent report of Google’s photo app automatically tagging a photo of two black
people as ‘‘gorillas’’ — another instance of
machines replicating the nastier prejudices of their human teachers.
Lee’s pleasure in the Polaroids he
bought was also shadowed by questions:
Why had so many families lost their things
to secondhand dealers and estate sales?
Behind these photos of bell-bottoms,
Afros, birthday parties and interiors rich
with period detail lay the invisible stories
of evictions, dispossessions or separations.
The Polaroids were evidence of joy, but the
fate of the photographs themselves was
unhappy. Lee acceded to his interlocutor’s
request and took the tagged photos down.
In my collection, there is a picture
from the late 19th or early 20th century,
an image I think about as much as the
entire series of Mrs. X pictures. This
seated woman wears a long dark skirt,
dark stockings and polished dark shoes.
Her hair is a neatly parted mass of black,
almost an Afro. She wears a pale jacket
and is seated outside, next to a door and
a brick wall. She looks off to her right.
Below, not on the white border of the
photograph but directly on the photograph itself, someone has written, in ink,
the single word ‘‘nigger.’’
I doubt that the person responsible for
this vandalism knew this woman personally. Perhaps it was written decades later.
The word, after all, has been with us a long
time, as has the spitefulness with which
it is deployed. But whenever the defacement occurred, I feel it has something in
common with both a contemporary form
of aggression and a very old one. Black
Americans, for most of their time in this
country, were named, traded and collected against their will. They were branded
— physically tagged — both to hurt and to
control them. The woman in my photograph has been tagged, too, semantically.
The written slur is like a brand.
Lee sent me a screen shot of his Facebook page as it looked while he was
uploading a batch of Polaroids. Several
of the images are of men in prison. There
are white rectangles framing the faces,
and there is an instruction above each
picture: ‘‘Click Anywhere to Tag.’’ That
mild directive — an automated instruction from Facebook — suddenly seems

Lee’s pleasure
in the Polaroids
he bought was
also shadowed
by questions:
Why had so
many families
lost their things
to secondhand
dealers and
estate sales?

sinister. What if these people don’t wish
to be tagged? What are their rights? These
doubts have led Lee to focus more on an
offline display of these images. I faced the
more immediate conundrum of illustrating this column and decided not to show
the faces of the people in my collection.
American history has long struggled to
believe the joys and intimacies of black
American life. Social media, fortunately,
makes those human realities visible to a

much larger swath of the population than
ever before. But there’s also a paradox: To
make intimacy public is often to render
it less intimate. For all of us, but especially for those in communities of color,
being digitally tracked does not solve
the conundrums of inequality. Whatever
else the machines learn, they’ll have to
learn about our sense of privacy too, the
human necessity of leaving some things
untagged and undeclared.

Poem Selected by Matthew Zapruder

Poets have always written odes of praise not to just what is lofty but also to the
ordinary things that surround us, in order to see what such deep attention can reveal.
This ode is a metaphor, where flute becomes man, and vice versa, in ongoing,
illuminating, mysterious conversation.

ode to the flute
By Ross Gay

A man sings
by opening his
mouth a man
sings by opening
his lungs by
turning himself into air
a flute can
be made of a man
nothing is explained
a flute lays
on its side
and prays a wind
might enter it
and make of it
at least
a small final song

Matthew Zapruder is the author of four collections of poetry, most recently ‘‘Sun Bear.’’ He teaches at Saint
Mary’s College of California and is editor at large at Wave Books. Ross Gay is the author of three poetry
collections, most recently ‘‘Catalog of Unabashed Gratitude,’’ published by the University of Pittsburgh Press last
year. It was the winner of the 2015 National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry.

Illustration by R. O. Blechman


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Letter of Recommendation

‘The Rabbit Who Wants to Fall Asleep’
By Mark O’Connell

Putting our 3-year-old son to bed isn’t a
task my wife and I undertake lightly. On a
typical night, there will be actual physical
struggles and a great deal of bitter haggling over the particulars — over whether
it will be she or I who keeps vigil as he
bravely contends against his own fatigue,
over how many stories will be read to him
and which ones. There will also, typically, be a series of increasingly hostile
demands for glasses of water, and at least
one trip to the toilet that will eventually be exposed as a cynical diversionary

tactic. One night, his claim that he needed
to go was revealed as spurious, and I let
him know that I was onto his hustle. ‘‘I’m
not a fool,’’ I said.
‘‘You are a fool, Dada,’’ he countered
smoothly, staring up at me from his
unused potty.
In recent weeks, though, these nightly torments have been relieved by a
book called ‘‘The Rabbit Who Wants
to Fall Asleep’’ — a book whose powerfully soporific effects my son is helpless
to resist, and which as a result has had


Photograph by Kyoko Hamada


Carl-Johan Forssen
Ehrlin’s book makes
explicit the hypnotic
intentions most
bedtime stories and
lullabies keep hidden.

a transformative effect on the style and
substance of his bedtime routine.
I have noticed that stories aimed at his
demographic tend to operate as cultural
propaganda on behalf of unconsciousness. Your typical work of toddler-focused
fiction tends to converge on a climax in
which the protagonist (mischievous
child, curious animal, anthropomorphic
steam engine) succumbs to a pleasurable exhaustion after the adventures of
the preceding pages, and drifts off into
peaceful slumber. It’s a nicely suggestive

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Letter of Recommendation

trajectory, certainly, but this sort of subtlety has no real purchase, at least not on
my son. The beautiful, if slightly sinister,
thing about ‘‘The Rabbit Who Wants to
Fall Asleep’’ is that it functions less as
cultural propaganda than as authoritarian
diktat. Its explicit aim is to bring about in
your child — through the sedative effects
of repetition, through extreme dullness,
through strategically staged yawns — a
state of narrative-induced anesthesia.
The book is the work of a Swedish
writer named Carl-Johan Forssen Ehrlin,
whose author bio lists a miscellany of
modish occupations: behavioral scientist,
communications teacher, life coach, leadership trainer. In an ‘‘Instructions to the
Reader’’ section, he tells us that passages
in bold text should be emphasized, while
italicized passages should be read in a particularly slow and calm voice. Used injudiciously, he writes, the book ‘‘may cause
drowsiness or an unintended catnap,’’ and
we are further cautioned never to read it
aloud ‘‘close to someone driving any type
of vehicle or engaged in any other activity
that requires wakefulness.’’ (This does seem
a little alarmist, though I wouldn’t necessarily want to test it out on the open road.)
The narrative proper concerns a young
rabbit called Roger — a name that can, we
are advised, ‘‘be read as Rooo geeer with
two yawns’’ — who is having great difficulty in getting to sleep. To alleviate this
situation, his mother takes him on a voyage to the other side of the meadow, where
there lives a kindly wizard named Uncle
Yawn, who specializes in helping rabbits
and children get to sleep using spells and
magic powders. Along the way, there are
encounters with somnolence-themed
animals (Sleepy Snail, Heavy-Eyed Owl)
whose pulverizingly dull soliloquies on the
topic of tiredness serve to prepare Roger,
and thus your child, for the final somniferous encounter with Uncle Yawn.
At the wizard’s house, we hear more
discussion on such diverse topics as
sleepiness, going to sleep and being
asleep, before you yourself are eventually
directed, in one of the book’s frequent
square-bracketed interpolations, to ‘‘symbolically sprinkle the invisible sleeping
powder over and around the child.’’ Now
‘‘more and more tired with every step,’’
Roger is escorted back across the meadow
by his mother, before arriving home once
more, there to finally and unambiguously
lose consciousness. At this point in the

Number of
appearances the
following words
make in the first
three pages
of ‘‘The Rabbit
Who Wants
to Fall Asleep’’:


Illustration by Radio


Fall: 19
Sleep: 36
Tired: 13
You: 36
Now: 23

plot, my son is invariably — beautifully,
blessedly — one step ahead of the rabbit.
Over successive nights, the story has
a cumulatively calming effect; its repetitive prose, at times weirdly reminiscent
of Gertrude Stein’s, is almost literally
enchanting, as is the manner in which the
sentences wander free of standard syntax,
and even meaning, as if the text itself were
drifting into a liminal territory between
consciousness and dreams. A typical passage describes our drowsy rabbit ‘‘lying
there thinking about falling asleep, now.
He was lying there thinking about all the
things that can make him tired now, all
those things that usually would make him
tired and sleepy, so tired and sleepy.’’
I won’t deny that my wife and I experienced some squeamishness, early on,
about effectively hypnotizing our son to

sleep, but we came quickly to the conclusion that the book merely makes explicit
— and renders effective — intentions
that were already implicit in many of the
stories and lullabies that had for so long
failed to get us anywhere. There was also,
I’ll admit, some initial unease surrounding
the figure of Uncle Yawn, who with his
‘‘powerful, magical and invisible sleeping
powder’’ seemed the sort of man you’d
never take your child across a meadow to
visit in real life. But we realized that we
were projecting our adult fears and neuroses onto a blank cipher whose only real
work as a character was to act as an agent
of our own parental will. And I for one am
at peace with this. I can’t speak directly
for my son, but he seems to be at peace
with it, too. He is, at any rate, at time of
writing, asleep.

¬Tip By Malia Wollan

to do,’’ Alves says. Time the woman’s contractions; intense contractions at short
intervals signal impending birth. Wash
your hands and gather clean towels or
blankets. Maintain outward calm; distress
tends to spread between people. Don’t tell
the woman when to push or what to do.
Trust her instincts and impulses.
‘‘Let the process flow,’’ Alves says.
When the baby begins to emerge, do
not try to pull on the body or the umbilical cord. Do not push on the mother’s
abdomen. Position yourself with a blanket
to help catch the baby. Wipe or suction
its nose and mouth to ensure clear airways. To cut the umbilical cord, place two
clamps, or tie two strings, an inch apart,
a little more than an inch out from the
baby’s navel. Slice between the two with
sterilized scissors. If possible, place the
baby on the mother’s chest. Wait for the
mother to expel the placenta and monitor
her for bleeding. Get medical attention as
soon as possible.
Remember, birth is dramatic but ordinary. Worldwide, more than 250 women
give birth every minute. Airborne deliveries are rare, ill-advised and, Alves says, ‘‘not
medically recommended.’’ Of the 192,000
in-flight calls MedAire received last year,
just three cases resulted in in-flight babies.
(Twelve more cases involved women
going into labor, but those planes landed
before delivery.) ‘‘The sky is a suspended
city,’’ Alves says. ‘‘Anything that can happen in a city can happen in flight.’’

How to Deliver
a Baby

‘‘You don’t want the baby to fall on the
floor,’’ says Dr. Paulo Alves, a medical
director for MedAire, which provides 136
airlines with medical training, logistics
and a telephone service that connects
flight attendants all over the world to
emergency-room doctors in Phoenix. If
a woman goes into labor somewhere far
from a hospital — 37,000 feet above the
Pacific Ocean, say — ask if anyone in the
vicinity has medical training. If not, help
her into a comfortable place. On a plane,
that’s usually a reclining first-class seat
or the galley floor. Make sure blankets
support her body so that when the baby
arrives, it lands gently. ‘‘Babies are slippery
when they’re born,’’ Alves warns.
Don’t try any improvised exams or procedures. ‘‘Don’t do what you’re not trained

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no streetlights — and no light pollution.Voyages Twenty-five miles off the Normandy coast. 600 residents live on a few square miles with no automobiles. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . reinforcing it with concrete. an isthmus that connects Sark to Little Sark. 34 5.s worked on the path. German P. There isn’t much noise either.W.1.16 Photographs by Jon Tonks Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. That’s the Coupée. After World War II.O. besides the wind.

But I really wanted to go because Sark has a designation as a Dark Sky island. the island is known for its stargazing. as well as some horses (for transportation). Clockwise from top left: This was a view from the boat ride between the British port Poole and Guernsey. the island next door. It took three hours to get to Guernsey and then another hour to get to Sark.Photographer: Jon Tonks Home: Bath. I think it’s purposefully drilled through as a viewpoint. There are also no cars. no modern roads. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . horses and tractors on the island. And I wanted my images to convey a sense of that. It’s hard to convey the silence. You can see Guernsey in the distance. and I rarely take self-referential photographs. I could see that eventually those cliffs would collapse and disappear. I stood near the ferry archway looking back at the building. I don’t know if anyone actually uses the shower — maybe fishermen? 35 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. When I left the house in the middle of the night. It’s almost stopped in Destination: Sark About Sark: One of the Channel Islands. My shadow is in the picture. all I heard was a whistle of the wind. England One of my mates who loves Enya told me about Sark — Enya wrote a whole album about the island. so there’s very little light pollution. even in this place that doesn’t change — that there is a fragile nature to it all. You’re not entirely cut off from the world — there are bikes. But I was trying to think of this journey. That’s a shower block. This is known as the Window in the Rock. and it felt as if I needed to be part of the narrative. time. Sark is home to about 600 people. no streetlights. it was so bloody dark. The sky is just endless there. I had this feeling of extreme insignificance. I stood on a cliff edge. At night. It’s as if I didn’t realize what real silence was until I was on Sark. Thanks to voluntary light restrictions accepted by residents and businesses.

But once 36 5.1. which is exactly what it looks like from the outside. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . We saw the colored bands of Jupiter’s atmosphere and its moons. I wanted to see the island’s observatory at night. Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Photograph by Jon Tonks Star Bright: More photographs are at www. a large telescope is revealed. It’s known locally as the shed.16 the roof has been rolled back.nytimes.Voyages The orange of the sky is all light coming from

com/us/premium-economy Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . tap for a movie on the 12" touchscreen and start enjoying your trip even more. LH. too — by doubling your bag allowance. an amenities kit and a bottle of water. More than happy. We’ve made more room for your luggage. So take a sip of your complimentary welcome drink.More space. The new Premium Economy Class: more than just more legroom The new Premium Economy Class is designed for more you-room: wider seats. More service. two armrests.

It turns out that the company funding the grant is partnered with an international agricultural giant. smart and We have several large projects that we could complete with these funds.’’ If someone was having unsafe sex. medical authorities made it plain that a negative result was consistent with a person’s having been infected but not yet ‘‘seroconverted. We then added our total scores. positive. I had dinner with Dean and told him the Colin/Bill story. Was it my fault? Dave. In emergencies. medical privacy is an important value. 620 Eighth Avenue. but I mentioned that my friend Dean was coming to town and that they worked in related fields. The primary responsibility for avoiding sexually transmitted diseases lies with the people having sex. Colin had died by the time Dean was visiting New York. stopped.16 More than 30 years ago. I should be allowed to claim that title. (The awards totaled nearly $200. Maybe Bill acted blamelessly. The city was among several that applied for grants for gardens and green spaces. are we condoning those practices? If we refuse. You can guess where this is going. And it has nothing to do with my discomfort with your child’s racism and tiny. That’s why it has been important to promulgate safe sex as a practice — a habit. The New York Times Magazine. too. positive. Is it wrong to accept these funds? If we do. There is no proportional point allocation nor superpoints he can hope to court. it might not have been a great idea to reveal what you knew about Colin and Bill. But you’re talking about a situation in which there were easily available steps your visiting friend could have taken to protect himself.) We won one of the four awards! I excitedly shared the news with my garden members. 733-654. he won the second and I took the third. didn’t talk.I. ———— I hate to rule against a child. In a recent three-game match. and our friendship.s. 10018. or send mail to The Ethicist. I couldn’t. of course. Monsanto.’’ you could have reinforced the importance of safe sex in this epicenter of the disease. The impact on our garden and the community would be significant. I’ve said that you’re not morally responsible for what happened to your two friends Illustration by Tomi Um Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Location Withheld No. Make it a default. people shouldn’t rely on third parties to inform them of a partner’s status. with a visitor who was ‘‘not a New Yorker. New York. Years passed. it was known that AIDS was caused by a virus. Dean looked at me. I grant. But a number of gardeners argued that we should refuse the funds. Still. Second. They have a right to be told directly by their partners. They talked. Sex and rationality are. each game of Yahtzee is a winner-takeall contest.1. I had two friends. Dean had no grounds to infer that he wasn’t. Colin didn’t tell Bill that he was H.V. I contend that by winning two out of three games. it may be necessary to reveal a person’s health status to protect others. when Bill became positive.’’ who was my first love. Colin ‘‘discovered’’ he was. Bill died. N.) 38 5. herbicides and other practices that are perceived by some members as contrary to the values of our small garden. not the steadiest of companions. and he came out on top. but Yahtzee. He then declared himself the winner.) If Bill failed to mention that he was H. One of them.’’ was coming to New York City for a job interview. which had cooled for other reasons by this time. dated briefly. One baleful stare doesn’t settle the matter. ‘‘Bill. Illustration by Kyle Hilton Should I Have Told My Friend His Date Was H. In this brokered contest. Speak only good of the dead.Y. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . should we do it quietly or take Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman Mark writes: My 11-year-old son and I enjoy playing Yahtzee. while duties of confidentiality are less demanding when the person you’re talking about is dead.I. broke up. And if Bill falsely claimed to be negative? Even in the early years of testing. It has limited applicability. Dean’s reaction made it clear that he hadn’t known Bill’s status.’’ was the last lover of a man named ‘‘Colin. they went to Lincoln Center. tiny hands. pesticides. And in any case.V. I won the first game. By the time you’re talking about. My father was fond of the Latin proverb De mortuis nil nisi bonum.The Ethicist By Kwame Anthony Appiah To submit a query: Send an email to ethicist@nytimes . well known for its use of G. I name the winner Dad. that it could be sexually and that you were right to have respected Bill’s medical privacy. he didn’t know anyone in the city and was planning on being there for a few days near Christmas. like politics.O. One night. Bill and Dean presumably were aware of all this. (Include a daytime phone number.I.V.M.000. and done so without revealing what you knew about Bill. I am the president of a community garden in a large city. especially after three close contests. I felt I was doing the ‘‘correct’’ thing in not revealing Bill’s status to Dean. it’s a decent enough rule of thumb. whatever a sex partner’s avowed status. is a machine designed to grind the idealistic dreams of youth to dust. and you don’t need to be especially rational to stick to it. He was 24. At the same time. but over the dinner table. Positive? transmitted and that the probability of sexual transmission could be significantly reduced by various ‘‘safe sex’’ practices. They had sex. The other man. Bill called me to ask if I wanted to go to Lincoln Center. (We can’t be sure that Dean got the virus from him. Though he played admirably. Dean died a year or so later of AIDS. ‘‘Dean. a negative test result wouldn’t have meant that he was uninfected. though. Nor did you have reason to think that Bill was going to endanger his date — or that his date was going to endanger himself. five years or so into a world shaped by AIDS.

CalBRE License #01527205. It’s a whole new San Francisco lifestyle. Please consult with a sales agent for The Harrison for the details of any particular unit. specifications. And just like that. designs. and are subject to This is not an offer to sell. plans. scheduling and delivery of the homes without prior notice. but is intended for information only. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .TH I S I S N OT YO U R FATH E R’S LU X U RY.721. Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. pricing. Exclusively represented by The Mark Company. info@theharrisonsf. But we think he’d approve. Room layouts and views will vary with each unit. Condominiums are for sale now and come in one to three bedrooms with panoramic vistas and stunning interiors by the inimitable Ken Fulk. The seller reserves the right to make modifications in materials. Because The Harrison is more than a | 415.7788 | theharrisonsf. luxury is interesting again.

The Roman emperor Vespasian is often mentioned in this connection. he held a gold coin near the boy’s nose and asked if it smelled. though I’m not against punishing companies that have behaved wrongly — in part for the forward-looking reason that it discourages further wrongdoing. is that money is not tainted by its origins.The Ethicist the opportunity to make a big show of our opposition to Monsanto? Name Withheld Here’s another Latin adage: Pecunia non olet —money doesn’t stink. When the boy conceded that it didn’t. and not taking someone’s money is an odd form of punishment. however.’’ The adage leaves many people unpersuaded. Not taking someone’s money is an odd form of punishment. isn’t that part of gardening? Kwame Anthony Appiah teaches philosophy at N.Y. synthetic fertilizers and genetically modified crops? Rice cultivation emits as much as a hundred million tons of methane each year. He is the author of ‘‘Cosmopolitanism’’ and ‘‘The Honor Code: How Moral Revolutions Happen. will deprive you and your excellent cause of a benefit. Surely effective action toward a better future — one that will include small-scale agriculture — is more important than the satisfaction of having clean hands. I understand your concern about the symbolism of accepting funds from a business with values that are contrary to those of your association. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . I prefer these forward-looking arguments.’’ Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. should we one day consider genetically modified strains that would reduce emissions while increasing productivity? How such benefits net out against the potential environmental hazards of these practices is a complex empirical question. We need to be better stewards of our fragile environment. Vespasian said. you can try to repair the wrong or punish the guilty. If the money was made through an immoral process. but neither of those results is achieved by letting the money go to someone else who doesn’t know or doesn’t care how it was made. without making any difference to the corporation’s behavior. Spurning this gift. That’s a backward-looking impulse. rather than providing it. They regard money acquired by sketchy means as itself sketchy. The idea. But the situation is different when you’re accepting money. herbicides. well. you know its problems well.U. to be sure: You encourage companies to act ethically by making a pool of money available for the ones that do. because when his son Titus complained about his infamous urine tax. But could we keep feeding the earth’s population of seven billion if we simply eliminated pesticides. But feeding the hungry surely counts for something. ‘‘Yet it comes from urine. Yet have you satisfied yourself that practices you avoid in your garden are in fact morally objectionable in industrial agriculture? Conventional agriculture requires reform. of course. And if your hands get dirty. There are forward-looking reasons for socially responsible investing.

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on Columbia Street in Brooklyn.Eat By Sam Sifton The Best Sandwich Ever A hero shop’s gigantic fried-eggplant sandwich. sweet and spicy all at once. mozzarella and roast beef on an Italian hero. hot peppers and a slash of mayonnaise. sweet and spicy all at once. with 42 Photographs by Davide Luciano It is a beautiful torpedo of food — crunchy. Go. I know a guy who makes those as if he were building violins for Pinchas Zukerman. Dad’s turn.T.. Swiss. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . and — does a hamburger count? (It does not.16 Comment: nytimes. their answers change along with their tastes. I count in reverse order: that B. It’s a diversion to make long travel more bearable. You can find that sandwich at Defonte’s Sandwich Shop.’’ This is a game I play in the car with my children. as if reflecting.L. a Reuben. with pastrami. I always eat Food stylist: Maggie Ruggiero. yes. in order.T. It is huge and outrageously rich. more of that Russian.) 5. silken. If you consume it all at once. turkey with Swiss. on rye of course. Often I omit the roast beef from my order and tell myself I’ll eat only half. It is a beautiful torpedo of food — crunchy. The children rush to judgment.1. perhaps with avocado. But be careful. I pause before the No. ham and Brie with mustard on baguette. remade for the home. But of late: grilled cheese on white. silken. 1 slot. My most favorite sandwich is fried eggplant. sauerkraut. on thick country bread. please. We play it all the time. with tomato soup. the B. ‘‘Your Top 5 favorite sandwiches. and as is true for most of us. Prop stylist: Gozde Eker. it can be the sort of sandwich to lay out the afternoon in stages of grief. from a store in Maine near their uncle’s house. I enjoy giving this answer. coleslaw and Russian dressing on a kaiser roll. a meatball sub from a local Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. peanut butter and gochujang (the Korean hot-pepper paste) on sesame toast. as if we were characters in a Nick Hornby novel. near the exit to the Hugh Carey Tunnel that leads from Red Hook to the Battery in Manhattan.

Washington. GEICO is a registered service mark of Government Employees Insurance Company. The choice is yours.M. This winning combination has helped GEICO to become the 2nd-largest private passenger auto insurer in the nation.C. © 2016 GEICO Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. D. 2015. Customer satisfaction based on an independent study conducted by Alan Newman Research. coverages. and it’s simple. 24/7. payment plans and features are not available in all states or all GEICO companies. subsidiary. Some discounts. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . Why go with a company that offers just a low price when GEICO could save you hundreds and give you so much more? You could enjoy satisfying professional service. Make the smart choice. published April 2015. a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. GEICO is the second-largest private passenger auto insurer in the United States according to the 2014 A. Get your free quote from GEICO today. Best market share report.2nd-largest auto insurer 97% customer satisfaction 24/7 licensed agents Helping people since 1936 The other guy. 20076. from a company that’s made it their business to help people since 1936. Why enjoy just one cookie when there’s a whole stack in front of you? The same goes for car insurance.

Trim stem end from eggplants. gives it a slightly puffed crust. I use small Italian eggplants. collapsing its cell structure and reducing the amount of oil the eggplant picks up when it cooks. And while you can certainly make the roast beef yourself. Transfer fried eggplant to rack to drain. Working in batches. fold the sandwich together and serve. Arrange eggplant in a single layer on a baking sheet. Recently. whisk together eggs and grated Parmesan. after the cooked eggplant has been dipped in a wash of egg and Parmesan cheese. Remove skillet from heat. Layer the slices of eggplant onto the bread in equal portions. 44 Photograph by Davide Luciano for The New York Times 3. fry the eggplant. and you’ve got the best sandwich there is. It is still the best sandwich. The mayonnaise is my preference. which you can slice into rounds and apply as desired. To start. as well as fresh whole-milk mozzarella (though I’ve had good results even with the plastic-y stuff from the supermarket. form always follows function. (Vegetarians can avoid the roast beef. Return the skillet to the stove over medium-high heat until the oil is hot again. Let stand for approximately 10 to 15 minutes. cut into thin slices 8 ounces sliced cooked roast beef (optional) 1 cup hot cherry peppers. browned in spots. then spread each one with mayonnaise. form always follows function. They’re best at room temperature. while the top absorbs the acidity and fire of the peppers. followed by another of sliced mozzarella and another of roast beef. You can do this up to a day or two ahead of time. heat the oil over medium-high heat until it is shimmery. The rest of the sandwich is shopping: Italian hero rolls. rimmed sheet pan with paper towels. The eggplant protects the In sandwichmaking. follow your decision with a small stack of fried eggplant on the sandwich’s bottom. 5. In a large. Discard the wet paper towels. In sandwich making. the sort of meal that offers satisfaction without hurting anyone. re-engineering both the fried eggplant and the ratio of the ingredients to make it a human-size sandwich. a second. for a few hours on the countertop or for a few days in the fridge.Eat the whole thing and hate myself through my untouched dinner later in the day. dip drained eggplant into egg batter. I know some people hate it. salty and oily in the best possible way. lightly covered. You can leave the skins on. The Best Fried-Eggplant Sandwich Time: 1 hour 2 smallish Italian eggplants. or loaves of Italian bread. slice the eggplant lengthwise into 3⁄16-inch-thick slabs. you’ve already fried eggplant. I set out to make the thing at home. firm to the touch. as do some masters of the fried-eggplant game. though the eggplant is best at room temperature. In a large bowl. and stack on a plate. approximately 30 to 40 seconds per side. lightly golden and cooked through. or to taste. deep skillet. For today. just be sure to allow it to come to room temperature before assembling your meal). that delivers deliciousness at a lower cost to the body that consumes it. Assemble sandwiches. Covered. of the Frankies Spuntinos restaurants in Brooklyn and Manhattan. approximately 2 to 4 minutes per batch. Sprinkle both sides of eggplant with salt. Serves 4. it will keep in the refrigerator for a few days. bottom of the sandwich from the moisture of the cheese. 5.) Lastly. Fold the mass together. eight to 10 inches in length. sliced 1. you’ll need pickled Italian hot cherry peppers. and the planks will keep. Then I cut the eggplants into thin planks and salt them awhile. in a fit of ambition. (Some old recipes for Roman-style fried eggplant call for a dip in bread crumbs following the egg. and you will be good to go. It is still a colossal feed. roughly 1½ pounds total 2 tablespoons kosher salt 1 cup extra-virgin olive oil 4 large eggs 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese 4 hero rolls 2 to 3 tablespoons mayonnaise 8 ounces fresh mozzarella cheese. but I think this is overkill. Using a knife or a mandoline. Blot them well with paper towels to remove the liquid and the excess salt. The frying is serial: A first run through hot olive oil cooks the eggplant and lightly browns it. then fry in oil until puffed. 4. Line a large. shiny skins. Pat eggplant dry with paper towels. with dark. then top the whole with the cherry peppers. including the Franks Castronovo and Falcinelli. You can cook the eggplant in advance of assembling sandwiches. let’s not overcomplicate things. Cut the hero rolls open.1. So wherever you come down on the question of mayonnaise. then peel and discard skin.) Let the twicefried eggplant drain a little. not so much because they’re bitter but because the salt draws moisture from the flesh. 2. and top with equal portions of the mozzarella and the sliced roast beef. Transfer fried eggplant to rack to drain. Add slices of hot cherry peppers to taste. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . or you can peel them. Working in batches. at least.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. then place a wire rack on top. fry the eggplant slabs until just tender. and replace it in the sheet pan with more.

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I hadn’t quite perfected the fine art of hiding my cheap shoes. surrounded by loud music and singing and raucous people. Most bunny-chow joints don’t even supply you with cutlery. I cringed. if you’re an Indian who happens to fall in with the shiny crowd of country-clubbers and private-school soccer mums. with the mention of a traditional dish. I saw a gentleman fingers-deep into his crass bunny chow. Illustration by Melinda Josie Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. But. is to deny who you really are. Is this a gorgeous dish? Most definitely. while holding forth on serious subjects. there was one party I looked forward to immensely. The thought of spending an evening in her company. I had enough and loudly confessed to a group of academics and socialites what I was craving: bunny chow. how far you had evolved from your beginnings. Why would I seek the favor of people who thumb their noses at their very lineage? I imagined them hiding away old photographs of grannies in unironed saris or grandfathers in muddy fields. I blundered a bit. as well as with the high achievers of Indian descent. He didn’t see me at first. lest you face immediate sanctions. where I live. But its true incarnation is called bunny chow. Buying clothes at flea markets is best done in secret. Just mentioning it at my highclass party turned pouts into sneering guffaws. the descendants of sugar-cane cutters indentured to South Africa in the 1800s. And there. the politicians and anti-apartheid heroes. darling. I became a person to invite. And it is best eaten with your fingers. It was easy for me to walk away that night and head to one of the oldest bunny-chow places in town. Even so. There is no better taste than soft and yeasty white bread soaked through with thick curried gravy. Large white plates with minuscule towers of grilled organic vegetables drizzled with macerated herbs were works of art. At some point in the evening. nonwhites received their bunnies wrapped in newspaper at the back door. (The Indian diaspora of Durban is the largest in the world. Her novel. a cook started putting their daily curry into the bread. to be eaten fast and hot. but I remembered him from the party. But having arrived with little grasp of the rules. after some success as a writer. That’s when I began to feel that being invited to join the intelligentsia and literati of Durban was a curse rather than a boon. The name is strange. I had heard this before.) Now the tacit rule here. the look on his face was priceless. These elite partygoers said bunny chows were crass. The social scene is dominated by people. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . when they visited one another for cocktails. The upturned noses suggested that I had lost my place on the invitation lists for a long time to come. was enough to make me go out and buy a new dress. because those tiny trending packages of carbohydrate-free one-bites never quite managed to satisfy. I loved it. because I so admired the honored guest. Now my belly was full. I was truly happy. oh. joining in all the criticism about the meal he was now eating. not to mention terribly unhealthful because of all that bread. when I pondered the buffet.Lives Hunger Games Raising eyebrows in Durban. Durban has a contradictory quality about it that makes you feel as if you’ve just walked into someone’s extramarital affair. This substantial meal dates to the times of the Indian sugar-cane cutters. of Indian heritage. it doesn’t contain any rabbit but rather a quarter loaf of unsliced white bread. It turned out to be an evening of tottering around eating fashionable nibbles. Durban’s claim to fame is hot curry. the beautiful city on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. The legend goes that because they lacked decent meal breaks.’’ won an Minara Aziz Hassim Literary Award. a spicier. Oh. It seemed I had arrived. where it is said that in apartheid times. They simply point you in the general direction of a water tap. South Africa 46 5. I spent most of my partygoing ravenously hungry. like me. But a few years ago. though. but I bemoaned my lingering hunger. While washing all that gravy off my fingers. the serious journalists and entertainers. Culinary tastes now said so much about you: how fashionable you were. I was never among the who’s-who in Durban. I suffered. hollowed out and filled to bursting with steaming curried beans or spicy mutton.16 Dala is a therapist who has worked with autistic children. expensive tweed sleeves rolled up high. Is this fashionable fare? Most definitely not. It was also longlisted for the Etisalat Prize and the Sunday Times Literary Award (South Africa). By ZP Dala Name: ZP Dala Age: 41 Location: Durban. make no mistake: the parties with the intellectual set. punchier version of the North Indian original. South Africa. a dive of a hotel. ‘‘What About Meera. out of the corner of my eye.1. The conversation was great. One guest began to expound on how South African Indians need to remove themselves from the cane-field mentality.

S. Cuba’s largest and most diverse wilderness. Return with a new appreciation of this enigmatic nation. ONBOARD EXPERTS Anthony DePalma.-Cuba relations. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . • Visit Gran Parque Natural Montemar. Quoted tour prices are per person. Book Now 855-698-6366 Learn more at nytimes. None are quite as intimate as meeting the locals on a People-to-People cultural tour as you cruise from iconic Havana to culturally diverse Santiago de Cuba aboard the 288-foot sailing yacht Le Ponant. Exclusive to Times Journeys guests.Travel with Cuba: History. 2017 Vessel PONANT’s Le Ponant Cuba’s new relationship with the United States has opened multiple avenues for exploring its complex history and culture.475 Sailing & Cruises Itinerary 8 days Departing March 17. focusing most of his attention toward Mexico and Cuba.” about U. for an exclusive and one-of-a-kind experience. and a Unesco Biosphere Reserve. His book “The Man Who Invented Fidel. with resident interactions along the or you can call 855-NYT-9959 and request a copy be sent to you. double occupancy except where indicated and subject to availability. All terms and conditions can be found at nytimes. Culture and Contemporary Life EXCLUSIVE CHARTER From $ Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. led by Office of the City Historian representatives. and included in the package price: • Cruise on the first Times Journeys chartered ship. exclusively chartered for Times Journeys travelers. Former Times Foreign Correspondent Anthony DePalma spent 22 years as a reporter and foreign correspondent for The New York Times. Another expert will be announced. was published in 2006. Judy Perl Cruises LLC CST# 2122227-40. • Take a walking tour of Trinidad. Times Journey’s trips to Cuba are permitted by a special People-to-People license from the Department of Treasury’s Foreign Asset Control.

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . is part of the Hubbard Go to Work ™ collection.482. shown here. 844.4800 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.PERFORMANCE SHOE OR DRESS SHOE? The Un-Sneaker ™ goes to work. Why compromise? Tipping Point. You heard it here first — now you can have the extreme comfort of a performance shoe with the extreme style of a dress shoe.

how possible it still is to achieve the kind of happy stability that the phrase has connoted for decades. in the early part of the 21st. a flight from the fixed binary of high and low into something more fluid and negotiable. investigating the cause of its disappearance in locales that range from a recovering former factory town to fictional sitcom worlds to the well-appointed cabin of Air Force One. in Daniel Webster’s dictionary. In this special issue.The Middle Class THE MONEY ISSUE When the middle class emerged into the American consciousness during the first decades after the Revolution. whom it should encompass. But today. those middling sorts had become the economic engine and political fulcrum of American life. Bledstein argues. in an economy relentlessly pushing workers and families into winning and losing camps.’’ That second word. was crucial — ‘‘sorts’’ representing a decisive departure from the Old World precision of social rank. By the 20th century. as the ‘‘middling sorts. it has become difficult to say what the ‘‘middle class’’ even is: what it means. we go in search of America’s missing middle class. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . the historian Burton J. The New York Times Magazine 49 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. its members were referred to.

she instead said this: ‘‘Everyday Americans need a champion — and I want to be that champion. the campaign inadvertently revealed just how ill equipped American politics is for a post-middle-class nation — how deeply the way the country speaks of itself is tied up The End of the Middle-class aspirations have shaped the country’s politics for decades. nearly half of those polled identified themselves as either working or lower class. in the American self-definition. In 2011. perhaps because of its undeniably leaden ring. ‘‘Everyday Americans’’ was an attempt to acknowledge that the gap between these two ideas has widened to the point that ignoring it seems out of touch.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. that means: whether it defines a concrete socioeconomic identity — a country where most people are neither very rich nor very poor — or an aspiration. But Clinton’s use of ‘‘everyday Americans’’ proved to be short-lived. a pregnant young black woman and her husband unpacking boxes in a sun-dappled suburban living room. Yet in its reversal. a Gallup poll found that the percentage of respondents who identified as middle class or upper middle class dropped 12 percent since the 2008 financial crisis. Hillary Clinton formally announced her run for the presidency by posting a two-minute video on YouTube.THE MONEY By Charles Homans Illustrations by Thomas Danthony On April 12 last year. the video showed a montage of a dozen or so Clinton supporters: a middle-aged white woman tending to her garden. two Hispanic brothers starting a business. has thought a great deal about issues of class. sharply.’’ The whole episode revealed a fundamental tension underlying this year’s anomalous presidential contest. ‘‘because it’s important to know what kind of conventional assumptions about the middle class hold up and which don’t. a burly. People felt very strongly that the foundations — what they had believed they would achieve by working hard. Last spring.’’ American politicians genuflect toward the middle class so reflexively that failing to do so in a speech or a statement about the economy seems almost heretical — which it turned out was the most 50 remarkable thing about Clinton’s video. America’s self-image as a middle-class nation is so deeply ingrained in the country’s politics that we don’t often stop to think what. when he proclaimed himself a ‘‘warrior for the middle class. Denver. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . the notion that if you ‘‘work hard and play by the rules. It was a carefully constructed portrait of the American middle class. doing things right — were not the same as they had been before. Clinton was nowhere to be seen.’’ as Clinton put it the first time she ran for president. bullet-headed white man surveying an American-flag-draped warehouse. Clinton’s chief strategist and Obama’s lead pollster. precisely. Ohio. or the parts of it that tend to vote Democratic — like the patchwork of Carhartt and Ann Taylor that Barack Obama gathered around himself for a speech in Cincinnati early in the 2012 campaign. show that something has shifted. What happens when Americans stop believing in them? I 5.’’ he told me recently. When the candidate materialized. There’s no question that there was a massive recalibration after the financial crash. and Orlando. Fla. For the first minute and a half. Amy Chozick of The New York Times wrote that the campaign planned to ‘‘shy away from the characterization ‘middle class’ — because. too. a bit too close to Walmart’s ‘‘Everyday Low Prices. you’re entitled to at least a modest prosperity. her advisers say. ‘‘It’s been valuable.’’ Public-opinion surveys. (Has anyone but Sly Stone ever self-identified as ‘‘everyday’’?) By September. maybe. Clinton had dropped the phrase entirely.1. Campaign officials conceded to The Times that it was confusing and.’ ’’ Joel Benenson. Instead. middle-aged swing voters in the suburbs of Columbus. he embarked on an extensive project in which researchers conducted repeated interviews with about 100 middle-income.’’ Her omission of ‘‘middle class’’ was intentional. the term no longer connotes a stable life — and instead use the term ‘everyday Americans.

and voters making less than $50. In mostly white New Hampshire.’’ he wrote in The Washington Examiner. the margins were narrower but still notable: Sanders won white voters without a college degree by 15 percentage points.ISSUE American Daydream Y with these aspirations. Byron York. the voters who have propelled the candidacy of Bernie Sanders. Sanders beat Clinton among voters making less than $50.000 by 3 percentage points. crisscrossed the state asking party grandees: ‘‘Do you know anyone who supports Donald Trump?’’ ‘‘In more cases than not. with some tailoring. whose suburban voters are one of the most-watched barometers in American politics. this description also fits.000 a year. his supporters were. During Donald Trump’s ascent in the polls last fall. Trump’s voters seemed to be mostly highschool-educated white men. even as more and more of its citizens come to see them as out of reach. the most confounding question in politics was who. These insurgent candidates are capturing one of the two demographic groups that converged in the great middle-class experiment that The New York Times Magazine 51 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Perhaps more surprising.’’ As the first election results and exit polls came in. in nearly all the cases. the answer was no. mostly making less than $50. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . In Michigan. ‘‘actually. exactly. a journalist well sourced among Republican operatives.000 a year by a staggering 33 percentage points — twice as big as his margin with voters who made more than that — and by 36 percentage points among voters without college degrees. A couple of weeks before the New Hampshire primary in February.

’’ Still. Stanley Greenberg. what had happened was obvious. I. of course. Democrats would go a long way toward righting the ship.THE MONEY began seven decades ago. the complication of our country’s employment laws and the changing health-insurance landscape might increase demand for this work. deskbound employees of a newly technocratic. seemingly incontrovertible proof that American capitalism worked. They asked him to help explain what had happened that November in Macomb County outside Detroit. By 1984. No one’s unemployed.’’ Greenberg wrote.1. their homogeneity enforced by a web of government policies and unofficial restrictions making it difficult for nonwhites to own property in them.and blue-collar middle classes each tended to vote Democratic. In 1960. No one’s hurting. told me recently. The new middle-class utopia did. Lee Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. it voted for Reagan by a margin of 33 percentage points. of groups hitherto identified as proletarians. organized labor and government-backed mortgages. corporate economy. the Democrats’ hold on the white middle class was balanced precariously on the racial status quo — which. George Wallace. Macomb voters had not defected en masse from the Democratic Party until after years of worsening economic circumstances — and until they perceived the Democrats as not only having taken up the banner of the urban poor and nonwhites but also having abandoned the white middle class. ‘‘White Collar’’: the usually college-educated.R. No one’s alone. a sentiment that pervaded almost everything they thought about government and politics. is that it generally worked astonishingly well for those who were lucky enough to be part of it — particularly for blue-collar workers. Not long afterward. That said. as companies turn to low-cost vendors for things like benefits administration. Greenberg suggested that Democrats offer a kind of grand bargain to the white middleclass voters he called ‘‘Reagan Democrats’’: The Democrats would reinstate the middle class as Illustration by Hannah K. Everybody’s happy. voted to endorse him. a 40-yearold Yale political scientist who moonlighted as a political pollster. Probably no one in American history has achieved prosperity with the velocity of the men who grew up destitute in the Depression and. workers is projected to grow about as fast as the overall work force. postwar Keynesian economic policy. and few more so than Detroit’s. Bill. though.’’ Speaking bitterly of Reagan’s commercial. Mich. which made sense: The new middle class’s good fortune was the combined product of the New Deal. he later wrote. performed well not just in the South but also in white blue-collar enclaves in the few Northern states where he was on the primary ballot. and blacks on average earned 53 percent what whites did. That spring. When people spoke of the middle class in the years immediately after World War II. Kennedy by a larger margin than any suburban county in the country.. Walter Mondale — the son of a small-town Minnesota minister whose politics radiated an austere. from outsourcing and automation is real. to a startling extent. mowing the lawns of adjoining split-level ranches and talking about Sunday’s game — felt extraordinary even in its own time. Blacks constituted the explanation for their vulnerability and for almost everything that had gone wrong in their lives. ‘‘These voters wondered why they weren’t the central drama of the Democratic Party. he told a crowd at a church in Cleveland: ‘‘It’s all picket fences and puppy dogs. by their 30s. But in retrospect. The confluence of these two groups — a vision of insurance salesmen and machine operators. in 1959 the black poverty rate was still 56 percent. had factory jobs that paid (in 2016 dollars) upward of $50. But the long-term threat to H. It was only a few years later that the definition was generally extended to include skilled blue-collar workers. The white. When he ran again as an independent in 1968. Although average incomes for nonwhites increased at about the same rate as incomes for whites in the postwar years. What could be said for the midcentury middle class. Greenberg noted. No one gets old. the chairman of the Michigan Democratic Party at the time. Scandinavian morality — spent the last days of his campaign unfurling increasingly dire pictures of urban and rural poverty and beseeching people to vote for an ‘‘America of fairness. a Vaseline-lensed montage of overwhelmingly white suburban prosperity. In 1984. ‘‘The fact is that America’s booming new middleincome class consists. they were typically talking about the group identified by the sociologist C. the members of the United Auto Workers Union local at the General Motors plant in Flint. not being black was what constituted being middle class. the segregationist Democratic governor of Alabama who ran for president in 1964 in protest of Lyndon B.R.’’ Fortune reported in 1954. ‘‘expressed a profound distaste for black Americans. Ronald Reagan’s campaign aired its 52 5. the proletariat had joined it. The postwar suburbs in general had been a racial fortress. exclude most nonwhite Americans. In one sense. Wright Mills in his 1951 book. No one’s hungry.16 Solid Job That Still Exists No. 1 Human-Resources Specialist The number of H. who were now earning solid incomes on account of a booming postwar industrial economy and of unions that made sure their members got an equitable piece of it. ‘‘Morning in America’’ ad.’’ Rick Wiener. Reagan swept every state in the country save Minnesota and the District of Columbia. was contacted by a group of Democratic Party and union officials in Michigan. by the mid-1960s. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I .’’ But Americans liked the picket fences and puppy dogs.000 a year. the G. Macomb voted for John F. ‘‘The sense was that if we could figure out what happened in Macomb County. was breaking apart. Johnson’s turn toward civil rights. the extent of the damage to the Democrats’ postwar coalition had become clear. The white ex-Democrats whom Greenberg’s team interviewed. Instead of overthrowing the bourgeoisie.

the ‘‘middle class’’ tax policies of Obama.000 a year in 1967. but to only $68.700 a year. argues that the most significant dividing line in recent American experience isn’t between the 99 percent and the 1 percent. Reeves. ‘‘The upper middle class are surprised by the rise of Trump. but whether you’re doing better than you were five years ago.Y ISSUE only worsened since his presidency. too.’’ Reeves told me. According to a Brookings study released last year. men and women with bachelor’s degrees earned a median of 7 percent and 16 percent more in 2013 than they did in 1990. But what happens when that’s no longer true? On one end of the ‘‘middle class’’ spectrum is a dream inexorably receding from view. in political discourse. Richard V. but also a more expansive economic definition of what the middle class is. This is where you draw the line if you’re interested not in absolute wealth but in the trajectory of wealth — not whether you have a yacht docked in St. the gravitational center of the party’s economic policy if those voters accepted an expanded definition of who was included in the middle class. they were all understood to be heading in the same general direction. the steady pulling away of the superrich from everyone else — the division between the 99 percent and the 1 percent. but between the 80 percent and the 20 percent — a group that includes not just the very rich but also people most Americans would identify as upper middle class. Bart’s. Bill Clinton of Arkansas. the basic architecture of how politicians. presciently. who used the Macomb study as the playbook for his 1992 presidential campaign. The top 20 percent is also more likely than the middle 40 percent to believe that hard work gets you ahead in life. a scholar at the Brookings Institution. he offered a near-verbatim recitation of Greenberg’s proposal: ‘‘The one thing that it’s going to take to bring this country together is somebody’s got to come back to the so-called Reagan Democratic area and say: ‘Look. Women who either didn’t attend college or attended but didn’t graduate made just 3 percent more — up to a meager $29.’’ Speaking to voters in Macomb County in March 1992. In the first year of his presidency.’ But you’ve got to say.. Among the Democrats who took Greenberg’s advice was Gov.’’ The New York Times Magazine 53 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. which he built around the theme of ‘‘the forgotten middle class. Bill Clinton was acknowledging. Clinton created a new top income-tax bracket. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . This is as close as we have to a concrete upper bound for what counts. at least.000 in 2013 from about $109. Fissures have also deepened between the two halves of the postwar middle class: between college-educated.000 — the equivalent of a $348-a-year raise. I’ll restore the economic leadership. on the other is a pair of socioeconomic blinders obscuring the harsher economic realities of those further down the scale.500 — and those men made 13 percent less: a median of $40. it also demonstrated just how difficult that is to do.000 from $52. Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders all apply to earners with incomes of $250. I’ll help you build the middle class back. I’ll give you your values back. But the more politically meaningful divergence may be one happening further down the economic spectrum. mostly blue-collar workers. as the middle class. mostly white-collar workers and high-school-educated. talk about the middle class today — not just the more diverse picture of American prosperity that politicians of both parties must at least pay lip service to. let’s do it with everybody in this country.100 a year.’ ’’ Illustration by Thomas Danthony You can see. define as the middle class: The top 20 percent saw its average real household income rise to $185. in Clinton’s 1992 campaign. a skewing of the American economy that has If the phrase ‘‘everyday Americans’’ tried to preserve a sense of common identity while acknowledging the fragmented economic realities of the 21st-century middle class. ‘O.K. The aspirational idea of the middle class spoke to the notion that even if Americans were in various stages of prosperity. starting at $250. The middle 40 percent saw their real incomes rise.000 or less. ‘‘The actual middle class are surprised we’re surprised. and many Americans.000 in today’s dollars). down from $47.000 (nearly $420. Consider the different experiences of two groups that sit mostly within what the Democrats’ tax policies.

00. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .16 5.D.1. Why do so many voters feel left behind? I Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. unemployment is 5 percent.THE MONEY By Andrew Ross Sorkin Photograph by Katy Grannan 54 0. deficits are down and G.16 The Obama Eight years after the financial crisis.P. is growing.

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .ISSUE Recovery Y The New York Times Magazine 55 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.

40 percent of the population. one day we’re saving the banks. historically. lower than when Reagan left office. is now 5 percent. The budget deficit has fallen by roughly $1 trillion during his two terms. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . the public anger about the economy is not without empirical basis. Gene Sperling. One of Obama’s first major acts as president was to sign the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. the next day we’re saving the auto industry.1.’’ The result. is influenced by ‘‘what they hear.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. As his presidency nears its end. built by Saft America for the manufacture of state-ofthe-art lithium-ion batteries. countries that have wrenching financial crises perform. at least not personally. has come to seem more confident about his achievements than about his ability to promote them. ‘‘We were moving so fast early on that we couldn’t take victory laps. the U. When we got back on Air Force One. ‘‘By that measure.’’ There are. ‘‘I actually compare our economic performance to how. he looked as if he’d been stewing over something. His efforts to rebuild the U. for a kind of belated victory lap. our discussion stretched to twice as long as planned. the truth of the matter is that if we had been able to more effectively communicate all the steps we 56 THE MONEY had taken to the swing voter. while Donald Trump said that ‘‘we’re a third-world nation.’’ he said. he said. across an assembly-room table in a factory in Jacksonville. and polls do show that a large majority of Americans believe the opposite. the former director of the National Economic Council who spent hours inside the Oval Office debating and devising the president’s economic strategy. seemingly to the consternation of the Secret Service.S. on Air Force One and in Florida.’’ he said. A large swath of the nation has dropped out of the labor force completely. that would’ve been beyond anybody’s wildest expectations. which peaked at 10 percent the year Obama took office. ‘‘How people feel about the economy. and Obama had stopped by to shine the national spotlight on how far we had come since the financial crisis. Now batteries were rolling off the line. economy is in much better shape than the public appreciates. especially when measured against the depths of the financial crisis and the possibility — now rarely even considered — that things could have been much. And yet. Obama analyzed. Unemployment. then people will start absorbing that. ‘‘It has frustrated me only insofar as it has shaped the political debate. economic growth has significantly outpaced that of every other advanced nation. His economy has certainly come further than most people recognize. The private sector has added jobs for 73 consecutive months — some 14. with some justifiable exasperation — the deficit has in fact declined (by roughly three-quarters) since he took office.000 jobs a month and the Dow under 7. those efforts were vastly underappreciated. under Ronald Reagan. he sent an aide to ask if we could continue the conversation. ‘‘If you ask the average person on the streets. the Republicans — that denies any progress and is constantly channeling to their base.’’ It was a notably grand claim.S. ‘Have deficits gone down or up under Obama?’ probably 70 percent would say they’ve gone up.’’ He went on: ‘‘And if you have a political party — in this case. the deficit would be under 3 percent. But the president did seem frustrated. AIG would have turned a profit and we made all our money back on the banks.4 million new jobs in all — the longest period of sustained job growth on record. the highest it had been since 1983.’’ The president had come to this factory. this has become an increasingly common refrain from Obama. ‘‘then we might have maintained a majority in the House or the Senate. We couldn’t explain everything we were doing. looking at the world around him. Obama is animated by a sense that. and 5. And overall U. Over a series of conversations in the Oval Office. ‘‘I mean.. much worse. who. told me. that things are terrible all the time.S.T wo months ago.’’ Obama told me. especially given the tenor in which presidential candidates of both parties had taken to criticizing the state of the American economy — ‘‘Many are still barely getting by. we probably managed this better than any large economy on Earth in modern history.’’ Asked if he was frustrated by all the criticism. ‘‘If we were back in early 2009 — when we were coming to work every morning with clenched stomachs. despite his prodigious skills as an orator. unemployment would be 5 percent. As he tried to sum up his economic legacy in Florida.’’ Obama said. by his own assessment. nearly every element of his economic agenda since he came into office. was that he lacked the political capital to do more. President Barack Obama was talking to me about the problem of political capital. of course.’’ But as Obama also acknowledged. Obama insisted that he wasn’t.’’ Hillary Clinton said. which is sizable. giving one part of his own theory.’’ he said. I mean. the next day we’re trying to see whether we can have some impact on the housing market. sometimes with startling frankness. economy from the 2008 financial crisis were being hit from left. with the economy losing 800. He quickly returned to the topic of public perception. and some of the money in that bill went to Saft. right and center.000 — and someone said that by your last year in office. many reasons so few Americans seem to be celebrating. say. Fla. when I joined him again.

000 less than it was when Bill Clinton left office. he turned immediately to trying to pass a stimulus package.’’ Obama recalled. and I hope you can come.’ ’’ The next day Obama found himself in the Cabinet Room just down the hall from the Oval Office. along with McCain and congressional leaders from both parties. If TARP was meant to keep the economy out of free fall. ‘‘The whole thing about financial crises is the tools that work are the ones that will make you look like you’re in bed with the banks. 26. or TARP. and so did the legislation that would be the basis for everything that came after.. ‘If we don’t take action now. faced with the sweeping changes transforming the global economy. the political headwinds against The New York Times Magazine 57 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. the economy would have recovered much more quickly and years of needless suffering could have been allayed.’’ It is this disconnect that haunts Obama. Bernanke and Paulson and President Bush. In truth. was not enough. the stimulus was meant to help it get back into good shape. ‘‘Millions and millions and millions and millions of people look at that pretty picture of America he painted and they cannot find themselves in it to save their lives. said Democrats should back Paulson’s plan. they’re disoriented. of course. managed the recovery as well as any president ever could. He needed votes. the reality for the average American family is that its household income is $4. 2016 President Obama touring the Saft America Advanced Batteries Plant in Jacksonville. an architect of TARP whom Obama made his Treasury secretary. ‘‘We’re sitting around a table. accepted a federal bailout — Senator John McCain of Arizona. because they don’t see themselves in that picture.’’ Clinton himself said of Obama’s economy in March. Fla. has only grown worse. Economic inequality. this was a necessary alliance with Wall Street and a Republican president. many Photograph by Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images Americans have been left behind.’’ Many within Bush’s own party were supporting an alternative bill that was focused on mortgageasset insurance and tax cuts.’’ said Timothy Geithner. I doubt this is going to be particularly useful. Obama recalled the moment: ‘‘I still remember Bush calling me and saying. ‘‘People are upset. He has. Harry Reid — ‘‘to let the Republicans do what they needed to do. frankly. I’m on the other. When Obama took office.’ And given how bad the politics were. it looked like a sweetheart deal for the same people who created the mess. To Obama. the Treasury secretary. But Obama. and the Senate majority leader. They did. In September 2008 — as Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy and AIG. some critics wondered why he was not equally quick to help aggrieved homeowners through an aggressive mortgage-relief or forgiveness program.Y ISSUE Feb. they’re anxiety-ridden. meanwhile. Henry M. with long-term political consequences. while on the campaign trail for his wife. Obama seems to understand that his economic legacy might be judged not just by what he has done. of course. but by how the results compare to a bygone era of middle-class opportunity. it was still very tempting for Nancy and Harry’’ — that is. Something has changed. but I felt obliged to say yes. by his own lights. one that perhaps no president. The strange hot-cold relationship with Wall Street made the next part of Obama’s program extremely complicated. Paulson Jr. ‘‘Paulson says. convinced that anything short of a major bailout could lead to economic catastrophe. with the top 1 percent of American households taking in more than half of the recent gains in income growth. we could go into a free fall. It was a rare moment of bipartisanship. and Republicans weren’t going for it. McCain is on one side. in what was widely viewed as a political move. But despite the gains of the past seven years. and as he prepares to leave office. could ever bring back. suspended his presidential campaign and called on Obama to rush back to Washington for a bipartisan meeting at the White House. was developing a bank bailout by which the Treasury would buy up to $700 billion in shaky mortgage-backed securities — ‘‘troubled assets’’ — a plan that eventually became the Troubled Asset Relief Program. the House speaker. Nancy Pelosi. Nobody wanted to be seen as a friend of the banks. the one that eventually became law. With a bigger boost. with results that in many cases exceeded his own best hopes. The economic meltdown that would define every aspect of Obama’s economy came to a head well before he became president. ‘Look. The crucial questions was: How much money was needed? Many argue today that Obama’s $800 billion plan. To many others. the world’s biggest insurance company. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

at this point as much visceral as philosophical. If you add up all of his administration’s classic stimulus measures. In December 2009. he was also being forced to cut government jobs. saying: ‘‘The divisive. Call it an anti-stimulus. ‘‘the challenges of creating a business and growing a business and making it work would probably be the thing that was most interesting to me. The 1982 Volcker recession was nothing compared to this. ‘Why is it that people are mad at the banks?’ ’’ Given the national mood at the time. was unable or unwilling to rhetorically underscore the severity of the crisis as it unfolded. that is accurate. Instead. the results of the stimulus were just as feeble as a stalwart Keynesian might predict. so perhaps what should have been seen as successes were seen as failures. But the financial sector had buoyed Obama’s campaign. ‘‘You get no credit for disaster averted or damage minimized.THE MONEY stimulus were extraordinary.1. and some executives responded to his new populism in emotional terms. ‘‘And by me winning in 2012 and getting the Bush tax cuts for the upper 2 percent repealed. ‘‘It’s like when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. still in the first month of his presidency.’’ Obama told me. leading to criticism that the stimulus was ineffective. the president expressed a surprising degree of identification with America’s business leaders. how close we were to disaster. Obama faced a practical bind as well: Just as he was trying to reinflate the economy. it climbed to 10 percent in 2009 and only fell back below 8 percent in 2012. ‘‘I did not run for office to be helping out a bunch of fat-cat bankers on Wall Street.’’ Frank said.’’ he told Steve Kroft on ‘‘60 Minutes. have we had a systemic financial crisis since World War II?’’ he asked rhetorically.’’ Often in our conversations. he described a bumper sticker that a friend made him in 2010. ‘‘I mean this was like nothing we’ve experienced since World War II.’’ Judged solely by the growth of gross domestic product. Republicans dismissed it as an irresponsible shopping spree that would leave the country in even greater debt. spending and more spending. but it got only a medium-size one. you get $1.’’ But Democrats. Obama’s words shouldn’t have come as a surprise to the business leaders. a Harvard economics professor and co-author of ‘‘This Time Is Different.’’ When I asked him about these reactions. Frank was one of the major legislative architects of Obama’s economic program.’’ Obama said.) Others seemed more concerned with the language itself. The economy needed a big injection. added. including the many tax 58 breaks the administration extended. then. ‘‘It’s a war. such that he was just barely able to get the $800 billion on a straight party-line vote. Boehner physically threw the bill on the ground. Obama was not reluctant to chastise bankers. At first. over the course of his presidency. ‘‘That’s not a very salable message.’’ (Schwarzman later apologized. wrote a public letter to Obama. polarizing tone of your rhetoric is cleaving a widening gulf. The anti-stimulus. By way of illustration. led by the ‘‘deficit hawk’’ wing of the party. and that created this massive fiscal drag throughout the recovery.’’ Obama said.’’ Obama said. with a halfhearted laugh. Obama laughed. also fought against anything too ambitious. a figure that is nearly twice the original figure. was counteracted by a stealth stimulus.’’ ‘‘The people on Wall Street still don’t get it. They don’t get it. ‘‘Progressives don’t fully appreciate the degree to which the 2011 budget deal not only averted a potential default but actually limited the potential damage of a newly emboldened Congress in imposing austerity on a still-fragile recovery. the giant private-equity firm. was left in the position of negotiating with his own party. with a slogan that could have worked just as well for Obama: ‘‘Things would have sucked worse without me.’’ Obama.4 trillion. under pressure from Republicans who contended that government bloat and the cost of it could create our next financial crisis. Obama has actually been able to oversee a much larger stimulus than has been typically reported.’’ His showy embrace of capitalism was especially notable given his fractious relationship with Wall Street and the business community for much of his first term. They’re still puzzled.’’ Frank. arguing that it was ‘‘nothing more than spending. A January 2009 report from the president’s Council of Economic Advisers projected that the stimulus would keep unemployment below 8 percent. a billionaire hedge-fund manager. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . ‘‘Well. As chairman of the House Financial Services Committee. scoffed when I mentioned the ‘‘worst recovery’’ epithet. giving him $16 million dollars in political support. between the downtrodden and those best positioned to help them. Leon Cooperman. Despite all this.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. It is a gulf that is at once counterproductive and freighted with dangerous historical precedents.’’ a well-regarded history of financial crises. It’s just we got it sequentially instead of all at once. though. ‘‘It was a delicate balance throughout 2009 and 2010 to be straight with the American people about the depths of the problem. But Kenneth Rogoff. so it continued to falter. Obama’s critics regularly trot out the talking point that Obama’s economy is ‘‘the worst recovery since World War II. In 2011. he was simultaneously rueful and amused. Beyond the messaging challenge. and so you have to look at the nature of the shock.’’ When I asked Barney Frank about how history will judge the recovery. The criticism he leveled at Wall 5. we ended up getting a grand bargain. ‘‘If I hadn’t gone into politics and public service.’’ Stephen Schwarzman. and Obama. nearly twice what McCain received from it. a co-founder of Blackstone Group. ‘‘This is the first recovery where you actually saw the government work force decline. without scaring the heck out of them. said of Obama in 2010 and his effort to close a tax loophole that benefited the industry.

’’ Obama. who. Like the stimulus. which Obama signed into law in the summer of 2010. Franklin Roosevelt. laying out the objectives for the second stage of the New Deal in 1936. to the contrary. at least compared with the withering contempt of.223 pages.000.000s to 16. Obama’s rhetoric does seem mild. which runs to 2. Street ‘‘was extraordinarily mild. my son came home and asked me./AFP/Getty Images welcome their hatred. The New York Times Magazine 59 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and created a system to wind down failing banks without taxpayer-funded bailouts and break up banks that don’t comply.Y ISSUE July 21. it has to do with ideology and their aggravations about higher taxes. say.000 or 17. ‘You know. That’s not rooted in anything they’re experiencing. ‘‘They’d be constantly complaining about our economic policies.’’ he said. his administration and Vice President Joe Biden in Washington. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . ‘‘One of the constants that I’ve had to deal with over the last few years is folks on Wall Street complaining even as the stock market went from in the 6. I would have some of them say to me.’’ Wall Street’s biggest fight with Obama was over the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. ‘Am I a fat cat?’ ’’ He laughed again. but ‘‘it hurt their feelings. seems to find their hatred irritating. said that reckless bankers and speculators are ‘‘unanimous in their hate for me — and I Photograph by Rod Lamkey Jr. 2010 Obama signing the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act alongside members of Congress.’’ he said. limited Wall Street’s riskiest trading schemes. The legislation.

embodying the renewable future that the batteries manufactured within are meant to sustain. and Ben Bernanke. It suggests. ‘‘But one of the things that I’ve consistently tried to remind myself during the course of my presidency is that the economy is not an abstraction. Some economists have suggested that the reform package.16 ‘Anybody who says we are not absolutely better off today than we were just seven years ago. the plant was inadvertently telling a more complicated story.) Obama spoke from a makeshift stage set up at the center of the factory floor. left. I would like folks who are really good at math to be going into engineering and the sciences more than they’re going into trying to build algorithms to beat the 60 5. that nothing has changed on Wall Street.’’ he said. that will help the economy expand for decades to come. The financial sector ‘‘is bigger. 2009 Obama and the Treasury secretary. like lithium-ion batteries.’’ June 17.2 percent in 2009. government dollars for the benefit of the local Photograph by Mandel Ngan/AFP/Getty Images Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Here was a factory built. a giant 235. (The main customer for the batteries was originally meant to be electric-car manufacturers. and the factory has yet to turn a profit.’’ said Douglas Holtz-Eakin.’’ he said. he said. and in that sense. combined with the Federal Reserve’s efforts to force the banks to hold more capital. meeting with bank regulators in the White House.’ The Saft America plant. more talent than I would like to see. ‘‘The reason I’m here today is because Saft is telling a story about the amazing work that people all across this country have done to bring America back from one of the worst financial crises in our history. a former director of the Congressional Budget Office who now runs American Action Forum.’’ Obama said. chairman of the Federal Reserve. a French company with holdings around the world. and the state was a center for home foreclosures. They’re not telling the truth. ‘‘Growth requires access to capital to finance investments in plant. higher than the national average. about globalization and the changing nature of commerce. which it has. Geithner. In a way.THE MONEY ISSUE market and to work arbitrage. He said that he liked the film ‘‘The Big Short’’ — a vivid portrayal of the 2008 crisis with a special emphasis on the avarice of its main architects — but not its ending. Saft America was an example not of the government’s effort just to reduce unemployment right now.1. They’re not telling the truth. a right-leaning research group. ‘‘Dodd-Frank made capital scarcer and more expensive at a time when the weak economy desperately needed a boost to growth. most likely slowed lending and potentially economic growth in the short term. It’s not something that you can just redesign and break up and put back together again without consequences. and workers.’’ The story Obama told was one of American ingenuity and growth since the financial crisis. Dodd-Frank has been seen as both going too far and not far enough. but they did take an economic toll. Timothy F. they’re not leveling with you. absorbs more resources and maybe most importantly. He added: ‘‘Anybody who says we are not absolutely better off today than we were just seven years ago. is a modern marvel: its roof covered in row upon row of solar panels. they’re not leveling with you. but also to spur investment in the next-generation green technologies. The French parent doesn’t expect profitability for another two or three years and has already written down part of its investment on the factory.S. with U. Obama sees the legislation in more complicated terms. but the company is now selling mostly to utilities who want to store solar and wind energy. ‘‘It is true that we have not dismantled the financial system. surveying the crowd. Saft America is a unit of Saft Groupe. The new rules may have been sensible in the aftermath of the crisis. an American flag and a Saft logo perfectly positioned behind him to catch the sight lines of the photographers.’’ Holtz-Eakin estimated in 2015 that the regulations would shave $895 billion off gross domestic product over the next decade.000-square-foot mass of concrete. ‘‘But there is no doubt that the financial system is substantially more stable. Sales of lithium-ion batteries have been considerably slower than anticipated. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . technology. in part. Bernie Sanders’s critique is correct’’ — a reference to the Vermont senator and presidential aspirant who regularly calls to break up America’s biggest banks. wrongly. though. Unemployment in Florida peaked at 11. equipment.

Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

‘‘You’re in a town. ‘‘engaging in those hard changes that we need to make to create a more nimble. A president has less power than ever. ‘‘When you’re talking about inversions. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . also had an immediate and growing impact on the economy as a whole. referring to the practice whereby American companies effectively move overseas. The legislation was also designed to exert a more subtle economic influence. eliminated entirely. On March 21.5 percent of the U.K. a temptation to say. as homeowners made up for the shortfall in wage growth with low-interest second mortgages and unprecedented loads of credit-card debt. a damaging effect on the economy overall. 2013 Obama.’’ Obama considered the problem from a political perspective. is making. It was Obama’s boldest piece of legislation and the one that will most likely define him.THE MONEY ISSUE Oct.’ or ‘If we could just go back to a time when everybody had a defined-benefit plan. Bernanke and Janet Yellen leaving the State Dining Room of the White House after Obama nominated Yellen to be Bernanke’s successor. ‘‘In some ways.E. Then the bubble bursts. And the factory’s profits. may very well be sent abroad instead of being reinvested here. ‘If we could just go back to an era in which our borders were closed. most Americans received health (Continued on Page 80) Photograph by Jewel Samad/AFP/Getty Images Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Because it actually is closing a key part of the insecurity gap. I think. in some cases. though.’’ In closing that gap. ‘‘They’d be much worse off had we not taken the steps that we took. blame the president for the nation’s economic performance.E. but the implications were obvious. But the bill. In the assembly room after the speech. Congress passed the Affordable Care Act. It has always been the case that voters credit or. even as it extended coverage.S. 2010. ‘‘the Affordable Care Act will actually be seen as one of the great economic accomplishments. he did not even attend Obama’s speech. economic.’’ Sperling told me. and health care spending accounts for 8 percent of the average household budget. But — in part because of the housing bubble — a whole bunch of blue-collar manufacturing workers could suddenly shift into construction.’’ Those construction jobs have returned slowly.power (legal/regulatory) or soft-power (cultural) sense. things would be O. a divergence between how the people who run these companies and economic elites think about their responsibilities and the policies that they promote with political leaders. Yet the factory. It has been largely viewed as a social program. ‘‘or you’re talking about C. all those things used to be constrained 62 5. Of course. Slowing the growth of an industry that accounts for nearly a fifth of the U. let alone over the chief executives of multinationals based in France or China or other places where many U. the largest economic challenge most Americans ever confront comes in the form of a sudden health crisis. to the extent they ever come. which affected not just insurance companies but doctors. and many of those manufacturing jobs never came back at all. ‘‘and suddenly they get washed away.’’ Obama said. Obama described the profound structural shifts in the economy over the past two decades that voters often don’t appreciate or acknowledge. over American chief executives. gross domestic product. And that contributes to the trends toward inequality. employers make their headquarters.’’ he said. ‘‘In the long term.’’ Obama said.’’ Leaning forward in his chair.O.’ or ‘We could just go back to a time when there wasn’t any immigrant that was taking my job. the plant closes.S. your kids might be going to the same school as the guy who is working on the assembly line because public schools actually were invested in. not just health care. economy is inevitably going to mean slowing the growth of the economy as a whole. and national economy. But it is also the case that the president generally has considerably less sway to move the economy than even he might like to acknowledge. that sway may be diminishing further.1.’’ The underlying economic decay was covered up by cheap credit. ‘‘If you are a blue-collar worker.’’ he said. ‘‘And all those constraining factors have been greatly reduced or. both on the left and the right.’’ Obama said. Its French chief executive is almost completely detached from the community here in Jacksonville.’ ’’ He didn’t mention Donald Trump or Bernie Sanders by name.S. better known as Obamacare. its technology and its patents are all owned by a foreign corporation. Obama has been confronted with a knotty economic and political paradox.16 by the fact that you live in the city.’’ Obama said. And as the economy continues to disperse. That contributes to. hospitals and pharmaceutical companies.O. dynamic economy doesn’t yield immediate benefits and can seem like a distraction or an effort to undermine a bygone era that doesn’t exist. more often. a way to provide health insurance to tens of millions of uncovered citizens. you’re going to church in that city. The factory visit might also tell a more complicated story about the presidency. And that ‘‘meant that people felt pretty good in terms of their purchasing power even though their underlying situations hadn’t improved appreciably. Perhaps the biggest economic shift during Obama’s presidency came from a piece of legislation that wasn’t sold as such. 9. And that’s had. And that then feeds. The legislation was designed to slow the growth of health care costs. you saw manufacturing head out to China. For most of the postwar era. Obama acknowledged as much. perks or the gap between what the assembly-line worker is making compared to what the C. The health care industry accounts for 17. I think. ‘‘But they have a sense that it’s a little more of a struggle for them than it might have been for their parents or for their grandparents. in either a hard.

com/rebate for details. if in the next year that model portfolio experiences two consecutive quarters of negative performance. WE ARE TOO. Whatever you’re building.IF YOU’RE INVESTED. It’s about building your trust. Because this isn’t just about building a great portfolio. it’s good to have someone who’s got your back. The best returns aren’t just measured in dollars. the advisory fees for both quarters will automatically be refunded. Call an Investment Consultant at 800-440-8124 or go to tdameritrade. So when you invest in a managed portfolio from Amerivest with a qualifying deposit. Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

wet state. an African-American retired lunchroom worker and community activist. Angelina Iles. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . We drove past spaced-out. Its demise began.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.. When employers leave towns like Pineville. a sleepy town smack in the middle of the low. promising to modernize the state and unleash the power of American private industry along the Gulf Coast. they often do it with a deaf ear to the pleading of state and local governments.) And he shuttered or privatized nine charity 64 5. he boasted that bureaucrats are now an endangered species in Louisiana. cut more. 65. Louisiana was flush with federal funds for Hurricane Katrina reconstruction and running a budget surplus.’’ He laid off more than just bureaucrats. During his failed bid for the presidency last year.Where Did the Government Jobs THE MONEY Finding careers in the public sector — long a ticket to the middle class. just one state. Jindal and the State Legislature slashed income taxes and started privatizing and cutting. La.’’ he said. in 2008. ‘‘and I’ve cut my state’s budget by more than he’s worth. when Bobby Jindal was swept into the Louisiana governor’s mansion on a small-government-and-ethics platform. At the time. Jindal cut appropriations for higher education. the employer was the government itself. By Annie Lowrey Illustrations by Lara Odell On a muggy afternoon in April. Long hospital. arguably. especially for African-Americans — has become increasingly difficult.1. low-slung houses and boarded-up businesses — shuttered restaurants. (State spending per student was down more than 40 percent between 2008 and 2014. guided me toward the muddy banks of the Red River. a decrepit gas station — as Iles. Arizona. Near there stands the locked-up Art Deco shell of the Huey P. shifting the cost burden onto students themselves. But in the case of Huey P. This was a source of great pride for Jindal. folded herself into my passenger seat and took me on a tour of her beloved Pineville. Long. ‘‘I’ve laid off more of them than Trump has fired people. which once served the poorest of the poor in Rapides Parish — and employed more than 300 workers.

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .ISSUE Jobs Go? Y FINAL TK The New York Times Magazine 65 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.

The public sector’s slow decimation is one of the unheralded reasons that the middle class has shrunk as the ranks of the poor and the rich have 66 5. Through the middle of the century. helped organize a protest against the cuts. less than 7 percent of private-sector workers are represented by a union. and particularly women — people like Theresa Jardoin and Linette Richard. black workers gained more than a quarter of new federal jobs created between 1961 and 1965. a series of legal and legislative decisions — fueled by and fueling the civil rights movement — increased the number of black workers in government employment. They held a vigil on the hospital’s front lawn. when public-sector workers lose their jobs. who worked in the hospital for 41 years. In Rapides Parish. Jindal argued. The country has recovered from the recession. The state has added 80. the burden disproportionately falls on black workers. ended official discrimination in the federal government and in companies engaged in the war effort. They’re also more likely to be unionized. 68.000 new jobs since the Great Recession officially ended in 2009. She lost much of what she had been expecting for her retirement. But higher up? We don’t have positions available. Iles. ‘‘Nobody’s jumping to hire a 58-year-old. the wage gap between white and black workers narrowed Illustration by Lara Odell Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Since the recession hit. taking care of her family.’’ In the middle of the last century. with local offices losing 10. the state government 31. and Johnson signed an executive order banning discrimination by federal contractors. Linette Richard. Long was one of those hospitals. Louisiana is an exaggerated case. Iles and I dropped in on a friend of hers from church. especially in my field.600. Earlier.THE MONEY hospitals that served the state’s uninsured and indigent. But at the same time. because she had not been there long enough. checking her constantly buzzing phone in the car.600 workers.1.’’ That’s the way it is across much of Louisiana. She had been working as an ultrasound technician when the hospital closed. ‘‘We felt middle class. Iles had introduced me to another friend. They were outdated and costly. Theresa Jardoin. But public employment has not.’’ Iles said. That’s the way it is. which includes Pineville. where five of the 10 biggest employers are public institutions. F. All of the hospital’s workers lost their jobs. they look like the blue-collar jobs our middle class was built on during the postwar years. like McDonald’s or Burger King.16 swollen in the post-recession years. she told me. most recently as an EKG supervisor. and private management would improve access.’’ Richard said. Huey P. along with dozens of other workers and activists. Across the country. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . she spends most of her days at home. the biggest employer is the school district. But it was all for naught.D. ‘‘The good governor did not want to listen to us.R. The hospital closed its doors in 2014. and nearly another 30 percent by the early 1980s. These are jobs that have predictable hours. The public sector has long been home to the sorts of jobs that lift people into the middle class and keep them there. This is certainly true in Louisiana. In other words. stable pay and protection from arbitrary layoffs.900 and the federal government 1. or health centers that in no small part rely on public funds. care and the bottom line. jobs have been shrinking at every level of government.000. Iles even helped produce an anti-Jindal documentary called ‘‘Bad Medicine’’ that was broadcast on local television. ‘‘Now we feel kind of lower. As a result. Out of work.’’ Richard told me. Kennedy established the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. but the pattern persists when you look at the country as a whole. ‘‘You can get a low-paying job. whose story was similar. private employers have added five million jobs and the government has lost 323. particularly for those without college or graduate degrees. And the share of government jobs held by women climbed 70 percent between 1964 and 1974. and its patients were redirected to other local medical centers and clinics. while more than a third of those in the public sector are. Truman desegregated the armed forces. Driving around Pineville.

‘‘Just aches and pains. that recovery might come too late for many of its workers.’’ Worse. Collective-bargaining rights.’’ he says. ‘‘The inability to fire people in a willy-nilly fashion has likely protected African-Americans.Y ISSUE as social forces and political pressure compelled private businesses to open up better jobs to black workers. ‘‘You can’t enjoy retirement in this situation. who has resigned herself to a tougher retirement than she thought she would enjoy. Scott Walker.5 percentage points in 2011. County and Municipal Employees. As of 2013. Long. 2 Machine Operator Manufacturing jobs have been battered over the past few decades. a sociologist at Northwestern who studies race and class. black workers were 30 percent more likely than workers of other races to be employed in the public sector. the blackwhite wealth gap yawned. Hospitals close. told me. emergency workers and so on — is going to take longer to recoup and regain whatever positions they had. ‘‘Public-sector work has been a backbone of the black middle class for many reasons. for instance. just blocks from Huey P. which led to tens of thousands of layoffs for public-sector employees. And because the public sector provides so many essential services. when it provides the ability and opportunity for folks to have a seat at the table. playing with her granddaughter’s hair. mental-health and emergency medical services as being a particularly profound problem for her community.’’ says Roderick Harrison. she and her husband get by on what he makes as a car salesman. the president of the American Federation of State. ‘‘It may be that black workers are more likely to be laid off when the layoffs are triggered by a sudden and significant reduction in funding.000 since its Republican governor. there’s nothing.’’ she says. She has given up trying to find work again around Pineville. Teachers’ aides lose their positions. For Pineville. black women were ‘‘the least likely to find private-sector employment and the most likely to make a full exit from the labor force. Declining tax revenue led to tightened state budgets. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . cited the loss of dental. who are perhaps likely to be fired in a willy-nilly fashion. once unemployed. on average. ‘‘That means that the portion of the black middle class that was dependent on government jobs — police. thanks to offshoring and automation — a trend that looks set to continue.’’ says Mary Pattillo. sitting in an easy chair in her living room. wrote a widely cited dissertation. It takes time for tax revenue to rise to a level at which cities and states feel comfortable adding public workers back onto their payrolls. has thinned its ranks of government workers by some 5. and people have to drive farther away for medical care. So has Theresa Jardoin. with the gap between the two groups soaring from less than a percentage point in 2008 to 5. that pathway to the middle class should grow again. ‘‘Government jobs are always slower to come back after a recession. the Great Recession unraveled much of the progress made by the black middle class. ‘‘When the number of layoff decisions increases.’’ she wrote. did you?’’ Iles asked. with a resigned laugh. a former Howard University demographer. led a push to abrogate public workers’ organizing rights — a political choice with profound economic and racial ramifications. ‘‘No. As of 2007. government jobs should come back. half a decade may have set black families back a whole generation. they benefited from more public scrutiny of employment practices. if not longer. Wisconsin. And regardless of their income. examining the effects of public-sector layoffs on different races. public and private. managers have more opportunities to discriminate. ‘‘All of a sudden.’’ Lee Saunders. Affirmative action helped bring marginalized groups into the public work force. It takes time for private businesses to rehire workers. the retiree I met in Pineville.’’ Jardoin said. white households were. Jennifer Laird. high-tech windmills) and commercial divers (the people who do underwater repairs on oil rigs) are two of the fastest-growing middle-class jobs. the biggest gap since 1989. black Americans experienced a disproportionate share of the ill effects. Other states and towns are electing to have smaller public work forces. black families were much more likely to be rejected for conventional mortgages and pushed into high-cost subprime loans. a recession that set America back Illustration by Hannah K. And during the recovery. ‘‘They try to say that collective bargaining is a drain on the economy.’’ ‘‘You didn’t even get a pocket watch. Because Linette Richard can’t find suitable work. schools.’’ she said.’’ The New York Times Magazine 67 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.’’ As a result of all these economic punishments. cuts to it have a cascading effect. All of this meant that when housing prices turned down. For any number of reasons. Lee Solid Job That Still Exists No. And the economic evidence does show that a higher concentration of unionized workers increases intergenerational mobility and raises wages for all workers. 13 times wealthier than black households. Many niches are growing: Wind-turbine service technicians (the people who fix those giant. But that is not to say that all good bluecollar jobs are disappearing. there. A graduate student of sociology at the University of Washington. according to Pew Research Center data. pension funds and mandatory raises look like unnecessary drains on state coffers to a work force increasingly unfamiliar with such benefits. and local kids no longer have the same degree of special-education attention. Leading up to the mortgage crisis. public workers became easy political targets precisely because of their labor protections. And when the layoffs came. black families tended to have a higher proportion of their wealth tied up in their homes. especially those who were looking toward retirement. Angelina Iles. She found that the government-worker unemployment rate climbed more for black men than for white men — and much more for black women than for white women. With time.

’’ ¶ On Zillow these days.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.000.1. my fatherʼs family had a simple middle-class life. with a big yard. Mass. It was huge.. almost a dream. on a hill. and every Christmas it was filled with toys: ‘‘Bicycles and skis and basketballs.’’ the home of my father’s grandfather. its value is estimated at just over $200. in the telling of my father and other older relatives. Jack. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . before I ever discovered the actual place: ‘‘Bumpa’s house. ‘‘And a croquet set.16 5. It represented. now 79. Today a much more complicated economy is taking shape in the city. the kind of place you’d get to live in if you worked hard. in my mind. recalled. as an idea.00.’’ my dad. By Adam Davidson Photographs by William Mebane The house existed.Our THE MONEY In Worcester. which happens to be almost exactly the median price 68 0.

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .Our Town Y ISSUE The New York Times Magazine 69 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.

My great-grandparents’ economic journey was one that’s harder to make today. down-on-its-luck city of dead industry and collapsing buildings. The way I read economic history. Worcester. For my father’s family. a magical place that transformed lost and impoverished lives. Having studied the American economy for years. they often give a knowing nod or laugh — this unlovely. proud New England family with Mayflower ancestry. of one particular city created by and for the middle class. was the middle. and the richer the country became. I’ve also come to understand how deeply their story is embedded in the history of a place. to them and to their children and grandchildren. the more money they made and spent. the goal of a good life. I called my dad to relate what I had learned about his grandparents. the middle class was a driving force in the American economy for about a century. George and Mildred Bestick. 5. starting in the second half of the 1800s. Many use it in the context of income distribution. in part because there are fewer ‘‘middle’’ cities now. which made more room for more people to move into the middle too. they couldn’t have done it without Worcester. The life that Bumpa and Narny built here was the middle. Just look at the massive house and Bumpa’s three-piece suits and Narny’s quiet devotion to her Baptist church.THE MONEY for an existing house in the United States. This house was the middle. came from an old. They were respectable. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . And that. Perry Avenue and Seymour Street There is no single technical definition of the middle class — or even consensus on what ‘‘middle’’ refers to. the dreams fulfilled by this house had meant a climb from bare subsistence to the middle. This seems fitting. I’ve often reflected on how much my father’s family perfectly models the middle-class story — how closely the details of their lives illustrate the bigger economic forces around them. Bumpa and Narny existed as if they had no history. Only recently. where the house still stands. built on top of origins in poverty and chaos. They were big and affordable and perfect for immigrant families. A few weeks ago. As a child. clearly. But in learning about my family’s economic history. all my dad knew was that the Bestick name was Irish and that Narny. born Mildred Bailey. including my own ancestors. was a triumph.1. He told me he knew almost nothing about them before they got to Worcester. When I mention Worcester to people from New England.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Its growth created a virtuous circle: The more people moved into the middle. But Worcester was an engine for betterment until the middle of the 20th century.” three-story houses built quickly and cheaply during the city’s manufacturing boom in the late 19th century. where they had settled by 1917. I learned that this respectability was actually self-reinvention. to designate the range in which people live at or near the median 70 Previous pages: Worcester is known for its “three-deckers. Even during the middle-class heyday of the 20th century.

Y ISSUE Douglas Court Worcester is filled with contradictory sights: crumbling infrastructure. yet fresh paint and siding and other signs that someone is making some money.S. This is the tension in much of the city — collapse of an old way of working combined with a new. trying to create a good home. economy. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . Photograph by William Mebane for The New York Times The New York Times Magazine 71 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. hard-to-discern promise — that makes Worcester so representative of the overall U. decaying homes.

income. today Worcester has notable Ghanaian. transporting raw materials and finished goods over long distances. Worcester has been a haven for immigrants. The middle classes varied by country and era. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . Some were craftspeople. but neither were they bound by the social codes and strictures of nobility that tended to accompany wealth. Greek. particularly poor ones with few New World connections. But many economic historians point out that these developments required a broader middle class. the first toeholds in a new economy are gained by selling products to other immigrant families. we can see evidence of a third. Perhaps the most profound was a unique sort of control over their destinies.1. They operated largely outside of a money economy. historical role played by what we call the middle class today. Others were 72 These two trapped. turning raw materials into finished goods. processed foods or other luxuries. they made their own homes and clothes. Italian and Irish immigration. the members of the middle class were situated between a tiny powerful elite and much larger numbers of landless laborers and subsistence farmers who struggled to feed their families. Iraqi and South American populations. In its earlier incarnations. sometimes very small group. It was once Jewish. We often attribute the Industrial Revolution to a handful of brilliant inventors who created the steam engine.THE MONEY Pleasant Street near Oxford Street For so many families today. making pottery. their food came from what they or their neighbors grew. textiles. Most people typically did not buy anything manufactured or delivered from afar. broken people somehow managed to create a new life. poor. They were often more exposed to market forces. For nearly as far back as we have economic records. depended on an ability to spot opportunity and sell the right things to the right people at the right price. traders. to a great degree. But I believe that definition misses a crucial. and for my family more than a century ago. the power loom and other transformative technologies.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. In premodern life. 5. These middlemen were crucial: They filled an essential intermediary role. but they shared certain characteristics. their livelihoods. the middle people weren’t so poor as to be stuck permanently in misery.

The first to arrive were Solomon and Leah Davidson. Factories were growing quickly. Rhonda McClure. indeed. Both were born in 1862 and left their homeland sometime in the 1890s as part of the first big wave of Jewish emigrants. rough industry that required strong workers who didn’t need a lot of education. Photographs by William Mebane for The New York Times As workers earned more money. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . but I found no records of what they did there. a feeling of opportunity and a lack of deep commitment to the existing socioeconomic order. heading a family of eight. They were in England until 1898. seen here. Heald Machine. The Industrial Revolution could just as easily be called the middle-class revolution. in time for the 1900 federal census. They appear in New York. took over the economy. the public-school revolution began. Jews from Kaunus. Finally they end up in Worcester. decent-paying jobs to former farmers. who converted raw materials into usable consumer goods.Y ISSUE New Bond Street Worcester was a center for abrasives and grinding technology. he applied for citizenship and presented two witnesses to attest to his decency. Solomon’s occupation is ‘‘pedlar — rags’’ [sic]. Norton. By the 1930s. By working in these plants. Lithuania. told me that Solomon Davidson. He arrived in America. the middle class was not just an aspirational destination. they needed a better-educated work force and. A mark on his immigration papers suggests that he was taken aside for additional questioning. But the answer. something McClure says was unusual. As factories became more sophisticated. then head for Boston. was one of the poorest. Worcester wasn’t anybody’s first choice. who specializes in immigration papers at the New England Historic Genealogical Society. offering long-term. which meant the factories got more orders and needed to hire more people. ensuring that the children of the new factory workers would be better educated and better able to make even more money. and its neighbor. immigration officers probably feared he would be a destitute beggar. least-connected immigrants she had ever come across. By the early 1900s — as the people who would become my family were establishing themselves in Worcester — the virtuous circle had begun to take hold nationwide. fleeing anti-Semitism and poverty. Those intermediaries. This was a crude. great-grandfather and countless uncles and cousins found their place in the middle class. global trade. now responsible for seven children. made a variety of industrial grinding materials — the rough disks and machinery that grind metal into shape. We know that story: mass production. a pittance even then. my grandfather. with $18 to his name. they bought more goods. One was a liquor The New York Times Magazine 73 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. faster innovation ensues. day laborers and immigrants. They wandered awhile. and for well over a century we lived in a world defined by the middle class. plainly. my great-great-grandfather. is both. at least not in my family. It’s possible to have an endless chicken-and-egg debate over whether the middle classes created or were created by the Industrial Revolution. Once settled in Worcester. it had become a bedrock of the country. characterized by education.

74 5. Bumpa George and Narny Mildred Bestick.1.16 Photograph by William Mebane for The New York Times Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. However modest it seems today.THE MONEY Pleasant Street This was the home of my great-grandparents. this house was something like a dream to me. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . a place I heard about throughout my childhood as the ultimate symbol of success.

each said he had met Solomon recently and done business with him — presumably sold him some liquor and groceries or bought some rags — and he hadn’t cheated them. McClure says she’s never seen a naturalization document with such tenuous claims. They were beginning to repair relationships with the family when Jacob became sick with tuberculosis. Illustration by Hannah K. a son worked in a shoe store. Stanley met a young girl at school. ‘‘I met a Jew today.O. What stories I remember about him are brutal: He was a violent drunk. Jacob and Annabelle moved to Rhode Island for a time but returned to Worcester a few years later to open the tannery. dancing with men for money. She wrote in her diary. coaches and umpires. she fled early and ended up in Worcester. babysitters. she and Jacob made a hurried trip to Vermont to be married by a justice of the peace.s and a high-level executive at CBS. no prospects. would pretend to go to sleep and then sneak out the window to go to the dance halls. because fruit requires at least some meager capital to invest. the ones that came of age after the 1930s. Jacob’s eventual wife and my great-grandmother. a notch — but hardly a leap — up the socioeconomic scale. or sketchy medicines.’’ Helen’s family had its own story of Worcester’s redemptive powers.5 million of them. the more kids there are. And the pay is decent. but not as street peddlers. A few years later.Y ISSUE Solid Job That Still Exists No. The next generations. She worked in a dance hall. with little education. Jacob. descended from Yankee sailors. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . upon hearing his son married a non-Jew.E. Lee salesman. when my grandfather Stanley was 7. the more teachers there need to be. therapists. the census says he couldn’t read or write. his children were thriving. The job outlook for such teachers is decent. The 1910 census identifies him as a fruit vendor. Jacob opened his own tannery. no money. According to family accounts. ripped his clothes and proclaimed him dead to the family. George (the man my dad called Bumpa as a (Continued on Page 81) The New York Times Magazine 75 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. the other a grocer.000 for a 10-month year — at least before you add in the countless hours of uncompensated overtime. Applicants usually enlist family members or at least a religious figure to serve as character references for them. Three months later. a horrible father. My great-aunt Ethel once described how she and my great-grandfather. he was selling tonics. Her father was a saloonkeeper. Her father. janitors. produced the familiar complement of Jewish immigrant children successes — among them lawyers and accountants and C. She grew up in a remote corner of Maine. of course. was another sort of Worcester immigrant. One of Jacob’s sisters told me that their father. Solomon struggled in Worcester. which must have felt like a miraculous accomplishment for folks who arrived with nothing a few years earlier. and there are 1. By 1923. his daughters became stenographers and bookkeepers. He died in 1924. my grandfather Stanley was born. 3 Elementary-School Teacher They are at once scholars. Annabelle Lewis. Yet the family was somehow able to buy one of Worcester’s three-decker buildings. And soon enough. Helen Bestick. leading to lots of jobs in high-growth states like Colorado and Texas. on the street. too: $55. In December 1916. Solomon’s children began working in late adolescence. if variable depending on region.

TV cops. We’ve got police precincts.1. He comes over to make repairs on Sarah’s country cottage.’’ ‘‘Chicago Fire’’ and ‘‘Chicago P. and a fantasy emerged. all showing off how 76 5. crime-and-forensics teams and legal-medical-Beltway dramas. for suspense. We’re out of Rogers. NBC’s ‘‘Chicago Med. They work for comedy. I get it. It’s Roger’s work. and as he does his thing — shirtless. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . These days. It’s as if she hasn’t seen a man wield a tape measure or tighten table legs in so long that she has pornographized it.D. As real people became poorer and lost their jobs. sister. What arouses Sarah is not Roger himself. It’s a cliché. for sport. These shows might know what a blue collar is.’’ are a virtual sexy-calendar night.16 I Moving On Up THE MONEY Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. what few we even had. His name is Roger. Anybody who’s drooled over a sexy-firemen calendar knows that: Blue-collar dudes are hot. Brooklyn-bar web series ‘‘Horace and Pete’’ turns the cliché into a four-alarm tragedy. indifferent to her — she just. the ones on TV got richer. and their jobs seemed more beside the point. television underwent a great expansion — beyond the major broadcast networks. you know. lawyers. watches him. beyond televisions and into all kinds of genres — just at the moment the economy shrank. there are only a handful of workplace taxonomies in scripted television. For the most part. She is deeply turned on by her father-in-law.What happened to all the working-class TV characters? By Wesley Morris Illustration by Sara Cwynar We tend to fetishize labor. But the third episode of the 10-part. and he’s an 84-year-old ex-Navy man who drives a pickup truck and used to farm. All that space to tell new stories ended up dedicated to a limited set of jobs and an increasingly homogeneous notion of what work even means. In 2007. A middle-aged woman named Sarah (Laurie Metcalfe) sits at a table confessing to something that mortifies her. bureaucrats and doctors inhabit the same kinds of toothsome residences and wear the same exquisitely tailored clothes. I’ve been watching TV. but they’re class-unconscious: Their characters don’t usually work for the explicit maintenance of their livelihoods.

c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . 77 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.ISSUE Up Y In the late 1980s. of ‘‘Roseanne.’’ worried about work and money in ways few TV families do today. the Conner family.

it was often an advertisement for the middle class: a job. had careers. or the lack of it. feminism) demanded discourse.1. no matter your actual job.’’ ‘‘Maude’’ and ‘‘Good Times. respectively. Some. vaguely upper-class class. . and from which members of the television audience could see who they were. Some.’’ each a creation of Norman Lear.’’ a pair of long-running sitcoms about the white lower-middle class and working poor — the Bundys and Conners. the human caldron of ‘‘The Honeymooners’’ (1955-56). But the decade’s relentless turmoil (civil rights. too. . prime-time television was barely two decades old. and they were tied to work. and it was already a little nostalgic and class-neutral.’’ It was the first rueful sitcom. products to put in it. 5. Ralph Kramden. Florida Evans (‘‘Good Times’’) was a sporadically unemployed black housekeeper in Chicago’s Near North Side projects. with Children’’ and ‘‘Roseanne.THE MONEY To the extent that TV has always been an advertisement for something. a family. almost everybody belongs to the same generic.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. On TV. Work. sexism and all the rest wouldn’t seem to have anything to do with Evans's prideful despair. slotted you into a clear socioeconomic class. Bunker's armchair racism. Kramden’s dissatisfaction — he devoted a lot of time to hatching get-rich-quick schemes — became the tacit sadness of the ‘‘The Honeymooners. Petrie had a suburban-New York living room that Kramden would have killed for. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW I . like Jackie Gleason’s Brooklyn bus driver. But the two shows dramatized their opposing dissatisfaction. like Dick Van Dyke’s Rob Petrie. a home. each a demonstrable emblem of its characters’ social station. But early sitcoms engaged with matters of aspiration and failure. Watergate. political assassinations. By the 1960s. If employment didn’t define a character from episode to episode. Archie Bunker (‘‘All in the Family’’) was a white foreman in Queens. Now on TV. on ‘‘All in the Family. it sustained him (and it was usually a him). middle class and working poor. Sometimes we see more of their work than that done by the people who inhabit it. The discontent on those shows ran like a fuse through the 1970s into the late 1980s. that conversation happened in the living rooms of the working class. The end of the Reagan era and start of the first Bush administration coincided with the arrival of ‘‘Married . had jobs. Vietnam. The first was more bitterly toxic (my mother got a whiff of its vulgarity and forbade it) than the second. broadcasting shows safely ensconced in either the suburbs or the distant past. Class was the perch from which to see who you were and were not. But 78 Source photo: Everett Collection fabulously art directors and costume designers earn a paycheck. the klutzy TV writer on ‘‘The Dick Van Dyke Show’’ (1961-66).

’’ something crucial changed. starting in 1982. the solidly middle-class. Watching ‘‘Modern Family. Its characters’ relationship to work has ranged from nonexistent to insultingly indulgent.’’ which has company executives pretend to be employees. As the original owner. Those jobs are disappearing. of course. ‘‘Cheers’’ said. Flighty Shoshanna converts conscientious Ray’s empty cafe into a anti-hipster coffee shop. you can see the place is busy with cops and nurses.’’ ‘‘ordinary. The characters on these shows. much later. Through its early seasons.’’ Writers and producers from ‘‘The Cosby Show’’ — Matt Williams. there. Sarah’s arousal by that old working man on ‘‘Horace and Pete’’ is a recognition that something primal has gone: the making. more than 20 million people watched them both. Characters went from hanging out at work (‘‘The Mary Tyler Moore Show. especially ‘‘Girls.’’ ‘‘Taxi’’) to hanging out instead of working. Neurosis.Y ISSUE each show descended from Lear’s righteous class consciousness. But truck driving has proved a middle-class stalwart. Fundamentally. Hermie. for instance. ‘‘Modern Family. television started taking it easier on us.’’ a masterful machine that makes highly polished sitcommery.’’ which was set at a UPS-like facility.’’ ‘‘It’s Like.’’ which was set in Lanford. A dollar had to stretch and food had to last for a family of five. even ‘‘Girls’’ suspects a problem. For this profession. not of social station. Rather than sink to the bottom of the ratings. Life is hard enough. neither Roseanne nor Dan Conner could keep a full-time job.’’ ‘‘Living Single.’’ ‘‘Girlfriends’’ and. 4 Truck Driver It is a tough job — monotonous. Many sitcoms now are set in the places their creators know best: soundstages and writers’ rooms.’’ ‘‘Ellen. But the network’s marquee show. ‘‘Cheers. but steady employment changed the nature of the show. everybody spent more time at the restaurant.’’ which asks whether prosperity dilutes blackness. making an average of $19 an hour. Right now. the country welcomed the duality of Brooklyn’s prosperous black Huxtables and the penniless white Conners. television was barely equipped to reflect the collapse. But in the long term. currently. the revelations and class disjunction that emerge from the ruse have made me cry. You Know. The triumph of the most recent season’s final episode is the glee it takes in thumbing its nose at gentrification in our neighborhoods and on TV. let’s just make TV. and automotive companies are investing heavily in driverless trucks. the employment outlook is pretty good. In latter-season ‘‘Roseanne. but almost none had consequential careers. Ill. especially.’’ ‘‘WKRP in Cincinnati.’’ the commingling.’’ which ran for 11 seasons on NBC. The show made work and money matter. childless men and women might have had jobs. the doing that prove that we exist. Marcy Carsey and Tom Werner — also helped create ‘‘Roseanne. you’re not real — that doubles as a critique of both ‘‘Girls’’ itself and the cultural ravages of the hangout show. in part because the people who make shows were largely immune: They were well-compensated creatures of the entertainment industry. is a condition of identity. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . the average-looking and the elderly. On ‘‘Seinfeld. Belonging to a family of friends probably means you only have to support yourself. was the first great hangout show: neutralizing the depiction of class and removing the pressures of work. The factories and mills and laundries are now lofts and cafes where characters sit around and talk — where all they do is hang out. with ‘‘Black-ish.’’ When the economy began to tank in 2007. It pairs ‘‘The Middle. But after five seasons on HBO. the threat from automation is real. and the economy had improved.’’ ‘‘Two Broke Girls’’ and ‘‘Girls. a fictional factory town whose homes had a corresponding lived-in averageness.’’ about getting by in the heartland. We built this. The show has always been a stealthily shrewd satire of Millennial life. we manufactured that. the show’s preoccupations were as typical as those on ‘‘The Cosby Show’’: How. Television is losing what work is and knows it. Roseanne became the manager of a loose-meat-sandwich spot. Lee Solid Job That Still Exists No. More than once. ‘‘Happy Endings’’ and ‘‘New Girl. often alongside ‘‘Cosby. People working for minimum wage or doing manual labor became the province of reality television shows like ‘‘Dirty Jobs’’ and ‘‘Undercover Boss. a diet version of the Huxtable-Conner dichotomy recurring on ABC. obviating the typical economic ecosystem. We’re still some distance from ‘‘The King of Queens. mostly unaffected by a shrinking economy. How many jobs did Elaine and George have on ‘‘Seinfeld’’? And in how many fields? And Kramer — how was he paying to live across the hall from Jerry? Hangout shows placed friendship above family. Ever since. The work you do is on yourself.’’ ‘‘Friends. ‘‘normal.’’ Illustration by Hannah K. That disconnection sanitized TV against the complexities of race and class. And each felt like a rebuke of the vertiginous affluence and physical beauty of soaps like ‘‘Dallas’’ and ‘‘Dynasty’’ and a rejoinder to the upper-middle-class comfort of ‘‘The Cosby Show. do we raise these kids? But some weren’t: Are we going to stay married? At the time. Gradually. Some weeks. The change now feels like both a socioeconomic triumph and a creative capitulation: The show was just following where other sitcoms were already headed. goes on a tirade while pouring free coffee around the shop. Oil and gas outfits are already using remotecontrol vehicles to transport iron ore and crude oil. The New York Times Magazine 79 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r.’’ ‘‘Sex and the City. lonely and high-pressure. with about 1. a final-season Hail Mary had the Conners hit the lottery).8 million people on the road. There is.’’ for most of its run. hanging out. a technological doomsday might be nigh.. Bill Clinton was in the White House. It’s a joke — if you’re not working. has so little to do with most modern families that its claim of modernity often feels like a joke. Her financial worries didn’t abate (until. ‘‘Roseanne’’ hovered at or near the top. TV became — and still is — a medium struggling to understand ‘‘average.’’ exist in an alternative realm — a kind of ‘‘whatever’’ class.’’ I often find myself asking what it even means to work. most of them men.

where somehow people genuinely think that he slashed government and slashed the deficit and that the recovery was because of all these massive tax cuts. for whatever recovery we’ve had since the crisis. At one point.’’ Obama said.C. but rather my assessment that most trends are irreversible given the nature of global supply chains. 2014. mostly operated by computers. made anything else nearly impossible.’’ Rogoff said. to initiate a massive infrastructure project — it was the perfect time to do it. had included very little interaction with workers. the economic platforms of the current Republican candidates for president. in part because the benefits remain uncertain. employs only 300. too.O. ‘‘It’s one of the reasons that I pursued the Trans-Pacific Partnership. an economy remains an open question. even if they got a new job with good benefits elsewhere. but also pointed to the direction the economy is going. the Fed has been blamed for widening inequality. back on Air Force One. which he could have if he wasn’t going for the Affordable Care Act.’’ 5. and it cost him. think that any of those things are plausible. credit Ben Bernanke. He clearly recognizes the problem — he said he spends a lot of time thinking about it — but he also knows the solutions will come only when he is long out of office. Economists credit the Fed’s policy of keeping interest rates at historic lows with helping to pump up the economy and bring unemployment down. they could have a hard time getting them back. is that our failure in 2012. massive need — the fact that we failed to do that. or try to export our environmental standards overseas so that we have more of a level playing field. perhaps in the form of a massive infrastructure bill. the Congressional Budget Office released a report estimating that the Affordable Care Act would ‘‘reduce the total number of hours worked. for example. The greatest economic power might in fact remain in the hands of the Federal Reserve. Obama said the lessons of his time in office are being misunderstood in the election campaigns. the ones that would really change history. Instead. bringing up the free-trade pact that. even as savers and retirees dependent on fixed-income assets have suffered. the current chairwoman. Now they could quit. and if they had a pre-existing condition.’’ In other words. low interest rates.’’ For whatever sense of ‘‘uncertainty’’ business leaders lament. politics or tax cuts or the mythology that’s been built up around the Reagan revolution.A. a physical marvel that if built several decades ago would have easily employed a few thousand people. It dawned on me that Obama’s tour of the factory. If they quit their jobs or were fired.’’ Obama said. ‘‘Slashing taxes particularly for those at the very top. including another stimulus. ‘‘We could have brought down the unemployment rate lower. At the same time. all that was available to Obama was executive action: The ascendant G. and Obama could pass only so much major legislation before the congressional election that many expected to flip House control from the Democrats to the Republicans. over any number of other high-priority agenda items. Frank. It was a scene that underscored a challenge facing the U. as opposed to a shift in interest-rate policy — if we can’t describe that effectively.A. ‘‘And Bernanke and Yellen were appointed by whom? Neither Bernanke or Yellen would have been able to do what they were doing without his full backing. ‘‘I think the Federal Reserve has done more. a lot of people worked because they had to. And for all of that. in order to keep their insurance. ‘‘If you look at the platforms.P. with the most rudimentary knowledge of economics. he signed an order calling on government agencies with oversight of industry to find ways to make them more competitive. the director of the office.’’ When the president’s motorcade left Saft to head back to Air Force One.’’ he said. you’re still irritated. he was shown machine after machine.C. ‘‘have to worry about retraining at some point in their careers. He raised the minimum wage for federal contract workers to $10.5 percent to 2. but with a perverse effect on the economy. for his part. he overhauled immigration policy to protect some illegal immigrants from deportation (the Supreme Court just heard a case to overrule the action).0 percent during the period from 2017 to 2024’’ — a seemingly disastrous outcome for the economy. ‘‘If you 80 went back a few years. Paul Ryan. So the president turned more and more to regulatory rule changes and executive orders. as it indeed did. Many citizens. cost us time. No employees necessary. ‘‘If your health care premiums go up by 6 percent.’’ Republicans were unanimously opposed to the bill. dismantling regulatory regimes that protect our air and our environment and then projecting that this is going to lead to 5 percent or 7 percent growth. Critics of Obama. ‘‘even though the trend lines have been those premiums are going up 15 percent. or damage. ‘‘We just saw here those robots were pretty impressive. But. ‘‘I can probably tick off three or four common-sense things we could have done where we’d be growing a percentage or two faster each year.’’ Ultimately. you might say. But without Congress. even if they were sick. ‘‘The fact of the matter is. the big legislative moves. And all of this makes people feel that they don’t know what’s around the corner. including the new House speaker. This giant mecca of innovation. That meant that he had to choose the A. later wrote. faster. Obama noted the robots.’’ Whether a president can truly improve.’’ Obama knows it. he was introduced to WALL-E. they don’t simply defy logic and any known economic theories. I noticed something unusual: The plant’s parking lot was extremely small. they are fantasy.16 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. in the form of benefits. And those things keep me up at night sometimes.’’ Ryan said at a January news conference. ‘Well. we’re losing them to technology. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . 2013. filled with photo ops and handshakes. Americans do not yet seem to be feeling the benefits of the new program.’’ He continued: ‘‘If we can’t puncture some of the mythology around austerity. a robot named after the Pixar film that takes battery components from a tray. and so we better be out there shaping the rules in ways that allow for higher labor standards overseas. they could lose those benefits.’’ Obama said. ‘‘not because I’m not aware of all the failures of some past trade agreements and the disruptions to our economy that occurred as a consequence of globalization. the former Federal Reserve chairman. That can cut either way in terms of a president’s economic legacy. a positive development for them. The occupational mix in the economy places greater demands on people because it’s changing more rapidly. In 2014. ‘‘It meant that there were folks who we could have helped and put back to work and entire communities that could have prospered that ended up taking a lot longer to recovery. because they can’t anticipate being in one place for 30 years. has divided both parties. That meant they would be much less likely to leave a job. seemed past. reduce the incentive to work for certain subsets of the population.Obama (Continued from Page 62) insurance from their employers. by about 1. ‘‘The reason for the reduction in the supply of labor is that the provisions of the A.’’ After 2010. uniquely. more portable insurance could transform the way we work and potentially have a real effect on wages in some sectors.1. like pressing cable companies to let customers use cable boxes made by rivals. almost jumped through the phone when I mentioned that argument during an interview. and claiming that they’ll do all this while balancing the budget. he said. ‘‘That was a trade-off he made. and Janet Yellen. on net. however. this may be a much more profound sense of uncertainty. because they had a somewhat captive work force. Nobody would even. swelling the price of real estate and corporate profits. construction industry is still on its heels. economy and one that may be the driving factor behind greater inequality: We’re not only losing jobs to overseas competition. which would have given the economy an unambiguous boost. he should’ve focused even more on pushing through a bigger fiscal stimulus. In the age of the gig economy.’’ Obama said.S. and that meant employers could be a little less worried about raising wages.10. contending it happened in spite of the president. then we’re doomed to keep on making more and more mistakes. We could have been lifting wages even faster than we did.’’ he said. Doug Elmendorf.

are filled with very few — albeit highly skilled — employees and lots and lots of machines. how the Latino immigrants are differentiated by country of origin. Brown says one quick way to assess a city’s fortunes over time is (Continued on Page 83) Architects Classic First produced in 1929 our Prague chairs personify the Bauhaus tenets of strength and simplicity. few people dealing with pregnancy in high school today could expect to attain such a good life. He did well there and rose to factory foreman. which brought some of its workers (including my grandfather Stanley) to Ohio. (It’s incorrect to say that America doesn’t make anything anymore. quickly growing frontier of central Massachusetts. but they don’t enable the kind of jump-up in socioeconomic status that my family experienced many decades ago. for example. a fast-growing economy and his own hard work enabled him to carve out a good life that must have seemed unattainable when he was younger.. By the time he retired after 54 years at the company. Steambent frame with hand-caned seat and back. Today things are not so clear. Natural.10-5 M-F (ET) . VISA . Manufacturing became more consolidated — Heald Machine. had settled centuries before. seems to have arrived in the city with an office job in hand. Worcester’s position close to the center of New England has been good for the transportation business. Bumpa. what their hopes and fears were for their children. U. which continued to grow. She was born in Plymouth. Stanley owned three homes and vacationed in Europe in the summer. A combination of historical luck. no aspiration at all. was bought by Cincinnati Milacron. Their history makes me love Worcester. at the Heald Machine +shipping 81 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. Brown is a professor of economics at Clark and a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. stable jobs. My grandparents. He told me that Worcester is right in the middle when it comes to the current circumstances of once-flourishing manufacturing centers in New England. walnut or b l a c k . At 33. grew up poor in Braintree. These are solid. In reality. a professor of geography at Clark University in Worcester. which factory they worked in. The forces that would eventually afflict the American middle class came early to Worcester. But she often finds herself noticing newly renovated three-deckers and wondering. These two trapped. from nurses and midwives to physicians and microbiologists. Stanley and Helen. A century ago. personal-care aides and a host of other medical-care assistants. MC . It was a great job for a young man with a new family in the midst of the Depression. whatever the distinction conferred by her heritage.S. his two siblings had long ago found spouses and moved away.Worcester (Continued from Page 75) toddler). beginning in the 1950s. he seemed to be stuck: at home. passengers on the Mayflower. who had survived a tough life as well. given his background. broken people somehow met and managed to put all that pain behind and create a new life in what still felt like the fresh. Then he married a 30-year-old widow. If you drive around Worcester now. you could have picked any three-decker and immediately grasped the basic life story of all its tenants: where in the world they came from. it’s just much harder to tell Worcester’s story simply. following a tip from a minister who had moved to Worcester. The school. Many of my relatives who stayed in town have worked either in the medical center as nurses or in the transportation field as truck drivers. had their own hurried wedding in 1936. By then their families were able to help out. John C. The virtuous circle collapsed by the 1980s. Needless to say. my father. meant that factories much farther away could afford to ship to East Coast ports. There are still factories in Worcester — for example. she would have been considered a spinster with a questionable past. she was with her parents in Braintree. dispatchers. Mildred.) The expansion of global trade meant that low-skilled American workers were competing with low-skilled workers abroad. But by early adulthood. But long gone are the days when Worcester’s plants offered a decent job to just about anybody willing to put in a hard day’s work. And many of the country’s rules. one of Worcester’s biggest and oldest plants (which was bought by the French conglomerate Saint-Gobain in 1990). There are a healthy number of higher-paying jobs. New employees looking to join the middle class must have not just a high-school diploma but an associate degree. Before long. Deborah Martin. Similarly. Arm Chair $419 Side Chair $389 request brochure National Ordering: 800-616-3667 Fax 202-526-5679. Before long. however. like union-friendly laws and other protections for workers. manufacturing has grown steadily for the past several decades. But it also has more than the average number of lower-skilled jobs at or near the minimum wage — food-service workers. where her ancestors. a result of having nearly a dozen colleges in one medium-size city. if not a bachelor’s degree. rail-yard inspectors. a baby and a job as a stitcher in a shoe factory. another small industrial city in Massachusetts. She knows a fair bit: where the Ghanaians live. Eventually he became an office manager in a razor factory. the University of Massachusetts placed its medical school in the city. it has a huge number of educators for its population. brought several generations’ worth of high-paying medical jobs and a fair number of lower-paying support positions. sit-down job. Whenever it was she met Bumpa. poor. were weakened or disappeared. who is that? What are they doing? Worcester reflects what’s going on throughout the United States. AE www. has spent years leading students through the city and researching its social dynamics. The Worcester area has a disproportionately large community of well-paid medical professionals. which. Mass. Jack. would have counted as an impressively skilled. followed too soon by the birth of a son. it’s easy to imagine there is no rising middle class. Technological innovations changed factory work. with a failing marriage. Worcester did enjoy one bit of good fortune: In the 1960s. For all its decline in the second half of the 20th century.homewardfurniture. caring for aging parents. they had three more children. The development of the Interstate highway system. her husband and baby both died. Bumpa George got Stanley a job at Heald. Norton. and containerized shipping a few years later. Today’s factories. where he worked until his retirement decades later. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

Completely caught up. . . 3 1 2 1 0 0 3 Path B 1992 gold medalist Devers • Utah’s ___ Canyon • Plant used to make Christmas decorations • Compass pointer • Gym game in which players try not to get hit D N E B G L H A B Our list of words. . Rating: 10 = good. Path B starts in the same place but winds up and down. the inventor of basketball (3 wds. 56 B 57 V 58 H 59 M I. Then transfer each letter to the correspondingly numbered square in the pattern. . Black squares indicate where words end. I 63 E 146 N 147 R ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 59 S 62 1 . . Path A starts in the upper-left corner and winds left and right. 15 = excellent. City east of The Hague R 17 S 164 K 165 D D 20 T 21 S 42 V 43 D 44 U 45 M 64 R 65 J 66 F 105 I 106 V 87 P 88 H 107 G 108 H 129 R 130 M 131 L 148 A 149 I 150 T 151 D 169 T 170 N 171 C 172 F R. . taking hairpin turns at the curved ends. Each path contains a series of answers placed end to end. . . c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . Letters may be reused in a word. Mode of travel involving a team 79 O 4 46 F 47 A 48 Guess the words defined below and write them over their numbered dashes. a schoolyard retort. . Hundred Acre Wood pessimist ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 72 136 23 115 87 80 104 132 37 7 44 159 V. . The numbers at the side of the grid tell you how many cells in the corresponding rows and columns are occupied by vessels. 1950 movie musical’s title song E 15 N 16 3 . . 2 . . . . worth 23 points. . At least one word will use all 7 letters. as shown). . . one letter per space (including each loop on the sides). 122 B 123 E 124 J 125 Q 126 S 127 V 128 I 142 M 143 Q 144 V 145 L 160 S 161 B 162 V 163 Q 1 . . . . underwater ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 35 169 20 150 4 55 83 111 U. .) 28 45 167 130 142 76 singer (2 wds. .) ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 46 112 66 131 36 82 68 125 50 127 42 33 91 153 172 137 78 9 18 145 94 109 69 152 O ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 15 170 103 60 118 85 146 40 O. . v . . . James ____. as a statement. . . < 38 E 39 O 40 N 135 O 136 P 137 F 138 K 139 S 140 C 141 H 73 108 58 155 141 120 88 C. . . . ACROSTIC 1 V 2 24 C By Emily Cox & Henry Rathvon 119 25 A 26 G 27 89 R C D 7 J 28 M 29 F 92 M 93 T 112 F 51 107 121 154 26 95 54 24 5 70 86 124 19 62 93 128 168 11 101 27 65 49 158 iceberg ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 14 123 63 157 38 48 149 29 K. .) • Scream Ex. As a question. . Just before the deadline (hyph. . The filled pattern will contain a quotation reading from left to right. administratively (2 wds. The Thrilla in Manila. How Abraham Lincoln and Jimi ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 13 1 . . . .Puzzles SPELLING BEE SWITCHBACKS BATTLESHIPS By Frank Longo By Patrick Berry By Wei-Hwa Huang How many common words of 5 or more letters can you spell using the letters in the hive? Every answer must use the center letter at least once. . for one 105 12 D. small E. 96 34 143 17 163 90 106 30 1 57 162 144 82 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. . . . . . Risk factor for sleep disorders Q. “The Piano Has Been Drinking” 67 L 19 1 . The first letters of the guessed words will form an acrostic giving the author’s name and the title of the work. . . . cheering support (2 wds.) • Large landed estate in Mexico • School singing group (2 wds. . . . Pizza-party portions. . . . . . . 3 2 1 2 2 0 0 A T Fleet 0 . winding paths. . . . This is a puzzle version of the classic pencil-andpaper game. . Place 1 cruiser (3 grid cells. . . 148 134 25 S 3 3 . .) 77 L.) 3 41 166 O 167 M 168 I N. Score 1 point for each answer. appears with last week’s answers. . . 20 = genius Path A Popular guy who can do no wrong (2 wds. . ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 147 16 129 89 31 64 139 110 126 160 81 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 84 ____ ____ 152 166 P. 2 destroyers (2 cells) and 3 submarines (1 cell) in the grid horizontally and vertically so that no 2 vessels touch. Something huge or powerful B. Like Austin Powers in style ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 102 117 53 135 22 1 . . 52 K 53 O 54 C 55 T 157 E 158 J 159 U 161 99 I 1 . . . . Jersey or Guernsey. . R 32 K 33 F I 94 L 95 G ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 75 I 30 V 31 G 9 G 72 P 73 H 74 E 75 C 76 M 77 K ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 140 171 8 G. . Apartment-door security feature 92 0 . Q 18 101 J 102 O 103 N 104 U ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 6 71 J. Brewery takeout order. Class in combat sports 39 B 22 O 23 P S. 82 Q 83 T 84 O 85 N 86 J M. 34 Q 35 T 36 L 37 P ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 10 F 10 2 . Answers in this grid proceed in two long. . . often 74 78 F 79 A 80 U 81 98 C 99 B 100 D 97 113 32 164 13 138 52 F. Completely covered as if by a flood 21 122 56 U I 49 J 50 Q 51 G 132 U 133 D 134 A 153 F 154 G 6 70 D 71 90 V 91 109 L 110 S 111 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 47 T 5 67 O 68 Q 69 L A. . . . . . clued in order of appearance. Hugo or Nebula Award category J 12 113 K 114 D 115 P 116 C 117 O 118 N 119 A 120 H 121 G 155 H 156 C 8 A 11 0 . . . Proper names and hyphenated words are not allowed. not even diagonally. . and 3 points for a word that uses all 7 letters. . 60 N 61 Hendrix died ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 98 156 116 K 14 4 . Stone with the appearance of a crude tool 61 41 2 T.) 151 100 43 165 133 114 96 Q 97 E H.

walking with his parents in Worcester’s Green Hill Park. ‘‘Too much. worrying all the while that their temporary visa would not be renewed and that they would be sent back to Iraq. But after the American invasion. one day. though he still works several shifts a week at Brooks Brothers. In 2012. and they have a newborn daughter and plans for more kids. the family received word that its refugee application to the United States had been approved. Worcester is for working. Now they’re married. Don’t go to Arizona. His father had specialized in custom-made men’s suits. universities and a bit of manufacturing still. Love. Ahmed Yusef. Move to Worcester. Ahmed opened his own business. first to Syria. I went to see the shuttered Heald Machine factory on the northeast side of town. and there are no jobs. had some Arabic writing in the window. Nothing screams at recent immigrants or people struggling in other parts of New England to rush to Worcester to fulfill their dreams. Ahmed. ‘‘You like Worcester. where he worked with his father. I said. I stopped the car and entered a tiny tailor’s shop. Those other cities are too expensive. then to Egypt. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . I have a future. he was told. so Ahmed’s father took a contract making uniforms for the Iraqi Army. Boston’s robotics or the tourism of Salem and Lowell. It doesn’t have. can’t credit its success to any one industry. he’ll have many children.’’ he said. not like. This landed him on a hit list.’’ Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. his mother pointed out a young Iraqi woman. Many urban areas in Massachusetts experienced a population collapse in the 1970s and 1980s. It’s too hot there. He told me that he has been to New York and Miami.Worcester (Continued from Page 81) to look at its population. But Worcester and some others have had slow and steady growth over the past few decades. Ahmed soon found work as a tailor — he’s been at Brooks Brothers for three years now. Worcester. They were beautiful: ‘‘Like a dream. Nobody wanted men’s suits. where housing is cheap. One day recently. right across the street. say.’’ He said: ‘‘No. that some of them will even work with him in the tailor shop. He grew up in Mosul. One day. the first shop I noticed. I love it. called the one person he knew in America. he notes. I met the proprietor. As I drove past the factory gates. thrilled. The city’s economy is a more complicated tale. and in 2005 the family fled. Worcester instead benefits from a whole bunch of things: hospitals. and they were offered a chance to resettle in Arizona. Mosul became a front line in the battle between American and Iraqi forces and Al Qaeda. He envisions that. and opportunities are plenty. New York is for dreams. Iraq. an old client who lived in Worcester. also a tailor. too busy.’’ he said. But he was always happy to get back to Worcester.

e. I’s Battle of the Falklands 20 Celtic who was the M. All rights reserved. nytimes. sounds like a informally word meaning “understated” 85 Find some advantage 36 Take its toll? 86 Red giant in the 38 *Board constellation 42 *Alliance member Cetus 46 They may result in 87 *Crossed pair title changes. fancy that!” 6 Abbr. for one 31 March 14. in shadows Harry Potter 60 *Ted talks. 61 Arts-page contributor 62 Novelist Vonnegut 63 Big Four record co.H. subtraction. 11 Turns off 19 Source of good Puzzles Online: Today’s puzzle and more than 9. in “Breaking Bad” 21 Seaman’s aid 53 “Oh. in I Corinthians Honduras 26 Neither wizards 59 Stand in the nor witches. A 7x7 grid will use 1–7.000 past puzzles. for 89 *Search party short 1 Grass and such 7 Lifesavers.A. 1 hit “Broken Wings” 115 “____ about right” 116 Eyelike opening. 106 ____-deucy 109 Some 112-Down retakers: Abbr.95 a year). maybe 20 Tried to open. that broke up in 2012 64 Headlong or headstrong 65 Striven 66 What rugged individualists seldom admit to 67 Light shade 71 Classic hairremoval brand 72 Reputation 73 Gung-ho 74 Skin: Suffix 75 Numbskull 78 Posting at JFK or DFW 79 Eastern royals 80 Heavy load 81 Pause word in Psalms 84 Scam with three cards 85 Information on a sports ticket 88 Exceed 90 Fashionable 91 Latin carol word 92 Prynne of “The Scarlet Letter” 96 Question mark’s key-mate 98 “Charlie’s Angels” ($39. capers and anchovies 48 Fragrant wood 50 Grain to crush fortune 51 Background-check runner.L. say 49 Small stream 50 Wheat ____ 52 What sharpshooters take 54 Prompt 57 Vow that’s mostly vowels 58 When golden goals happen in the N. to math lovers 33 Fibonacci or Galileo 35 Casino offering.KENKEN. that can be written with an ampersand 7 The casino in “Casino” 8 Soccer goof 9 Kite adjunct 10 Goldbrick 11 The Pentagon inits. For the daily puzzle commentary: nytimes. of the 2008 N. say 41 “Cómo ____ usted?” 42 in the book of Numbers 102 Biodiesel fuel source 103 Prefix with ecology or chemical 104 ____ Linda. by using addition. where is ____ victory?”: 56 Hundred. as a pet door 52 Government org. A 5x5 grid will use the digits 1–5. whose mascot is Paydirt Pete 43 Coastal desert of southern Africa 44 Fruity drink 45 Tops in handwriting. multiplication or division. on calculators 112 Exam with a Science Reasoning section 113 Wish undone KenKen® is a registered trademark of Nextoy. derived from the Latin for “five each” 37 Revenue source for Fish and Wildlife departments 39 Jocular disclaimer 40 Spoonful.P. that’s clever!” 22 *Z.g. in literature and film 17 Besmirches 18 German vice admiral killed in W. in architecture 117 Ones breaking game rules? 118 Big buildup 119 “Great” Eurasian region DOWN 1 Almanac fodder 2 Home of the daily World-Herald 23 25 26 29 30 34 11 27 31 32 35 36 43 37 44 62 63 49 53 57 83 86 58 90 91 76 41 66 67 78 79 80 71 81 85 88 92 93 96 104 108 40 59 77 84 95 103 39 70 87 89 18 54 65 75 82 17 50 69 74 16 46 64 68 73 15 38 45 56 61 14 33 52 60 13 28 48 55 12 24 51 102 10 21 47 72 9 20 22 42 8 105 109 94 97 98 99 106 100 101 107 110 111 114 115 116 117 118 119 112 113 5/1/16 STELLAR WORK 3 Clicker for Dorothy 4 Tie word 5 “Well. Calif.V.W. say books 68 Reebok rival 28 Language 69 Texas city in the descended from movie “Friday Old Norse Night Lights” 29 Tiara 70 Bonn one accompaniment 72 Pro-consumer 31 Subject of the 1954 ideology Nobel Prize in 76 In back Medicine 77 Jet fuel.Puzzles Edited by Will Shortz 1 47 Dips made with olives. 111 Tan neighbor. and so that the digits within each heavily outlined box will produce the target number shown. 15 Labor pain 16 Pirate’s mate. mainly 32 Eagerly unwrap 82 Stave off 34 God whose name 83 Good friend. as indicated in the box. 12 Crystalline weather phenomenon 13 “____ of Heaven! too gentle to be human” (line from Shelley’s “Epipsychidion”) 14 Unlofty loft KENKEN Fill the grid with digits so as not to repeat a digit in any row or 3 4 5 6 7 19 By Joel Fagliano and Byron Walden ACROSS 2 93 Drainage pit 94 ____ example 95 Owl’s prey 97 Browns and Blues 99 “House Hunters” network 102 Bromine and fluorine compounds 105 Kind of band 107 Move it 108 Boastful types 110 *Let’s hope 114 Group with the 1985 No. LLC. 2000 100 Keep occupied 101 One of 1. Mobile crosswords: nytimes. © 2016 www. Finals 23 Kaiser Permanente offering 27 Begat 30 W. 84 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e for one 55 Something to be 24 Behind divvied up 25 “O grave. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW .

24. . teethed. . nettled. 0 . tended. . tented. . If you found other legitimate dictionary words in the beehive. . . netted. teethe. . 1 . 4 . Also: Delete. . . . lengthen. . . teeth. . . feel free to include them in your score. . o . deleted. . The New York Times Magazine 85 Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. tenet. . . . c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . entente. 1 . . . . . . . . . . dented. . . . . 2 . . genteel. . . . detente. . nettle. .Answers to puzzles of 4. length. gentle.16 ‘TEE’ TIME L O C A T E A V A T A R H I R E A C E D C P I B A J O B A S E U N I X R E S O L E L E N G T H E N S S Y N C D R U N K P E T T Y R O C K S T O K E A I L E R O A N R E A A L B A U WM E S S W D A Y F N E E R S S R A C E O K P E T Y F S L S A E D S T Y H H A I D E S S A T T M A E I N P E R E A E I R B A R E S A T R U N S M I D G E A N L L L O A Y M S E R A L T D O A R P F E A D D O A R I L A S H I N O D A Y P A A N A M D L E S A D R I R C O B I T I A M P R O L Y N U T S C H I L E T Y C E R U S O R T T H E O R R H S O O V L E O R S O M B A R R I G R A E D S E P R A Y S R A T E B A B E P U C E L A N D A L S O S L O W J E T T Y L I N E R O P P O S I T E S I N R O I N S Z E S T A R T S C I N E M A A D O R E D M E S S R S T A K E R H Y M N KENKEN SPLIT DECISIONS L O O S L U P R O P S E T E S G F E S T O R A N O N O I A L A O I A A I U I X A LW U N R I R D X L X K I G U I T Z N M B U R W I L E S C T A I L S H A Z A R D C K A T H A Y E B Y E H O E I A P N C R N R E G Q L S S S R E O U L U G B E F L T T R U R C H C E L O I N T O O O Y O A U O I O T K N U P L A V I R A Q K Y O L R E I N D E N T C H E E T E N U S S E E C O U T MW O E X P I H A R Y E M I O L I E I E E I D E L U L A A G MA E M B I O C O S L N E S S R S U C C U R A N B U A X G E C O HEX NUTS O T T A P A O T E K O T R D E L R BATTLESHIPS A P S C A C I I H C E D E T C E S E E S T D 4 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 . 0 . telnet. . tenth. . Answers to puzzle on Page 82 SPELLING BEE Lengthened (3 points).

but with the democratization deemocratization brought on by the Internet. I didn’t really give it muc much attention. But I wanted to know more. to be sitting at a table full o of guys talking about hip-hop. I was 19. trying to blend b in. I need to call him and let him know that I wrote that. Why haven’t yo you done any more? I can hear some of th the songs and be like. you write a bit about a boyfriend who felt threatened by your 86 5. Interview has been condensed and edited. He’s listening to Future. When you’re a grown-up. it’s the lifestyle. When I got into the music business and hip-hop. It seems show for about two decades. When you’re u’rre young.16 Age: 45 Occupation: Radio personality Hometown: New York Martinez hosts ‘‘The Angie Martinez Show’’ on Power 105. I wanted to sit at the table w with them. it can go bad fast. c o m +1 604 278 4604 • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • ORIGINAL COPY • CO PY R I G H T A N D P R OT E C T E D BY A P P L I C A B L E L AW . think anyone had experienced ncced this type of conflict on a national level. od dy who speaks have to just find somebody to you. that other music genress don’t d have the dio o that hip-hop same relationship to radio e’’s a reason for does.Angie Martinez Doesn’t Like to Crush People’s Hopes Interview by Ana Marie C Cox o ox You’ve been hosting a hip-hop h radio caades. Do you think there’s that difference? People who w are fans of hip-hop are fans of the overall verall culture. Talk Photograph by Christian Oth Printed and distributed by PressReader P r e s s R e a d e r. You Through anybody and everybody. So let’s sa say Donald Trump wanted to come on your y show. The driver says he wants me to listen to more bachata. One thing you did with your show was that you o offered a sympathetic ear to people who wh may not be getting sympathy in other oth places.1 in New York and is the author of the autobiography ‘‘My Voice. ’cause I’m in an Uber right now.1. though. With Trump. I didn’t feel secure enough to be able to take an opportunit opportunity away from somebody. Was there no older generation of rap st stars tars to look up pers. In the book. errnet. You gave a pretty friendly in interview to Chris Brown in 2009. I treated tre him like a human being who made a mistake — not a monster. Jay Z 2. Contrary to what a lot of people say. vell. One reason reaso you left is you said you didn’t like crushing the hopes of the people who w auditioned. kers aren’t the only tastemakers w music today? So how do you find new ev verybody. But you re released two albums yourself.. Radio can deliver all the parts of that as well. Notorious B. Radio used to be the singular ullar place to find new music. trying to make sure I knew all my stuff. it’s the music. is that correct? It might have been three. A few times West Coast feud of the ’90s. it’s the TV shows we watch.’’ you write In your memoirs. ‘‘Oh.G. ‘‘My Voice. I think he knows what w he’s doing. Have you actually gotten a good recommendation from an Uber driver? Let me see. and once he’s there he’ll do the right thing. he’s just trying to get in the position. he is not a dumb guy. I try! That’s a really hard one. I was a tom tomboy. you learn ways ay ys how to cope. Rakim 3. You really do try to see the best in people. I could have done better than that. I really just kept going and kept working. you evolve into a person wh who ho can deal with conflict better. which give gives you some credibility. making sure I had baggy clothes on. You had a very short-lived gig on ‘‘American Idol. But now I do see it. so I was used to being around a lot of boys. Yeesh.’’ It’s like looking at a hig high-school photo. even probably a seasoned artist. ‘‘Oh. But you don’t d really talk explicitly about sexi sexism or gender in your career. you guys ke any more.’’ Four shows. It’s really a full culture as opposed to just th the he music. Were you able to watch wa that show at all? I love that show.I. it’s kind of goo good. oiice.’’ Her Five Favorite Rappers: 1.’’ But I think any artist. 2Pac success. J. 4. and maybe he doesn’t believe some of the things he’s saying. h. but I’m already up on Future. but I don’t to? There were older rappers. Cole 5. The difference is tha that Chris was still pretty much a kid at tha that point. ylee. probably looks back on the first couple of things that they did d and is like. I can get it from my y Uber driver. Ye Yeah. you attribute it to youth. I have to know more. I wasn’t co consciously thinking: ’Cause I’m a woman. I keep hoping that maybe it’s a like some big facade. It’s the clothing. It was almost like blinde blinders. but I wasn’t a singer.’’ ad dly East Coast/ a little bit about the deadly 90 0s. h.

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