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Workshop Technology Manual
Pattern Making


MME 1103


1 PATTERN MAKING EQUIPMENTS Machines (b) Horizontal Sander Machine (a) Vertical Sander Machine Other Tools (b) Steel ruler (a) Try square (d) Hand Saw (e) File (c) Compass (f) Sand Paper 0 .MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making 9.

wood absorbs moisture which the pattern could be distorted and changes in dimension. • elimination of fine details to be obtained by further processing. The shrinkage allowance for steel is 2%. machining). low in weight. Every metal have different rate of contraction. Cores are usually smaller than the actual cavity of the cast product to compensate shrinkages. has smooth surface finish and better dimensional tolerances. this requires pattern modification that can produce core prints in the mould cavity (Fig 9. • modification for economical moulding. plastic or metal depends on. for large scale production.Typical drafts range from 5mm/m to 15mm/m.1 (a) (taper). Other types of pattern allowances are such as machining. Patterns are usually made of wood. Core needs to be fitted securely and correctly positioned. easy to be shaped and relatively cheap. smooth surfaces and durability (Rao. Machining allowances usually ranges from 2 to 5mm. Molten metals will face reduction in volume from its liquid state to solid state. cast iron 1.2 INTRODUCTION Pattern Material Patterns are the foundry man’s molding tool. metal pattern is used since it is durable. 1998). easier formability. Plastic is used for pattern material for its low in machining). 2001) Another modification that is made to the pattern is when there are cavities in the casting product.(i. • the provision of core prints. (Kalpakjian et. Such shapes may cause defects in casting and fabrication of pattern are necessary to be less complicated and economical in pattern making as well as in moulding process. 1996) Pattern usually is made usually larger than the cast mainly to compensate shrinkage. Cores are the materials used for making cavities and hollow projection of the cast product. and • elimination of shapes that cause defects in casting (Gupta. 1 . to avoid other following processes such as machining. • size of casting • the number of casting to be made from the pattern • the dimensional accuracy required Wood is the most commonly used due to its availability.MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making 9. Thus. • the addition of pattern allowances. Therefore.8%.e.05% and aluminum 1. draft as in Fig 9. The pattern is a replica of the part or final object to be cast with some modifications. However. Intricate shapes and fine details are easily done with other processes (i.1(b)). Modification in Pattern The main modifications that have to be made in pattern are because of. shake and distortion allowances.

(a) Single piece pattern (b) Split pattern or two piece pattern (c) Cope and Drag Pattern (d) Loose piece pattern Figure 9. size and the required number of casting and method of moulding.MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making Figure 9.N Rao. each satisfying certain casting requirements such as the shape.78) 2 . P. page 76 . In each case pattern is usually constructed by simplest and cheapest way depending on the conditions mentioned and figures shown below are few types of patterns.2: Types of pattern (Courtesy from Manufacturing Technology.N Rao.1: Modification in pattern (a) Draft and (b) Core Prints (Courtesy from Manufacturing Technology. page 70 and 73) Types of Pattern There are several types of patterns. P.

remove the other part as shown in the Figure 9.4. Make sure the two surfaces of the work piece are 90˚ and smooth.3: Marking the workpiece by using try square.3 PROCEDURE Note: • Please read the safety section first. Figure 9. • Dimension is not included in this procedure. Measure the exact value of the width and thickness of the work piece. 1. • Each semester there will be changes in the shapes and dimension of the pattern. Then. Use the sander machine to remove the material. Use either vertical or horizontal sander machine to get flat surface of the wood block (workpiece). Figure 9. • Read the project drawing and follow the instruction.4: Parts to be removed 3 .MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making 9. 3. Mark with pencil at one side material to be removed in order to get 900 of each side of the workpiece. 2.

4 . use sand paper for finishing. Finally. Mark the material to be removed with exact dimension and then. 5. remove the part by using the sander machine.MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making 4.

Prentice Hall International.e. S and Schmid. 4. 2 minute rule… 9. Always think for a few minutes before you carry out your next step. Manufacturing Technology. J. Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Be calm and serious. 2. Basic Workshop Practice. Gupta. 3. You must stop the machine before leaving it. Never let your friend to handle the starting switch for you. S. (1999). Wait till he or she completes the operation before talking to him or her. (1996). 10. Rao. Beware of power source and high temperature. Pay attention to details. (2001). Do not use your hand(s) or finger to stop moving or rotating machines of parts of machine. 13. S. Foundry. Never leave machine running unattended. 3. 2nd Edition. Do not run in the workshop. 2. Do wear proper attire i.5 SAFETY GUIDELINES 1. When facing with problems while using any machine. 12. Loose clothing. References 1. It is best not to distract a person who is operating the machine.R. 7. Footwear must be worn at all time to prevent injury. 8. 14.K. 6. 4th Edition.. When you are operating a machine. 5. stand at a proper and safe distance. P. Chand & Company Ltd 5 . Always wear mask. Do not start any machine before obtaining instruction(s) from your instructor (workshop technician or designated personnel). Tata McGraw Hill.MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Pattern Making 9.N. Forming and Welding. get help or advice from your instructor. 11. workshop jacket. finger rings and other accessories are some possible source(s) of accident. . Make sure you understand your machine before you start working on it.