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Chapter 1 – Respiration

4. ________________ = Process of breathing out air.

1. The human respiratory system consists of:
a. _______________________________
b. _______________________________
c. _______________________________
d. _______________________________
e. _______________________________
f. _______________________________
g. _______________________________
h. _______________________________
i. _______________________________
j. _______________________________

5.

Lungs – main respiratory organ.

Located in the _________________________ and protected
by the _______________.

6. Pathway:
_______________________  ___________________ 
_____________________  _______________________ 
______________________

2. The function of different parts of the respiratory system:
a. Nasal cavity
 Warms and moisten air.
 Filters dusts particles in air.
b. Trachea
 Consists of cilia and mucus.
 Trap dust particles and microorganisms in air.
c. Bronchus
 Direct air to the left and right lungs.
d. Lung
 Consists of alveoli.
e. Diaphragm
 Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
3. ________________ = Process of breathing in air.

7. Differences between inhalation and exhalation mechanisms:
Aspects
Diaphragm muscle
External intercostal
muscle

Inhalation

Exhalation

Internal intercostal muscle Movement of ribs Volume of the thoracic cavity Air pressure in thoracic cavity Movement of air .

4. ______________. Oxygen then diffuses into the cells and is used in respiration. 2. Surrounded by a network of ___________________________ 3. it breaks down to release oxygen.1. When oxyhaemoglobin reaches the body tissue. 6. oxygen will combine with haemoglobin to form _____________________________. The exchange of respiratory gases occurs in the _____________ by ___________________. ___________ surface area and _________ walls. Alveolus: a. In the blood. b. The components of inhaled and exhaled air: . c. 5.

Substances Sulphur dioxide Factory smoke Asbestos dust Dust and soot Carbon monoxide Vehicles exhause Hydrocarbons Oxides of nitrogen Tar Nicotine Cigarette smoke Carbon monoxide Effects  Corrodes the tissues of the alveolus and trachea walls.  Cancer  Damage lung tissues.  Heart attack.  Smog.  Oxygen cannot be transported to the blood capillaries.1. Sources 2.  Cancer  Blackens the lungs  Affect blood flow.  Lung cancer  Breathing difficulties.  Reduce the capacity of blood to carry oxygen.  Smoking  Carcinogen (asbestos dust. Respiratory diseases: Diseases Asthma Lung cancer Emphysema Factors  Genetic factors  Food allergy  Pollutants and dust  Inflammation of the breathing channel. Harmful substances and their effects to human respiratory system.  Trigger the growth of cancerous cells.  Addiction.  Lung cancer  Reduce the capacity of blood to carry oxygen. hydrocarbons and nicotine) Symptoms  Breathing difficulty  Coughing  Tightness in chest  Smoking  Dust        Influenza  Virus      Pneumonia  Bacteria  Viruses        Loss of appetite Heavy coughing Weight loss Chest pain Breathing difficulty Coughing continuously Breathing difficulty Tiredness Blocked or runny nose Teary eyes Giddiness Aches in the limbs Fever Cough Lungs filled with pus and fluids Breathing difficulty Chest pain Fever Cough .