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INTRODUCTION

Everyone knows that we can't live without blood.Without
blood, our organs couldn't get the oxygen andnutrients
they need to survive, we couldn't keep warm orcool off, we
couldn't fight infections, and we couldn't get ridof our own
waste products. Without enough blood, we'dweaken and
die. There are diseases and conditions involving the
blood. The most common is
anemia.
An anemia is a condition inwhich the number of red blood
cells (RBC) or the amount of hemoglobin (the protein in
red blood cells that carriesoxygen throughout the body) is
below normal. MegaloblasticAnemia (MGA), also known
as Pernicious Anemia, is a rareblood disorder
characterized by the presence of large,structurally and
visually abnormal, immature red blood
cells(megaloblasts). Decreased numbers and immaturity
of whiteblood cells (leukocytes) and blood platelets
(thrombocytes)may also occur.Megaloblastic Anemias are
usually caused by adeficiency or defective absorption of
either vitamin B12(cobalamin) or folic acid. As a result,
they are also known asthe vitamin deficiency anemias. In
most cases, thefundamental flaws leading to the several
forms of MGAcaused by vitamin deficiencies are present
at the time of birth and exist as a result of a genetic defect.
In addition,certain immunosuppressive drugs may also
causeMegaloblastic Anemia.As student nurses, we must
be aware of the signs andsymptoms of the disease so we
could be more effective indoing our duties.
OBJECTIVES

GENERAL:

To improve our skills, knowledge and attitude necessaryto
care for our patients with megaloblastic anemia.
SPECIFIC:
1.
To understand the disease process, its etiology,
signsa n d s y m p t o m s , p a t h o p h y s i o l o g y a n d d i a
g n o s t i c procedures,
2.
To d i s c u s s a n d d e s c r i b e i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r
h e a l t h promotion, prevention and treatment of
patients withmegaloblastic anemia.
3.
To d e v e l o p a t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l e
d u c a t e patients especially those who are susceptible to
anemiab y r e i t e r a t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g o o d a
n d h e a l t h y nutrition.
4.
To a s s i s t p a t i e n t s i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e a n x i
e t y a n d depression brought about by the condition.
5.
To p r o m o t e a w a r e n e s s t o i n d i vi d u a l s b y i m p a r t i
n g knowledge so they could learn and understand
moreabout megaloblastic anemia.
Biographic data:
Name: Mr. XAddress: Caloocan CityAge: 40 years oldSex:
MaleMarital Status: marriedReligion: Roman CatholicHealth
Care financing: United HealthcareUsual Source of Medical

Care: Health personnelChief Complaints:
WeaknessMedical Diagnosis: Megaloblastic
AnemiaDoctor: Dr. Romeo Rivera
History of present illness:
According to the patient, he was first diagnosed
withM e g a l o b l a s t i c a n e m i a l a s t J u n e o f 2 0 0
6 w h e n h e w a s hospitalized for 3 days at the
Martinez Memorial Hospital. He was admitted with
chief complain of body weakness.
Her e c e i ve d b l o o d t r a n s f u s i o n w h e n h e m a t o l o g y
laboratory