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8000 Arlington Expressway
Jacksonville, Florida 32211

JUNE 1980

Project Manager:
T.E. Bahlow

Principal Investigators:
R.E. Cantrell, P.E.
D.J. St. Pierre

Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188

Report Documentation Page

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JUN 1980






Ceramic Weld Backing Evaluation





Naval Surface Warfare Center CD Code 2230 - Design Integration Tools
Building 192 Room 128 9500 MacArthur Bldg Bethesda, MD 20817-5700




Approved for public release, distribution unlimited










19a. NAME OF

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18




Evaluation Plan and Procedure
Test Results
Analysis of Results
VI-1 Weld Soundness
VI-2 Toughness
VI-3 Bead Shape
VI-4 Stops and Starts
VI-5 Ceramic Attaching Methods
VI-6 Ceramic Neutrality
VI-7 Sumnary of Analysis
Recommendations for Future Development

APPENDIX A Detailed Test Assembly Parameters and Results



LIST OF TABLES Page Table 5 3.2 5.1 Torch Angles Used to Fabricate Test Coupons in Table 5.3 6.1 Ceramic Backing Data Summnary 4.3 5.4.4 Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis 44 45 46 47 6.4.1 6.1.2 6.3 Summary of Welding Data and NDE and Mechanical Testing Results for Test Coupons.1 Identification of Ceramic Type to Test Coupons 13 5.1 5.1 Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass PHASE I PHASE II Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass PHASE III Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass PHASE IV Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass EDX Analysis of Ceramic Material 16 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 6. Joint Designs Used to Fabricate Test Coupons in Table 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.2 Variations in Composition Between Ceramic-Backed and Corresponding Steel-Backed Weldments of of of of Phase Phase Phase Phase I Toughness Data II Toghness Data III Toughness Data IV Toughness Data 69 CHARTS Chart I Chart II Chart III Chart IV Phase Phase Phase Phase I Evaluation Plan II Evaluation Plan III Evaluation Plan IV Evalution Plan -ii- 9 10 11 12 .1.4.

9.7 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.11 6.9.12 Test Specimen Orientation “Chevron-Type” Wormhole Porosity Effect of Wormhole Porosity on Root Bend Ductility Chevron Porosity as Revealed by Radiography Example of Gross Porosity with Larger Wire and C02 Shielding Effect of Welding Technique on Bead Contour Mechanism for Formation of Wormhole Porosity Geometric Attributes of Back Bead and Principle Defects Cross Sectional Macrophotographs of Test Coupons Mechanism of Weld Metal Sag with Horizontal FCAW Example of Undercut Due to Sag “Keyhole” as it Appears to Welder Influences on SAW Back Bead Contours FCAW Restart Technique Over Ceramic Backing –iii- 14 35 36 37 38 39 40 52 53 57 58 59 60 62 .2 6.LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 4.6 6.8 6.1 6.4 6.10 6.1 6.

T.S. Maritime Administration and Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Bahlow of Offshore Power Systems (OPS) was Project Manager. -iv- . St.S. and Mr. Pierre of OPS were the Principal Investigators. D. E. Special acknowledgement is made to the members of Welding Panel SP-7 of the SNAME Ship Production Committee who served as technical advisors in the preparation of inquiries and evaluation of subcontract proposals. Cantrell and Mr. F. W.FOREWORD The purpose of this report is to present the results of one of the research and development programs which was initiated by the members of the Ship Production Committee of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers and financed largely by government funds through a cost-sharing contract between the U. Mr. Mr. J. X. Brayton and Mr. Wilfong of Bethlehem Steel Corporation were Program Managers. R. C. E. The effort of this project was directed to the development of improved methods and hardware applicable to shipyard welding in the U. shipyards.

FINAL REPORT ON CERAMIC WELD BACKING EVALUATION OFFSHORE POWER SYSTEMS JUNE 1980 I. parameters and icance were identified. . Changes in welding technique appear promising for control of these problems (though at some expense in bead shape) but further development in certain instances is required. Weldments were prepared and evaluated for soundness. toughness. problems were identified for certain FCPW processes in certain positions. No other problems of potential signifPromising joint designs. ceramic attaching Significant weldment soundness methods and ceramic neutrality. ABSTRACT Representative ceramic weld backing systems were evaluated with representative FCAW and SAW processes to determine their efficacy to produce second side weld contours not requiring subsequent back welding or preparation for inspection.1 - . bead shape. Relatively minor bead shape problems were identified and corrected for FCAW. Recommendations for future development are made. More significant bead shape problems were identified for submerged arc particularly in tandem applications. techniques were identified for welding over ceramic backing.

The objective of this program was to establish if ceramic tile backing and flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW) butt welding applications could provide: o visually acceptable as-welded back side contours requiring no cosmetic grinding repair o volumetrically acceptaable weldments requiring no grinding and welding repair. seems to have been the most dedicated and now markets a ceramic backing system complete with special filler material and power sources. INTRODUCTION One of the most costly and bothersome aspscts of the welding industry today is preparation of the weld second side for subsequent welding or inspection. Over the years numerous hacking systems (flux containers.) have been introduced and endured with varying levels of success and adaptability. Varies. The problem is further aggravated by the latitudes in joint geometry historically encountered in a construction environment. is forgiving enough to absorb construction tolerances. there is renewed interest and enthusiasm among domestic vendors. There is general agreement that if a backing system evolves prmitting full penetration one side welding with high deposition rate welding processes. and is cost effective in a production environment. copper shoes. none have found general acceptance.II. Even though ceramic backing. -2- . per se. is relatively easy to use. no others will consistently produce full penetration one side welds with a smooth. is not new. ceramic tiles. to some degree. the welding industry will commence a new era of efficiency. Apart from the low deposition rate welding processes such as GTAW and GMAW short arc. fiberglass tapes. of Holland. As yet. flux covered tapes. etc. controlled back side contour.

The powders are then given the desired shape by pressing in a mold. Ceramics may be “sintered to density” where any pores left are closed ones and the density is at a maximum. usually present in the final product and help determine its properties.III. These substances are either found in nature as minerals. such as silicon carbide (Carborundum). they are often heated to a tem perature at which any water of crystallization. magnesium oxide and iron oxide. An important varient of pressing is “extrusion” in which the substance. or non-oxidic Compunds. carbonates. After the raw materials are mixed. or are prepared from other natural raw In either case. such as silica (sand). After calcining. an organic substance that makes the grains of powder adhere together. the raw material contains certain immaterials. the formed products are heated to between 1800 and 3600°F. or in combination with the mixing if calcining is not required. Ceramics usually consist of oxides. the powder is generally ball milled to a fine grain size. such as barium carbonate. In the next stage (firing). alumina. CERAMICS The word "ceramics” covers a wide variety of products. is driven off (this process is called “calcining”). Other chemical reactions and a degree of sintering can occur during this process. all of which are made by forming followed by firing. or cordierite. if necessary mixed with water and a “binder”. In -3- . or carbon dioxide from carbonates. This process (sintering) can involve shrinkage of up to 30% possibly causing ceramic products even from the same mold to vary considerably in dimension and shape. made plastic with water and clay or an organic binder. is forced under pressure through a nozzle. The material undergoes further chemical changes and the grains which compose the powder fuse together. These impurities are purities as well as the desired compound. compunds of oxides ~ such as steatite (soapstone).

e. Their thermal conductivity is much lower than for metals (about 6%). material. silica. the non-oxidic silicon carbide (Carborundum) and graphite. porcelain. In oxidic Ceramics are much used for their chemical resistance. that reduction and hence break-up of the material can occur. Alumina. ceramics were used with the Varies magnetic holding devices. porcelain. -4- . magnesia. chamotte. Examples of heat resistant ceramic materials are alumina. the nature of the slag (i. forsterite. Ceramics are often used because of their favorable properties at high temperatures and under oxidizing conditions. Ceramics are frequently used where resistance to attack from acids. sillimanite.. mullite. steel trays which hold the ceramic tiles and in turn are held over the weld joint by magnets. zirconia. and graphite are resistant If molten slag contacts the ceramic to certain molten metals. zirconia. however.1.practice. ceramics the oxygen is so firmly bound that it is only at very high temperatures. magnesia. and in strongly reducing atomospheres. cordierite. bases and salt solutions is required. chromite. The other brands of ceramic backing were held in place with aluminum adhesive tape. all intermediate states from slightly baked powder containing continuous pore channels to the “sintered to density” state are used. chromite. The ceramic weld backing systems evaluated in this report are identified in Table 3. whether is contains an excess of base-forming or acid-forming oxides) must be considered. The principle constituents are cordierite and steatite with differences among manufacturers probably due to difThe Varies ferences in raw materials and/or processing cycles.


E70T-1 Flux-cored Wire with C02 Shielding o Phase III All Position. were evaluated in four “Phases”.1. was –6- . II. III & IV. TEST COUPON: The one assembly from each group/backing combination which. 5/64 and 3/32” Diameter. a specific combination of welding variables as identified in Charts I. E70T-1 Flux-cored Wire with C-25 Shielding o Phase II Flat Position. 3-M and Varios. EVALUATION PLAN AND PROCEDURE Representative ceramic backing systems from Chemetron. The four phases correspond to Charts I. having passed visual and radiographic examination. III and IV. Kuder. detailed in Charts I. III or IV and Table 4. GROUP: Within a phase. TEST ASSEMBLY: TWO base metal plates partially or completely welded in accordance with one of the group/backing combinations identified in Charts I. Each Phase. correspends to the following FCAW or SAW variations comnonly encountered in a production environment.1.IV. . II. o Phase I All Position. as previously identified in Table 3. II. 5/64” and Flat Position 3/32” E70T-G Self-Shielded Flux-cored Wire o Phase IV Flat Position Single and Tandem Submerged Arc Wire The evaluation plan made extensive use of the following definitions: PHASE: One of the four general FCAW or SAW processes or variations evaluated. II.052” and 1/16” Diameter. III or IV and assigned a unique letter identification by these Charts.

selected for mechanical and chemical evaluation in accordance with Charts I. assigns each group an alpha identifier and specifies the testing/evaluation performed on each coupon in the group. Charts I through IV identify. voltage. Test assemblies with. This was the first assembly made with these specific parameters and backing type. TEST SPECIMEN: One of the mechanical or chemical test pieces removed from a coupon and identified by Figure 4. A-2-1 From Table 4.1.1. If no internal defects were identified by radiography.052” diameter wire in the flat position. we know this assembly was made with FCAW. test assemblies were prepared for each combination of variables identified in Charts I through IV. 111 or IV. etc.1 identifies the type of backing evaluated with each Test assemblies made within a given group with a given group. Subsequent assemblies will exist only if this one fails visual or radiographic examination. technique. After welding a sufficient number of “practice” plates for approximate identification of current. the specific groups. II. visually acceptable beads were radiographed. EXAMPLE: From Chart I. for each of the four (4) test phases. All test assemblies were made by butt welding two 1/2” thick A36 plates. we know this assembly was made with Kuder Type lCR-062 ceramic backing. Table 4.. C-25 shielding. the welding parameters were verified by welding and visually and radiographically examining a second coupon using the same parameters as the original. backing are numbered sequentially. . . The plates/welds varied in length from approximately 12” to 18” assuring sufficient material for removal of appropriate test specimens should the assembly be selected for evaluation.

8 - . The Charpy Vee Notch specimens (five to a set) were machined and tested at +20°F in accordance with the appropriate parts of ASTM A370. The tensile and bend specimens were machined and tested in accordance with ASME Section IX.Upon successful verification. . the specimens for tests identified in Charts I through IV were removed from the coupon for evaluation. Macrophotographs were obtained either from the “CHEM” specimen before reduction in thickness or from excess coupon material. Figure 4. The specimen identified “CHEM” was machined so the bottom surface would lie in the approximate mid-thickness of the root bead and the top surface would lie in the approximate mid-thickness of the second bead permitting spectrographic analysis of the root and second bead.1 identifies the orientation (though not necessarily the removal sequence) of the various test specimens.


FLAT H-1 H-2 H-3 Q-4 3/32” FABCO-82 FLAT I RT MACRO BENDS TENSILE CVN CHEM RT MACRO BENDS TENSILE CVN CHEM FABCO-82 is manufactured by Hobart and complies with A5. E70T-1 CHART II PHASE II EVALlUATION PLAN -1o- .20.



KUDER A-2 A-3 A-4 CHEMETRON VARIOS A-5 1CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS 1 CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS 1CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 K-2 K-3 K-4 K-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS lCR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 c-2 c-3 c-4 c-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS lCR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 L-2 L-3 L-4 L-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS 1 CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 D-2 D-3 D-4 D-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS 1CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 M-1 M-2 M-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-4 N-1 N-2 N-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-4 0-l o-2 o-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-4 P-1 P-2 P-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-2 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS 1 R-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 F-2 F-3 F-4 F-5 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON VARIOS lCR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 G-1 G-2 G-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-4 H-1 H-2 H-3 KUDER 3M CHEMETRON 2CR-125 SJ8072X 69-300000-4 I-2 I-3 I-4 I-5 KUDER 3!4 CHEMETRON VARIOS 1 CR-062 SJ8069X 69-300000-2 VLG-02 Q-1 A36 STEEL Q-2 A36 STEEL Q-3 A36 STEEL Q-4 A36 STEEL TABLE 4.052” WIRE) (1/16” WIRE) (5/64” WIRE) (3/32” WIRE) .1 IDENTIFICATION OF CERAMIC TYPE TO TEST COUPONS -13- ( .

This surface is typically . This surface is at approximate mid-thickness of second weld bead. Charpy specimens per A-370.All Specimens centered on weld centerline.062” below original top of coupon.. This surface is at approximate mid-thickness of root weld bead.1 -14- . Fig. This surface is the original bottom (root bead) of coupon with back bead reinforcement removed. after weld reinforcement removed. Type “A”. 11. TEST SPECIMEN ORIENTATION FIGURE 4.

The information accumulated in the program and exhibited in Tables 5.3 additionally defines the torch angles presented in Table 5. 5. 5.1 are given in Table 5.V. TEST RESULTS Table 5.4.4. -15- .2. Details of joint designs identified in Table 5.1.5 and in Appendix A permitted evaluation of ceramic backing with regard to: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) weld soundness toughness bead shape stops and starts ceramic attaching methods ceramic neutrality A discussion of each area follows in the analysis portion of the report. III and IV spectrographic chmical analysis results are given in Tables 5. Table identifies the welding data and NDE and mechanical testing results applicable for the coupons evaluated.1 through 5. energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of each unfused ceramic type is displayed in Table 5.4. Additionally. respectively. Similar detailed data for all test assemblies is presented in Appendix A. II.1. The Phase I.3 and 5.

progression was backhand. which was necessary to maintain arc.CERAMIC GEOMETRY TABLE 5. 1 of 6) PHASE l -16- NOTES B-5 Radiography of cupon B-5 identified minor Chevron. allowing visual impection of the affected area C-2 Welded in the vartical up position. . O-1 Weldad over A-36 backing for chemistry comparison in ceramic nautrality evaluation. A root band specimen takan from this area failad. The torch was bald at a 15 angle from the vartical plana.1 Summary of Welding Data and NDE and Mechanical Testing Results for Test Coupons (pg.

-17- .CERAMIC GEOMETRY TABLE 5.) NOTES: Q-2 Weided over A-36 backing for chemistry comparison in caramic neutrality evaluation.1 (Cont.




lead) and 1-T [A.C._ CERAMIC GEOMETRY _ TABLE 5.) Summary of Welding Data and NDE and Mechanical Testing Results for Test Coupons (pg.36 steel backing for chemistry comparison in the ceramic neutrality evaluatmn P-3 Welded with Tandom sub arc designated in the pass column as 1-L (D.C. T-1 Welded over A-36 steel backing for chemistry comprison in the ceramic neutrality evaluation .1 (Cont. 6 of 6) PHASE IV -21- NOTES: S-1 Welded over A. trail).

2 2 - ..

2 3 .Torch Side Angle is 90 to the Plate . ____ .

011 .498 .245 98.131 .008 .335 .036 .132 .024 .527 l 399 .016 .007 .306 l 409 .743 1.049 .104 .052 .623 98.125 .344 . 121 .020 .201 .824 1.783 .018 .032 .000 .017 .025 .016 .880 .027 .406 .026 .557 .029 .066 .054 .016 .014 .027 .495 .013 .091 1.335 .102 .023 .054 .136 .033 .864 98.023 .000 .084 .006 l 009 .008 .297 .024 .043 .009 1.032 . #633 02225HZ43 98.025 .343 .469 .066 .221 Root 97.009 . #282B8 97.008 .369 .028 l 040 .011 .331 .017 .015 .013 .011 Si Cu Ni Ti Cr Mo v CE .047 .042 .024 .054 .087 .019 .262 97.041 .008 .030 .083 .027 .343 .128 .000 .007 .046 .014 .017 .373 .340 .018 .026 .033 .698 1.016 .024 .783 c s P Mn AL .042 .012 .611 Second 98.008 .055 .016 .029 1.121 Root 98.027 .000 .043 .1 Phase I Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass - Fe A-2 —.031 .039 .026 .015 .314 .114 .023 .020 .013 .212 .008 .112 .389 .000 .028 .021 .134 .025 .018 . 179 97.804 97.832 1.125 .353 .023 .003 .479 .026 .012 .021 .Table 5.018 .017 .169 .068 .007 .006 .045 .004 .030 .309 97.126 .011 .053 .455 .034 .564 .025 .025 .053 .044 .591 .549 .110 .954 1.319 HT.104 .592 .515 98.017 .027 .007 97.028 1.000 .017 .036 .070 .030 .025 .000 .013 .114 .010 .022 .015 .010 .020 .383 .006 .017 .122 .837 98.011 .933 98.018 .020 .661 .009 .028 .013 .015 .012 .021 .018 .348 .000 .016 .267 .005 .017 .490 .265 1.009 .016 .026 .016 .489 .068 ..051 .621 98.053 .069 .011 .4.014 .435 .015 .010 .068 .017 .879 97.022 .026 .028 .022 .038 .644 .434 .229 97.352 .010 .484 .051 .301 .167 .228 Base Material (Typical) HT.304 .003 .037 .609 Second 98.000 .006 .749 1.024 .022 .017 .041 .025 .017 .039 .018 .006 .015 . .010 .012 .034 .015 .287 .888 1.219 97.000 .020 .000 .872 1.426 .025 .070 . A-3 A-4 A-5 Q-1 Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root 98.774 .030 .121 .122 .387 D-2 D-4 D-5 Q-2 .027 030.055 .417 .020 .008 .517 .348 .106 .019 .019 .291 1.016 .001 .024 .992 Second 97.016 .294 .088 .279 .054 .052 .597 .024 .222 .049 .000 .009 .071 .050 .023 .049 .

709 97.298 .588 .042 Cr .007 .014 .007 .146 .661 .105 .114 .367 .000 .Table 5.027 .286 .087 97.399 98.287 1.016 .382 1 l 509 AL .806 97.022 .055 .000 .001 .050 .025 .017 .073 .347 .314 .000 .514 98.127 .041 .019 .064 .509 98.019 .012 .129 c .282 HT 3 4302L8 98.031 .483 .048 .000 .110 .000 .030 .014 .596 .083 .382 .018 .972 1.041 .029 .105 .048 .043 .381 .749 .027 .120 .143 .031 .899 1.537 98.029 Mo .011 .089 . #4302L8 was used for all H-Series and Q-4.028 .014 .013 .001 .000 .712 97.046 .020 .025 .783 .015 .000 .023 .504 .000 .332 1.048 .021 V.138 .013 .018 .03’8 .215 .000 .049 .833 98.012 .003 1.685 .013 .016 .273 .169 .369 .023 .047 .031 .018 CE .018 .353 .039 .666 .412 .046 1.015 .000 .017 .022 .020 .041 .470 .016 .104 .000 .318 .022 .014 .000 .018 .228 98.118 .095 .034 .587 .014 P .014 Mn .015 .056 .016 .020 .673 . HT.000 98.011 .043 .007 .019 .045 .124 .018 .102 98.067 .243 .033 .658 .090 s .016 .018 .567 .029 .065 .010 l 003 .005 .013 .106 .464 .017 .021 .036 .018 .026 .132 .798 1.004 1.866 1.014 .117 .016 .093 .025 .038 .000 .771 97.034 .285 .029 97.000 .2 Phase 11 Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass I G-1 G-2 I G-3 Q-3 H-1 H-2 H-3 Q-4 Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Root Second Fe 98.017 .012 .029 .000 .023 .069 .030 97.022 .016 .007 .019 .000 .880 .380 Si .070 .049 .358 Base Material (Typical) HT #l13122K8 98.036 .661 .021 .024 .016 .009 l 003 .000 .028 . .031 Ni .019 .021 .333 .339 97.041 .319 .021 .054 .640 .004 .027 .051 .4.385 .010 . .052 .526 .313 1.954 1.037 .017 .008 .016 .528 .028 .033 .039 .025 .014 .020 .034 .058 .012 .308 HT.030 .008 .014 .015 .010 .018 .357 .027 Ti.006 .003 .042 .617 Cu .010 . . #/18122K8 was used for all G-series and Q-3.015 .050 .226 .029 .

002 .243 .020 .045 .003 .016 .105 97.045 .006 .002 .364 l 354 .024 .015 .275 .009 .109 97.002 .272 .003 .009 .033 .003 .843 .014 .111 98.009 HT.024 .182 .109 98.013 .268 .973 .044 .169 .320 .275 .024 .019 .261 .235 .376 .014 .003 .Table 5.009 .045 .530 .228 .014 l 005 .013 .183 .028 .039 .343 .009 .080 .036 .221 .373 .002 .312 .826 .002 .100 .327 .016 .028 .374 .335 .004 .008 .003 .006 .632 . #BB830 97• 700 .007 .007 .032 .262 228 1.350 .002 .005 .316 .154 1.268 .132 97.342 .274 .278 .096 .373 .103 98.374 .371 .112 98.005 .385 1.292 1.005 .001 .048 .368 .872 .006 .029 .375 ‘ .841 .007 l 009 .006 .041 .036 .516 .033 .241 1.003 .292 .002 1.339 .227 .369 .006 .103 .381 .015 .028 .002 .002 .100 98.003 .338 .025 .008 l 007 .321 .030 .172 .006 .039 .429 1.428 1.007 .005 .001 .020 .126 .024 .369 .368 .331 .003 .008 .3 Phase III Spectrographic Analysis of Root and Second Pass Fe I-2 c s P Mn AL Root Second I-3 Root Second I-4 Root Second I-5 Root Second R-1 Root Second L-2 Root Second L-3 Root Second L-4 Root Second L-5 Root Second R-2 Root Second Base Material (Typical) HT.235 .4.020 .006 .003 .347 .275 .233 .039 .763 .025 .024 .027 .023 .002 . #EKCF721 98.357 .000 .006 .729 .005 .032 .002 .000 .007 .005 .360 .023 .000 Si Cu Ni Ti Cr Mo V CE .008 b 005 .001 .270 .947 .894 .311 .240 .002 .106 97.375 98.258 .172 .434 1.002 .258 .112 98.002 .797 .108 98.034 .006 .370 .031 .106 98.245 HT #BB830 (NR203M) was used for all I series and R-1 HT #EKCF721 (NR302) was used for all L series and R-2 .294 .007 .015 .567 .002 .121 98.358 .007 .027 .006 .082 .126 97.087 .270 .372 .002 .005 .277 .013 .011 .038 .007 .661 97.020 .026 .275 1.342 .002 .375 .002 .371 .755 .372 .022 .002 .039 .286 .032 .371 .007 .008 l 009 .084 .004 .826 .025 .003 .003 .031 .003 .497 .003 .543 .003 .270 .042 .052 .025 .304 .002 .063 .880 .003 .575 .850 .014 .014 .003 .043 .107 98.768 .007 .031 .004 .024 .071 .010 .019 .128 97.104 .082 .050 .002 .041 .022 .003 .033 .037 .003 .032 .121 97.019 .207 .005 .003 .324 .829 .012 .026 .002 .373 .118 98.030 l 003 .119 97.083 .365 .091 .021 .002 .294 1.728 .013 .021 .001 .

001 -- Cr .409 .495 Root Second -98.005 -- Ti .012 .001 .035 . V CE .023 .132 .104 .121 -.305 .264 .031 .014 .008 -- AL .002 l 003 .090 .009 -.393 -.127 .435 -- Cu .011 .011 .120 .006 -.001 98.435 -.000 .002 .120 .005 .015 l 012 -- Mo .002 -.011 .084 .956 1.593 .121 .705 .252 Second -Root 98.777 -.383 Root Second 98.010 .012 -.039 .933 1.019 .114 -.084 .002 .006 .376 .001 .003 .275 -.144 Base Material (Typical) HT.052 .108 .016 .870 Root 98.127 .001 .011 .009 -.001 .000 .015 .286 -.007 .124 -- Fe 98.316 -- c .310 s .016 .079 .442 Root Second -98.024 98.013 .007 -- Si .010 .089 -.008 -.001 .951 .167 .020 .003 .001 -.098 -- Ni .896 -.001 .012 .304 .312 .005 .127 .408 .010 .501 .379 .301 .002 .117 1.013 -.024 -.972 1.661 .008 -.335 Root Second 97.083 98.003 .030 .008 .018 .003 .005 -.014 .103 .012 -.014 .016 .008 .015 .001 .313 .010 .000 .228 .4.384 Second 98.008 .034 -- Mn .012 .009 -- P .169 .003 .013 -- .023 .002 -- .062 .001 -.030 .308 .080 -. #081206 Table 5.010 .011 .880 .002 -.002 .Phase IV Spectrographic N-1 N-2 N-3 P-3 s-l T-1 .045 I HT #081206 was used for all test coupons listed above.033 -.013 -- .4 Analysis of Root and Second Pass .011 .

The proportions above are indicative of cordierite. The minor elements identified individually may be from the raw material. the relative concentrations of each element. from binders used in processing. The three major vertical lines in each photograph represent magnesium. 1 of 2 -28- . approximately.3-M TYPE SJ8069 VARIOS TYPE VLG/02 CHEMETRON CHEMETRON TYPE 69-300000-4 TABLE 5. Pg. aluminum and silicon respectively. The horizontal scale segregates elements by atomic numbers while the vertical lines (not-to be confused with the grid lines) identifi. etc.5 Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis of unused samples of the ceramic backing types evaluated.

Na K Ca Fe KUDER TYPE lCR-062 K Ca Ti Fe KUDER TYPE 2CR-125 Fe 8J8072 TABLE 5. -29- .5 (Pg 2 of 2) The three major vertical lines in this case are indicative of steatite.

1) When it occurs. however. It is apparently influenced by joint design. was occasionally burdened by internal porosity and piping comnonly described as “chevron” or “crow’s foot” porosity due to the shape and arrangement of the voids. Radiographic examination was performed on visually acceptable test assemblies to determine internal soundness and to screen test assemblies for mechanical testing and analysis.3). fusion line and the weld centerline and terminate at or before the weld centerline. type of Extensive evaluation revealed that shielding and technique. Chevron prosity and piping was found to occur only in ceramic-backed FCAW weldments in the flat and horizontal positions. The use of ceramic backing with FCAW. Transverse tensile and root bend testing verified the weld soundness assessments made by visual and radiographic examination. The occurrence causes special concern since its presence frequently cannot be determined by visual examination of the completed root pass. Volumetric examination such as radiography is the only truly effective examination technique (Figure 6.4). porosity-containing root bend specimen seen in Figure 6. with visual examination providing an initial screening of gross defects. (See Figure 6. Chevron internal surfaces are smooth metallic gray with “wormhole” striations. wire size. as found in the failed. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS VI-1 Weld Soundness Weld soundness was evaluated by visual. radiographic. For a given wire size and -30- .2. employment of larger wire diameters with C02 shielding aggravated the problem (see Figure 6.VI. the chevron pattern points in the direction of welding and occurs alone or with “piping” in the weld centerline area The porosity voids begin between the weld (or vice versa). tensile and bend testing. No significant weld volumetric soundness problems were identified with SAW.

the broom effect is reduced and eventually eliminated. To maintain correct arc position. i. Root openings within a normal range of 5/32" to 5/16" appeared to have little positive influence concerning "chevron" improvement. visability of the puddle during welding is essential. correspondingly reducing the probability of chevron porosity and piping but at the expense of back bead contour (Figure 6. Placing the arc at the leading edge of the puddle assured meltback of the root edges of the joint (“broom effect”) resulting in a wider smoothly contoured back bead with large reentry angles similar to a double welded joint. There are two conditions in ceramic-backed welds which. On the other hand. it may be momentarily extinguished due to nonconductivity of the ceramic.e. nique. The optimum torch lead angle was found to be between 30° and 40°. when present to a critical degree and/or combination. Welding technique was found to be particularly critical in avoidance of chevron porosity and piping. but not eliminate.shielding. porosity and piping tendencies. If the arc is directed too far to the rear of the puddle. may lead to -31- . The position of the arc with respect to the puddle is a critical balance. causing a rough back bead with sharp re-entry angles and a less-than desirable appearance. a 45° included angle or less tended to minimize.5). By moving the arc back somewhat from the leading edge of the puddle. While such a back bead contour is desirable in its own right. the wire forming an acute angle with the direction of travel was found necessary. if it leaves the puddle and is directed onto the ceramic. existance of the broom effect appears to be a necessary condition for formation of chevron porosity and piping. The underbead might then become chilled possibly causing porosity.. The welder must be able to see the action of the puddle to maintain the arc at the proper location. penetration and flow become retarded. Ihe arc must be directed between the center and the leading edge of the puddle.

6 and described as follows. Differences in freezing patterns which exist between weld puddles solidifying over steel backing and weld puddles solidifying over ceramic backing is one condition. bubbles are nucleated at the solid-liquid interface as dissolved gases in the liquid metal just ahead of the interface exceed their volubility in the liquid. subsequent surges of gas cause expansion of the bubble into the liquid portion of its periphery. meltback of the root edges of the original joint (“broom” effect) has caused the lower portion of the solid-liquid interface to form an acute angle with the bottom of the puddle. the extent of meltback and the stage of solidification) from rising out of the puddle by bouyant force. Such expansion into the more fluid portions of the puddle accounts for the chevron/piping arrangement of the porosity. it is restricted to various degrees (depending on its location. The second condition is the existence of more and/or different gas over ceramic-backed welds.chevron porosity and piping. Once a bubble is trapped. this central region. in effect creating two “hot” regions in the puddle separated by a central region of either solidified metal or If a bubble is nucleated below highly viscous liquid metal. There appears to be considerably more gas dissolved by the puddle when welding over ceramic backing than when welding over steel backing. Meanwhile. Welds made in the vertical position over ceramic backing event parallel to the welding progression rather than through the solidified/more viscous region and therefore do not experience the entrapped porosity. A weld made over steel backing is not divided by this viscous central region and any bubbles formed are free to break away and float out of the puddle unrestricted. but before its circumference is completely solidified. “This condition leads to porosity formation as illustrated in Figure 6. As solidification progresses into the puddle. Repeated trap/expansion cycles cause elongation of the voids and wormhole striations of their interior surfaces. Evidence that -32- . Bubbles sufficiently restricted are trapped by solidified metal.

however. some frequently over steatite as over cordierite when cordierite appears to absorb water much more readily. The level of dissolved oxygen as a result of disassociation of C02 at welding temperatures into CO and O had an apparent effect. Moisture absorption by the ceramics due to high atmospheric humidity is a possibility. The flooded strips exhibited extremely gross visual defects. This manufacturer recommends drying cycles of 16 hours at llO°F or 4 hours at 150°F to remove such moisture. It resulted in a dramatically rapid absorption of the water followed by a similar rapid absorption of successive drops of water until a saturation point was reached. -33- . Upon radiographing. Although the shielding gases mentioned are not unique to ceramic backing. second most frequently in Phase III (self-shield. They indicate no moisture absorption problems with steatite and suggest flame drying to remove any surface moisture. Water placed on a steatite tile. II and III welds.chevron porosity and piping is influenced by type and quantity of gases present is seen by comparing Phase I. One manufacturer indicates a fair possibility of poor weld quality due to moisture absorption by their cordierite ceramic. was not absorbed. one was exposed to the atmosphere for an hour and then used with FCAW and C-25. Two of these strips were used immediately with FCAW and C-25 shielding. exhibited chevron porosity. Porosity and piping occurred most frequently in Phase II (C02 shielded). water was placed on a cordierite sample. several other sources of gas are. the two strips used immediately The strip exposed to the atmosphere exhibited no porosity. Although water absorption by cordierite has an apparent influence. To further verify absorption characteristics. and the fourth was flooded for two minutes and dried with compressed air before using with FCAW and C-25 . but essentially C02) and least in Phase I (75 Arr 25 C02 shielded) . Four strips of corderite ceramic from this manufacturer were baked at 250°F for 36 hours.

-34- . resulted in welds which were radiographically clear. The “broom” effect may cause extra. Other sources of gas may be some reaction involving the ceramic Molten slag from the electrode may at welding temperatures. Such excess oxygen may combine with carbon to form carbon monoxide gas in the weld puddle. any such organic residuals would release such porosity-causing gases as C02 and H20. Ceramic samples rebaked for higher temperatures and times than were believed to have been used originally. usually deoxidizer-short.Another unique source of gas may be due to residual amounts of binder such as animal fat or similar material used to hold the ceramic powder together during forming and which may remain in the ceramic after baking. base metal to enter the puddle reducing the deoxidizer composition below that sufficient to react with oxygen in the vicinity. However. an unbaked ceramic used at the same time and with the same welding parameters was also radiographically clear. At welding temperatures. contact the ceramic backing ahead of the puddle and cause a reaction between the slag and the ceramic backing.

1 “chevron-type” wormhole porosity in root pass of ceramic backed weld.A B c FIGURE 6. Root reinforcement was ground flush to expose the porosity. -35- . Figure (a) and (c) are end views of Figure (b). Approximately 2X magnification..

-36- .2 Root bend specimen from coupon B-5-2.FIGURE 6. The portion containing chevron porosity failed while the sound portion demonstrated adequate ductility.


Chevron porosity and piping as revealed by
radiography. This weldment was visually


Example of gross porosity found more frequently with
larger wire size and C02 shielding. This weld was made
over ceramic with 3/32" Fabco-82 wire and 375 amperes
at 31 volts. The joint was a 45 included angle with no
land and 1/4" root gap. Flow rate was 45 CFH.

Test 1
String bead at approximately 9 IPM.
Arc at leading edge of puddle.

Test 2
Weave bead at approximately 6 IPM,
Arc at center of puddle.

Test 3
Weave bead at approximately 9 IPM.
Arc at leading edge of puddle..

Test 4
String bead at approximately 6 IPM.
Arc at center of puddle.

Effect of welding technique on bead contour. All four tests
were welded
in the flat position with 1/16" diameter Linde FC-707 wire at 240
amperes and 25 volts. All joints were a single "vee" with 60 included
angle and no land. The shielding was 75% Ar and 25% COZ at 40 CFH.
The ceramic backing was 3-M type SJ8069. Root openings were approximately 3/32". Faster travel speed maintains arc to ieading edge of
puddie causing meltback and broom effect. Slower travel eliminates
broom effect but at expense of back bead contour.


hotter. timing.1. 3. If gas is still released at centerline.6 -40- Depending on location. A discrete region is used for illustration. Subsequent quantities of gas entering entrapped bubble cause expansion toward least resistance. toward 4. MECHANISM FOR FORMATION FIGURE 6. entraped until puddle is nearly solidified. Striations are due to abrupt changes If bubbles are not nucleated and in rate of gassing. Unique contour of ceramic-backed puddle causes higher viscosity across central region.e. piping occurs alone. . i. etc. of puddle. more fluid region of puddle. viscosity actually varies continuously. bubbles nucleated in lower viscosity regions may not penetrate higher viscosity regions to escape puddle. piping occurs with chevrons.

however.4. lbs.3 ft. may be significant. Table 6. to 16. than just the existence of a difference. Table 6. The results are given in Tables 6.1. albeit more subjective. it beccmes evident that differences in weldment . For example.9 ft. Table 6.1 indicates the true toughness of coupon D3 has a high probability of being from 8. The test results were given in Table 5.1. When the comparisons are examined in this manner.1.1 indicates the true toughness of coupon A3 has a high probability of being from 12.VI-2 Toughness Weldment toughness properties were evaluated on a representative basis. lbs. less to 8.7 ft. lbs.1 to 23. lbs. the magnitude of the values in Table III provides considerably more information. Since an exact value for the true toughness (as measured by impact energy) of any given coupon cannot be identified. There is only a small chance the true toughness of coupon D3 is less than or equivalent to coupon D2. Five all-weld-metal charpy impact tests at +20°f were performed for each flat position test coupon. Note that in this example there may be no toughness difference at all between the coupons.1. lbs. an exact difference in true toughness cannot be identified for any pair of coupons. greater than test coupon Q1 (steel backing).2. may not be significant while 23.3 ft. In a given application. As an example of how this data is used.1 through 6. As a further example. a range of impact energy values having a high probability of including the true difference in toughness can be identified.1 indicates the toughness of test coupon A4 (ceramic backing) is probably 8. more than the true toughness of coupon A2. By using the sample data.7 ft. Within each group. such ranges were calculated for all possible coupon pairs. While such an analysis identifies whether a difference in toughness is likely to exist between any pair of coupons. lbs. greater than coupon D2.1. lbs. The average of these five tests represents an estimate of the true toughness of the respective coupons. 8.1 ft.1 ft.

4. The Phase I values (Table 6. but there are large variations among the various ranges. In Group I the individual range for each pair of coupons is generally tight. lbs. The Phase III values (Table 6. there is no obvious. The variations observed are. some indicating very small differences and -42- .3) indicate considerable scatter. Three of the four ceramic-backed coupons in Group A have greater toughness than the corresponding steel-backed coupon (Ql).1.2) indicate the steel-backed coupons being together than the ceramic-backed coupons for both Groups G and H. Such values are not excessively large especially since they represent only the upper end of a probability range. Ceramic backing was not found to influence weldment toughness in Phase II. can be made by examination of Tables 6. The ceramic-backed coupons as a composite and in three of four individual comparisons had lower toughness levels than their corresponding steel-back coupon. For Phase I. Some general observations.too small and inconsistent to be significant and may well be due to factors other than type of backing. Ihe Group A coupons taken together also indicate a greater toughness than the steel-backed coupon for Group A. the greatest value for either group being only 19. However.1. The Phase II values (Table 6.1 ft. are exactly opposite to Group A.6 ft. readily evident difference in weldment toughness between coupons made with steel backing and coupons made with ceramic backing.1.1 through 6.1.1) indicate a trend toward greater toughness levels with ceramic backing in Group A and a trend toward lower toughness levels with ceramic backing in Group D. however. lbs. the magnitude of these differences is rather small. however.toughness may or may not be significant depending on the relative importance of the magnitude of the trend.1. Ihe ceramic-backed coupons from Group D. as in Phase 1. The greatest magnitude in any difference for either group was 29.

While there are differences of considerable or potentially considerable magnitude between ceramic-backed coupons and steel-backed coupons in Phase III. Table 6.other very large differences. The individual Group L ranges are much larger than the individual Group I ranges. The use of ceramic backing appears to have no effect on weldent toughness for the SAW variations evaluated.1. the variation in data is too great to identify any significant difference in weldment toughness between steelbacked and ceramic-backed weldments. .4 indicates only very minor differences for the Phase IV (SAW) pairs.

1.2 to +0.6 D5–D2 -7.5 Q2>13 comp.1 Q2-D3 -5.7 to +8. 3.1 to 23.9 Q2>D2 7.3 Q2ED4 0.2 to +0.2 A4-A5 2.8 to 17.4 A2> Q1 13.1.0 D5–D4 -14.8 to 13.7 A4–A2 -13.6 to 23.3 A comp. “Comp.5 to +3.9 A3>Q1 9.5 95% RANGE NOTES TO TABLES 6.>Ql 5. 2.TABLE 6.1.9 to 28.3 Q1–A5 -12.0 D3 >D5 to 11.4 1. "95% range" means the range having a 95% probability of including the true difference in impact energy for each pair of coupons.9 to 16.9 D3 >D4 1.1 to 21.1 to +13. An arrowhead indicates the coupon on the left has greater impact energy than the coupon on the right.1 ANALYSIS OF PHASE 1 TOUGHNESS DATA DIFFERENCE 95% RANGE DIFFERENCE A3–A2 -12. -44- .2 A3-A5 3.1 to 29. A dash indicates no significant difference in impact energy could be found.6.9 to 15." comparison attempts to preclude any difference which may be due to the brand or type of ceramic.6.7 A4>Q1 8. 95% is an arbitrarily selected high probability since a 100% range would extend from minus to plus infinity and would therefore be meaningless.1 D3> D2 8.2to 11.6 to 22.3 AND 6.0 to 20. The "Comp.2 A3–A4 -7.2 A2 >A5 8. 0.3 to 10.8 to +7.” means the data for the ceramic-backed coupons was taken as a group (composite) and compared to the steel-backed coupon.6 Q2 >D5 to +2.1 to 19.4 D4-D2 2.

9 to +4.2 to 14. -45- .6 to 6.TABLE 6.6 to +0.1 Q4>Hl 7.7 * * * * 95% RANGE (G1>G2 1. Ibs.2 ANALYSIS OF PHASE II TOUGHNESS DATA DIFFERENCE DIFFERENCE 95% RANGE H2–HI -4.6 Q3>G3 6.1 to 17.4 to 14.7 Q3>GI 3.6 to 18.5 ft.1 Q4>H Comp. 8.2 G2 >G3 9.3 to 15.7 H2–H3 -2.5 HI–H3 -0.4 Q3>G comp. 8.7 to +2.5 Q4>H2 7.4 to 19.8 G3–G1 -7. for G2 was omitted in calculations due to gross inconsistency with the other four G2 data points.9 to 13.2 Q3>G2 6.5 to +4.4 *The value 80.1.7 to 15.1 Q4>H3 9.1 to 13.

5 to 5.1 to 37.8 to 18.8 R2–L3 -20.5 13 >14 15.1 to +22.3 to 5.5 to +16.TA3LE 6.5 R1 >14 33.8 to +3.4 L2–L3 -10. -18.7 R2–L2 -23.0 to +25.8 L5>L4 4.5 L5–L3 -3.6 12>15 1.–Rl -34.8 to 30.7 to 33.3 to 17.5 12–R1 -34.7 R2–L comp.3 -46- .9 to 3.7 to +6.1 to +1.5 to 14.3 to +8.1.9 L5–L2 -6.7 L4–L2 -28.1 L4–R2 -23.0 15>14 28.9 R1 >13 16.7 to +12.1 to 35.9 R1>15 3.3 to +11.4 to 17.1 to +7.3 R2–L5 -32.1 12>14 31.3 I comp.3 L4–L3 -25.5 to +31.3 ANALYSIS OF PHASE Ill TOUGHNESS-DATA DIFFERENCE 95% RANGE DIFFERENCE 95% RANGE 1243 15.1 15>13 12.

9 0.7 to 9.1 to +5.TABLE 6.1.9 to +7.3 -47- .2 0. – S1 -1.3 to 9.5 0.7 to +3.3 0.9 N3–SI -6.7 to 11.7 N comp.4 ANALYSIS OF PHASE IV TOUGHNESS DATA DIFFERENCE 95% RANGE N2–N1 -4.7 to 12.

Heat flow away frcm the puddle is much slower through ceramic backing than through steel backing. II and III (FCAW) test coupons were welded with the arc directed at the leading edge of the puddle. ) Ihermal conductivity for the steel is approximately fifteen times greater. Figure 6. but. While the broom effect results in the optimum bead shape described above. (Thermal conducactivity of cordierite for example.0077 cal/(see. Such a bead shape was typical of the FCAW test coupons for this evaluation as seen in the macrophotographs (Figure 6. The FCAW welding technique must strike a balance between-optimum bead shape and the chance of incurring excessive back bead sag and/or chevron porosity. a technique resulting in melback of the root edges of the joint creating a bead contour similar to a double-welded joint. a common ceramic backing 2 material. is . Ihe mechanism for its creation is described as follows. ) Heat which would normally flow away from the puddle through steel backing material enters the base material instead when welding is performed over ceramic backing.8).7 identifies these attributes along with the two bead shape problem categories encountered when using ceramic backing. By moving the arc back toward the center of the puddle. The Phase I. less meltback-"broom”effect is obtained.12 cal(sec. it also contributes to back bead sag and to chevron porosity. as discussed in the section on weld soundness r at the expense of bead shape. This concentrated heat flow (probably combined with a somewhat higher current density in this region since a non-48- .VI-3 Bead Shape The test coupon back beads were examined for amount and contour of reinforcement and for re-entry angles. An optimum bead smoothly-contoured rcement. ) (cm ) (°C/cm) at +20°C. Thermal conductivity for a low carbon steel at +20°C is .

by producing excessive back bead reinforcement and even more burn away. The mechanism of back bead sag is inherently 1 imited to weld joints in the horizontal position due to the asymetrical effects of gravity in that position as seen in Figures 6.10) .9. therefore. a "keyhole" condition will occur on the top root edge adjacent to and ahead of the puddle. When meltback is especially severe on the upper plate edge.2. This flare back ("broom") effect is readily evident in the macrophotographs of ceramic-backed weldments made with FCAW. Back bead sag occurs when the enlarged molten weld puddle on the back bead side tends to assume a teardrop shape. the resulting reduced volume of material at the upper base metal edge.9. settling onto Although this sag usually only the lower base metal edge. however.1 and 6. a slower travel speed is necessitated to fill the burn-away area since travel speed over ceramic backing is limited by the fill rate of the puddle. combined with shrinkage of the COOling solidified puddle (there is no bond to the ceramic backing material and. This compounds the problem. It does not occur with the large. a Slight work angle of 5-15° was normally found to aid in tying in -49- .conductor has been inserted in part of the original current path) melts the edges of the base material adjacent to the ceramic to a much greater depth than a corresponding joint with steel backing would be melted. (See Figure 6. no lateral restraint to shrinkage stresses) . As a result. in turn causing additional sagging at the top of the back bead. may cause a portion of the upper back bead to lie below the plane of the base metal surface. Low spots(undercut when the surface of the back bead lies below the base metal plane) sometimes occurred with Phase I weldments in the horizontal position as a result of back bead sag. causes greater reinforcement at the bottom of the back bead than at the top. fluid SAW puddles. In conjunction with a lead angle of approximately 30°.

Variations in weld joint dimensional parameters were found to have a significant effect on the weld metal sag problem. however.5 0 - .11. only occasionally with single wire submerged arc but frequently with tandem submerged arc. if not sag. Kuder and 3-M ceramics provided satisfactory results. further aggravates the burn-away problem when it occurs by directing the arc onto the upper plate edge. The thicker edge due to the smaller bevel causing less meltbackr together with the narrower root gap. A 60° included angle tended to aggravate the sag apparently because of the thinner root edge than with say a 45° included angle.the upper plate. finning (Figure 6.9. It occurs in ceramic-backed weldments when a critical combination of puddle fluidity and ceramic/joint geometry make it occur before the desired reaction in which contact with the molten puddle melts areas of the ceramic which then conform to and shape the back bead contour. The second problem category. the ceramic havinq the widest groove. The surface to volume ratio of the fins is too large for heat flow at any point on the surface of the fin to melt either ceramic or base metal which it contacts. Using a 45° included angle (22 1/2° bevel on the upper plate edge) and limiting the root gap to 5/32" maximum (1/8” optimum) resolved the problem. With single-wire submerged arc finning occured with the larger Chemetron ceramic. reduced the vertical dimension identified in Figure 6. . The low spot/undercut problem did not recur with self-shielded wire in the horizontal position (Group J) due to the fast-freeze characteristics of the wire.1 to such an extent to eliminate undercut. was found in Phase IV evaluation. 2). Travel speed had a distinct effect on bead shape and control of the underbead Excessive travel speed produced a shallower reinforcement. This work angle. Finning is equivalent to flash in a casting operation in which molten metal is unintentionally extruded into voids or crevices in the pattern.

especially travel speed. however. Because the tandem submerged arc puddle is two to three times the size of the single-wire submerged arc puddle and therefore more fluid. Welding parameters. parameters could not be identified which would consistently result in an acceptable back bead. appeared more sensitive with tandem than with single-wire submerged arc. indicating there should be few problems adapting single wire submerged arc to ceramic backing. finning occurred before the ceramic could melt and shape the bead contour. but excessive back bead reinforcement and occasional finning due to increased fluidity at the root of the puddle. Tandem submerged arc does not appear to be adaptable to ceramic backing. A workable range of parameters was identified.penetration with a very narrow and occasionally intermittent A travel speed too slow resulted in complete consumption of the root land. Although marginally acceptable parameters were established for the smaller Chemetron ceramic using tandem submerged arc. .

FIGURE 6.7 GEOMETRIC ATTRIBUTES OF BACK BEAD AND PRINCIPLE DEFECTS A A = Reentry Angle R = Underbead Reinforcement W = Bead Width Finning (Found with SAW Weldments) Low Spot/Undercut (Found with Horizontal FCAW Weldments) .

Cross-Sectional Macrophotographs of Test Coupons PHASE 1 .A3 A4 A5 B3 B4 B5 E4 E5 F4 F5 NOT AVAILABLE C3 D2 E3 E2 F 2 FIGURE 6.8.

2 Cross-sectional Macrophotographs of Test Coupons PHASE II . G1 G2 HI H2 FIGURE 6.8..5 4 - .

J4 J5 K4 K5 L5 Cross-Sectional Macrophotographs of Test Coupons PHASE III .5 5 - .

M1 N1 01 M3 M2 N3 N2 0 3 02 P3 FIGURE 6.8.4 Cross-sectional Macrophotographs of Test Coupons PHASE IV .

FIGURE 6.[ 1.9. / CERAMIC BACKING Larger volume and vertical (top to bottom) dimension of puddle PlUS absence of bonding permits settling.1 MECHANISM OF WELD METAL SAG WITH HORIZONTAL FCAW . STEEL BACKING Original ceramic contour melts and adjusts to contour of denser liquid metal.5 7 - . Surface of weld puddle does not bond to ceramic as it does to steel. Root edges melt to much greater depth over ceramic than over 2.

Examp!e of undercut along top toe of the back bead due to gravity-induced sag of the molten puddle in the horizontal position.5 8 - .FIGURE 6.2 .9. .


. . . . ........ .. . . .. . . . .. ...=.. . .. .-.. ...y. . ..... .%---------- . . ..”-”... .:”=... .. FIGURE 6... ..-.... . ... . . .. . . .. . ..%-. . .-.. as indicated by arrows.-.... .-.... .. ... . .. ... - .. . . . .... ...=-. . . . . ....-. .. .. ..... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .... ..2 As width of groove is increased and/or puddle becomes more fluid. ..-. Ceramic melts and flows under weight of puddle. . . . . . .-.x..---.~. .. . . . .. .. ...... adjusting to and contributing to contour of back bead. .... . .. . .. . . .1 Desired reaction of ceramic-backing/weld-puddle system.y.y. .......y... . ....xx-x-.... . . ... .. . . .... .w--:.. .. .~-=. .. .. . . ..... . .=.. ... .x”= .-. . . .. .. .. . ..”-. .... . .. .. .. .-. . .. .. . . . . .... .. .-. . ..-. .11.... .. . . . .. . .11.. . .... . .-.... .. . ......-”-””. . . .-. -60- .... . .~-. . FIGURE 6...... .. ... }. . the weld metal may extrude into the void without melting the ceramic. .. .. .>.

Unplanned stops and starts should be avoided with SAW over ceramic backing. removing the slag in the crater area. the lead angle should be the same as when welding the joint. underbead in the restart area could be obtained with the second technique. and briefly hold at that point to ensure complete penetration and back bead build up.6 1 - . horizontal. The second technique was a variation on the first. the back bead reinforcement had to be ground sufficiently for the new ceramics to fit flush to the base metal for a short distance back from the restart area. and vertical position. A small pneumatic grinder was used to grind a ramp in the crater area to reduce the metal thickness and to facilitate complete fusion and penetration of the stop area of the previously placed bead.12. This allows for complete breakdown of the crater leading edge and a more uniform back bead at It was found that a more uniform restart and the restart. it was found necessary to start the arc at the rear of the existing crater. i. bring it immediately forward to the desired location. evaluation for FCAW. When employing either of the techniques. Prior to proceeding along the joint when making the restart. Both techniques were evaluated in the flat. To properly replace the ceramic under the restart area. ..VI-4 Stops and Starts Welding techniques to accomplish sound starts and stops were Two techniques were employed in stop and restart evaluated. The first technique was simply breaking the arc. See Figure 6. 30-40°. slightly away from the root of the joint. hand wire brushing and re-establishing the arc.e.

.’ FLAT RESTART POSITION .12 FCAW RESTART TECHNIQUE OVER CERAMIC BACKING ---8’ . Position "B".’ Torch Side Angle is 90 to the Plate 81’ 8 t 30–40 LEAD ANGLE I Arc is established at Position "A". . HORIZONTAL RESTART POSITION x Travel ANGLE :::. . Arc is established at Position "A"..-and brought immediately forward to the lead edge of the crater.. Position "B". 65–75 LEAD ANGLE VERTICAL RESTART POSITION Torch Side Angle is 90 to the Plate Arc is established at the lead edge of the crater.y. and brought immediately forward to the lead edge of the crater..FIGURE 6.’ . .

with adhesion of the tape which holds the ceramic bcking in place especially when the contact surfaces had an as-received coating of mill scale or a coating of shop dust. At the higher temperatures. The best adhesion was obtained when abrasive blasting and wiping of the base material were used together. In all combinations the magnetic devices held the ceramic backing securely in place and firmly to the base . and (5) abrasive blasted and wiped with a dry cloth just before assembly. the adhesive sometimes loosened permitting the ceramic backing to fall away from the base material resulting in excessive reinforcement on the back bead when the molten puddle tried to fill the space. (3) ground. One manufacturer advised that their adhesive was designed to do so to assist in removal after welding. Little difference was noticed. etc. The three tapes evaluated for adhesiveness were Chemetron. surface cleanliness and surface temperature was evaluated.VI-5 Ceramic Attaching Methods The adhesive effectiveness with regard to position. The adhesive was evaluated at base material temperatures ranging from 45° to 450°F. The practicality and adpatability of magnetic holding devices to a construction environment were evaluated. Some diffi– culty occurred. At higher temperatures. Evaluations were made in the flat. (4) abrasive blasted. adhesion was far less than at lower temperatures. (1) as-received (rust.6 3 - . The adhesive appeared to break down above approximately 400°F. (2) power wire brushed. The devices evaluated were manufactured by Varies and were used with other Varies materials.). especially at elevated temperatures and on scmewhat less than clean contact surfaces. horizontal and vertical positions and with the test plates in the following conditions of cleanliness. and 3-M. mill scale. Kuder. Abrasive blasting of the contact surfaces and wiping of the surfaces just prior to placing the tape appeared to provide satisfactory adhesion.

since smoke and color produced when heating the adhesive were eliminated.material eliminating a possible cause of excessive reinforcement and producing a good back bead. are not completely uniform in size when manufactured. The ceramics. One problem with the magnetic devices. This caused the pieces that previously fit to become loose. The magnetic devices also resulted in a much cleaner environment. was loading the ceramics into the support sections. . they fell out . Holding devices with the ceramic tiles already in place are available and are recommended. however. Temperature had no apparent effect on the function of the devices. Athough most ceramics fitted nicely into the support section and functioned as designed.6 4 - . some were so loose that once inserted into the support section and positioned on the base material. No surface cleaning or other special preparation was necessary with the magnetic holding devices. Still others were too large to be inserted into the bending the section sides out to support sections without accommodate them.

The weld metal composition data points are leveled across a 5/16" diameter area in the Spectrovac II system used and hence may or may not represent a homogeneous distribution of a specific element. Theoretically r one way in which ceramic backing may directly affect the weld metal composition is by contributing products of reduction of aluminumr silicon and magnesium oxides of which the ceramic is composed.4.7% Si by weight).4 approximates the Composition of the A36 base metal used. analysis of the deposited weld metal were given in Table 5.53% (. the typical analysis in Table 5.003 (. For example.8 x 10 square inches (.005) = . Although base metal heat number identification was not maintained.5.5% of the total area. Since aluminum. silicon and magnesium all have a much greater affinity for oxygen throughout the prevailing temperature range than potential reducing agents in the -65- . Ceramic neutrality was defined as any change in weld metal composition due to use of ceramic backing.995) + .467 (. a weld metal surface in which the silicon composition of the matrix is . Ceramic backing may possibly alter the weld metal composition directly by some chemical reaction within the weld puddle envirornment or by contributing entrapped ceramic particles to the weld metal.0053/Si02 is 46. Results of the x-ray analytical system analysis of the ceramic backing were given in Table 5.3% might hypothetically contain -4 particles of Si02 totaling 3. It may also indirectly alter the weld metal composition by changes in dilution ("broom" effect) or by preventing escape of material which would normally escape a steel-backed weldment.VI-6 Ceramic Neutrality The ceramic backing chemical composition and deposited weld metal root and second pass diluted composition were evaluated using an energy dispersive x-ray analytical system and spectr– Results of the spectrographic ographic system respectively.) The silicon composition identified by spectrographic analysis will then be .

puddle environment. however. indirect effects on weld metal composition may result from changes in dilution and weld metal viscosity due to the "broom" effect which occurs with most FCAW ceramic-backed weldments. Change in weld metal viscosity may lead to entrapment of certain elements which would usually escape.2. To help determine whether any of these possible events actually occurred. the likelihood of such a reaction Direct contributions of material from ceramic is remote.6 6 - .2 was constructed by plotting vertically.. . have been identified by volumetric examination. are essentially the same for each comparison. a higher composition for a ceramic-backed coupon than for its corresponding steel-backed coupon and vice For each group except D the same wire heat was used versa. Points above the horizontal (zero) line indicate. shielding. Such particles would represent a localized high concentration of the ceramic compo sition (aluminum. the data from Table 5. the necessary oxygen resulting from disassociation at welding temperatures of carbon dioxide shielding gas into Oxidation and float-out may be carbon monoxide and oxygen. Since processes. particles themselves is much more likely to occur than reduction Since any larger particles present would of ceramic oxides. any significant variation can be attributed to ceramic backing. throughout.4 for the deposited root beads is graphically displayed in Table 6. for each group and each element. wire heats. Weld metal composition is normally affected by oxidation and float-out of certain elements in the puddle. any particles in the coupons analyzed would be very fine. inhibited by changes in puddle contour and/or viscosity due to ceramic backing. In addition to any direct effects of ceramic backing. silicon and magnesium). for the specific coupon and element. the difference between the root bead analysis for each ceramicbacked coupon and its corresponding steel-backed coupon. Table 6. etc.

Manganese in the weld puddle combines first with any sulfur present forming Mns which tends to float out of the puddle. the quantity of Mns . For FCAWr a trend toward increased silicon content for ceramic backed versus steel-backed weldments when using C0 2 or selfshielded wire is identified. formed immediately reacts with carbon.Since the "broom" effect and oxidation loss does not occur to any appreciable extent with SAW. dispersed particles necessary to escape identification by volumetric examination.2 for SAW (groups N and P) are small or do not exist for most of the elements. for SAW there appears to be no significant direct or indirect effect on weld metal composition due to use of ceramic backing. Some remaining manganese may react with any oxygen remaining after Any Mno thus silicon and/or aluminum react with it first. forms Mn3C which is indistinguishable from Fe3C and remains in the weld. differences in composition between ceramic-backed and steel-backed weldments would be expected to be rather small if there are no direct effects from ceramic backing. Although some Mns may become entrapped in the same manner as Si02. Entrapment of particles of ceramic backing would be expected to occur equally with all the FCAW processes since puddle contour and viscosity is similar for all FCAW ceramic-backed weldments. This manganese. The differences identified by Table 6. plus any which did not react with oxygen or sulfur. forming metallic manganese and carbon monoxide (This reaction may contribute to the soundness problems discussed in Section VI-l).6 7 - . The fact it occurs only with the processes having higher shielding oxygen content is a strong indication the particles result from oxidation and subsequent entrapment of silicon in the puddle. providing another indication the higher silicon is not due to direct contribution by the ceramic backing. having formed after solidification. This trend is likely the result of entrapped particles of Si02. The oxidation and entrapment mechanism is more likely to produce the fine. Accordingly.

there was no evidence found to indicate that ceramic backing contributes directly to the composition of either or SAW weldments with which it was used. no trend. could be identified for aluminum. In summary. An increased-dilution type analysis for FCAW over ceramic backing also tends to explain the variations in nickel and titanium too small to identify any trends on the basis of sulfur.e. Of the three elements. These changes should have little or no effect on the performance of a sound weldment made with ceramic backing.. There were some mild indirect effects on weld metal composition due to use of ceramic These effects are probably caused by backing with FCAW. increased dilution at the root of the joint and resultant changes in viscosity distribution of the molten puddle. and the trend toward increased silicon could be adequately explained by other than direct contribution from the ceramic backing. . either higher or lower. the oxides of which are the principle constituents of the ceramic backing evaluated magnesium could not be evaluated with spectrographic techniques. the base metal being consistently lower than the wire in manganese. A possible but vague trend toward lower manganese content with FCAW andceramic backing can be attributed to increased dilution obtained from the "broom" effect. i. they are due to the "broom" effect.6 8 - .

010 10 -.400 I +.080 -.110 -.070 -.250 -.1 00 -.070 +.550 -.150 +.050 +.250 +.120 -. 100 +.500 -.040 -.030 H HIL N ● I H +.400 -.040 I P● -.060 -.300 +.350 G -.050 +.450 -.G ' +.350 +.2 VARIATIONS IN COMPOSITION BETWEEN CERAMIC-BACKED AND CORRESPONDING STEEL-BACKED WELDMENTS .200 G I A +.100 -.060 A 4 I +.010 L “.080 +.600 (SCALE 1) Manganese (Scale 1) Silicon (Scale 1) Scale 2) Aluminum Carbon Sulfur (Scale 2) (Scale 2) (Scale 2) SCALE 2) TABLE 6.050 L H 1( D P I No ADGH o -.090 -.200 -.020 T -.030 -.050 -.020 -.300 +.150 P L No +.

w o z .

Phase II (C02 shielded FCAW) and Phase III (self-shielded FCAW) provided good second side bead contour but with a high risk of internal porosity and piping for which consistently reliable corrective measures were not identified. lower heat input and smaller puddle size combined with the more inert C–25 shielding apparently mitigates the porosity/piping mechanisms described in VI-1. combined with an appropriate ceramic selection will avoid finning in single wire SAW.7 1 - . more fluid puddle was quite susceptible to finning and as a result is not recommended for use with ceramic tile backing. Positioning of the arc toward the center rather than the leading edge of the puddle further decreased the likelihood of porosity and piping but at some expense in second side bead contour. Minimum puddle fluidity. . apparently due to the inherently larger. Acceptable second side contours were consistently obtained with single wire submerged arc. Phase II and III type FCAW applications are not recommnended with ceramic tile backing without subsequent volumetric examination. A "finning" phenomenon. For this reason. consistent with adequate penetration and fusion. however. Ceramic tile backing was found to provide such a second side contour in FCAW and SAW single wire applications. but in FCAW applications only Phase I (.052" and 1/16" diameter wire with C-25 shielding) did so without significant risk of internal porosity and piping. apparently depending on a critical relationship of puddle fluidity and ceramic design presented no significant problems with single wire SAW as it did with tandem wire SAW.VI-7 Summary of Analysis The objective of the evaluation was to determine if ceramic tile backing in flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW) applications could provide a second side contour such that back gouging and grinding is not required to prepare the second side for subsequent welding or inspection. Tandem submerged arc.

-72- . The ceramic tiles were not found to significantly affect the weld metal chemistry. an acceptable compromise being recommended. a problem resolved by charges in joint design as discussed in VI-3. A statistical analysis of Charpy impact data from selected coupons revealed only a very slight difference. no problems of significance were identified in the use of ceramic tile backing. Also. The only other bead shape problems were occasional back bead sag in horizontal Phase I welds..Other than finning in tandem SAW applications and porosity piping in certain FCAW applications. The concessions in back bead contour for the purpose of assuring weldment soundness are directly controllable. Stopping and restarting with SAW. if any. insignificant variations for ECPW due to increased base metal dilution and sane entrapment of oxidized elements. There were some minor. The following specific applications are recommended for ceramic tile backing subject to the precautions identified. in weldment toughness between ceramic-backed and steel-backed weldments and even these differences could possibly be attributed to factors other than ceramic backing. Welding stops and starts presented no special problems with FCAW and techniques are recommended in VI-4. is not recommended.e. Problems previously identified with these applications are avoided by following the appropriate precautions. i. those applications for which an effective resolution of respective problem areas could not be found. Those applications not recommended. the magnetic devices are not temperature sensitive. are also identified along with the nature of the problems responsible. however. The adhesive and magnetic attaching methods both worked satisfactorily. Only reasonable base metal cleanliness is required with the adhesive methods while the magnetic methods are even more forgiving and have the additional advantage of no smoke and odor.

ceramics is minimum cleanliness. wiping of contact surfaces with a clean dry cloth just before applying ./C-25 /HOZ. O52° dia. O52° dia./C-25/FLAT NOTES : (1) When adhesive attaching methods are used./FLAT (1) (2) (5) (6) (7) Iv N SAW/EM12K/5/32° dia. (1) (2) (3) (4) I c FCAW/E70T-l/. (2) Baking or dry storage may be necessary../C-25 /VERT. O52° dia./C-25/HOZ.C-25/Vert. (1) (2) (4) I D FCAW/E70T-l/l/16° (1) (2) (4) I E FCAW/E70T-l/l/16° dia. (6) Ceramic design should be selected to avoid finning. .RECOMMENDED Phase Group Specifics Precautions I A FCAW/E70T-l/. (3) Possibility of back bead sag must be considered in joint design. (4) Use 30-40° lead angle with arc directed between center and leading edge of puddle to minimize any possibility of piping. (5) Minimum puddle fluidity consistent with adequate penetration. (7) Stops and restarts should be avoided../FLAT (1) (2) (5) (6) (7) IV o SAW/~12K/3/16° dia./FLAT (1) (2) (5) (6) (7) dia. (1) (2) (3) (4) I F ECAW/70T-l/l/16/” dia./C-25/FLAT (1) (2) (4) I B ECAW/E70T-l/. (1) (2) (4) Iv M SAW/EPl12K/l/8° dia..

Frequent Porosity and Piping III K FCAW/E70T-G/ 5/64” dia./FLAT Frequent Porosity and Piping Iv P SAW/EM12K/ 5/32” dia./FLAT Frequent Porosity and Piping III J FCAW/E70T-G/ 5/64” dia./VERT.NOT RECOMMENDED Phase Group Specifics Reasons II G FCAW/E70T-l/ 5/64” dia./FLAT/Tandem Severe Finning -74- ./HOZ./C02/FLAT Frequent Porosity and Piping II H FCAW/E70T-l/ 3/32” dia./C02/FLAT Frequent Porosity and Piping III I FCAW/E70T-G/ 5/64” dia. Frequent Porosity and Piping III L FCAW/E70T-G/ 5/64” dia.

The use of ceramic backing with other processes such as SMAW and GMAW short arc is quite promising. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Continuation of ceramic backing evaluation with FCAW should center on the resolution of weld soundness. etc. An in-depth cost/time study for ceramic backing as it relates to other -75- .. Continuation of ceramic backing evaluation with single wire SAW should concentrate on determining the optimum combination of welding parameters and ceramic/weld-joint design.e. A statistically significant prcgram concentrating primarily on the effects of technique. This evaluation program ascertained the technical feasibility of producirgq quality welds with ceramic backing. Much information obtained with FCAW and SAW is directly applicable to these two processes. at this point. i. The bead shape problems with tandem SAW appear too severe to justify continued evaluation. Tandem SAW. is not compatible with ceramic backing. A similar evaluation program would yield beneficial results.VII . An optimum balance must be found between the bead shape advantages of the "broom" effect and avoidance of the soundness problems associated with it. An appropriately designed evaluation program would identify the limiting factors which will result in an optimum relationship. The relationship of puddle size and fluidity to the geometry of the ceramic/weld-joint area is important. The primary advantage of ceramic backingis alleged lower cost and/or production time. joint design and welding parameters is necessary to provide a data bank of reliable information for avoidance of the soundness problems. may have an effect not identified by this evaluation. Such factors as base material thickness and size and/or wire characteristics such as fast-freeze. piping and porosity problems. Variations in welding technique appear promising for resolution of the FCAW soundness problems.

. etc. A planned shipyard evaluation utilizing surface and volumetric examination of production welds may reveal influences of size. Although every effort was made to accurately duplicate shipyard conditions. unaccounted for in this evaluation. –76- . fitup.available methcds for performing similar functions would substantiate and quantify these savings. this evaluation was of necessity a laboratory function with small scale test coupons.


622 41. Lack of fusion and sag Excessive Back Bead Saci 1 -Al .7 18.6 8 String Weave String String String String Weave U=71.: 28 28 28 70 220 300 310 320 350 NR 30-40° Lead 30° Trail 30° Trail 30° Trail String String String String U=66.932 Y=48.2 17 30-40° Lead 30° Trail 30° Trail 30° Trail String String String String U=67.559 29 24 5 28.660 20 17 25 22.4 26 15° 15° 15° 15° 15° 15° 15° Lead Lead Lead Lead Lead Lead Lead I-2-1 8 1 260 26 70 30-400 Lead String I-2-2 29 1 260 26 70 30-40° Lead String IEJ .4 28 13 30-40° Lead 30° Trail 30° Trail 30° Trail String String String String U=65.5 26.!-4-1 6 !-5-1 7 260 260 260 260 28 28 28 28 ]-1-1 3 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 28 28 . Lack of fusion 1-2-3 4 1 260 70 30-40° Lead String IEJ .617 38.8 33.

5 70 30-40° Lead String REJ Lack of fusion and saq B-3-3 4 280 280 280 280 70 250 200 325 30-40° Lead 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail String String String String OK x x B-4-1 4 280 280 280 280 30-40° Lead 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail String String String String OK x x B-5-1 10 30-40° Lead 20° Trail 20° Trail 20° Trail String String String String REJ String String String String String String * B-5-2 1 2 3 4 4 : 3 4 5 6 280 280 280 280 25 25 25 25 260 260 260 260 260 260 26 26 26 26 26 26 7.6 13. RT rejected for 2“ lack of fusion.6 280 280 280 280 280 25 25 25 25 25 INT.5 13. x x * 2“ chevron porosity at start and 1.5” at center. — .5 13. B-2-4 TEST B-2-5 A 260 260 260 260 260 JOINT 4 10 13.5 13. (UF) 70 180 250 290 350 TORCH 4 30-40° Leac 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail STRING/ WEAVE String String String String String RT — ROOT BENDS 2 P F P REJ String String String String String OK 290 350 30-40° Leac 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail 40° Trail 70 150 POLARITY DCRP 40CFH F Lack of Fusion x x B-3-1 4 1 280 25 7.HEAT 63302225H243 GAS FLOW WIRE TYPE E70T-1/FC707 No.5 30° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° Lead Lead Lead Lead Lead Lead -A2- Some minor sag at the run-off end.5 70 30-40° Lead String REJ Lack of fusion B-3-2 4 1 280 25 7.6 13.6 13.

POLARITY DCRP HEAT 63302225H243GAs FLOW 40CFH WIRE TYPE E70T-1/FC707 ROOT BENDS TEST NO. x x — . JOINT c-2-1 12 c-3-1 13 c-4-1 c-5-1 8 10 PASS TORCH = A 1 220 220 220 240 240 240 4 240 240 240 4 240 240 240 9 7 9 7 STRING/ WEAVE 2 F RT P 10-15° Lead 15° Trail 15° Trail Weave Weave Weave OK x x 70 125 250 20° Lead 10° Trail 10° Trail Weave Weave Weave OK x x 20° Lead 15° Trail 15° Trail Weave Weave Weave OK x x 125 280 40° Lead 30° Trail 30° Trail Weave Weave Weave OK -A3- -F .

. 20.8 10 12. D-2-1 D-3-1 JOINT 10 .4 25. 39 32 15 J=64.6 14.H[EAT.5 32 24 22 10 10 33. 26 10 .6 11 Zti .705 21 O K x x 17 10 Lead Lead Lead Lead 7. TORCH < — 30° Lead 15° Lead 15° Lead 15° Lead GAS FLOW 4OCFll — x — — — x — x — — — — x — OK x . 32128/1022 WIRE TYPEE70T-1/~ABco-82 INT. 15 30 29 15 27 20 10 27.859 21 16 5 J=53.6 11 11.5 28 13 25 5 10 20. — ———- AVG.PASS— 1 3 4 5 : 3 4 D-4-1 D-5-1 E-2-1 E-3-1 E-4-1 9 11 33 34 34 A 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 v _ 36- 70 70 195 300 30 30 30 6 260 260 260 260 30 260 260 260 260 30 30 30 30 7*5 7 7 6 260 260 260 260 260 25 25 25 25 NR NR NR NR NR 260 260 260 260 260 25 25 25 25 260 260 260 260 260 25 25 25 25 25 NR NR NR NR NR — OK 70 280 350 String Weave Weave Weave Lead Lead Lead Lead String Weave Weave Weave OK 290 350 60° 15° 15° 15° Lead Lead Lead Lead String Weave Weave Weave OK 290 340 60° 15° 15° 15° String String String String — String OK 290 330 350 30° Lead 15° Trail 15° Trail 15” Trail 15° Trail String String String String String OK 295 325 350 60° Lead 15” Trail 15° Trail 15° Trail 15° Trail 295 345 350 60° Lead 15° Trail 15° Trail 15° Trail 15° Trail Weave Weave Weave Weave Weave -A4- POLARITY DCRP ROOT BENDS 2 1 RT — P — F P — F.3 19.5 30 30 30 . TEST NO.5 7 30 30 STRING/ WEAVE String Weave Weave Weave 60° 15° 15° 15° 7. — — x x — — 3 — x x — — — — — x — — 23 20 10 .505 x — J=65.6 8 — x — F 13 10 r —.2 23. — . L U=67.407 310f 32 27 23 10 10 20 16 10 21 14 10 .

ml m LLl E z } 0 0 0 0 0 I t .

HEAT POLARITY 1801 ROOT BENDS INT TEST NO. STRING/ OK —P x F — 70 90 250 OK x x — OK x x — 5.5 6 3 230 230 230 14 1 RT A 1 3 4 2 1 230 230 230 .5 7 5.6 OK x x — -A6- DCRP . F-2-1 F-3-1 F-4-1 F-5-1 JOINT 2 PASS 220 230 240 240 4 9 7 5 3 220 230 230 6 8.

HEAT 282B8 WIRE TYPEE70T-1/ GAS FABCO-82 TEST NO. JOINT Q-2-1 3 PASS 3 4 5 6 A 280 280 300 300 300 300 V 27 27 28 28 28 28 INT.5 350 TORCH 4 STRING/ WEAVE 15° 15° 15° 15° 15° 15° String Weave String String String String Lead Trail Trail Trail Trail Trail -A7- FLOW RT OK POLARITY TENS ILL U=74.6 35 .266 1 2 38 27 40 32 28 35 CVN (20°F) 5 AVG.5 26 35 24 30 23 35 25.5 300 12.14 250 15 150 12.35 70 7.5 350 12. (°F) 10. 3 4 30 32 32.341 Y=48.