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Metal Science a n d Heat Treatment

Vol. 40, Nos. 3 - 4, 1998

UDC 620.111.3

A. 1. Kustov, I B. G. Sukhodolov, i and I. A. Migel' i
Translated from Metallovedenie i Termicheskaya Obrabotka Metallov, No. 4, pp. 2 9 - 32, April, 1998.
Results of a study of the structure and properties of steels and alloys by means of a scanning acoustic
microscope (SAM) are presented. The microscope makes it possible to visualize the structure of surface layers
of specimens without a complex chemical treatment of the surface, determine defects of various origins, and
measure the values of some elastomechanical characteristics. The sensitivity of acoustomicroscopic methods
to various kinds of thermal and mechanical treatment of the materials is described.

form of a half-tone TV image. A more detailed description of
the device and its operating principles is given in [2].
The second acoustomicroscopic method is used mainly to
obtain quantitative characteristics of the studied solid object.
For example, it has been shown in [3] that an acoustic microscope operating in the reflection mode makes it possible to
measure some elastic parameters of various solid materials by
the speed of the emitted surface acoustic waves. This method
is based on the experimentally established dependence of the
output signal Vofthe piezoelectric transducer on the distance
(Z) between the lens and the object. In this mode the specimen is scanned along the Z-axis. The acoustic waves fall on]o
the surface of the specimen in a rather wide range of angles
(the aperture angle of acoustic lenses amounts to 2 5 - 60~
and therefore there is always a range lying close to the
Rayleigh critical angle OR for acoustic waves. It can be seen
from Fig. 2 that the rays reflected from the surface (ray X.2 )
and incident on it at the Rayleigh critical angle (ray ~.j ) con-

An important problem of materials science consists in
studying the properties o f materials and assessing their relation with the structure. One of the ways of solving this problem consists in creating and using new methods of inspection,
including nondesructive ones. These include acoustic microscopy, developed in the last 20 years and based on the interaction between acoustic waves of the mega- and gigahertz frequency ranges and surface layers of the studied materials.
The most widely used regimes of operation of an SAM are
(1) visualization o f the structure and defects of the material
and (2) measurement of the speed of surface acoustic waves
(SAW) in the studied specimen. An overall view of the scanning and visualization unit of a scanning acoustic microscope
is presented in Fig. 1.
When the device operates in the visualization mode [1]
the radiation and reception of acoustic waves is performed by
one and the same acoustic element. The useful acoustic signal
reflected from the studied object and containing information
on the structural and mechanical properties of the reflection
region returns through the lens to the transducer and then is
transferred in the form of an electric signal to the radioelectronic channel. To obtain an image of a portion of a surface
the object is scanned in the focal plane XYofthe acoustic lens
in two mutually perpendicular directions. In the course of the
scanning, speciaI features of the structure and properties of
the object at various points manifest themselves in the amplitude or phase changes of the received signal. The videosignal
received after reflection and conversion modulates tile brightness of the cathode-ray tube, the raster scanning of which is
synchronized with the scanning of the object. This makes it
possible to reproduce the acoustic image of the object in the

Fi~. I. Overall view of the unit for scanning and visualization of a scanning
acoustic microscope: / ) optical objective on a rotating turret; 2 ) acoustic
Ions; 3 ) specimen: 4 ) scanning unit.

Voronezh I ligher Military Aircraft t:'ngincering School, Voronczh State
I'ngineering tlnivcrsitx, Voronezll, Russia.

002~-0o73/q~,'0~04-0163520.00 '~ 19q~ Plenum Publishing ('orporati,.m

XY)object scanning plane. The phase difference changes periodically in relation to the distance Z and therefore the dependence V(Z) has an oscillating nature. .xw is the wavelength). 2 ) sound duct. Although only part o f the re-reflected rays falls onto the piezoelectric transducer.20 lain. ( I ) and (2) we determined the values o f VsAw . K u s t o v et al. 0 speed of the surface acoustic wave VSAw . some elastic characteristics of the object. This secondary wave differs in phase from the acoustic wave directly reflected from the surface. 2. including at the angle OR. . respectively. To measure the value o f vSAw we obtained an image o f the curve o f V(Z) on the display o f the scanning acoustic microscope and determined AZu with an accuracy no worse than 0. from them. A curve o f V(Z) typical for metallic materials is presented in Fig. Z = . re-radiates energy into the immersion liquid. lain Fig. while propagating. d ) i m a g e s o f the surface o f steels VNS-2M ( (~-s. Geometrical path of rays in an acoustic cell: / ) piezoelectric transducer. 4. 0. c) • 260. b ) and 06Kh 14N8MD2T (c. i] (2) where viiq is the speed o f propagation o f the acoustic wave in the immersion liquid. Z = 10 ~m.164 A . Z) axis determining the distance from the lens to the object and the depth of visualization. The region of oscillations lying to the right of the principal and shifted maxima makes it possible to calculate the speeds of the surface acoustic waves. b ) • 200. Z ) distance from the lens to the surface of the object. AZx ) characteristic distance for the material studied.'(Z ) for solid (metallic) materials: I. 3 ) immersion liquid. tribute to the output signal.5 ~tm using gauges o f precision conveyance o f the lens along the axis Z. A typical curve of I. i. Light (a. In the approximation of the geometric model o f [4] they are related as 30 60 Z.. 3. / and 2) principal and secondary maxima.') magnitude of the output signal in relative units. The distance between the maxima of the curve o f V(Z) is detenlaincd by the -1 (1) I ~'SAW = Vliq I -- 1 -- Vliq Lfaz~. it is their contribution to the output signal that determines the dependence of V on the properties o f the material o f the specimen. as a result o f which the two waves interfere. respectively). d ) • 240.k.~ Fig. I . d): a) • 200. The curve of V(Z) has a strictly specific shape for each material and can be used to judge the elastic properties of the reflecting surthce. 5 ) focal plane of the acoustic lens. A Rayleigh acoustic wave excited on the surface. 3. 30 .e. We calculated the size d of the minimum region for measuring vSAw in steels f o r f -~ 0.sA~v is the possibility o f making measurements on smallsize local regions of solid objects. I and k 2 ) rays (repeatedly reflected at the Rayleigh angle and mirror rellected. c) and acoustic (b. a n d f i s the working frequency o f the acoustic microscope. It should be noted that a merit o f tile V(Z) method for determining t. Z r/ 1 3 i x 4 I Fig.5 GHz and characteristic values o f VSAw ranging between 250(I and 4000 m/sec and established that d_~ 6XSAw.70 ~. 4 ) surface of the specimen. 0 R ) Rayleigh angle. In accordance with Eqs.

Figure 4 presents light and acoustic images of surface regions of polished specimens of different alloys. The crystallographic texture was studied by the method of plotting straight pole figures from the reflections {110}. maraging steel VNS-2M and austenitic steel 06Khl4N8MD2T with a composition close to it (it was used as a model steel for VNS-2M in HTMT) (Table 1). and defects of the crystal lattice. However. Since the acoustic contrast in the visualization mode is provided by the differences in the impedances (pVsAw ) of the studied regions. Figure 5a . The studied surfaces of the specimens were parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the rod. 0 3 0 provided a resolution of 1 .2 2 ~)6Kh 14N~MI)21 0. which is recorded by the method of acoustic visualization. namely. {200} ofmartensite and {I I 1}.Effect of Various Kinds of Thermomechanical Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Steels 165 Fig. x 350. % Steel C Cr Ni Cu VNS-2M 0. which made it possible to monitor the structure formation in hot deformation by the model steel). • 350.15 . which TABLE I Concenlralion of elements..2"~ 0. c) after patenting.c presents the microstructure and anisotropy of steel 70 after patenting. an SAM provides high-contrast structural images of polycrystalline materials.7% C). {220} of austenite [5]. Any thermal or mechanical action of a sufficiently high level causes a change in the structure of the specimen. and carbon spring steel 70 (about 0. The speed of acoustic waves in polycrystalline materials is determined by their moduli of elasticity. Acoustic image of the structure of steel 70 after different kinds ofthermomechanical treatment (a . in particular. whereas the acoustic image shows the mutual crystallographic disorienta- . and steel 70 (wire 2 mm in diameter) was patented. 5. b ) for planes parallel and perpendicular to the direction o f deformation. and twin structures can be visualized. respectiveb.m.07 14.6 5. the presence of a developed structure and substructure.5 p.06 14 g 2 Ii 1. The steel specimens were preliminarily treated by an HTMT regime that gave structures of dynamic polygonization and dynamic and static recrystallization (the HTMT regimes for both steels were the same. the contrast of the light image is caused only by the unevenness of the surface of the microscopic specimen due to etching. ~ = 65%.c) and a characteristic curve of I'(Z ) (d): a. Numerous experiments have shown that the phase. The acoustic image of the microstructure is qualitatively similar to the metallographic one. 5 . grain. the crystallographic orientation of the grains. We studied specimens of steels of different classes. We used a scanning acoustic microscope with a working frequency of 410 MHz. Steel 06Khl4NSMD2T was hot-deformed in the intercritical temperature range (DMA).

the variation o f the contrast is a sign o f a change in the orientation o f individual grains.9 + 0.87+1. N/mm 2 TABLE 2 Steel I s. Eelr is the effective modulus of elasticity.2 (II0) + {111} (112) 18. Figure 6 presents results o f determination o f Eelr in various stages o f patenting.12v l+v (5) . and G is the shear modulus o f the material.3 06Khl4NSMD2T HTMT 17.2/18.7+0. N / m m 2 { 123 } (I 23) 19. p is the density. This is explainable by retention o f the deformation texture after patenting o f steel 70.2 ( v s / v I )2 2-2(v~/v l)2" (8) the values of Ec~r and G can be determined by measuring the speeds of the SAW. in all probability. curve o f V ( Z ) (Fig..10 cm .9 peaks on the Polygonized Recrystallized Texture Eeff x I 0 . The numerators present Ecff measured in the lengthwise direction with respect to that of rolling.5 +_+_0. 12v)2 (6) +I+vi G=vs-Aw13 0.12v " Thus.. Eeff was measured along the direction of rolling. which cannot be made by other methods. It follows from the experiments that the anisotropy o f Eeff typical for a deformed state is retained after patenting. .1 06Kh 14N8MD2T DMA 15.4. The quantity Eelr calculated from the measured speeds vSAw Can be a quantitative estimate in the given case.2 VNS-2M HTMT 17.7_+0. the greater the scattering o f vSAw and the lower the value o f Eelr.2/17. HTMT with the formation o f polygonized austenite in hot deformation causes anisotropy o f Eelr (the mechanical properties become anisotropic in the plane o f rolling too [5]). 2 ) 65% deformation by drawing. if we know the density of the specimen (determined experimentally) and the Poisson coefficient v- I . In the presence of 8 . However. Eeffx 10-4. I . The calculation o f E.9 +_0. the denominators give data for the widthwise direction. which does not occur in HTMT that leads to formation o f dynamically recrystallized austenite (Table 3). 3 ) patenting (light columns present measurements in the lengthwise direction with respect to the rolling. 6. p 2(1 + v) (4) VL= V 9 ( I .2 v ) ' = vs = VsAw = v s 0.87 + 1. O-v) . tion o f neighboring volumes. Kustov et al. r is based on use o f the regime o f measurement o f the speed o f the surface acoustic waves and some concepts o f the theory o f elasticity [6. The growth ofequiaxial grains in the processes o f short-duration recrystallization heating occurs with repetition o f the orientation o f the deformed grains.3 _+0.2 1. Results show that E~rr depends on the type of the structure and.. The use o f a scanning acoustic microscope makes it possible to determine the modulus o f elasticity directly in thin wires.1 + 0.7 Note. hatched columns present data in the widthwise direction).v ) ( I . The speeds o f longitudinal ( v t ). It should be noted that the acoustomicroscopic methods described are convenient for studying relaxation processes. The treatment regimes were chosen so that the austenite and martensite texture after the deformation (after DMA the structure o f steel 0 6 K h I 4 N S M D 2 T at room temperature becomes martensitic) was not sharp and caused a minimum anisotropy.5%. and surface (vSAw ) acoustic waves were determined using the equations .8 + 0.166 A . 7]. transverse (Vs).2 Note. on the dislocation density y: the higher the dislocation density. detailed consideration o f this problem requires additional experiments and will be the subject o f a special work. 17.3 4. 5 d ) the error in measuring VSAw does not exceed 0.. The values o f Eelr o f the steels after H T M T and DMA are presented in Table 2. In this case we can observe the transformation o f the structure on acoustic images and measure the values o f VSAw and get~ on individual areas.3 _4-0. After some algebra we obtain 2p(1 + v) 3 . (3) . Eeff = VSAW (0.0 + 0. The nature o f the anisotropy o f Eetr agrees with results o f our study o f the crystallographic texture. where v is the Poisson coefficient.87 + I. Thus.5 TABLE 3 I 2 3 Type of structure Fig./Eo.2 0.5 // Treatment Ecffx 10 4 N/ram 2 - "y x 10 . Anisotropy of the effective modulus of elasticity Eeff for specimens of steel 70 after different kinds of thermomechanical treatment: I ) a standard specimen (undeformed). or o f a texture when the results are processed statistically.

Landau and E. Eksper. Morozova. 6. Elastic Waves in Solids [Russian translation]. Morozov. XXXI.. E. 15(21). Nauka. 2. No. 3. Met. I. D. The Theory o f Elasticity [in Russian]. 194. A. L. M. Kustov. Issue 6. Quate.820 (1985). Nauka. Rhuaue. 817 . Wickramasinghe. the use of a scanning acoustic microscope to study 167 REFERENCES the effect of various regimes of thermomechanical treatment of steels on their structure and properties makes it possible: (I) to visualize the structure of the surface layers o f an object to a depth h = 5 . and heat-treated layers from the values of VsAw. Morozov. Atalar. 2. L." Proc. L. W. I. . (3) to calculate some elastic-mechanical characteristics (vSAw. Parmon and V. M. Zh. D'elesan and D. I. V.Effect of Various Kinds of Thermomechanical Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Steels Thus. Kaputkina. M. Eerr." Akust.196 (1986). I. M. Moscow (1965). Kustov. 4. and G and establishment of a correlation between these thicknesses and the heat-treatment regime o f the material. Moscow (1984). Bernshtein.686 (1979). Tekhn.. A. "A scanning acoustic microscope. 684 . 67(8)." Electr Left. C. Further work in this direction should be connected with creation of a method for determining the thickness of the cold-hardened surface. I. 65. F.20 ~Aw (for the SAM used h ~ 20 80 lam) without resorting to etching." Prib.. and A." Fiz. 1092 Ill3 (1979). A. Issue 6. "Special features of measuring SAW by an acoustic microscope. 5. (2) to observe the transformation o f the grain and phase structures in the heat-treatment process. Lifshits. IEEE. Metalloved. and T. Berloni. "Acoustic microscopy with mechanical scanning. L. "A study of the structure and texture of steel in patenting and hot deformation. Kulakov. diffusion. A. "Ray interpretation of the material signatures in the acoustic microscope. and H. Ee~r. 7. Kulakov and A. A. G ) and determine their anisotropy using the method of V ( Z ) curves. I 155 I 162 (I 988). K. M.