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Marine Technology, Vol. 38, No. 2, April 2001, pp.

92-94

An Approximate Method for Cross Curves of Cargo Vessels
H 0 s e y i n Y , I m a z 1 and M e s u t G ( l n e r 1

In this study, a formula is presented to estimate cross curves of cargo vessels and to predict statical
stability at the preliminary design stage of the vessel. The predictive technique is obtained by regression
analysis of systematically varied cargo vessel series data. In order to achieve this procedure, some cargo
vessel forms are generated using Series-60. The mathematical model in this predictive technique is
constructed as a function of design parameters such as Length, beam, depth, draft, and block coefficient.
The prediction method developed in this work can also be used to determine the effect of specific hull form
parameters and the load conditions on stability of cargo vessels. The present method is applied to a cargo
vessel and then the results of the actual ship are compared with those of regression values.

Introduction
THE analytical, statistical, and empirical formulations for
ships have generally been based on theoretical or experimental information. However, the naval architect needs mostly
some practical techniques to obtain appropriate designs and
some indication of an acceptable level of performance in assuring vessel safety at the preliminary design stage. Therefore, the stability of ships can be considered crucially import a n t for the naval architect. Within this context, approximate
expressions for the ship stability computations can be obtained by analyzing a large amount of computer calculations.
The development of ship stability methods has had a long
period of evolution. During that period, many studies have
been carried out on various aspects of the subject. For example, the Prohaska method [1] has been used in stability
calculations for a long time. There are some papers concerning the application of regression analysis for calculating the
stability of ships, such as Campanile and Cassella [2], Kupras [3], and Yflmaz and Kiikner [4]. Campanile and Cassella
have investigated the reduction of form stability for Series-60
ship forms in waves and have established some graphs for
the practical calculation of the righting moment arm. Kupras
has modeled KN-~ values based on design parameters for
cargo ships at certain heeling angles. Ydmaz and Ktikner
used a similar method as shown in this study to develop a
mathematical model for computation of cross curves of fishing vessels at the preliminary design stage.
The objective of this paper is therefore to derive a mathematical model for estimating cross curves of cargo vessels by
use of regression analysis. The mathematical model based on
hull form parameters is established for cross curves. Therefore, the systematically varied hull series [5] has been chosen
for the application of regression analysis to obtain an approximate expression for the stability characteristics of cargo
vessels.

M o d e l i n g o f c r o s s c u r v e s (KN-O) v a l u e s

that at the initial stage of design, stability cross curves (KNT), which are a function of ship draft, are proposed to be
estimated by using approximate statistical methods. As can
be seen from the geometrical features of an inclined ship
given in Fig. 1, the righting moment arm (GZ) value is calculated as follows in terms of KN value:
GZ

92

APRIL 2001

K N

-

KG sin~

(1)

A n u m b e r of cargo vessels have been derived from Series60 for the regression modeling of cross curves. The lengths of
those vessels are kept as a constant and their actual cross
curves are used in the regression analysis method. A total of
72 different hull forms are generated by incrementing the
L / B ratio by 0.5 where it provides a sufficient n u m b e r of
sample stability data for reliable statistical evaluation. For
each L / B ratio, the B / T value is varied by 0.25 increments,
and then for each B / T ratio the block coefficient (CB) is incremented by 0.01. All calculations are considered up to the
main deck.
The parameter range of generated vessels is set as follows:
5.0
2.25
0.60
1.3

< L / B < 7.5
< B / T < 3.0
< CB < 0.80
< D / T C < 4.0

where D / T c is the depth-draft ratio.
The actual cross-curve computations of the vessels are performed by a well-established stability software. The results
obtained from the implementation of the software are used to
establish approximated stability expression.
Since the (KN-~) values have been modeled in terms of
design parameters, it is necessary to use the values of KN in
the nondimensional form. Hence, the KN values should be
nondimensionalized by the molded beam B, which is one of
the most effective design parameters in a vessel's cross-curve
calculations. At the beginning of the regression modeling, the
(KN-~) curve has been fitted for the fifth-degree polynomial
by using polynomial regression as follows:

The prediction of ship stability at the preliminary design
stage is very difficult since the statical stability of a ship
cannot be easily predicted without knowing the ship's hull
geometry and her center of gravity. Therefore it is intended

1 Assistant professors, Department of Naval Architecture, Yfldlz
Technical University, 80750 Beoiktao, Istanbul, Turkey.
Manuscript received at SNAME headquarters May 24, 2000.

=

5

KN/B = Ea

Cpi

(2)

i--1

where (I) is the heel angle in radians and ai is the polynomial
coefficient which is determined by the application of the
least-squares method. In order to determine ai coefficients as
a function of design parameters, the following multiple linear
regression model can be used:

0025-3316/01/3802-0092500.31/0

MARINE TECHNOLOGY

List of re ression coefficients for KNcalculation

Table 1
b]o
bH

bl2
bi3
bt4

bl5
b2o

a2

W A
Fig. 1

Geometric representat,on of a heeled vessel

5

5

ai= E E b d X j

(3)

i-1 j=O

w h e r e Xd is t h e j t h design p a r a m e t e r and b u is t h e coefficient of t h e j t h design p a r a m e t e r for t h e ith coefficient of the
polynomial expression, a~. The selection of design p a r a m e t e r s
(Xj, j = 1,2,.,5) can be a c h i e v e d by s y s t e m a t i c trial in which
a p a r a m e t e r or combination of some p a r a m e t e r s should give
the h i g h e s t possible correlation w i t h t h e computed r i g h t i n g
a r m curve defined by KN-q) values. The selected p a r a m e t e r s
used in this s t u d y are given in the following forms:
Xo=l

a3

b33
b34

b35
b4o
b4~

b42
a4

b43

}344
b45

bso
bsl

a5

X1 = B/T

b21
b~2
b23
b24
b25
b3o
b31
b32

b52
b53
b~4
b55

X2 CB
=

%o .
-2.328721
2.717601
-5.640604
-0 463889

4.109446
-3 745978
5,965310
0 637674

-1.458433
1.346525
-2.055787
-O 226011

c,p3
0.135208
-0.133742
0 217996
0.022080
-0.090000
-0.035071
-0.848615
0.900041
-2.0050-04
-0.141919
0.933074
0.249320

2.428064
1 093691
22.570978
-19.296043
43.692879
3.255165
-15.864207
-9.679033

-2.320000
-1.270000
-27.502518
24.898382
-54.386890
-4 121551
20 892283
10 687704

0.790000
0.414975
9.052024
-8.951266
19.797815
1.445287
-8.408362
-3.125419

-33.921013
34.550896
-112.551231
-6.027348
41.359619
22.077457
17.957562
-24.510056
106.314568
4 386174
-41.033024
-18.532402

43 5 1 3 3 5 1
-45 926285
138026321
7 621548
-54 768772
-23.551973
-25 852377
33.539349
-127434258
-5.559719
52 9 0 0 8 2 6
19 273975

-15.438095
17 3 1 1 7 6 6
-48,579960
-2.745575
21.547258
6.477677
10.446903
-13.263817
43 502827
2.062754
-20.119068
-5.063540

1 539757
-1.791367
4.767433
0.275166
-2.304114
-0 495855
-1.123475
1.409822
-4.184539
-0.211117
2.099168
0 373116

-3.007130
6.157536
-32.953545
-1 119601
13.310734
5.226368

5.270205
-8 639531
38.810867
1.422759
-16 780735
-5.324092

-2.515895
3.559559
-12 963937
-0.542013
6.220391
1.346306

0.291860
-0 386909
1.230697
0.056536
-0.638607
-0.095566

Xa = (B /T) 2

X4

=

(CB) 2

X 5 = (B/T)

CB

It is a s s u m e d t h a t the draft is c h a n g e d at different loading
conditions. Therefore, the b u coefficients given in e q u a t i o n (3)
h a v e been d e t e r m i n e d at each loading condition.
The other design p a r a m e t e r v a r i a t i o n s w i t h the loading
condition h a v e been considered as c o n s t a n t since it is difficult
to c a r r y out t h e calculations at t h e initial design stage. Thus,
t h e v a r i a t i o n s of b u coefficients are defined w i t h t h e freeboard v a r i a t i o n ( D / T c ) only. For the inclusion of loading
variation, the following third-degree polynomial regression
w i t h a m a x i m u m e r r o r of 2% was used:
5

5

= EEEc,

L e n g t h (L)
: 120 (m)
B r e a d t h (B)
: 20 (m)
D e p t h molded (D)
: 12 (m)
Design draft (T)
:8
(m)
C o m p u t a t i o n draft (T c ) : 8
(m)
Block coefficient ( C B)
: 0.70
The c o m p u t a t i o n procedure for the r i g h t i n g a r m curve (KNq~) of t h e proposed cargo vessel should be as follows:
1. Calculate r e g r e s s i o n p a r a m e t e r s , X i
Xo=I

3

= 2.5
0.70
( B / T ) 2 = 6.25
( C B ) 2 = 0.49
( B / T ) C B = 1.75
( D / T , ) = 1.5

X 1 = B/T

,,

x2 = cB

(4)

z=l j-O k-1

X:~ =

w h e r e 5 is D / T C.
U s i n g the r e g r e s s i o n coefficients (cu~) given in Table 1, t h e
r i g h t i n g a r m curve can be easily c o m p u t e d for a given set of
design p a r a m e t e r s .

X 4=
X s =
5 =

=

2. Calculate b u coefficients

bu =

Application of the m e t h o d

%0

+ Cijl ~ -}-CU2 52 Jr-C(1383

(i = 1,2,..,5

The p r e s e n t e d regression model has been applied to a cargo
vessel, whose principal d i m e n s i o n s are:

j = 1,2,,5)

blo = -2.328721 + 4.109446 * (1.5)
- 1.458433 * (1.5)2+ 0.135208 * (1.5) "~

Nomenclature
a,, bd, cu~, -

B =
BM -

=
=
D =

CB
Cp

APRIL 2001

regression coefficients of KN-qb
molded breadth
transverse metacentric radius
block coefficient
longitudinal prismatic coefficient
depth

metacentric height
righting moment arm
height of center of buoyancy
vertical center of gravity
KN ~ form stability lever in keel

GM ~
GZ =
KB =
KG =

L = length of between perpendiculars
T = design draft
T c = calculating draft
= D / To, ratio
• - heel angle

MARINE T E C H N O L O G Y

93

K N - T¢

51o = 1.01030

bll
bl~
b14
b.~o
b2.,
b~4
bao
b:~
b34

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

b4o =

542 =
b44 =

bso =
bs, =
b~ 4 =

-0.32306
-0.58242
0.41972
-1.17982
-0.10926
-0.29547
1.80998
1.27342
-0.08859
-1.10720
-1.0782
0.13501
0.22244
0.24750
-0.01978

8

bl.~ =
b,~l b~.~ =
b.,.~ =
ba~ =
baa =
has =
b41 =

b4~ =
b45 =

bs1 =
b~3 =
bs.~ =

0.00160
0.94881
-0.15424
0.16178
-1.43292
0.15611
-0.34924
0.71352
-0.02472
0.244862
-0.09857
-0.01418
-0.05311

6.

2

a t = 1.010301 - 0.3230642 * ( 2 . 5 ) - 0 . 5 8 2 4 2 3 3 " ( 0 . 7 0 )
+ 0.05861723*(6.25)+ 0.4197221"(0.49)
+ 0.001608094 *(1.75)
= 0.3697794

= 0.3697794

T h e r e s t of t h e a~ coefficients h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d in t h e s a m e
way:

K N = (a~(l) * + a2~ e + a a ~ al + a4~ 4 + as4)51B
K N = (0.3697794 ¢P + 0.2900721 cI)2 - 0.5597836 q)a
+ 0.2619391 4)4 - 0.04202612 ~ s ) 20
w h e r e q~ is in r a d i a n s .
KN-O CHART
D=12m,
T=8m,

!
Tc=8m

, CB=O70

7 7

2

0

'

' 1:0' 20 ~ 3 0 '

'

40'

'

50'

60-' 70 ' 80

¢ (degree)
Fig. 2 Comparison of KN-q~ values

94

40 °

~.

50°

=

60°
actual
regres.

!

4

l

!

l

5

!

~

!

l

6 7
T~ [m]

!

r

l

,

8

Fig. 3 Comparison of

9

10

KN-Tvalues

T h e actual a n d s u g g e s t e d m e t h o d s of c o m p u t i n g r e s u l t s
of (KN-dp) v a l u e s for t h e s a m p l e cargo v e s s e l are s h o w n in
Fig. 2.
F o r o t h e r l o a d i n g conditions, t h e K N v a l u e s h a v e b e e n
c o m p u t e d by c h a n g i n g t h e d r a f t values. T h e K N - T v a l u e s of
t h e a c t u a l a n d s u g g e s t e d m e t h o d s of c o m p u t i n g r e s u l t s for
d i f f e r e n t h e e l i n g a n g l e s h a v e b e e n p l o t t e d in Fig. 3.

The p r e s e n t m e t h o d and t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l tool given in
t h i s p a p e r can be successfully a p p l i e d to t h e calculation of a
cargo v e s s e l ' s cross curves a t t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n stage.
The a c c u r a c y of t h e m e t h o d is b a s e d on t h e h u l l form p a r a m e t e r s as d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n . It can be s e e n f r o m t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l r e s u l t s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t m e t h o d gives v e r y h i g h accur a c y for S e r i e s - 6 0 a n d f o r o t h e r d i f f e r e n t c a r g o h u l l
g e o m e t r i e s as well, a n d t h e level of e r r o r is acceptable. I f t h e
a p p r o x i m a t e KG v a l u e is k n o w n for a cargo vessel, t h e statical s t a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e v e s s e l can be e x e c u t e d at t h e
p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n stage.
O n e of t h e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y is t h a t it
p r o v i d e s t h e d e s i g n e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s for
a cargo v e s s e l f r o m t h e p o i n t of view of v e s s e l stability.

References

5

1

0

Conclusions

a 3 = -0.5597836
as = -0.04202612

4. C a l c u l a t e K N v a l u e s

B=20m.,

20°
30°

7o°

I

3

=

L=120m,

~.
*

0

a, bio X o + bil X~ + bi2 X 2 + b,:~X3 + bi4 X4 + bi5 X5
al = bloXo+ bll X1 + bl2X~+ b13X3+ b14X4+ bl~X~

a2 = 0.2900721
a 4 = 0.2619391


10°

-

3. C a l c u l a t e t h e a, coefficients

al

.,

n

bta = 0.05861

APRIL 2001

j

1. Prohaska, C. W., "Intluence of Ship Form on Transverse Stability,"
TINA, 1951.
2. Campanile, A. and Cassella, P., "Form Stability Reduction Among
Waves for Series-60 Hulls," Oceazz Engineering, Vol. 16, 1989, pp. 431462.
3. Kupras, L. K., "Optimization Method and Parametric Study in Precontracted Ship Design," International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 23,
1976, pp. 138-155.
4. Yllma, H. and Ktikner, A., "Evaluation of Cross Curves of Cargo
Vessels in Preliminary Design Stage," Ocean Engbzeering, Vol. 26, No. 10,
1999, pp. 979-990.
5. Todd, F.H., "Some Further Experiments on Single-Screw Merchant Ship Form--60 Series," Transactions. SNAME, Vol. 1, 1953, pp.
516-589.
6. Yllmaz, H., "The Determination of Practical Stability Criteria Depending Upon Ship Design Parameters," MS thesis (in Turkish), Ylldlz
Technical University, Istanbul, 1994.

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