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Work

1DEFINITION
Definition of Work
Work done is defined as product of the force and the distance over which the force
is applied.
2FORMULA
Calculation of work done
Work Done by Constant force:
W=F.S=FScosθ
Where θ is the angle between F (Force) and S (displacement).
3FORMULA
Work done by variable force
∙ If force is variable, W=∫s2s1F→.ds→

When force is varying irregularly, a graph is drawn between the displacement s on
X-axis and the force F on the Y-axis.
Work done = area under F−s graph.

4FORMULA
Work in Cartesian form
W=∫F→.dS−→

Work done in Cartesian coordinate system is
W=∫x2x1Fx dx+∫y2y1Fy dy+∫z2z1Fz dz
Work done is also area under force-displacement graph.
5FORMULA

Work done by Spring Force
∙ Work done in compressing or expanding a spring: W=12K x2
where, K is the force constant of the spring and x is the extension or compression.
Work done in changing the elongation of a spring from x1 to x2 is
W=12K(x22−x21)

6FORMULA
Work done by gravitational force
∙ Work done in lifting an object of finite dimensions:
W=mgh, where, m is the mass of the object, g is acceleration due to gravity and h
is the height through which the centre of mass of the body rises.

7FORMULA
Work done by gravity in case of simple pendulum
∙ Work done in pulling the bob of a simple pendulum of length ℓ through an angle θ
is given by
W=mgℓ(1−cosθ)
where, m is the mass of the bob, g is the acceleration due to gravity.

8FORMULA
Work done in Pulling a Chain
A uniform chain of mass m of length l is hanging 1nth from edge of table. Work done
to pull the hanged part on to the table is mgl2n2
9FORMULA
Work done in lifting a body in fluids
∙ The work done in lifting a body of mass m having density d1 inside a liquid of
density d2 through a height h is
W=mgh(1−d2d1)

Kinetic energy

1DEFINITION
Kinetic energy
Energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy. A body
of mass m moving with a velocity v has kinetic energy K=12mv2
Potential Energy

1DEFINITION
Potential energy
Potential energy: Energy possessed by a body or system by virtue of the relative
positions of its parts or by virtue of its position in a force field.

Example: Water stored at a height, compressed spring
Work-Energy Theorem

1FORMULA
Work energy theorem
The work done on a particle by the net force is equal to the change in its kinetic
energy
W=FS=ΔKE=Kf−Ki
=12mv2−12mu2
2RESULT
Work Energy Theorem for System of Particles
The change in the kinetic energy of a system is equal to the work done on the
system by the external as well as the internal forces.
Wext+Wint=ΔK.E.
Conservative and Non Conservarive Forces

1DEFINITION
Conservative force
For a conservative force, the work done along a closed path is zero. Work done
depends only on initial & final position.

Example: coulomb force, gravitational force and force of spring

2DEFINITION
Conservative Force as Negative Gradient of Potential Energy
In conservative field negative potential energy gradient is force, F=−dudx
⇒U=−∫x2x1F⃗ .dx→
3SHORTCUT
Conservative Force
Find if a given force field is conservative or not:
F(x,y,z)= f1(x,y,z)iˆ + f2(x,y,z)jˆ + f3(x,y,z)kˆ
It is conservative if
∂f2∂x=∂f1∂y, ∂f1∂z=∂f3∂x,∂f2∂z=∂f3∂y
4DEFINITION
Non Conservarive Forces
For a non-conservative (or dissipative) force, the work done along a closed path is
non zero. the work done in going from initial position to final position depends on
the path taken.

Examples: friction and air resistance

conservation of energy

1DEFINITION
Energy
Energy is ability or capacity to do work. Energy is a scalar.
Energy has the same units and dimensions as work. Kilo Watt Hour (kWh) is a
special unit of energy.
1kWh=3.6×106J.
2FORMULA
Conservation of Mechanical energy
The total mechanical energy of a system remains constant if the internal forces are
conservative and the external forces do no work.
ΔK+ΔU=0

3EXAMPLE
Examples on Conservation of Mechanical Energy
In the absence of non-conservative forces like friction, air resistance etc., the loss
of potential energy will always be equal to the gain of kinetic energy or the loss of
kinetic energy will always be equal to the gain of potential energy.
4RESULT
Work done by External forces
The work done by the external forces equals the change in the mechanical energy
of the system.
Wext=Δ(E)
Where E is total mechanical energy of system
5DEFINITION
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total energy of a system remains
constant. However, energy may be transformed from one form to another form in a
system.

Power

1FORMULA
Power
P=dWdt=F.v
Pav=∫T0p.dtT=WT
2FORMULA
Power delivered by machine gun firing bullets
∙ The power of a machine gun firing n bullets each of mass m with a velocity v in a
time interval t is given by P=mnv22t

3FORMULA
Power delivered by water pump
∙ If a motor pump set lifts water of mass m over a head or height of h in a time of t,
its output power
P=mght.

4FORMULA
Power delivered by Water Jet
∙ When a liquid of density d is coming out of a hose pipe of area of cross section A
with a velocity v and strikes normally a wall and stops dead, then the force exerted
by the liquid on the wall is
F=d A v2, and the power exerted by the liquid is
P=d A v3.
5FORMULA
Power of a Car Engine
A car of mass m is moving on a smooth horizontal road with a uniform acceleration
a. If R is the resistance offered to its motion then the power of the engine when its
velocity 'v ' will be P=(R+ma)v