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1DEFINITION

Definition of Work

Work done is defined as product of the force and the distance over which the force

is applied.

2FORMULA

Calculation of work done

Work Done by Constant force:

W=F.S=FScosθ

Where θ is the angle between F (Force) and S (displacement).

3FORMULA

Work done by variable force

∙ If force is variable, W=∫s2s1F→.ds→

**When force is varying irregularly, a graph is drawn between the displacement s on
**

X-axis and the force F on the Y-axis.

Work done = area under F−s graph.

4FORMULA

Work in Cartesian form

W=∫F→.dS−→

**Work done in Cartesian coordinate system is
**

W=∫x2x1Fx dx+∫y2y1Fy dy+∫z2z1Fz dz

Work done is also area under force-displacement graph.

5FORMULA

**Work done by Spring Force
**

∙ Work done in compressing or expanding a spring: W=12K x2

where, K is the force constant of the spring and x is the extension or compression.

Work done in changing the elongation of a spring from x1 to x2 is

W=12K(x22−x21)

6FORMULA

Work done by gravitational force

∙ Work done in lifting an object of finite dimensions:

W=mgh, where, m is the mass of the object, g is acceleration due to gravity and h

is the height through which the centre of mass of the body rises.

7FORMULA

Work done by gravity in case of simple pendulum

∙ Work done in pulling the bob of a simple pendulum of length ℓ through an angle θ

is given by

W=mgℓ(1−cosθ)

where, m is the mass of the bob, g is the acceleration due to gravity.

8FORMULA

Work done in Pulling a Chain

A uniform chain of mass m of length l is hanging 1nth from edge of table. Work done

to pull the hanged part on to the table is mgl2n2

9FORMULA

Work done in lifting a body in fluids

∙ The work done in lifting a body of mass m having density d1 inside a liquid of

density d2 through a height h is

W=mgh(1−d2d1)

Kinetic energy

1DEFINITION

Kinetic energy

Energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy. A body

of mass m moving with a velocity v has kinetic energy K=12mv2

Potential Energy

1DEFINITION

Potential energy

Potential energy: Energy possessed by a body or system by virtue of the relative

positions of its parts or by virtue of its position in a force field.

**Example: Water stored at a height, compressed spring
**

Work-Energy Theorem

1FORMULA

Work energy theorem

The work done on a particle by the net force is equal to the change in its kinetic

energy

W=FS=ΔKE=Kf−Ki

=12mv2−12mu2

2RESULT

Work Energy Theorem for System of Particles

The change in the kinetic energy of a system is equal to the work done on the

system by the external as well as the internal forces.

Wext+Wint=ΔK.E.

Conservative and Non Conservarive Forces

1DEFINITION

Conservative force

For a conservative force, the work done along a closed path is zero. Work done

depends only on initial & final position.

Example: coulomb force, gravitational force and force of spring

2DEFINITION

Conservative Force as Negative Gradient of Potential Energy

In conservative field negative potential energy gradient is force, F=−dudx

⇒U=−∫x2x1F⃗ .dx→

3SHORTCUT

Conservative Force

Find if a given force field is conservative or not:

F(x,y,z)= f1(x,y,z)iˆ + f2(x,y,z)jˆ + f3(x,y,z)kˆ

It is conservative if

∂f2∂x=∂f1∂y, ∂f1∂z=∂f3∂x,∂f2∂z=∂f3∂y

4DEFINITION

Non Conservarive Forces

For a non-conservative (or dissipative) force, the work done along a closed path is

non zero. the work done in going from initial position to final position depends on

the path taken.

Examples: friction and air resistance

conservation of energy

1DEFINITION

Energy

Energy is ability or capacity to do work. Energy is a scalar.

Energy has the same units and dimensions as work. Kilo Watt Hour (kWh) is a

special unit of energy.

1kWh=3.6×106J.

2FORMULA

Conservation of Mechanical energy

The total mechanical energy of a system remains constant if the internal forces are

conservative and the external forces do no work.

ΔK+ΔU=0

3EXAMPLE

Examples on Conservation of Mechanical Energy

In the absence of non-conservative forces like friction, air resistance etc., the loss

of potential energy will always be equal to the gain of kinetic energy or the loss of

kinetic energy will always be equal to the gain of potential energy.

4RESULT

Work done by External forces

The work done by the external forces equals the change in the mechanical energy

of the system.

Wext=Δ(E)

Where E is total mechanical energy of system

5DEFINITION

Law of conservation of energy

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total energy of a system remains

constant. However, energy may be transformed from one form to another form in a

system.

Power

1FORMULA

Power

P=dWdt=F.v

Pav=∫T0p.dtT=WT

2FORMULA

Power delivered by machine gun firing bullets

∙ The power of a machine gun firing n bullets each of mass m with a velocity v in a

time interval t is given by P=mnv22t

3FORMULA

Power delivered by water pump

∙ If a motor pump set lifts water of mass m over a head or height of h in a time of t,

its output power

P=mght.

4FORMULA

Power delivered by Water Jet

∙ When a liquid of density d is coming out of a hose pipe of area of cross section A

with a velocity v and strikes normally a wall and stops dead, then the force exerted

by the liquid on the wall is

F=d A v2, and the power exerted by the liquid is

P=d A v3.

5FORMULA

Power of a Car Engine

A car of mass m is moving on a smooth horizontal road with a uniform acceleration

a. If R is the resistance offered to its motion then the power of the engine when its

velocity 'v ' will be P=(R+ma)v

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