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Definition of Work
Work done is defined as product of the force and the distance over which the force
is applied.
Calculation of work done
Work Done by Constant force:
Where θ is the angle between F (Force) and S (displacement).
Work done by variable force
∙ If force is variable, W=∫s2s1F→.ds→

When force is varying irregularly, a graph is drawn between the displacement s on
X-axis and the force F on the Y-axis.
Work done = area under F−s graph.

Work in Cartesian form

Work done in Cartesian coordinate system is
W=∫x2x1Fx dx+∫y2y1Fy dy+∫z2z1Fz dz
Work done is also area under force-displacement graph.

Work done by Spring Force
∙ Work done in compressing or expanding a spring: W=12K x2
where, K is the force constant of the spring and x is the extension or compression.
Work done in changing the elongation of a spring from x1 to x2 is

Work done by gravitational force
∙ Work done in lifting an object of finite dimensions:
W=mgh, where, m is the mass of the object, g is acceleration due to gravity and h
is the height through which the centre of mass of the body rises.

Work done by gravity in case of simple pendulum
∙ Work done in pulling the bob of a simple pendulum of length ℓ through an angle θ
is given by
where, m is the mass of the bob, g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Work done in Pulling a Chain
A uniform chain of mass m of length l is hanging 1nth from edge of table. Work done
to pull the hanged part on to the table is mgl2n2
Work done in lifting a body in fluids
∙ The work done in lifting a body of mass m having density d1 inside a liquid of
density d2 through a height h is

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy
Energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy. A body
of mass m moving with a velocity v has kinetic energy K=12mv2
Potential Energy

Potential energy
Potential energy: Energy possessed by a body or system by virtue of the relative
positions of its parts or by virtue of its position in a force field.

Example: Water stored at a height, compressed spring
Work-Energy Theorem

Work energy theorem
The work done on a particle by the net force is equal to the change in its kinetic
Work Energy Theorem for System of Particles
The change in the kinetic energy of a system is equal to the work done on the
system by the external as well as the internal forces.
Conservative and Non Conservarive Forces

Conservative force
For a conservative force, the work done along a closed path is zero. Work done
depends only on initial & final position.

Example: coulomb force, gravitational force and force of spring

Conservative Force as Negative Gradient of Potential Energy
In conservative field negative potential energy gradient is force, F=−dudx
⇒U=−∫x2x1F⃗ .dx→
Conservative Force
Find if a given force field is conservative or not:
F(x,y,z)= f1(x,y,z)iˆ + f2(x,y,z)jˆ + f3(x,y,z)kˆ
It is conservative if
∂f2∂x=∂f1∂y, ∂f1∂z=∂f3∂x,∂f2∂z=∂f3∂y
Non Conservarive Forces
For a non-conservative (or dissipative) force, the work done along a closed path is
non zero. the work done in going from initial position to final position depends on
the path taken.

Examples: friction and air resistance

conservation of energy

Energy is ability or capacity to do work. Energy is a scalar.
Energy has the same units and dimensions as work. Kilo Watt Hour (kWh) is a
special unit of energy.
Conservation of Mechanical energy
The total mechanical energy of a system remains constant if the internal forces are
conservative and the external forces do no work.

Examples on Conservation of Mechanical Energy
In the absence of non-conservative forces like friction, air resistance etc., the loss
of potential energy will always be equal to the gain of kinetic energy or the loss of
kinetic energy will always be equal to the gain of potential energy.
Work done by External forces
The work done by the external forces equals the change in the mechanical energy
of the system.
Where E is total mechanical energy of system
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total energy of a system remains
constant. However, energy may be transformed from one form to another form in a


Power delivered by machine gun firing bullets
∙ The power of a machine gun firing n bullets each of mass m with a velocity v in a
time interval t is given by P=mnv22t

Power delivered by water pump
∙ If a motor pump set lifts water of mass m over a head or height of h in a time of t,
its output power

Power delivered by Water Jet
∙ When a liquid of density d is coming out of a hose pipe of area of cross section A
with a velocity v and strikes normally a wall and stops dead, then the force exerted
by the liquid on the wall is
F=d A v2, and the power exerted by the liquid is
P=d A v3.
Power of a Car Engine
A car of mass m is moving on a smooth horizontal road with a uniform acceleration
a. If R is the resistance offered to its motion then the power of the engine when its
velocity 'v ' will be P=(R+ma)v