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# CHAPTER 5

5.1. Given the current density J = −104 [sin(2x)e−2y ax + cos(2x)e−2y ay ] kA/m2 :
a) Find the total current crossing the plane y = 1 in the ay direction in the region 0 < x < 1,
0 < z < 2: This is found through
Z Z

Z 2Z 1
Z 2Z 1
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
I=
J · nØ da =
J · ay Ø
dx dz =
−104 cos(2x)e−2 dx dz
S
y=1
S
0
0
0
0
Ø1
1
Ø
= −104 (2) sin(2x)Ø e−2 = −1.23 MA
2
0

b) Find the total current leaving the region 0 < x, x < 1, 2 < z < 3 by integrating J·dS over
the surface of the cube: Note first that current through the top and bottom surfaces will
not exist, since J has no z component. Also note that there will be no current through the
x = 0 plane, since Jx = 0 there. Current will pass through the three remaining surfaces,
and will be found through
Z

Z 3Z 1
Z 3Z 1
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
I=
J · (−ay )Ø
dx dz +
J · (ay )Ø
dx dz +
J · (ax )Ø
dy dz
y=0
y=1
x=1
2
0
2
0
2
0
Z 3Z 1
Z 3Z 1
£
§
4
−0
−2
4
= 10
cos(2x)e − cos(2x)e
dx dz − 10
sin(2)e−2y dy dz
2
0
2
0
µ ∂
µ ∂
Ø1
Ø1
£
§
1
1
Ø
Ø
= 104
sin(2x)Ø (3 − 2) 1 − e−2 + 104
sin(2)e−2y Ø (3 − 2) = 0
2
2
0
0
3

Z

1

c) Repeat part b, but use the divergence theorem: We find the net outward current through
the surface of the cube by integrating the divergence of J over the cube volume. We have
∇·J=

£
§
∂Jx
∂Jy
+
= −10−4 2 cos(2x)e−2y − 2 cos(2x)e−2y = 0 as expected
∂x
∂y

5.2. Given J = −10−4 (yax + xay ) A/m2 , find the current crossing the y = 0 plane in the −ay
direction between z = 0 and 1, and x = 0 and 2.
At y = 0, J(x, 0) = −104 xay , so that the current through the plane becomes
I=

Z

J · dS =

Z

0

1

Z

0

2

−104 x ay · (−ay ) dx dz = 2 × 10−4 A

58

Let J= 400 sin θ ar A/m2 r2 + 4 a) Find the total current flowing through that portion of the spherical surface r = 0.1π 2 b) Find the average value of J over the defined area.5.5 [1 − cos(2θ)] dθ = 77.3π Z Ø 400 sin θ 400(. If volume charge density is given as ρv = (cos ωt)/r2 C/m3 in spherical coordinates.1π (. 5.1π The average current density is thus Javg = (77.8) + 4 .4/1.3π 1 = 346.8)2 2π .0 ar A/m2 . 59 .8)2 sin θ dθ dφ = 1. along with the assumption of no angular variation to write µ ∂ 1 ∂ ° 2 ¢ ∂ρv ∂ cos ωt ω sin ωt ∇·J= 2 r Jr = − =− = 2 r ∂r ∂t ∂t r r2 So we may now solve by direct integration to obtain: ∂ ° 2 ¢ r Jr = ω sin ωt ∂r J = Jr ar = ω sin ωt ar A/m2 r where the integration constant is set to zero because a steady current will not be created by a time-varying charge density.8) sin θ dθ dφ = sin dθ 2 4. 0 < φ < 2π: This will be Z Z Z 2π Z . The area is Area = Z 0 2π Z .46) ar = 53.3π (. find J.46 m2 . It is reasonable to assume that J is not a function of θ or φ.4 A .1π < θ < 0.1π Z .64 S 0 .3.3π 2 Ø 2 I= J · nØ da = (.4.8. bounded by 0.3π. We use the continuity equation (5).

4) dφ dz . Therefore.5.01. . Integration over a disk means that we use cylindrical coordinates. and at z = h (part b): I(h) = 2πk 60 £√ § R2 + h2 − h .4 0 0 0 0 Z 2π Z . we have I(0) = 2πkR .01 since the integrals will cancel each other. d) Show that the divergence theorem is satisfied for J and the surface specified in part b.01 0 0 ρ + . The general flux integral assumes the form: Z Z 2π Z R −k I = J · dS = aθ · az ρ dρ dφ s 0 0 r sin θ | {z } − sin θ p Then. centered on the z axis and located at a) z = 0. In part c. Let J= 25 20 aρ − 2 az A/m2 ρ ρ + 0. where k is a constant. a current density J = −k/(r sin θ) aθ A/m2 exists in a conducting medium.4 1 Ø =− 20 ln(. the divergence of J was found to be zero (as will be its volume integral).01) dφ dz + aρ · (aρ )(.01 µ ∂ Ø.5.2 Z 2π 25 25 I= aρ · (−aρ )(.4.4 Z 2π Z .01 ∂ =0 c) Find the outward current crossing the closed surface defined by ρ = 0. In spherical coordinates.4: Use Z Z Z 2π Z . Determine the total current in the az direction that crosses a circular disk of radius R. the divergence theorem is satisfied.0 A 2 0 b) Calculate ∂ρv /∂t: This is found using the equation of continuity: ∂ρv 1 ∂ ∂Jz 1 ∂ ∂ = −∇ · J = (ρJρ ) + = (25) + ∂t ρ ∂ρ ∂z ρ ∂ρ ∂z µ −20 2 ρ + . this becomes I= Z 0 2π Z 0 R ØR hp i p kρ Ø 2 2 2 2 p = 2πk ρ + z Ø = 2πk R +z −z 0 ρ2 + z 2 At z = 0 (part a).2 Z 2π Z . b) z = h.01 + ρ2 )Ø (2π) = −20π ln(17) = −178. and z = 0.01 .6.01 a) Find the total current crossing the plane z = 0. and in part b.4 Ø −20 Ø I= J · nØ da = ρ dρ dφ 2 z=.2 in the az direction for ρ < 0. 5.2: This will be Z .2 S 0 0 ρ + .4 −20 −20 + az · (−az ) ρ dρ dφ + az · (az ) ρ dρ dφ = 0 2 2 0 0 ρ + . ρ = 0. using r = ρ2 + z 2 . the net outward flux was found to be zero. z = 0.

use some good approximations to determine the resistance between the two circular faces. b) Given a cube 1 cm on a side. we may write Z 2π Z θc I= J(r) ar · ar r2 sin θ dθ dφ = 2πr2 J(r)(1 − cos θc ) 0 0 or J(r) = I (1. -2. we can also assume constant current density over any flat surface within the cone at a specifed z.1mm 2 mm `= and tan θc = tan θc 160 + ` Solving these.00.19 × 10−2 . r.00 − 4. its vertex would occur at the origin.550 mg/s Treating our 1 cm3 volume as diﬀerential. respectively.25. a) If we use the continuity equation for charge as our model. and 4.05 + 4. This is our primary assumption. Assuming that there is no transformation of mass to energy or vice-versa.75 − 2. That is.42 × 104 )I a = ar r 2πr2 (1 − cos θc ) 2πr2 61 .75. The circular faces on the top and bottom have radii of 2mm and 0. The 1-mm radius end is at distance z = ` from the x-y plane. experimental data show that the rates at which mass is leaving each of the six faces are 10. also invoking the divergence theorem: Z Z I ∂ρm dv = − ∇ · Jm dv = − Jm · dS v ∂t v s where I s Jm · dS = 10. any spherical cap looks flat if the cap radius.45 mg/s. we find ∂ρm . I. The cone surface subtends angle θc from the z axis (in spherical coordinates). respectively.7. -4. Therefore. determine an approximate value for the time rate of change of density at its center. So the current density will be constant over a spherical cap (of constant r) anywhere within the cone.1mm. A truncated cone has a height of 16 cm. mass flux density in (kg/m2 − s) and mass density in (kg/m3 ). Consider the cone upside down and centered on the positive z axis. assuming constant current density at constant r. we can assume that the current density is uniform with θ and φ and will vary only with spherical radius. tan θc = 1. which gives us a very thin cone! With this understanding.05. and so θc = 0. 0.4 mm.68◦ .5. r. As the cone is thin. is large compared to its radius as measured from the z axis (ρ). we find ` = 8.550 × 10−3 g/s =− = −550 g/m3 − s ∂t 10−6 m3 5. and net current. what quantities correspond to J and ρv ? These would be. Now.85 + 1.85.8. the wide end (2-mm radius) lies at z = ` + 16 cm. 1. it is possible to write a continuity equation for mass. If we assume that the cube is an incremental volume element.45 = 0. -9. If the material from which this solid cone is constructed has a conductivity of 2 × 106 S/m. We may write the continuity equation for mass as follows.25 − 9. we may write 0. ` is chosen such that if the cone were not truncated.

The voltage is V0 = − = Z `×10−3 −3 (160+`)×10−3 (7. ρ. A second method uses the idea that we can construct the cone from a stack of thin circular plates of linearly-increasing radius.8 (continued) The electric field is now E(r) = J(r) (1.75 A. The cone resistance will be the resistance of the stack of plates (in series).9. a) Using data tabulated in Appendix C.1 × 10 0. calculate the required diameter for a 2-m long nichrome wire that will dissipate an average power of 450 W when 120 V rms at 60 Hz is applied to it: The required resistance will be R= V2 l = P σ(πa2 ) Thus the diameter will be r d = 2a = 2 s lP 2(450) =2 = 2. where rin = `/ cos θc = ` and where rout = (160 + `)/ cos θc = 160 + `. the diﬀerential resistance of a plate will be dR = dz σπρ2 where ρ = z tan θc = z(1.19 × 10−2 ).19 × 10−2 )2 `×10−3 `×10−3 ∑ ∏ 3.75 7 2 J= 2 = 6. Thus 3. .0084 .40/π = 0.1684 (160+`)×10−3 5.53 × 10−3 1 1 = − = 0.0084 .1 × 10 ) − 2πr2 2π .1684 from which we identify the resistance as R = 0.42 × 104 )I I = ar = (7. Assuming each plate is of diﬀerential thickness.0 × 10 A/m −4 π (2.28 mm σπV 2 (106 )π(120)2 b) Calculate the rms current density in the wire: The rms current will be I = 450/120 = 3.8 × 10 /2) 62 . found through Z Z Z (160+`)×10−3 dz dz R = dR = = 2 6 2 σπρ (2 × 10 )πz (1.40 I π ∑ ∏ I 1 1 −3 I ) ar · ar dr = (7.128 ohms.8 × 10−4 m = 0.1 × 10−3 ) ar V/m 2 6 σ 2πr (2 × 10 ) 2πr2 The voltage between the ends is now V0 = − Z rin rout E · ar dr .127 ohms π .5. dz.

5π V ρ π b) What total current is flowing? First. and knowing that it is radially-directed. we integrate E over a circular path of radius ρ inside the washer.5 cm thick. To find the voltage.5 × 106 aφ · aφ dρ dz ρ = 3. we orient the washer in the x-y plane with the cut faces aligned with the x axis. The resultant electric field in the interior of the half-washer is E = (0. Its conductivity is σ = 1.5π = = 4. a 5-cm outside diameter. a) What potential diﬀerence exists between the two rectangular faces? First.11. the current density is J = σE.5×10−2 10−2 0 6 (7.5 × 107 S/m.5π V0 = − E · dL = − aφ · aφ ρ dφ = 0. where the z axis is the axis of the washer. Two perfectly-conducting cylindrical surfaces of length l are located at ρ = 3 and ρ = 5 cm. and E in the region between the cylinders.4 × 104 A c) What is the resistance between the two faces? R= V0 0. between the two cut faces: Z Z 0 0.05 S/m is present for 3 < ρ < 5 cm: Given the current.5×10−2 Z 2. and a voltage is applied between the two rectangular faces of one part.5 × 106 aφ = aφ A/m2 ρ ρ Current is then found by integrating J over any transverse plane in the washer (the rectangular cross-section): I= Z s J · dS = −2 = 0. we find the current density by dividing it by the area of a cylinder of radius ρ and length l: J= 3 aρ A/m2 2πρl 63 .5 × 10 Z 0. a) Find the voltage and resistance between the cylinders.4 × 104 5.5 1 ∂ 7.5/ρ) aφ V/m in cylindrical coordinates. The washer is cut in half along a diameter.5. The total current passing radially outward through the medium between the cylinders is 3 A dc.6 × 10−5 ohms I 3.5 × 107 (0. so J= 1.5 × 10 ) ln µ 2. if a conducting material having σ = 0.5) 7.10. and is 0. A large brass washer has a 2-cm inside diameter.

the resistance will be R= 9. which is dz ez/d dz dR = = so that R = σA σ0 A Z dR = Z 0 d ez/d dz d 1.11a) (continued) Then the electric field is found by dividing this result by σ: 3 9. Find.64 = W 3 l We also find the power by taking the product of voltage and current: 4. 5.63 = = Ω I 3l l b) Show that integrating the power dissipated per unit volume over the volume gives the total dissipated power: We calculate P = Z v E · J dv = Z lZ 0 0 2π Z .05 . σ(z) = σ0 e−z/d . each having area A.72 d 64 .64 (3) = W l l P =VI = which is in agreement with the power density integration.03 32 32 ρ dρ dφ dz = ln (2π)2 ρ2 (.55 aρ · aρ dρ = ln ρl l µ ∂ 5 4. where σ0 is a constant. are located at z = 0 and z = d.72 d σ(z) 1. The region between plates is filled with a material having z-dependent conductivity.88 = V 3 l V 4.5.12.05)l2 2π(. the plate at z = 0 is at zero potential. in terms of the given parameters: a) the resistance of the material: We start with the diﬀerential resistance of a thin slab of the material of thickness dz. Two identical conducting plates.88 14.88 1.55 9. Voltage V0 is applied to the plate at z = d.72 d c) the electric field intensity E within the material: First the current density is J=− I −σ0 V0 J −V0 ez/d az = az so that E = = az V/m A 1.72d = (e − 1) = Ω σ0 A σ0 A σ0 A b) the total current flowing between plates: We use I= V0 σ0 AV0 = R 1.05)l µ ∂ 5 14.55 aρ = aρ V/m 2πσρl ρl E= The voltage between cylinders is now: V =− Z 3 E · dL = 5 Z 5 3 Now.

38 × 10 Ω × 10−4 1 − 2. An identical conducting plate is positioned directly above and parallel to the first.5 × 107 S/m.54)(2.5 × 105 S/m: The resistance of the filling will be: R2 = 1 (1. occupying the region 0 < x < a. in terms of the given parameters: a) the electric field intensity E within the material: We know that E will be z-directed. We therefore expect no z variation in E.1)(2. A current of 200 A dc is flowing down the tube. the plate at z = 0 is at zero potential. we find I= Z J · dS = Z 0 b Z 0 a −σ0 e−x/a V0 σ0 abV0 0.5 × 105 )(1/2)(2. but the conductivity varies with x.54/2)(1 − . A rectangular conducting plate lies in the xy plane.63abσ0 V0 az · (−az ) dx dy = (1 − e−1 ) = A d d d c) the resistance of the material: We use R= V0 d = Ω I 0.2) × 10−4 ] The voltage drop is now V = IR1 = 200(7.5 × 107 ) [(2. A hollow cylindrical tube with a rectangular cross-section has external dimensions of 0. 0 < y < b. for which σ = 1. Voltage V0 is applied to the plate at z = d. Assume that the material is brass. at z = d. The region between plates is filled with material having conductivity σ(x) = σ0 e−x/a . where σ0 is a constant.8) = 2. and also note that the line integral of E between the bottom and top plates must always give V0 .19×10−4 Ω.5.87 × 10−2 Ω The total resistance is now the parallel combination of R1 and R2 : RT = R1 R2 /(R1 + R2 ) = 7.63 ab σ0 65 . b) the total current flowing between plates: We have J = σ(x)E = −σ0 e−x/a V0 az d Using this.144 V.147 V. Find.54(1 − .05 in. Therefore E = −V0 /d az V/m.13.54/2) −4 = 7.9)(. the tube resistance over a 1 m length will be: R1 = (1.54)2 × 10−4 (. and the voltage drop is now V = 200RT = . b) Find the voltage drop if the interior of the tube is filled with a conducting material for which σ = 1. a) What voltage drop is present across a 1m length of the tube? Converting all measurements to meters. 5.14.5 in by 1 in and a wall thickness of 0.38 × 10−4 = 0.

5. Then ∂V 1 ∂V ∂V aρ − aφ − az ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z ρ+1 2 = −10z 2 cos φ aρ + 10 z sin φ aφ − 20(ρ + 1)z cos φ az ρ E = −∇V = − Then E(.5: At the given values of φ and z. G: G= I 2πσ0 = S/m V0 (b − a) 66 .5) = −18.2π and z = 1.2π. 1. Let V = 10(ρ + 1)z 2 cos φ V in free space. given or known: J Iρ I E= = aρ = aρ V/m σ 2πσ0 ρ 2πσ0 c) by taking an appropriate line integral of E as found in part b. The inner conductor is charged to potential V0 . determine the radial current density field J in A/m2 : This will be the current divided by the cross-sectional area that is normal to the current direction: I J= aρ A/m2 2πρ(1) b) Determine the electric field intensity E in terms of I and other parameters.7 az V/m c) Find |ρs | at that point: Since E is at the perfectly-conducting surface.7)2 = 1.15. so we may write: Ø Ø ρs = ≤0 E · nØ surface = ≤0 p √ E·E = ≤0 E · E = ≤0 (18.10. obtaining ρ = . find an expression that relates V0 to I: Z a Z a I I(b − a) V0 = − E · dL = − aρ · aρ dρ = V 2πσ0 b b 2πσ0 d) find an expression for the conductance of the line per unit length. A coaxial transmission line has inner and outer conductor radii a and b.2)2 + (145)2 + (26. we solve the equation of the surface found in part a for ρ. Between conductors (a < ρ < b) lies a conductive medium whose conductivity is σ(ρ) = σ0 /ρ.10. a) Assuming dc radial current I per unit length in z.32 nC/m2 |E| 5.16. . to find: (ρ + 1)z 2 cos φ = 2 b) Find ρ and E at that point on the conductor surface where φ = 0. it will be normal to the surface. and the outer conductor is grounded.2 aρ + 145 aφ − 26. Find the equation of the conductor surface: Set the given potential function equal to 20. where σ0 is a constant. a) Let the equipotential surface V = 20 V define a conductor surface.

Two parallel circular plates of radius a are located at z = 0 and z = d.18. Between the plates is a conducting material having radial-dependent conductivity. E. in the structure: I= Z 0 2π Z 0 a − σ0 V0 ρ 2πa3 σ0 V0 az · (−az ) ρ dρ dφ = A d 3d d) Find the resistance between plates: R= V0 3d = ohms I 2πa3 σ0 67 . it must be true that V0 E = − az V/m (0 < ρ < a) d b) Find the current density.92 nC 2 0 5. in free space: a) Find D at the surface z = 0: Use ∂ E = −∇V = −100z ∂x µ x 2 x +4 ∂ ax − 0 ay − 100x az V/m x2 + 4 At z = 0. I. we use this to find D(z = 0) = ≤0 E(z = 0) = −100≤0 x/(x2 + 4) az C/m2 . where σ0 is a constant. 2) When evaluating the given potential function at z = 0. between plates: The integral of E between plates must give V0 . J between plates: J = σE = − σ0 V0 ρ az A/m2 d c) Find the total current. −3 < y < 0: We have Ø Ø ρs = D · az Ø =− z=0 So Q= Z 0 −3 Z 0 2 100≤0 x − 2 dx dy = −(3)(100)≤0 x +4 100≤0 x C/m2 x2 + 4 µ ∂ Ø2 1 Ø 2 ln(x + 4)Ø = −150≤0 ln 2 = −0. σ(ρ) = σ0 ρ.17. b) Show that the z = 0 surface is an equipotential surface: There are two reasons for this: 1) E at z = 0 is everywhere z-directed. a) Find the ρ-independent electric field strength. Therefore. The top plate (z = d) is raised to potential V0 .5. Given the potential field V = 100xz/(x2 + 4) V. and so moving a charge around on the surface involves doing no work. the bottom plate is grounded. c) Assume that the z = 0 surface is a conductor and find the total charge on that portion of the conductor defined by 0 < x < 2. independent of position on the plates. the result is 0 for all x and y.

5.0) and (2. D must be directed away from it. and so the charge density would be positive. -1. each of +100π µC. 1) = −≤0 [70 ax + 80 ay + 50 az ] C/m2 We know that since this is the higher potential surface. we have D(2. Thus p √ ρs = D · D = 10≤0 72 + 82 + 52 = 1.1. a) Determine the equations of the equipotential surfaces on which V = 0 and 60 V: Setting the given potential function equal to 0 and 60 and simplifying results in: At 0 V : 2x2 y − z = 0 At 60 V : 2x2 y − z = 6 z b) Assume these are conducting surfaces and find the surface charge density at that point on the V = 60 V surface where x = 2 and z = 1.68ay + 0.-1.0). It is known that 0 ≤ V ≤ 60 V is the field-containing region: First. a) Determine the surface charge density at the origin. I will solve the general case first. or ∑ ∏ 7ax + 8ay + 5az an = − √ = −[0. on the 60 V surface. Let V = 20x2 yz − 10z 2 V in free space. 0). The electric flux density on the y axis from these four charges will be  D(y) = −100π 4π  [(y − 1) a − 2 a ] [(y + 1) a − 2 a ]  y x y x +   [(y − 1)2 + 4]3/2 [(y + 1)2 + 4]3/2 | {z } given charges −  [(y − 1) ay + 2 ax ] [(y + 1) ay + 2 ax ]   −  µC/m2 [(y − 1)2 + 4]3/2 [(y + 1)2 + 4]3/2  | {z } image charges 68 . we have 2x2 y − z − 6 7 = 0 ⇒ 2(2)2 y(1) − 1 − 6 = 0 ⇒ y = z 8 Now E = −∇V = −40xyz ax − 20x2 z ay − [20xy − 20z] az Then.60ax + 0.04 nC/m2 c) Give the unit vector at this point that is normal to the conducting surface and directed toward the V = 0 surface: This will be in the direction of E and D as found in part b.43az ] 72 + 82 + 52 5. 7/8. located at (-2. at the given point. 1) = ≤0 E(2.20. Two point charges of −100π µC are located at (2. we will have two image charges. 7/8. The surface x = 0 is a conducting plane. 1. in which we find the charge density anywhere on the y axis. With the conducting plane in the yz plane. 0) and (-2.19.

2. 0) (1. a) Let V = 0 at the plane y = 0. 0) = D · ax Ø y=0 ∏ ax µC/m2 = 17.20 kV b) Find E at P : Use ∑ ρl (1. 0) (1. This will be Ø Ø ρs (0. 0. 0) − (0. 0) − − |(1. 0) (1. y = 1. 2.20 a) (continued) In the expression.0 = − ln 2π≤0 initial distance from charge where V0. 1. producing image line charges of -30 nC/m each at x = 0. Let the surface y = 0 be a perfect conductor in free space. y = −2. 0)|2 |(1. 0). 0)|2 ∏ (1. 0) = D · ax Ø y=h ∑ 1 1 = 100 + 2 3/2 [(h − 1) + 4] [(h + 1)2 + 4]3/2 ∏ µC/m2 5.0. 2.21. y = −1. y = 2. 0)|2 ∑ ∏ ρl (1. 0) − (0.0. −1. and x = 0. 0)|2 |(1. 0) (1. all y components cancel. 4. h. we thus have " µ ∂ √√ ! √√ ! √ √ !# ρl 1 2 10 17 VP = − ln + ln − ln − ln 2π≤0 2 1 1 2 " √ √ !# "√ √ # µ ∂ ≥√ ¥ ρl 1 17 30 × 10−9 10 17 √ = ln (2) + ln √ + ln 10 + ln = ln 2π≤0 2 2π≤0 2 2 = 1. 3.9 ay V/m 2π≤0 2 1 10 17 69 . 0) (1. We find the potential at P by evaluating the work done in moving a unit positive charge from the y = 0 plane (we choose the origin) to P : For each line charge. h. 0) − (0. 3. Two uniform infinite line charges of 30 nC/m each are located at x = 0. and x = 0. −2.0 = 0.9 µC/m2 b) Determine ρS at P (0. 0) EP = + 2π≤0 |(1. 2. 0) = + − − = 723 ax − 18. this will be: ∑ ∏ ρl final distance from charge VP − V0. 0. 1. 2. 1. 4. and we are left with ∑ 1 1 D(y) = 100 + 2 3/2 [(y − 1) + 4] [(y + 1)2 + 4]3/2 We now find the charge density at the origin: Ø Ø ρs (0. 0) − (0.5. and find V at P (1. Considering the four charges. 0): The line charges will image across the plane. 2. 0.

1). 0. 1). 0) in free space.0). −1 ≤ y ≤ 1.5 V 4π≤0 2 2 10 10 70 . 0. −1). a) Find V at P (2. (b) (0. each charge segment and its image produce a net field in which the y components have cancelled. 0. 1. 0. y 0 . we find ∑ ∏ .24 µC/m2 2 y=1 5 5. the charge density is ∑ ∏ Ø az 3 Ø √ ρs (0. at the origin (part a). 1) will have a corresponding image charge segment at location (0.1 × 106 1 1 √ − √ V = = 289. dy 0 .23. The total flux density from the line charge and its image is now Z Z 1 −π|y 0 | az dy 0 D(y) = dD = 0 2 3/2 −1 2π[(y − y ) + 1] ∏ Z ∑ az 1 y0 y0 =− + dy 0 2 0 [(y − y 0 )2 + 1]3/2 [(y + y 0 )2 + 1]3/2 ∑ ∏1 az y(y − y 0 ) + 1 y(y + y 0 ) + 1 = + 2 [(y − y 0 )2 + 1]1/2 [(y + y 0 )2 + 1]1/2 0 ∑ ∏ az y(y − 1) + 1 y(y + 1) + 1 2 1/2 = + − 2(y + 1) 2 [(y − 1)2 + 1]1/2 [(y + 1)2 + 1]1/2 Now. The potential at any point is now: ∑ ∏ p z z V = − 4π≤0 [(x − 1)2 + y 2 + z 2 ]1. and the x = 0 plane is perfectly-conducting. and of charge dq = ρL dy 0 . The diﬀerential flux density on the y axis that is associated with the segment-image pair will be dD = ρL dy 0 [(y − y 0 ) ay − az ] ρL dy 0 [(y − y 0 ) ay + az ] −ρL dy 0 az − = 4π[(y − y 0 )2 + 1]3/2 4π[(y − y 0 )2 + 1]3/2 2π[(y − y 0 )2 + 1]3/2 In other words. z = 1.5.0). at (0.0.5 Substituting P (2.22. 0) = D · az Ø = 2 y=0 2 2 Then. carries a linear charge density ρL = π|y| µC/m. We use the far-field potential for a z-directed dipole: V = p cos θ p z = 2 2 2 4π≤0 r 4π≤0 [x + y + z 2 ]1.1az µC · m is located at A(1. 0) = D · az Ø = 1+ − 2 = −0. Let z = 0 be a conducting plane and determine the surface charge density at: (a) (0. A given segment at location (0. We consider the line charge to be made up of a string of diﬀerential segments of length.1.29 µC/m2 ρs (0. we find the charge density through ∑ ∏ Ø az 1 1 Ø √ + √ − 2 = −0.5 The dipole at x = 1 will image in the plane to produce a second dipole of the opposite orientation at x = −1. y 0 . The line segment x = 0. A dipole with p = 0.5 [(x + 1)2 + y 2 + z 2 ]1.1.0) (part b).

The functional dependence of the mobilities on temperature is given by µh = 2. and a length of 11.8 × 1018 )(0. Electron and hole concentrations increase with temperature. the electron and hole mobilities in intrinsic germanium are given as 0. T . A semiconductor sample has a rectangular cross-section 1.002)(0. At a certain temperature.7 m2 /V · s and µe = 2.082) + (3.25.3×1019 m−3 .1 × 105 T −2.43 + 0.30 × 109 −7000/T £ = e 1 + 1.7 § 1.1 × 105 T −2.6 × 10−19 C.0 × 1015 )(0.5.3 × 105 T −2.0015) 71 .43 and 0. With the electron and hole charge magnitude of 1.5 5. respectively.5 e−7000/T C/m3 . If µe = 0. The conductivity will thus be £ § σ = −ρe µe + ρh µh = 6200T 1.3 × 105 T −2.21) = 2. Using the given values along with the electron charge.36 S/m 5.0236 S/m The resistance is then R= ` 0. the expression evaluates as σ(0) = 4.2 S/m T Find σ at: a) 0◦ C: With T = 273◦ K. we obtain σ(40) = 1. where the temperature. is in degrees Kelvin. For pure silicon.7 × 10−5 S/m.5 + 2.222 [(x − 1)2 + y 2 + z 2 ]1. find the conductivity at this temperature.3 × 1019 )(0. the conductivity is £ § σ = (1.6 × 10−19 ) (1. find the resistance oﬀered between the end faces of the sample. 5.0021 m2 /V · s.8×1018 and 3.0236)(0.0 mm.26. c) 80◦ C: With T = 273 + 80 = 353.0 mm.5 [(x + 1)2 + y 2 + z 2 ]1. suitable expressions are ρh = −ρe = 6200T 1.082 m2 /V · s and µh = 0. we obtain σ(80) = 1. the conductivity in this case can be written: σ = |ρe |µe + ρh µh = (1.1 × 10−3 S/m.5 e−7000/T 2.011 = = 155 kΩ σA (0. If the electron and hole concentrations are both 2.5 m2 /V · s. b) 40◦ C: With T = 273 + 40 = 313. The material has electron and hole densities of 1.2 × 10−2 S/m.0×1015 m−3 .5 by 2.24.21 m2 /V · s.095T −.23 b) Find the equation of the 200-V equipotential surface in cartesian coordinates: We just set the potential exression of part a equal to 200 V to obtain: ∑ ∏ z z − = 0.6 × 10−19 )(2.0021) = 0. respectively.

1 × 10−19 m. find: a) D and E as functions of ρ: Use E= P (2/ρ) × 10−9 aρ 144.000176.602 × 10−19 )(7.28aρ D = ≤0 E + P = +1 = C/m2 = nC/m2 ρ 1.8 ∂ = 192 V χe = ≤r − 1 = 1.9 dρ = 144. each dipole formed by the electron and positive nucleus has an eﬀective length of 7. When an electric field of 4 kV/m is applied. 5. we have P = N qd = (5. so we identify ≤r = 4/3.27.56. Therefore D = (4/3)≤0 E. Atomic hydrogen contains 5. First we use D = ≤0 E + P = ≤0 E + (1/4)D.85 × 10−12 )(4 × 103 ) Then ≤r = 1 + χe = 1. A coaxial conductor has radii a = 0. c) If there are 4 × 1019 molecules per cubic meter in the dielectric.26 × 10−12 C/m2 = 6.56.26 pC/m2 b) Find ≤r : We use P = ≤0 χe E.26 × 10−12 = = 1.0 × 10−29 = a = aρ C · m ρ N 4 × 1019 ρ 72 .5. If P = (2/ρ)aρ nC/m2 in the dielectric. find p(ρ): Use p= P (2 × 10−9 /ρ) 5. Find the dielectric constant of a material in which the electric flux density is four times the polarization.1 × 10−19 ) = 6.28.56 ρ ρ b) Find Vab and χe : Use Vab = − Z 3 0.85 × 10 )(1.9 = = aρ V/m −12 ≤0 (≤r − 1) (8.76 × 10−4 ≤0 E (8. and so χe = P 6. as found in part a. 5.29.8 mm and b = 3 mm and a polystyrene dielectric for which ≤r = 2.8 144.5 × 1025 )(1.28 × 10−9 aρ 3. a) Find P: With all identical dipoles.56) ρ Then ∑ ∏ 2 × 10−9 aρ 1 3.9 ln ρ µ 3 0.5 × 1025 atoms/m3 at a certain temperature and pressure.

where χe1 and χe2 are evaluated at the composite number density. yielding a total number density of N = N1 + N2 . g) DT 2 = ≤r2 ≤0 ET 1 = 5(8. The two materials are uniformly mixed.70ax − 2.13ay − 1.66)2 + (1.581) = 54. where f is the number fraction of species 1 dipoles in the composite. while ≤r2 = 5 where x < 0.E.12) = (2. If E1 = 80ax − 60ay − 30az V/m.D.4 V/m. let ≤r = ≤r1 = 3. i) P2 = D2 − ≤0 E2 = D2 [1 − (1/≤r2 )] = (4/5)D2 = 1. Now D = ≤r ≤0 E = ≤0 E + Ptot = ≤0 [1 + f χe1 + (1 − f )χe2 ] E | {z } ≤r Identifying ≤r as shown.1 V/m.30.0◦ E1 104.66ay − 1. We may write the total polarization vector as µ ∂ N1 N2 Ptot = N1 p1 + N2 p2 = N p1 + p2 = N [f p1 + (1 − f )p2 ] = f P1 + (1 − f )P2 N N In terms of the susceptibilities. j) the angle θ2 between E2 and a normal to the surface: Use cos θ2 = E2 · ax D2 · ax 2. p d) E1 = (80)2 + (60)2 + (30)2 = 104. or ET 1 = −60ay − 30az V/m. 5.06az nC/m2 .33)2 Thus θ2 = cos−1 (.33az nC/m2 . whether mixed or not.581 2 E2 D2 (2.85 × 10−12 )(67. having number densities N1 and N2 molecules/m3 respectively.31. this becomes Ptot = ≤0 [f χe1 + (1 − f )χe2 ] E. induces molecular dipole moments p1 and p2 within the individual species. N . For x > 0.12ax − 2. This has components of E1 not normal to the surface. The presence of an electric field E. p c) ET 1 = (60)2 + (30)2 = 67. we may rewrite it by adding and subracting f : ≤r = [1 + f − f + f χe1 + (1 − f )χe2 ] = [f (1 + χe1 ) + (1 − f )(1 + χe2 )] = [f ≤r1 + (1 − f )≤r2 ] Q. and where ≤r1 and ≤r2 are the dielectric constants that the unmixed species would have if each had number density N .4 f) DN 2 = DN 1 = ≤r1 ≤0 EN 1 = 3(8. Consider a composite material made up of two species. The surface x = 0 separates two perfect dielectrics.12 = =p = . find: a) EN 1 : This will be E1 · ax = 80 V/m.5◦ . e) The angle θ1 between E1 and a normal to the surface: Use cos θ1 = E1 · ax 80 = ⇒ θ1 = 40. b) ET 1 . 73 .5. Show that the dielectric constant of the composite material is given by ≤r = f ≤r1 + (1 − f )≤r2 .85 × 10−12 )(80) = 2.12 nC/m2 . h) D2 = ≤r1 ≤0 EN 1 ax + ≤r2 ≤0 ET 1 = 2.1) = 2.97 nC/m2 .

32. Thus 1 E2 = ET 2 + EN 2 = ET 1 + EN 1 = 133.33ay − 66.85 × 10−12 )x2 which leads to the cubic equation: x3 − 0. the spring would be fully-extended to 0.67az 4 = 125ax + 175ay V/m 74 . If E1 = 100ax +200ay − 50az V/m. So EN 1 = (1/ 6)[100 − 200 − 100] = −81. a) Determine the charge separation: The Coulomb and spring forces must be equal in magnitude.67az V/m 6 Now. the tangential component will be ET 1 = E1 − EN 1 = 133. the normal component points into region 1 from the surface.7ay + 16. Two equal but opposite-sign point charges of 3µC are held x meters apart by a spring that provides a repulsive force given by Fsp = 12(0. Then µ ∂ 1 EN 1 = −81.7ay + 16. is x = 0.33ax + 33. b) what is the dipole moment? Dipole moment magnitude will be p = qd = (3 × 10−6 )(0. The origin lies in region 1. find E2 : We need to find the components of E1 that are normal and tangent to the boundary. or into region 2 (you can visualize a portion of the surface as a triangle whose vertices are on the √ three coordinate axes at x = 5.136 m. which will be away from the origin.7 V/m.5.74 × 10−3 . Since the magnitude is negative.33.5).08 × 10−7 C-m.3ay − 16. We set up (3 × 10−6 )2 9 × 10−12 = = 12(0. 5. whose solution.3ax + 8.136) = 4.67az . found using a calculator. Our boundary conditions state that ET 2 = ET 1 and EN 2 = (≤r1 /≤r2 )EN 1 = (1/4)EN 1 . Two perfect dielectrics have relative permittivities ≤r1 = 2 and ≤r2 = 8.5x2 + 6.3ax + 166.5 − x) N.67az − 8.5 − x) 4π≤0 x2 4π(8. Without any force of attraction.65 √ [ax − ay + 2az ] = −33. the unit vector that is normal to the surface is n= ∇f 1 = √ [ax − ay + 2az ] |∇f | 6 This normal will point in the direction of increasing f .3ax + 166.5m. and z = 2. y = −5. Taking f = x − y + 2z. The normal component will be EN 1 = E1 · n. The planar interface between them is the surface x−y +2z = 5. and then apply the appropriate boundary conditions.

0 nJ/m3 2 2 5. and so E2 = E1 .1 µJ 4 In region 2. This will have the same y and z (tangential) components as E1 . b) the total electrostatic energy stored in a 1m length of each region: In general we have wE = (1/2)≤r ≤0 E 2 . Let the cylindrical surfaces ρ = 4 cm and ρ = 9 cm enclose two wedges of perfect dielectrics. but the normal component.5. The flux density is then D2 = ≤r2 ≤0 E2 = 40≤0 ax − 50≤0 ay + 250≤0 az = 0. Thus the field is the same on either side of the boundaries. Let E1 = 20ax − 10ay + 50az V/m.6 nJ/m3 2 2 £ § 1 1 ≤r2 ≤0 E2 · E2 = (5)≤0 (8)2 + (10)2 + (50)2 = 6660≤0 = 59. while region 2 (x < 0) has ≤r2 = 5. we have WE2 = Z 0 1 Z 2π π/2 Z 4 9 1 (2000)2 15π (5)≤0 ρ dρ dφ dz = ≤0 (2000)2 ln 2 ρ2 4 75 µ ∂ 9 = 338 µJ 4 . a) Find D2 : One approach is to first find E2 . Therefore E2 = 20(≤r1 /≤r2 ) ax − 10 ay + 50 az = 8 ax − 10 ay + 50 az .35 ax − 0.44 ay + 2. ≤r1 = 2 for 0 < φ < π/2. find: a) E2 : The interfaces between the two media will lie on planes of constant φ.35. If E1 = (2000/ρ)aρ V/m. and ≤r2 = 5 for π/2 < φ < 2π. Region 1 (x ≥ 0) is a dielectric with ≤r1 = 2. this arises from Dx1 = Dx2 (normal component of D is continuous across a non-charged interface).21 az nC/m2 b) Find the energy density in both regions: These will be we1 = we2 = £ § 1 1 ≤r1 ≤0 E1 · E1 = (2)≤0 (20)2 + (10)2 + (50)2 = 3000≤0 = 26. Ex . So in region 1: WE1 = Z 1 0 Z Z π/2 0 4 9 1 (2000)2 π (2)≤0 ρ dρ dφ dz = ≤0 (2000)2 ln 2 ρ2 2 µ ∂ 9 = 45. will diﬀer by the ratio ≤r1 /≤r2 .34. to which E1 is parallel.