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# CHAPTER 3

3.1. Suppose that the Faraday concentric sphere experiment is performed in free space using a
central charge at the origin, Q1 , and with hemispheres of radius a. A second charge Q2 (this
time a point charge) is located at distance R from Q1 , where R >> a.
a) What is the force on the point charge before the hemispheres are assembled around Q1 ?
This will be simply the force beween two point charges, or
F=

Q1 Q2
ar
4π≤0 R2

b) What is the force on the point charge after the hemispheres are assembled but before
they are discharged? The answer will be the same as in part a because induced charge
Q1 now resides as a surface charge layer on the sphere exterior. This produces the same
electric field at the Q2 location as before, and so the force acting on Q2 is the same.
c) What is the force on the point charge after the hemispheres are assembled and after they
are discharged? Discharging the hemispheres (connecting them to ground) neutralizes the
positive outside surface charge layer, thus zeroing the net field outside the sphere. The
force on Q2 is now zero.
d) Qualitatively, describe what happens as Q2 is moved toward the sphere assembly to the
extent that the condition R >> a is no longer valid. Q2 itself begins to induce negative
surface charge on the sphere. An attractive force thus begins to strengthen as the charge
moves closer. The point charge field approximation used in parts a through c is no longer
valid.

3.2. An electric field in free space is E = (5z 2 /≤0 ) ˆ
az V/m. Find the total charge contained within
a cube, centered at the origin, of 4-m side length, in which all sides are parallel to coordinate
axes (and therefore each side intersects an axis at ±2.
The flux density is D = ≤0 E = 5z 2 az . As D is z-directed only, it will intersect only the
top and bottom surfaces (both parallel to the x-y plane). From Gauss’ law, the charge in
the cube is equal to the net outward flux of D, which in this case is
Qencl =

I

D · n da =

Z

2

−2

Z

2

−2

2

5(2) az · az dx dy +

Z

2

−2

Z

2

−2

5(−2)2 az · (−az ) dx dy = 0

where the first and second integrals on the far right are over the top and bottom surfaces
respectively.

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Dx = 0 and at the z = 0 plane.08)dφ dz nC = 20π(. so there will be no flux contributions from these surfaces. 0 Φ=Q = Z Z .01 µ 90 − 30 360 ∂ 2π(5)(. 0 < z < 5 m: Of the 6 surfaces to consider.08) 0 µ −1 20 ∂ Ø∞ Ø Ø e−20z Ø = 0. while having the same magnitude in both cases.08) µ −1 20 ∂ = 9. Using Gauss’ law. Let D = 4xyax + 2(x2 + z 2 )ay + 4yzaz C/m2 and evaluate surface integrals to find the total charge enclosed in the rectangular parallelepiped 0 < x < 2. Why? First consider the planes at y = 0 and 3. 30◦ < φ < 90◦ ? We just integrate the charge density on that surface to find the flux that leaves it. Find the total charge contained within a sphere of 3-m radius.45 × 10−3 nC = 9.3. The y component of D will penetrate those surfaces. The cylindrical surface ρ = 8 cm contains the surface charge density. ρs = 5e−20|z| nC/m2 . 1 cm < z < 5cm.05 Ø Ø Ø −20z Ø e . At the x = 0 plane.01 3. but will be inward at y = 0 and outward at y = 3. The net outward flux becomes: Z 5Z 3 Z 3Z 2 Ø Ø Ø Φ= D x=2 · ax dy dz + DØz=5 · az dx dy 0 =5 Z 0 0 3 4(2)y dy + 2 Z 0 26 0 0 3 4(5)y dy = 360 C . centered at the origin.5.25 nC Ø 0 b) How much flux leaves the surface ρ = 8 cm. These are substituted to yield Q = 2π Z 0 π µ ∂ Ø2π 1 Ø 5(3) cos θ sin θdθ = −2π(5)(3) cos5 θØ = 972π 5 0 5 4 5 3. a) What is the total amount of charge present? We integrate over the surface to find: Q=2 Z ∞ 0 Z 2π 5e−20z (. only 2 will contribute to the net outward flux. we set up the integral in free space over the sphere surface.45 pC Ø.08) dφ dz nC = 30◦ . whose outward unit normal is ar : Q= I ≤0 E · n da = Z Z 2π 0 0 π 5z 3 az · ar (3)2 sin θ dθ dφ where in this case z = 3 cos θ and (in all cases) az · ar = cos θ.3. An electric field in free space is E = (5z 3 /≤0 ) ˆ az V/m.4. Dz = 0. These fluxes will thus cancel. This leaves the 2 remaining surfaces at x = 2 and z = 5. 0 < y < 3.05 90◦ −20z 5e (.

leading to Din = ρ0 z az C/m2 (|z| < d/2). In free space. calculate the value of Dr on the surface r = 1 mm: The gaussian surface is a spherical shell of radius 1 mm.001 ∏ −r2 e−1000r ØØ. and will be uniform with x and y at fixed z. we surmise that the field will be everywhere z-directed.2 × 10−4 nC/m2 4πr2 4π(.001 Q= 0 0 2e−1000r r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ 0 Integration over the angles gives a factor of 4π.7. As a result. Volume charge density is located in free space as ρv = 2e−1000r nC/m3 for 0 < r < 1 mm. and −d/2 < z < d/2. −1 < y < 1. We thus write 4πr2 Dr = Q. The outward flux from this surface will be limited to that through the two parallel surfaces at ±z: I Φin = D · dS = 2 Z 1 −1 Z 1 Dz dxdy = Qencl = −1 Z z −z Z 1 −1 Z 1 ρ0 dxdydz 0 −1 where the factor of 2 in the second integral account for the equal fluxes through the two surfaces.3. the Gaussian surface is the same. The above readily simplifies.001)2 27 .0 × 10−9 nC Ø 1000 1000 (1000)2 0 0 b) By using Gauss’s law. a) Find the total charge enclosed by the spherical surface r = 1 mm: To find the charge we integrate: Z Z Z 2π π . The enclosed charge is the result of part a. Find D and E everywhere. the calculation is nearly the same as before. and |z| < d/2.6. or Dr = Q 4. volume charge of constant density ρv = ρ0 exists within the region −∞ < x < ∞. as both Dz and ρ0 are constants. −∞ < y < ∞. Outside the charge.001 2 e−1000r Ø Q = 8π + (−1000r − 1)Ø = 4. From the symmetry of the configuration.0 × 10−9 = = 3. an appropriate Gaussian surface will be that which encloses a rectangular region defined by −1 < x < 1. The radial integration we evaluate using tables. with the only change being the limits on the total charge integral: Φout = I D · dS = 2 Z 1 −1 Z 1 Dz dxdy = Qencl = −1 Z d/2 −d/2 Z 1 −1 Z 1 ρ0 dxdydz 0 −1 Solve for Dz to find the constant values: Ω Ω (ρ0 d/2) az (z > d/2) (ρ0 d/2≤0 ) az (z > d/2) 2 Dout = C/m and Eout = V/m −(ρ0 d/2) az (z < d/2) −(ρ0 d/2≤0 ) az (z < d/2) 3. and ρv = 0 elsewhere. For finding the field inside the charge. except that the parallel boundaries at ±z occur at |z| > d/2. and therefore Ein = (ρ0 z/≤0 ) az V/m (|z| < d/2). we obtain ∑ Ø.

except the gaussian surface now lies at 20 mm. find Dr at r = 20 mm: This will be the same computation as in part b. Let ρv = 0 for 0 < r < 8 mm. the enclosed charge increases by 4πA (done).010 .64 × 10 (80 × 10−6 )r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ = 4π × (80 × 10−6 ) C = 164 pC r3 ØØ.9. D = Aar /r. or Dr (10 mm) = 164 × 10−12 = 1. requires every spherical shell of 1 m thickness to contain 4πA coulombs of charge. Does this indicate a continuous charge distribution? If so. 3. a) Find the total charge inside the spherical surface r = 10 mm: This will be Q= Z 0 2π Z 0 π Z . in which we already found the latter from Gauss’s law: Z 2π Z π Z r Z r Qencl = 4πAr = ρ(r0 ) (r0 )2 sin θ dr0 dθ dφ = 4π ρ(r0 ) (r0 )2 dr0 0 0 0 0 To obtain the correct enclosed charge. Gauss’ law is written as 4πr2 Dr = Q = 164 × 10−12 . Use Gauss’s law in integral form to show that an inverse distance field in spherical coordinates. and we can find the density indirectly by constructing the integral for the enclosed charge.008 −10 = 1. A uniform volume charge density of 80 µC/m3 is present throughout the region 8 mm < r < 10 mm.5 nC/m2 4π(.3. where A is a constant. the integrand must be ρ(r) = A/r2 . find the charge density variation with r.8.010 Ø 3 .01)2 c) If there is no charge for r > 10 mm.02)2 28 . Thus Dr (20 mm) = 164 × 10−12 = 3.30 × 10−7 C/m2 = 130 nC/m2 4π(.008 b) Find Dr at r = 10 mm: Using a spherical gaussian surface at r = 10.25 × 10−8 C/m2 = 32. It is evident that the charge density is continuous. The net outward flux of this field through a spherical surface of radius r is Φ= I D · dS = Z 0 2π Z π 0 A ar · ar r2 sin θ dθ dφ = 4πAr = Qencl r We see from this that with every increase in r by one m.

5 mm. Since the sun for our purposes is spherically-symmetric. we ascertain that D will be radially-directed and will vary only with radius. To accomplish this. we find ρs0 30 .5 mm) πρ 3.5 × 10−15 Dρ = C/m2 (ρ > 1. and 6 m carry uniform surface charge densities of 20 nC/m2 .55 × 1011 )2 3. no charge is enclosed. the flux density emitted by it is I = 3. respectively. a) Find D at r = 1.86 × 1026 ar = 1200 ar W/m2 4π(1.000.000 km = 1. Spherical surfaces at r = 2. and ρs0 .000.5 mm. Since fields will decrease as 1/r2 . so the integral that evaluates the enclosed charge now includes the entire charge distribution. finally obtaining: 2.000 miles from the sun in W/m2 ? First. the total field will be 16 × 10−9 ρs0 (6)2 + r2 r2 −9 = −(4/9) × 10 C/m2 .4 × 10−10 C/m2 . 4 < r < 6 : 4πr2 Dr = 4π(2)2 (20 × 10−9 ) + 4π(4)2 (−4 × 10−9 ) ⇒ Dr = 16 × 10−9 r2 So Dr (r = 5) = 6. 93. 4. 3 and 5 m: Noting that the charges are spherically-symmetric.86 × 1026 2π = [cos(30◦ ) − cos(40◦ )] (27◦ − 12◦ ) = 8. Thus. 12◦ and 27◦ correspond directly to the limits on φ. we change the upper limit of the integral of part b from ρ to 1. The required power is now found through Z 27◦ Z 40◦ 3. The sun radiates a total power of about 3.000. 2 < r < 4 : 4πr2 Dr = 4π(2)2 (20 × 10−9 ) ⇒ Dr = 80 × 10−9 C/m2 r2 So Dr (r = 3) = 8. Use this distance in the flux density expression above to obtain I= 3.12.86 × 1026 /(4πr2 ) ar W/m2 . −4 nC/m2 .000 miles = 155.1 × 1023 W 4π 360 b) What is the power density on a spherical surface 93.9 × 10−9 C/m2 .55 × 1011 m.3. we apply Gauss’ law to spherical shells in the following regions: r < 2: Here.86 × 1026 watts (W). Dr (r > 6) = Requiring this to be zero. If we imagine the sun’s surface to be marked oﬀ in latitude and longitude and assume uniform radiation. a) What power is radiated by the region lying between latitude 50◦ N and 60◦ N and longitude 12◦ W and 27◦ W? 50◦ N lattitude and 60◦ N lattitude correspond respectively to θ = 40◦ and θ = 30◦ . the gaussian cylinder now lies at radius ρ outside the charge distribution.13.86 × 1026 P1 = ar · ar r2 sin θ dθ dφ 4πr2 12◦ 30◦ µ ∂ 3.11c) for ρ > 1. and so Dr = 0. In this region. b) Determine ρs0 such that D = 0 at r = 7 m. the question could be re-phrased to ask for ρs0 such that D = 0 at all points where r > 6 m.

P0 . what (to a very good estimate) is the value of P0 ? Start with Pd (45◦ ) = P0 cos2 (45◦ ) P0 ar = ar 2 2πr 4πr2 Then the detected power in a 1-mm2 area at r = 1 m approximates as . A certain light-emitting diode (LED) is centered at the origin with its surface in the xy plane. having a 1 mm2 cross-sectional area. is positioned at r = 1 m and at θ = 45◦ . in terms of P0 . At far distances.5◦ 2 6 3 3 0 21/3 c) An optical detector. where 1 < ρ1 < 2 mm: We find. the LED appears as a point. 3. ρv = 4ρ µC/m3 for 1 < ρ < 2 mm. such that it faces the LED. So. Z L Z 2π Z ρ1 8πL 3 Q= 4ρ ρ dρ dφ dz = [ρ1 − 10−9 ] µC 3 0 0 . the total power in Watts emitted in the upper half-space by the LED: We evaluate the surface integral of the power density over a hemispherical surface of radius r: Z 2π Z π/2 Øπ/2 P cos2 θ P0 0 2 3 Ø Pt = P0 a · a r sin θ dθ dφ = − cos θ = Ø r r 2 2πr 3 3 0 0 0 b) Find the cone angle. the z axis). with ρ1 in meters.14. a) Find.001 b) Use Gauss’ law to determine Dρ at ρ = ρ1 : Gauss’ law states that 2πρ1 LDρ = Q. 0 < z < L. Dρ (ρ1 ) = 4(ρ31 − 10−9 ) µC/m2 3ρ1 31 . within which half the total power is radiated. The result must be one-half that of part a. θ1 . within the range 0 < θ < θ1 : We perform the same integral as in part a except the upper limit for θ is now θ1 . P [W ] = × 10−6 = 10−9 ⇒ P0 = 4π × 10−3 W 4π If the originally stated 1mW value is used for the detected power. where Q is the result of part a. i. If one nanowatt (stated in error as 1mW) is measured by the detector. the optical power (flux) density in Watts/m2 is given in spherical coordinates by Pd = P0 cos2 θ ar 2πr2 2 Watts/m where θ is the angle measured with respect to the normal to the LED surface (in this case. Volume charge density is located as follows: ρv = 0 for ρ < 1 mm and for ρ > 2 mm. and r is the radial distance from the origin at which the power is detected. a) Calculate the total charge in the region 0 < ρ < ρ1 . but the glowing surface geometry produces a far-field radiation pattern that follows a raised cosine law: That is.e.15. the answer would have been 4π kW (!). so we write: µ ∂ Øθ1 ¢ Pt P0 P0 P0 ° 1 3 Ø 3 −1 = = − cos θØ = 1 − cos θ1 ⇒ θ1 = cos = 37.3..

If D = 2x2 yax + 3x2 y 2 ay C/m2 : a) apply Gauss’ law to find the total flux leaving the closed surface of the cube.0016) At ρ = 2.4.1)2 + 6(1.2) y dy dz + −2(1)2 y dy dz 1 1 |1 {z } |1 {z } + Z |1 1.002.0016)3 − (.001)2 ] µC 3 from which Dρ (2. 3. 1.2 Z 1. An electric flux density is given by D = D0 aρ .2 Z −3x2 (1)2 dx dz + {z } |1 left 1. Q = ∇ · DØcenter × ∆v = 12. The fluxes through the remaining four are I Z 1. We note that there is no z component of D. (8): This is Ø .4 mm: At ρ = 0. and Gauss’ law is written as 8πL 2πρLDρ = [(.1.0010)3 ] = 3. we evaluate the charge integral of part a from . y. and 2.2 Z 1.6mm) = 4[(. we integrate D · n over all six surfaces and sum the results.8 mm. a) What charge density generates this field? Charge density is found by taking the divergence: With radial D only. where D0 is a given constant. z < 1. A cube is defined by 1 < x. or integrate D over the surface that contains the specified volume: Z b Z 2π Z a Z b Z 2π D0 Q= ρ dρ dφ dz = D0 aρ · aρ a dφ dz = 2πabD0 C ρ 0 0 0 0 0 3. We call the surfaces at x = 1. To evaluate the total charge.2 and x = 1 the front and back surfaces respectively.6 mm. so Dρ (0. those at y = 1.2.6 to obtain: Dρ (1.2 3x2 (1.15c) Evaluate Dρ at ρ = 0.3. where the cylinder axis is the z axis? We can either integrate the charge density over the specified volume.2 and z = 1 the top and bottom surfaces. so there will be no outward flux contributions from the top and bottom surfaces. At ρ = 1.001 to .8 mm.9 × 10−6 µC/m2 . and those at z = 1. we evaluate the part b result at ρ1 = 1.8mm) = 0.1.6 × 10−6 µC/m2 3(.17.1) = 4(1.2 and y = 1 the right and left surfaces. what total charge is contained within a cylinder of radius a and height b.2)2 dx dz = 0.83 × (0.1)3 = 12.2)3 = 0.2 Z 1.6 mm.2 Z 1 front 1. no charge is enclosed by a cylindrical gaussian surface of that radius.2 Z 1 back 1.83 c) Estimate the total charge enclosed within the cube by using Eq.2 2 Φ = Q = D · n da = 2(1.002)2 − (.1026 Close! 32 .4mm) = 3.1028 C {z } right b) evaluate ∇ · D at the center of the cube: This is £ § ∇ · D = 4xy + 6x2 y (1.16. we have 1 d D0 ρv = ∇ · D = (ρD0 ) = C/m3 ρ dρ ρ b) For the specified field.

20. we have no accumulation or dissipation of charge within any small volume. c) the mass flow rate in kg/(m2 − s) below the surface of water in a basin. taking any small volume in the water. State whether the divergence of the following vector fields is positive.e. Let D = xax C/m2 . Use the results of Sec. where D = ≤0 E.3. the net outward flow through the surface that surrounds the small volume is zero. We find ρv by taking the divergence of D in all three regions. negative.003)3 (1) = 1. Divergence is therefore zero. b) the current density in A/m2 in a bus bar carrying direct current: In this case. 4 Φ = π(. since current is dc.13 × 10−7 C = 113 nC 3 3. A radial electric field distribution in free space is given in spherical coordinates as: rρ0 ar (r ≤ a) 3≤0 (2a3 − r3 )ρ0 = ar (a ≤ r ≤ b) 3≤0 r2 (2a3 − b3 )ρ0 = ar (r ≥ b) 3≤0 r2 E1 = E2 E3 where ρ0 . the divergences become: µ ∂ 1 d ° 2 ¢ 1 d r3 ρ0 ρv1 = ∇ · D1 = 2 r D1 = 2 = ρ0 (r ≤ a) r dr r dr 3 µ ∂ 1 d ° 2 ¢ 1 d 1 ρv2 = 2 r D2 = 2 (2a3 − r3 )ρ0 = −ρ0 (a ≤ r ≤ b) r dr r dr 3 µ ∂ 1 d ° 2 ¢ 1 d 1 3 3 ρv3 = 2 r D3 = 2 (2a − b )ρ0 = 0 (r ≥ b) r dr r dr 3 33 . Thus . in which the water is circulating clockwise as viewed from above: Here again. Calling the thermal flux density F.. 3. Answer: positive. 5) in free space. i. where in this case ∇ · D = (∂/∂x)x = 1 C/m3 . and b are constants. or zero: a) the thermal energy flow in J/(m2 − s) at any point in a freezing ice cube: One way to visualize this is to consider that heat is escaping through the surface of the ice cube as it freezes. Therefore the divergence must be zero. 3.4 to estimate the net electric flux leaving the spherical surface: We . this also means that the net outward current flux through the surface that surrounds any small volume is zero. 1. Therefore the net outward flux of thermal energy through the surface is positive. the right integral (and its integrand) must also be positive. a. A spherical surface of radius 3 mm is centered at P (4. the divergence theorem says I Z F · dS = ∇ · F dv s v and so if we identify the left integral as positive. there is no accumulation or dissipation of mass that would result in a change in density at any point.19. a) Determine the volume charge density in the entire region (0 ≤ r ≤ ∞) by appropriate use of ∇ · D = ρv . As D has only a radial component. use Φ = ∇ · D∆v.18.

96 z z 3 (−2.3. since F2 = 0 there. The remaining flux integral is that over the hemisphere: Z 2π Z π/2 Z 2π Z π/2 2 Φ2 = 5z az · ar a sin θ dθ dφ = 5(a cos θ) cos θ a2 sin θ dθ dφ 0 0 3 = 10πa Z 0 0 π/2 0 Øπ/2 10 10 3 3 Ø cos θ sin θ dθ dφ = − πa cos θØ = πa3 3 3 0 2 d) Repeat part c by using the divergence theorem and an appropriate volume integral: The divergence of F2 is just dF2 /dz = 5.45◦ . Q. (a) A flux density field is given as F1 = 5az .22.21. c) Now suppose the field is given by F2 = 5zaz . Calculate the divergence of D at the point specified if § £ a) D = (1/z 2 ) 10xyz ax + 5x2 z ay + (2z 3 − 5x2 y) az at P (−2. 0 < φ < 2π. 45◦ . which in this case involves just multiplying 5 by (2/3)πa3 . The flux integral is Z Z Φ1 = F1 · dS = hem. −45◦ . giving the same answer as in part c. Evaluate the outward flux of F1 through the hemispherical surface. We then integrate this over the hemisphere volume.5) b) D = 5z 2 aρ + 10ρz az at P (3.−45◦ ) 3.−45◦ . 5): We find ∑ ∏ 10y 10x2 y ∇·D= +0+2+ = 8. We integrate the charge densities (piecewise) over the spherical volume of radius b: Z 2π Z π Z a Z 2π Z π Z b ¢ 4 ° 2 Q= ρ0 r sin θ dr dθ dφ − ρ0 r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ = π 2a3 − b3 ρ0 3 0 0 0 0 0 a 3. we have 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂Dφ ∇ · D = 2 (r2 Dr ) + (sin θDθ ) + r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∑ ∏ cos 2θ sin φ sin φ = 6 sin θ sin φ + − = −2 sin θ sin θ (3.5) c) D = 2r sin θ sin φ ar + r cos θ sin φ aθ + r cos φ aφ at P (3.3.20b) Find. 3.67 ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z ρ (3. in terms of given parameters. 5): In cylindrical coordinates. 34 . and so the inward flux through the base of the hemisphere (of area πa2 ) would be equal in magnitude to the outward flux through the upper surface (the flux through the base is a much easier calculation). −45◦ ): In spherical coordinates. 0 < θ < π/2. within a sphere of radius r where r > b. we have ∑ 2 ∏ 1 ∂ 1 ∂Dφ ∂Dz 5z ∇·D= (ρDρ ) + + = + 10ρ = 71. the total charge. 2π 0 Z 0 π/2 5 az · ar a2 sin θ dθ dφ = −2π(5)a2 | {z } cos θ cos2 θ ØØπ/2 = 5πa2 Ø 2 0 b) What simple observation would have saved a lot of work in part a? The field is constant. evaluate the net outward flux of F2 through the closed surface consisting of the hemisphere of part a and its circular base in the xy plane: Note that the integral over the base is zero. Using the appropriate surface integrals. r = a.

Relate ρv0 to Q and a so that the total charge is the same.24. This means that within a region having equal volumes above and below the plane. find the volume charge density as a function of position everywhere: Use Ω dDz ρ0 (−2d ≤ z ≤ 0) ρv = ∇ · D = = dz −ρ0 (0 ≤ z ≤ 2d) b) determine the electric flux that passes through the surface defined by z = 0. D evaluates as the constant D(0) = 2dρ0 az . −a ≤ x ≤ a. a) Using ∇ · D = ρv . a) A point charge Q lies at the origin. we require that (4/3)πa3 ρv0 = Q. 3. so ρv0 = 3Q/(4πa3 ) C/m3 . Therefore the flux passing through the given area will be Z aZ b Φ= 2dρ0 dxdy = 8abd ρ0 C −a −b c) determine the total charge contained within the region −a ≤ x ≤ a. so its divergence is not defined. When r = 0. D = 0. In this case. Show that div D is zero everywhere except at the origin. we find in this case that µ ∂ 1 d 2 Q ∇·D= 2 r =0 r dr 4πr2 The above is true provided r > 0. and the divergence is zero. −d ≤ z ≤ d: From part a. as was found in part b. 0 ≤ z ≤ 2d.23. D = Q/(4πr2 ) ar as before. Gauss’ law tells us that inside the charged sphere 4πr2 Dr = Thus 4 3 Qr3 πr ρv0 = 3 3 a Qr 1 d Dr = C/m2 and ∇ · D = 2 4πa3 r dr µ Qr3 4πa3 ∂ = 3Q 4πa3 as expected. −b ≤ y ≤ b: In the x-y plane. Find div D everywhere: To achieve the same net charge.21 solution). d) determine the total charge contained within the region −a ≤ x ≤ a. −b ≤ y ≤ b. Outside the charged sphere. b) Replace the point charge with a uniform volume charge density ρv0 for 0 < r < a. the net charge is zero. For a point charge at the origin we know that D = Q/(4πr2 ) ar .3. Using the formula for divergence in spherical coordinates (see problem 3. we have equal and opposite charge densities above and below the x-y plane. 35 . electric flux density is found to be: Ω ρ0 (z + 2d) az C/m2 (−2d ≤ z ≤ 0) D= 2 −ρ0 (z − 2d) az C/m (0 ≤ z ≤ 2d) Everywhere else. we have a singularity in D. In a region in free space. Q = −ρ0 (2a) (2b) (2d) = −8abd ρ0 C This is equivalent to the net inward flux of D into the volume. −b ≤ y ≤ b.

or again.20 mC/m3 . a) Find ρv for r = 0. Within the spherical shell.50 C/m3 .06 yields ρv (r = .25. That is – the net outward mass flow (in kg/s) through a closed surface is equal to the negative time rate of change in total mass within the enclosed volume. Physical reasoning then leads to the continuity equation. b) Find ρv for r = 0. and explain the physical significance of the equation.1 m: This is in the region where the second field expression is valid. 3.205 ar /r2 µC/m2 for r ≥ 0.00r2 ar mC/m2 for r ≤ 0.1 m.06 m: This radius lies within the first region. Q = 320π C. then the mass flow rate is ρm U kg/(m2 − s). a) Explain in words the physical interpretation of this equation: The quantity ρm U is the flow (or flux) density of mass. This must be equivalent to the rate of depletion of mass per unit volume at the same point. Applying the divergence theorem. Then the divergence of ρm U is the outward mass flux per unit volume at a point. this will be Φ = 4π(4)2 (5) = 320π C d) How much charge is contained within the sphere. the electric flux density is given as D = 5(r − 3)3 ar C/m2 a) What is the volume charge density at r = 4? In this case we have ρv = ∇ · D = 1 d 2 5 (r Dr ) = (r − 3)2 (5r − 6) C/m3 r2 dr r which we evaluate at r = 4 to find ρv (r = 4) = 17. where M is the total mass of the gas within the constant closed surface. and assign a velocity U m/s to each diﬀerential element. S. The 1/r2 dependence of this field yields a zero divergence (shown in Problem 3. this will be the same as the outward flux. we have I Z Z Z ∂ρm d dM ρm U · dS = ∇ · (ρm U) dv = − dv = − ρm dv = − ∂t dt v dt s v v This states in large-scale form what was already stated in part a.08 m (note error in problem statement).23). If we have a perfect gas of mass density ρm kg/m3 . b) What is the electric flux density at r = 4? Substitute r = 4 into the given expression to find D(4) = 5 ar C/m2 c) How much electric flux leaves the sphere r = 4? Using the result of part b. 36 .00r4 ) = 20r mC/m3 2 r dr r dr which when evaluated at r = 0. H b) Show that s ρm U · dS = −dM/dt. ∇ · (ρm U) = −∂ρm /∂t. and so the volume charge density is zero at 0. as the continuity equation states. r = 4? From Gauss’ law.27. Let D = 5. 3. and so ρv = ∇ · D = 1 d 2 1 d (r Dr ) = 2 (5.06) = 1.3.08 m and D = 0. 3 < r < 4 m.26.

In the region of free space that includes the volume 2 < x. where the fluxes are: I D · dS = Z |2 3 Z 2 3 µ ∂ Z 3Z 3 −4xy −4xy 1 1 dxdy − dxdy = (9 − 4)(9 − 4) − = 3.28.27c) What surface charge density could be located at r = 0.47 C b. Note that since the x component of D does not vary with x. and those at z = 3 and z = 2 the top and bottom surfaces. 2 (yz ax + xz ay − 2xy az ) C/m2 z2 D= a) Evaluate the volume integral side of the divergence theorem for the volume defined above: In cartesian. the outward fluxes from the front and back surfaces will cancel each other. To evaluate the surface integral side. but use ∇ · D = ρv and take an appropriate volume integral. This leaves only the top and bottom surfaces.29. we find ∇ · D = 8xy/z 3 .3.08 m to cause D = 0 for r > 0. y.47 C 32 22 4 9 {z } | 2 2 {z } top bottom 37 . We begin by finding the charge density directly through 1 d ρv = ∇ · D = 2 r dr µ ∂ A 2A r = 2 r r Then. since Dy does not vary with y. within each spherical shell of unit thickness. Repeat Problem 3. those at y = 3 and y = 2 the right and left surfaces.57 × 10−3 mC = 2.08 m? The total surface charge should be equal and opposite to the total volume charge. The volume integral side is now Z vol ∇ · D dv = Z 2 3 Z 2 3 Z 2 3 8xy dxdydz = (9 − 4)(9 − 4) z3 µ 1 1 − 4 9 ∂ = 3.08 Q= 20r(mC/m3 ) r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ = 2. The latter is Z 2π Z π Z .8. z < 3. we integrate D · n over all six surfaces and sum the results. The same is true for the left and right surfaces.57 ρs = − = −32 µC/m2 4π(.08)2 3. the contained charge is Z Q(1) = 4π r+1 r A (r0 )2 dr0 = 4πA(r + 1 − r) = 4πA (r0 )2 3.57 µC 0 0 0 So now ∑ ∏ 2. Evaluate the surface integral side for the corresponding closed surface: We call the surfaces at x = 3 and x = 2 the front and back surfaces respectively.

in which again ρv = 0. Given the flux density 16 cos(2θ) aθ C/m2 . however. where θ is fixed at the surface location. r use two diﬀerent methods to find the total charge within the region 1 < r < 2 m. but with a radially-directed electric field (spherical coordinates). Our flux integral becomes I Z 2Z 2 Z 2Z 2 16 16 D · dS = − cos(2) r sin(1) drdφ + cos(4) r sin(2) drdφ r r |1 1 {z } |1 1 {z } D= θ=1 θ=2 = −16 [cos(2) sin(1) − cos(4) sin(2)] = −3.30 a) Use Maxwell’s first equation. In this case. the diﬀerential area is da = r sin θdrdφ. 1 < θ < 2 rad. whose boundaries are defined by the specified ranges. Then ∑ ∏ d α1 x α1 x α1 x dEx ∇ · D = ∇ · [≤(x)E(x)] = [≤1 e Ex (x)] = ≤1 α1 e Ex + e =0 dx dx This reduces to dEx + α1 Ex = 0 ⇒ Ex (x) = E0 e−α1 x dx where E0 is a constant. b) Repeat part a. where in this case. ∑ ∏ ∑ ∏ 1 d 1 d 16 16 cos 2θ cos θ ∇·D= (sin θ Dθ ) = cos 2θ sin θ = 2 − 2 sin 2θ r sin θ dθ r sin θ dθ r r sin θ 38 . Then ∑ ∏ § ≤2 1 d £ 2 dEr −α2 r ∇·D = ∇·[≤(r)E(r)] = 2 r ≤2 e−α2 r Er = 2 2rEr − α2 r2 Er + r2 e =0 r dr r dr This reduces to dEr + dr µ ∂ 2 − α2 Er = 0 r whose solution is ∑ Z µ ∂ ∏ 2 E0 Er (r) = E0 exp − − α2 dr = E0 exp [−2 ln r + α2 r] = 2 eα2 r r r where E0 is a constant. On a constant-theta surface. but in which the permittivity decreases exponentially with r. 3. since D has only a θ component. ∇ · D = ρv . The field has an x component only: The permittivity can be written as ≤(x) = ≤1 exp(α1 x). The flux contributions will be only through the surfaces of constant θ. the permittivity can be written as ≤(r) = ≤2 exp(−α2 r). where ≤2 and α2 are constants. We are evaluating the net outward flux through a curvilinear “cube”. 1 < φ < 2 rad: We use the divergence theorem and first evaluate the surface integral side. where ≤1 and α1 are constants. to describe the variation of the electric field intensity with x in a region in which no charge density exists and in which a non-homogeneous dielectric has a permittivity that increases exponentially with x.91 C We next evaluate the volume integral side of the divergence theorem.3.31.

31 (continued) We now evaluate: Z vol ∇ · D dv = Z 1 2 Z 1 2 Z 1 2 ∑ ∏ 16 cos 2θ cos θ − 2 sin 2θ r2 sin θ drdθdφ r2 sin θ The integral simplifies to Z 1 2 Z 1 2 Z 1 2 16[cos 2θ cos θ − 2 sin 2θ sin θ] drdθdφ = 8 39 Z 1 2 [3 cos 3θ − cos θ] dθ = −3.91 C .3.