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M.E.T.U.

Journal
of the Faculty
Volume 1 , Number 2 , F a l l 1975

of

227

Architecture

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:
AN ANALYTIC AND A COMPARATIVE
STUDY
Mete TURAN

INTRODUCTION

1. H.T. ODUM, Environment,
Power,
jnd
Society,
New York: Wiley-Interseience,
1971, p.6.

Being part of the environmental system, human habitation—
specifically housing—can be considered to have its own micro
energy exchange. Within a system, unless it is a perfect closed
system,(at least, theoretically),there will be an inflow and
an outflow of energy. As long as there is an exchange of energy,
there will be an energy-budget of the system where the
difference between the incoming and outgoing energy will be
used up in one way or the other. Our interest lies in the
degree of utilization of the energy coming in and the success
of man in converting this for his own benefit in the housing
context without harming himself by disturbing the environmental
system with which he is interacting. Our concern at this point
is at a micro level when compared to the interactions occuring
at suprasystems which include our subsystem. Nevertheless, man's
use of resources and the utilization of the energy inflow is
significant at this point for his "...role in the environment
is becoming so enormous that his energetic capacity to hurt
himself by upsetting the environmental system is increasing."1
We can write

2. C D . FQRDE, Habitat,
Economy and
Society,
London: Methuen and Co.,1961,
(1934), p. 470.

3. In his book, House Form and
Culture,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice-Hall,
Inc., 1969, Amos RAPOPORT presents his
basic hypothesis that the house form
is not merely the outcome of physical
environmental forces but is the result
of a wide range of socio-cultural
forces acting in their broadest terms.
In turn, he argues, the climatic
conditions, construction methods,
materials available and the level of
technology act as modifying forces
(whereas the socio-cultural forces are
defined as the primary forces).

the general energy-budget equation,(Eq.1), as:

I - LE -i- H + G,
(1)
n
'
where I n is the net incoming radiation, LE is the latent heat
flux, H is the sensible heat flux, and G is the amount of
energy wnich is stored in the system. It is primarily the
utilization of G, with which we concern ourselves. Its gain,
its loss and the extra energy spent to replace its loss, are
what we are interested in discovering.
It should not be assumed that environmental factors are the
only determining issues in housing. Since man is part of a
social system, which itself is in interaction with the
environmental systems, we cannot isolate .one from the other.
"Nothing that happens...operates in isolation or fails to react
in some degree on many activities."2 The relationship between
culture, habitat and environment can be analyzed in the
hierarchical order of direct and indirect relations. Rather
than determining the shape and other characteristics of a
house, each factor in its own capacity and intensity, using
Rapoport's term, modifies it. 3

.

METE TURAN

228

4. J.M. FITCH and D.P. BRANCH,
Primitive Architecture and Climate ,
Scientific American, v. 205, n. 6, 1961,
pp. 134-144. Elsewhere, Fitch treats
the same problem in a broader scope.
In his analysis of the present building
process and in his comparison of the
past and the present man-built
environment, he looks at the problem in
terms of economic relations where more
comprehensive terms like "alineacion",
"economy of scarcity", and "economy of
plenty" are incorporated into the
architectural process. See J.M. FITCH,
Architecture and Aesthetics of
Plenty,
Hew York: Columbia Un., 1961.

Despite all the technological means for environmental control,
man in th'î modern age has often built habitats that are
inferior(in response to environmental influences) to those
built by even the most primitive people in the earlier
historical stages. Fitch and Branch find the primary reason
for this in "...consistent underestimation of the environmental
forces that play upon his buildings and cities, and consistent
overestimation of his technological capacities." With an
understanding of the environmental influences and the
utilization of them in a positive sense, such as harmony with
the socio-cultural demands without allowing abstracted values
to determine the design process, man can create habitats that
are better than the ones today.
It is not our intention to look backward longingly to the past
and romanticize it. Nor is it our contention to suggest that
cultures of the past(and even at present some rural societies)
were much more aware of the environmental influences and,
therefore, tried to live with them in closer harmony or were
able to cope with the situations more rationally than their
descendant are doing today. Industrial civilization has
provided us with a high command of machinery and the
introduction of this has altered the socio-economic relations.
Hence, the causes for a deficiency(if there is any) of the .
present cultures in dealing with some of the environmental
problems must be sought with this fact in mind rather than
studying the mere attitudes toward and awareness or
understanding of the environmental influences by the cultures.
However, this will be beyond the scope of our study at present.
Our study covers only two climatic zones—hot-arid and marinecool. We will try to look at the evolution of housing in
these areas and try to find the impact of environmental
influences and the degree of freedom of choice it left to the
inhabitants. Finally, a comparative analysis in the choice of
materials and the utilization of the energy will be made.

ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND THERMAL EFFECTS OF
MATERIALS
Solar Radiation
Any building component which is at a different temperature from
the surrounding space passes on energy to that space. It is
also true that all building components, depending on their
absorptivity, absorb different quantities of heat when their
surfaces are exposed to solar radiation. Thus, solar radiation
influences the indoor temperatures by directly heating the
exposed surfaces -of the enclosed spaces, by penetrating through
the openings on the surfaces, and by heating the circumambient
atmosphere.
While solar radiation is a favorable factor in cold weather, it
is generally undesirable in warm days. Therefore,it becomes a
design control problem to optimize the utilization of solar
radiation in the built environment. Generally, there are three
main controllable factors: absorptivity of the external
surfaces(use of color is the main element); orientation of the
building(use of heating impact on different surfaces and/or for
different functioning spaces of the building); and shading
of openings on surfaces(modification of heat flow to the
indoor spaces). The latter two are also of prime importance
in the ventilation problem which is closely related to the
direction of the prevailing winds.

229 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 5. B. Yearly (kcal/cm2/yr) Daily (kcal/m2/h) (kcal/m2/h) June December Cent'l Turkey Middle East SW America S of Sahara . (Eq. in the absence of radiant heat exchange. and h is the overall external surface coefficient. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the amount of moisture in the ambient air and the amount of moisture that the same air can hold if saturated(or the ratio of ambient vapor pressure and the saturation vapor pressure at a temperature). a simplified f ormula. A thermal definition would be: ". Lof. Dehumidification.1).(1958). The total thermal effect of solar radiation can be expressed in the concept of the sol-air temperature. p .. Sources: Landsberg."5 Due to complexities and some prior estimations. it is the combination of humidity and temperature that acts on the comfort level of the human body and thus regulates the rate of evaporation. where t is the outdoorj air temperature. 150 160 160 160 270 290 290 230 63 104 104 210 Coastal Norway B.2). The feeling of warmth and coolness is a joint function of temperature and humidity. Therefore.the sol-air temperature for the surface of a given structural element is a theoretical external air temperature which. Climate. for the comfort of human beings. G. New York: E l s e v i e r . et al. would produce the same thermal effects on the eleinent as the existing combination of incident radiation and ambient air conditions.(Eq. since it has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss of the body. to compute the sol-air temperature has been employed here: t sa = a (2) hr. and the reflected radiation. 188. (See TABLES I and III.. The intensity of solar radiation is dependent on three concepts: the direct intensity. through air movement. Columbia Chile Tasmania 75 90 110 110 18'8 210 63 63 20 30 270 230 Humidity and Air Motion Humidity is an essential item (it is actually the LE of the general energy-budaet equation.) Location Table I Net Solar Radiation. Humidity regulation is not the strongest item in winter except it should not be high enough to cause condensation. the diffused radiation. GIVONI. The orientation of the . is an important factor here.. Requirements(on the velocity of the air) for evaporative cooling will set the boundaries of these thermal regions which determine the effect of humidity. whereas during hot summer periods in dry regions low humidity and in humid regions high humidity can lead to very uncomfortable conditions. Man. Architecture. There is very little that can be done to control the humidity indoors except by mechanical means.' I is the intensity of the total solar radiation on the surface.G. 1969. H.O. a is the absorptivity of the exposed surface.(1966).

(1967). Source: van Straaten.40 . The combined effect of thes e are expressed as the heat-storing product of the thermal conductivity(X) and the capacity(C) of the component.F. WB Temp. Comparison of this value for different materials shows clearly that the lower the time constant. Components with lower values of AC wil 1 be warmed quicker than . the time constant(RC) of the material placed an influential role on the nature of the relationship of internal and eqternal conditions. Whitewash Gray color. especially when diurnal heating and cooling have to fluctuate considerably. J.12 .light Gray color. Wave .) DB Temp.90 Thermal Conductivity -Heat Storing Capacity Product(AC) The quantity of heat stored in the bui lding component depends a great deal on the density of the materials that make up that component. Table II Possible Combinations of factors producing the same effective temperature of 27°C(80°F). For instance. as the air velocity increases.) (In percentages) Table III Absorptivities and Emissivities of Surfaces. air velocity will affect the convective heat exchange of the body and the evaporative capacity of the air. the amplitude of internal temperatures depends on this value. Wave Abs. In other words. Consequently. (169). Air velocity will also reduce the effective air temperature as long as it is less than the skin temperature. .90 . DB and WB indicate DRY BULB andWET BULB Temperatures. The patt ern of internal temperatures will be determined by the value of AC. air velocity will cause a higher convective heat exchange. the latter will determine the cooling efficiency of sweating. (See TABLE II.230 METE TURAN building in regard to the prevailing wind and the position and size of the openings will determine the velocity of the air. Internal temperature will b e directly influenced by this factor and also by the thermophys ical properties of the materials. Primarily. dark s. respectively. the evaporative capacity will rise and as a result. will reduce the effect of high humidity. B. Thus with lower time constant the diurnal difference between minimum and maximum for the indoor temperature will be greater compared to a larger product of heat-storing capacity(C) and thermal resistance(R). but it will also increase the cooling efficiency by increasing the evaporative capacity of the air. °F °C °F °C 80 90 100 100 27 32 38 38 80 72 64 70 27 22 18 21 RH Rate of Air Movement % ft/min cm/s 100 42 11 11 20 20 20 500 10 10 10 254 Time Constant(RC) When air temperature and solar radiation are directly acting on the external surfaces.90 . within limits. When the air temperature is higher than the skin temperature.70 L. Source: Givoni. which will eventually warm up the body. (See TABLE IV. the lower the minimum and the higher the maximum indoor temperatures.

18 .054 10.406 .77 27.5 52. That is. (See TABLE IV.5 .796 1.61 500 45 .) Material Properties: A ' Thermal Thermal Diffuc ConducP sivity tivity Density Sp.18 22 Ac (Ape) 170 7. R Thermal Resistd Width ance (cm) (mh°C/kca 1) K Thermal Conductance (kcal/mVc) RC Time Constant 6 <J> Decrement Factor Time (h) ' Lag (h) Adobe 35 50 . The reduction in amplitudes can be expressed by. Heat 2 (kg/m3) (kcal/kg°C)(kcal/nrh C) (cm /h) Materials Adobe (Mud-brick) Wood (Timber) Stone 1540 . there will be a phase delay. In other words. the value of AC will affect the time-lag between the indoor and outdoor maxima. Due to external factors. This difference will cause a time-lag(§) between the heat gain and time of maximum external surface temperature. the components will pass on to the inside air only a portion of the. This is the ratio between the amplitudes of the external surface temperatures and internal surface temperatures.5 .0 0. when this sinusoidal pattern is superimposed on the external heat load pattern. the decrement factor(&). and the heat loss to the inside air and the time of maximum internal surface temperature.08 1.5 Timber 15 20 1. since it will take some time for the enclosing component to gain heat and to pass a portion of it on to the inside.121 7.6 33 38 425 Component Properties: Materials Table IV Thermophysical Properties of Materials and o£ the Components.71 29.heat stored.external daily pattern and the internal daily pattern.0 48.26 . Thus.056 .124 .480 .9 Stone 30 40 .046 1.2 Time-Lag(iJ)) and Decrement Factor(6) When there are large fluctuations between diurnal maximum and minimum of external temperatures and solar radiation.0 7. the pattern of non-tempered indoor conditions will significantly depend on the components that enclose the indoors. the internal surface temperature follows a wave pattern .1 14.564 2.17 1800 20 1.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 231 those with higher values of AC. but they will also tend to cool faster when the heating system is turned off. as well as reduced amplitudes of the maximum and minimum internal temperature variations.95 56.0 114.5 9.063 10. there will be a phase difference between the.067 0.106 1. Thus.86 .

Source: U. 1963.7 The optimum form can be expressed as: £j_=_y_ c2 x ' (7) and c are the heat where c 1 2 effects on the side x and side y . this can be computed by the heat flow method as suggested by Olgyay. Columbia 1957 1967 1970 15.S..METE TURAN 232 of amplitude(6. V. If we can assume an optimum of heat flow in and out of the building. B. 1 3 2 . Design w i t h C i i m a t e . : P r i n c e t o n Un. SW America Central and SE Turkey Coastal Norway British Columbia . Grand Junction . of Commerce/ Weather Bureau. July RH July Jan.. for a fundamental wave 6 (4). OLGYAY. Dept. p . P r i n c e t o n . Quantitatively. p . % °C SW America 1957 1967 1970 33 33 35 > 4.Bergen . New York: E l s e v i e r . J .) which is directly proportional to the external amplitude 6 with the decrement factor(6): 9.5 17. the thermal impacts of temperature and radiation on the indoor air partially depend on the form of the building. 9 17.6 1 0 85 81 76 80 83 80 B. due to their having no openings or very small openings.4 -4 -1 38 33 35 53 40 45 Cent'l Turkey 1957 1967 1970 29 30 32 -6 0 3 24 26 30 70 78 69 Coastal Norway 1957 1967 1970 14 13. N . GIVONI. Although the radiation effect through openings on surfaces is negligible in the case of the structures studied here.Albuquerque.(5) «T where d is the thickness of the material and «= is the thermal diffusivity of the material which can be expressed as: (See TABLE IV.= 66 i (3) e The time-lag and the decrement factor (x = 24hrs) can be calculated as: 6 = e~* 6. Phoenix.9 13 3. 1 9 6 9 .5 3 77 74 75 77 88 82 Observation Stations for the readings: Table V Climatic Data for July and January in Hot-Arid and Marinecool Regions.. Man. then we can state as a rule that a shape with the maximum heat gain and minimum heat loss in overheated and underheated periods respectively is an optimum shape with respect to energy exchange. 87. Diyarbakır . Architecture. Jan.) pc (6) r Location Year remp.Van Couver Optimum Shape due to Heat Exchange 7.1 -1 4.Malatya. Climate.

: DoubleAnchor.HUNTINGTON. if the stresses are not that different between summer and winter conditions. p. influences of Geographic Environment..: Prcmic-Hall.. ilousv Form oiid Culture. shape. 1 ) .4. TURAN. B. Needless to say. SEMPLE.N.. pp.J. A modifying factor. N. almost all of this type of housing that exists today are in the rural areas. 473-520. E. "Economy of Scarcity". depending on the intensity of summer and winter in the particular region. V.3 with an elasticity of 1:1. (See Fig. 88-89. KRAMER.: Princeton Un.: Princeton Un. Garden City. is one of the major characteristics of this type of construction where participation of the inhabitants in the actual construction is one of the key elements in this process. "It is a tool which frees man for other activities by creating an environment which suits him. may not be acknowledged as being independent of the other cultural influences as they may appear. 1969. 1968.48." n As man left the shelter of nature (i. (1911). 1963. New Haven: Yale Un.). protecting him from the undesirable effects of his surroundings. The environmental influences on his sheltering and their modifying effects on the type. also. Civilization and Climate. the summer index may be adopted despite a different index for the winter. For example. SPROUT and M. see: M.: Doubleday and Co. 1974. N. tree trunks.. These are from our calculations and they agree that Olgyay's results rather closely. 10. we can talk of the evolution of his builtenvironment in two categories: 1. his search for an adaptable shelter and house led him to different solutions under different conditions. no. technological level. be found in: H. N. the summer stresses in the hotarid regions are nearly eight times larger than the winter ones: therefore. Provided that the built form reflects his sociocultural influences in certain ways. 1-45. Princeton.9 The optimum for hot-arid regions is 1:1. 85. This consisted mainly of an earth hut dug into the hillside or large holes dug underground and covered with earth on top. S. "Environmental Stress: An Ecological Approach with Social Reference to Housing". 9. E. a step forward in his search took him to the subterranean and/cr semi-subterranean shelters.Y. 1-73. Northern Africa. Middle East and Far East).J. p.. A.).J. Oslo: Aschehang and Co. material and even on the means of erecting these shelters have played as important a historical role as the socio-cultural potentialities of man. Although a similar type of participation takes place in the squatter settlements on the outskirts of larger cities(especially true in Latin America.C. t>t nl. 101-128). 85. OLGYAY.2 with an elasticity of 1:1. There has been a strong inclination to explain historical and cultural phenomena through the physical environmental forces. Columbia Un. pp. Englewood Cliffs.make the conditions very different. As man found means to create and build more suitable surroundings. etc. large rocks. Basically. (3rd. For example. The complexities of a dialectical framework that exists in the man-environment relationship are not consistent with the misleading simpicity of positivistic empiricism and the neat schematic straight-forwardness of philosophical formalism. For an elaboration of the subject. pp. The advantage of the "environmental determinist" point of view lies in providing data for empirical phenomena from which a straight forward analysis can be carried to postulate that human behavior and development of man's artifacts are determined(and/or can be predicted) by reference to some set of casual laws. Design with Climate. This is apparent in his consistency and in his maintaining a suitable environment where he found comfort. which was mentioned earlier. Ed. °From the savage foodgatherers to the more advanced cultivators. Subterranean and/or Semi-subterranean Shelter. N. to the industrialised architecture in housing. 88. The Ecological Perspective on Human Affairs.. 13. we see the tremendous effort by man to search for the right m-icroenvironment where he can be comfortable away from the physical disturbances. On the other hand. EVOLUTION OF HOUSING IN MARINE-COOL AND HOT-ARID REGIONS From the very early primitive architecture to the vernacular. Princeton.cave. 1950. N. RUDOFSKY. The evolution of the built environment is the product of his patient and sensible search through the centuries. SPROUT. Built dwelling.. This approach represents an oversimplified perspective of the ecological relationship. New York: Russell and Russell.6 and for marine-cool it is 1:1. the socio­ economic factors.H. RAPCPORT. 1924. 2. an average index or an index closer to that of the more tense season may be adopted. which Olgyay calls "the criterion of elasticity. İZ. Architecture without Architects. 1964.the industrially produced materials. dissertation. History Begins at Swner. and the economic relations initiated by the changed distribution of wealth and products.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 8. (esp...: Princeton Un.(esp. Garden City.s 16. 1959. Olgyay's studies show that the optimum for all climatic conditions lies in a form which is oriented to the east-west direction in its major axis. Subterranean and/or Semi-subterranean Shelter In both hot-arid regions marine-cool regions the cave was the first shelter.. 11.e. N. 1963. Norwegian Architecture Throughout the Ages. Design with Climate. see: E.. The empirical phenomena.J. Hence. V.13 . 233 of an area respectively. p. the environmental influence on his solutions is not at all minimum."8 must be applied however. D. this difference in the given circumstances results in entirely dissimilar products(housing) where there can be discrepancies which may not exist in the rural areas. 1969. A more extensive treatment of the subject can. man tried to find solutions with which to adapt to and survive within a given environmental situtation.Y. More sophisticated examples of these are still in existence in some parts of these particular climatic zones. ALNAES. Princeton.OLGYAY. Inc. presented for the purpose of analysis. 557-637). Unpublished Ph.

1969.1 13. of Commerce/ Weather Bureau. (5) °=T where d is the thickness of the material and « is the thermal diffusivity of the material which can be expressed as: (6) (See TABLE IV. the thermal impacts of temperature and radiation on the indoor air partially depend on the form of the building.9 17.9 13 Observation Stations for the readings: Table V Climatic Data for July and January in Hot-Avid and Marinecool Regions.: Princeton Un. 132.38dv^Ç . Jan. Grand Junction . SW America Central and SE Turkey Coastal Norway British Columbia ..METE TURAN 232 of amplitude(6. If we can assume an optimum of heat flow in and out of the building.S. RH July °C SW America Cent'l Turkey Coastal Norway B. Although the radiation effect through openings on surfaces is negligible in the case of the structures studied here. Quantitatively.5 3 77 74 75 77 88 82 1957 1967 1970 33 33 35 . then we can state as a rule that a shape with the maximum heat gain and minimum heat loss in overheated and underheated periods respectively is an optimum shape with respect to energy exchange. this can be computed by the heat flow method as suggested by Olgyay.Malatya. Climate. for a fundamental wave 6 6= e".) which is directly proportional to the external amplitude 9 with the decrement factor(5): (3) The time-lag and the decrement factor (T = 24hrs) can be calculated as: 6. Diyarbakır . . p.Van Couver Optimum Shape due to Heat Exchange 7. Princeton.Bergen . Design with Climate. due to their having no openings or very small openings.) PC Location Year July Temp .6 1 0 85 81 76 80 83 80 -1 4. 1963. 87. Phoenix. 24 26 30 70 78 69 3. % 38 33 35 53 40 45 . it. = 1.4 -4 -1 1957 1967 1970 29 30 32 -6 0 3 1957 1967 1970 14 1957 1967 1970 15. 4.5 17. Architecture. V. Dept. GIVONI. Source: U. OLGYAY. Man. Nev York: Elsevier.J. p.7 The optimum form can be expressed as: 5i_=^L c2 x where c 1 (7) ' and c 2 are the heat effects on the side x and side y .362d/^ (4). B.Albuquerque. Columbia Jan.

EVOLUTION OF HOUSING IN MARINE-COOL AND HOT-ARID REGIONS From the very early primitive architecture to the vernacular. History Begins -it Sumer. large rocks. More sophisticated examples of these are still in existence in some parts of these particular climatic zones.N. 88. Needless to say. H. 101-128). Provided that the built form reflects his sociocultural influences in certain ways.e. 1959. 11. . New York: Russell and Russell. pp. As man found means to create and build more suitable surroundings. dissertation. Garden City.J. For example. 2. For example. 88-89. This consisted mainly of an earth hut dug into the hillside or large holes dug underground and covered with earth on top. (esp. E. protecting him from the undesirable effects of his surroundings. the summer index may be adopted despite a different index for the winter. 10 From the savage foodgatherers to the more advanced cultivators. pp. The complexities of a dialectical framework that exists in the man-environment relationship are not consistent with the misleading simpicity of positivestic empiricism and the neat schematic straight-forwardness of philosophical formalism.: Doubleday and Co. A modifying factor. KRAMER. we can talk of the evolution of his builtenvironment in two categories: 1. N. material and even on the means of erecting these shelters have played as important a historical role as the socio-cultural potentialities of man.. Built dwelling.C. 13. etc. On the other hand.cave.3 with an elasticity of 1:1. 1950.H. tree trunks.... SPROUT. These are from our calculations and they agree that Olgyay's results rather closely. 1969. this difference in the given circumstances results in entirely dissimilar products(housing) where there can be discrepancies which may not exist in the rural areas. N.. Design with Climate.). New Haven. This approach represents an oversimplified perspective of the ecological relationship. Throughout the Oslo: Aschehang and Co. V. see: M. 557-637). Northern Africa. N. Basically. his search for an adaptable shelter and house led him to different solutions under different conditions. Princeton. N.J. pp. 12.: Princeton Un. if the stresses are not that different between summer and winter conditions. 85..OLGYAY. civilization and Climate. 1 ) . and the economic relations initiated by the changed distribution of wealth and products. depending on the intensity of summer and winter in the particular region. 85. (1911). 473-520. 1963. Princeton. the summer stresses in the hotarid regions are nearly eight times larger than the winter ones: therefore. man tried to find solutions with which to adapt to and survive within a given environmental situtation." n As man left the shelter of nature (i. TURAN. is one of the major characteristics of this type of construction where participation of the inhabitants in the actual construction is one of the key elements in this process. Garden City.(esp. Princeton.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 8. OLGYAY. Middle East and. Yale Un. A. . almost all of this type of housing that exists today are in the rural areas. Olgyay's studies show that the optimum for all climatic conditions lies in a form which is oriented to the east-west direction in its major axis.. p. Columbia Un. Inc. p. which Olgyay calls "the criterion of elasticity. This is apparent in his consistency and in his maintaining a suitable environment where he found comfort. The advantage of the "environmental determinist" point of view lies in providing data for empirical phenomena from which a straight forward analysis can be carried to postulate that human behavior and development of man's artifacts are determined(and/or can be predicted) by reference to some set of casual laws. SEMPLE. A more extensive treatment of the subject can. Englewood Cliffs. <->t al. E. which was mentioned earlier. Unpublished Ph. 9. The environmental influences on his sheltering and their modifying effects on the type. House Form jmi Culture.make the conditions very different. N..: PruiU-ict-Hall.2 with an elasticity of 1:1. a step forward in his search took him to the subterranean and/or semi-subterranean shelters. (3rd. Subterranean and/or Semi-subterranean Shelter.).: Princeton Un. ALNAES. The evolution of the built environment is the product of his patient and sensible search through the centuries. "Environmental Stress: An Ecological Approach with Social Reference to Housing". Design with Climate. 1-45.: DoubleAnchor..6 and for marine-cool it is 1:1. the environmental influence on his solutions is not at all minimum."5 must be applied however.the industrially produced materials.J. Norwegian Architecture Ages. may not be acknowledged as being independent of the other cultural influences as they may appear. "Economy of Scarcity". p.Y. Far East). 1968. shape. B. also. be found in.. an average index or an index closer to that of the more tense season may be adopted.4. Hence. we see the tremendous effort by man to search for the right microenvironment where he can be comfortable away from the physical disturbances. 1964. Ed. SPROUT and M.s 16. 1924. there has been a strong inclination to explain historical and cultural phenomena through the physical environmental forces.J. 9 The optimum for hot-arid regions is 1:1. Influences of Geographic Environment. the socioeconomic factors. Architecture without Architects. The Ecological Perspective on Human Affairs. For an elaboration of the subject. S. (See Fig. presented for the purpose of analysis. The empirical phenomena. Although a similar type of participation takes place in the squatter settlements on the outskirts of larger cities(especially true in Latin America. V. D.HUNTINGTON. "It is a tool which frees man for other activities by creating an environment which suits him. see: E. N. 10.: Princeton Un. Subterranean and/or Semi-subterranean Shelter In both hot-arid regions marine-cool regions the cave was the first shelter. RAPCPORT. 1963. no. to the industrialised architecture in housing. 233 of an area respectively.Y. 1969. 1974. 1-73. RUDOFSKY.48. technological level.

-a cr tu fD 3 00 n •h ı j *< d -d o K 3 fD < ! 03 en O I f ı H 3 rt h-» fD O >-{ O cn cr tj 3 fD CO 3 O O K cr <D et Ifı fD O rt ^ T) fD O Ifı I—1 h-1 CO s: 03 ?^ n cr H- rr 3* fD CO fD rt 3 rt O oo 3 o H cT o a fD C f"! HCO rt 3 P- c 3 00 H- /•y Ifı H3 tu co O) 3 If rt o ı-İ 3 H ' TJ I—1 3 tu 03 d rj 3 s: 03 Ol co r r 3" fD rt 3 3* H fD 03 I-İ I—1 < •< O 03 ti 3 P.3 03 d 3 rr ı-t cn 3 01 ı-t H(Ü ^= V) M ı-t 01 XI «• Cn If O 3 fD V fD rr H> W CO I-4 rt fD cr fD co 3 fD tu 3 ıf O ı-İ >~t 03 o* H ' [ CO d 3 fD cn O Hı T) t-1 fD 3 (D X 03 ^ fD ı-İ o rt 3 > İli > •a tu ı-i < 03 cr (D <.< fD O o cr 03 3 ri I— r t f D 3 3 fD 3 o O O r-1 03 rt fD P- Hcn (f O 3 M- R fD f i d 03 03 rr 1 1 co O cr ı-ı fu H < > 3 o û ı 3 3 cr M 3 a. H .rt oo fD o •-3 CT fD O 3 • 03 t f M- -O H(f 3 fD oH - 3 a en tu 3 H fD !-İ H- 03 3 TJ Hco ıf 3" H- 3 cn 3" fD o I— 3 fD 1 O O ı-i H H3 3" fD CO o 3 fD 00 H- H. • cf 3" t-" 00 n cr fD f O CO MO 3 fD fD 03 >-i t-' *< cn fD 3 rr H- 1 03 O rt O 03 3 h " O MO 3 cn < ^< H- rt fD co cn 3 o a 0 PfD (D Tt 3 rt |3 n S ro o IO 1 r t rt 03 3 ıf cn cr 03 CT ı3 1 Cn rt fD •< a. 3 HO co fD O I—1 cn fD < I—1 rt fD ı-t cr (D cn o Hı -<.• i •"Sı- HEIGHT Hi o ı-i cr rt 3 P- ı-İ O <! H PfD d H- O • (D cr ı-3 O 3 co o 3 PHrt r o Hhtj H0C • 3 rt (D CU (D 3 O' (-• H- CL 3 CT fD 03 >-( O (U o d cr 3 o art un m HI Hrt HO 3 cn o 3 afl O fD O •< ı-> Qî ı-İ fD r t CT O tu o < 3 Hı O ^ .3 co fD H. rt •z H3 M- 3 co cr fD fD p. ^ (D ?r a 3 M f-l 03 O Ifı ı-i HfD CO O O C 3 ıf cn ıf fD ı-t 3 w 03 fD 1 1 a. -ö fD O O T) I f ı I—1 fD I—1 co O rt fD CO H > cn I—1 1—» HI—1 3 H* ıf fD d rr 3 •P O htl CO O fD H- : • < 3 03 3 O cr fD CO fD rt H« n 3 cr-o H * ı-İ f 3 cr fD O H. 3 03 V cr H fD fD 03 0 0 (D ^ < fD fD ^co 3 o: cr ı-i (D fD Ul f co 1 » h-> H3 —'I .-af D f D co &.CU 3 cr P- H ' ı-h O Ifı co D- 0i 3 rt ıf I—1 fD tu CO rt H- fD 3 r t 3 H 00 rt cn 3 co rt tt> fD < o 1 1 X3 T) tu o tu r-' fD •< ^-v 3 fD fD cr 03 co rt 3 (f 03 3 03 o H- d a tu o I— d 03 3 d 03 3 O cr fD t—' rt fD ti fD 03 tf fD d ı-i H 3 03 r+t ı-İ O I—1 fD CO d I—1 (f Cn HO fD <.T3 fD t-i u d W tu 3 co 03 ji1' 3 O s- 00 t< O d 3 P.r r cr H * 1—' H . (b cd • ^ DEPTH -Q ti -I H10 i o 1 E -1 li O 3 •< 3 I" .fD \-> fD rt 3 3 (_. I— Hp. s cr fD rt 3 M- T) fD 03 cn t . fD II—. r t HfD fD cr >-! cr o T) H ' T) fD 03 3 fD ı-İ ı-İ 03 cr rt Cfi 3 ıf V fD cr ^< d co fD P.o ı-{f D Mi •a cr 3" Oı rr r t fD 3 o CO rt fD O ftl S cr rt fD d ı-t (Ü I— 1 H O Hı 1 t-' fD Ifı rt co cr M- 03 •G r.Or t cn H 00 (D t. ı-t O 00 I—1 O rt ?r Hcn s o m o ı-i w. :r fD rt H3 I—1 fD cr tu c f P- 03 co 3 cr fD fD 3 O r t 3tu W 3 ı-i (D 0i ı-İ O 3" H> r-r fD O rt O C CO fD (—' 3 co HO 3 CO fD O P- 03 3 rt 3 r H* O 03 t-> fD ı-l I—1 rt co v . rr co f D T3 3" P ' 03 3 Hrt d 3 5 O O cn 3 rr •* ^ O fD 3 t f d ı-{ Ol 3* fD rt 3 cr fD rt 0 ff Dlfı 3 03 rt MfD co a rt H- o v. 3H H t-h 3 O O H3 00 >-s (D 03 ı-İ M HfD cr [D rr O T ) CU •-t 0 0 H .. O I—1 C (f cn o 3 ro S » > CO 1 1 o H (t> 00 H- n o o I— I— n fu 1 c 3 00 f O M' Cfi CO fa If fD H 3 a i CI cn fD rt pO) ı-1 O 00 h " H.4 3 I f ı r t co O ^ < 03 3 ! < oH . P. >-! f f-ı ıf fD f cr fD co 03 3 P.fD w c 3 W H fD rt 1 03 ^ HD- m MIf rr CT CD ı-l H -a 3 tu 3 o 3 H H > 03 rt c -a 3" o 03 O 3 " I— O (f O H Oi 3 Ifı pr en fU 3 (U 3 p. 3 co r t P. ti h " 1 03 o ıf 3- 3 H* co Ol S Het 1 tu ı-İ CO fD O 00 H O Ifı 3 O CO ı-İ W (f co tu ı-İ fD 1 3 < 3fD ı-1 ı-f o ı-h •a fD ^ cr ^ M 0) T) PJ HCO ff 4 fD 00 HO t-1 ıf O 13 O 00 3 W t f o 0 D" fD rt 00 tu h " (D O CO >-! O I**» (D 1 O 3 H- ı-ı (D S > ı-1 ûı rt Mı O M 3 rr 3 D- 3 (f W 00 CT fD ı-t =r M- ı-j fD h-1 0O fD HO fD l— 1 (o H• fD cr H* If Cu 3 e H . •a fD rr CO cr H- If O Mı cr 3 oo 03 cr d O cr H- < <S• cn fD a rt cr tu >—. c/ı o P- 3 Mt— 1 I—1 HO w 3 cr 03 cn 3 3 co O 3 H* tu rr fD t-1 3 H- X o 3 * ^ O rr fD fD ^ d D O.

Thus. et ai.. it must have provided a rather comfortable living condition during the cold winter months. The cold climate in winter required heating which was done by an open hearth in the middle of the floor. ALNAES. sloping earth.h u s " . 33-48. with stone walls and a turf roof on birch bark.'fw.was mainly a communal living later transformed into extended families. Shelter jnd Soc-it. a f c t . in P. Houses and H o u s e .. Chicago. Made of low. "The Norwegian l . these dwellings were seldom divided inside. it must have been somewhat cooler t halı a comfortable temperature indoors in the summer. due to the high storage capacity of the earth and stone that were used as the enclosing skin. .VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 235 FiS. 1 9 6 5 ( 1 8 8 1 ) . E. e t ai. J.L i f e o f the American Aborı gines. Despite its deficiency in ventilation. ) . pp.OVD. The post and beam system covered with earth was not only an answer to the environmental forces but to the needs of social structure which. E.15 Built Dwelling/Marine-Cool 16. Norwegian Architecture Throughout the Ages.4). Oslo: Fig. 10). p .1950. h (After Alncas. . enclosed by the earth skin. the only openings for air ventilation in these dwellings which had dimensions of 5-7 m by 15-20 m were the entrance on one short side and one or two smoke openings on the roof. 10. Although its major axis ran along an east-west direction to utilize the solar radiation as much as possible. p. 1. supported by the posts and beams. of course. 1950. 1969. Aschehang and C o . .. U] i v e r (od .LI. 13. «ORGAN. This is.H. (See Fig. New York: P r a c g e r . emerged out of the environmental exigencies in these areas.

(See Fig. The heating was provided by open hearths in the center.D. Chicago: Un. 01iver(ed.. 5 (After Forde. . solar radiation and warmer temperature are welcome in the summer in marine-cool regions where the maximum daily outdoor temperatures seldom exceed 20°C. p. shell and bone) developed. A massive framework which lasted for generations could house numbers of families in the style of communal living. The roof was covered with curved sections. Fig. it was easy for these fishing people to work with this material and give form to their dwellings according to the environmental factors and their sociocultural necessities. 20. concave and convex planks laid alternatively. 7 A very similar type of construction was also used by the Nootka and Kwakiutl people on the northwest coast of Noth America. p. 1969. 1934. Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. in P.236 17. . London: Methuen and Co. London: Methuen and Co. ° These earthen banks not only served the several activities within the dwelling but also must have acted as good insulating devices against the cool. J. Shelter and Society. 19. C D . pp. An earthen bank. Both the outer shell of planking and the roof planks could be renovated when necessary. Fig. ran* along the inner walls with the dimensions of 15-20 m by 15-30 m. wood. L. plus the advantage of working with soft woods with long. parallel grains.1961 (1934). windy winters. Economy and Society. to provide drainage and waterproofing. As knowledge and technical means(tools were stone. 6 (Adapted from Forde. 1965(1881). C D . 75). Habitat. faced with planking. 69-100. FORDE. The Norwegian Laftehus. H. . p. FORDE.98). C D . 5). p. LLOYD. 1934. 1961.300 in Norway. 18.). with its thermophysical properties which were more suitable for this climate—at least during the summer months—became the main construction material. MORGAN. 37. of Chicago. (1934). New York: Praeger. The framework was enclosed by wall planks which could be dismantled and used as a deck on a pair of canoes during the summer migrations and which also provided the material for temporary summer dwellings which were lighter than the winter ones. METE TURAN Contrary to the hot-arid regions... Habitat. C D . pp.18 Due to its abundance in these areas.115-116. 75. Economy and Society.19Bedding and storage for each family were laid out on these banks. The first signs of the type of wood construction which was to follow the posts and beams enclosed by earth dates back to A.

economy and contrast shows itself21 both İn the use of resources and the sfi9i41. London: Methuen and Co. Economy and imply that the permanence and elaboration of habitation will Society.shelter of Tasmanians is nothing ° more than a low.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 237 Although very similar climatic conditions exist on the island of Tasmania. 374. (See Fig. Norwegians used moss or woolen cloths of red. south-east of Australia. 1958.1961 depend inevitably on the resources of the natural environment. 7).2k The colors . or the jointed timber construction. who do not have either the concept of a wall nor the notion of subterranean sheltering which is. earlier. 1958. 8). 23. Habitat. and they even sometimes used* layers of burnt stones.the recognition of a close relation between economy and settlement must not be taken to 22. p. means for shelter. For wind proofing. Although several ingenious measures were taken to adapt the stave construction to harsh environmental factors by the Vikings and the people of early Saga time. 20 cm thick. Although the first timber-log construction. this apparently cannot occur without discoveries. Logs are placed one upon another with ends cut for dove-tailing(See Fig. 24. . Habitat. p. the structure İs set to wait about a year for settlement of walls which causes tighter connections.. After the roof is completed. G. Mechuen and Co. G. according to archeological evidences. was being utilized in the high plateaus of the herding people. p. The timber-log construction. 300 in Scandinavia. blue and green in between the horizontal joints.. goes back to A. it was not utilized in housing except as a burial chamber. C D . Oslo: Dreyfers Forlay. they made the floors with packed clay. This contrast between two cultures under similar environmental influences show us that ". Cold winter months required considerable heating since the walls were not able to store heat. unroofed wind-break made of sheets of bark or boughs. as mentioned . mixed with animal hair. Oslo: Dreyfers Forlay. 26. and infiltration. 23. it is adaptable and modifiable. But without either diffusion or innovation. Lgc. 6). quite common among people living in other regions of hot-arid zones. it can be said that the two construction systems developed independently of each other. Therefore. it can be rather stagnant and defy changes.D. Norwegian Architecture Past and Present." (1934>. Although an adaptation process is necessary and a modification of culture is needed in relation to physical conditions.. Norwegian Architecture Past and Present.2 Measures like this and like the earthen hank around the inner walls was not sufficient to maintain a better energy expenditure. Whether the introduction of timber-log for housing was a cultural diffusion from the Mediterranean regions to the North is an unanswered question. (See Fig. KAVLI. or the "laft" construction. was developed side by side with boat building. and with the restrictions set by social patterns and norms on the utilization of certain resources or on adaptations to physical environment. Those people who had advanced to the level of stave construction in the marine-cool regions did go one step forward in developing even more suitable dwellings a few centuries later. inventions. there still was more to accomplish to find a more satisfactory environment.o. FORDE. The . ociety. which had a primitive beginning in the coastal regions. 1961. Stave construction. ondon.D. KAVLI. to keep the moisture out. Timber-log construction. Culture itself is not static. The same arrangement happens to be true for the aborigines of Australia living in hot regions. was constructed to offer a more suitable internal em'ironmentespecially in winter when the thermal stresses are more intense than in the summer months. although more laborious and a slower process. a great cultural 21. FORDE. C.

Norwegian Arrlıitcc-tıııc Past and P r e s e n t . LLOYD. It had no chimney. Later. O l i v e r C e d . 8 ( A f t e r K a v l i . 27. i n P.(See Fig. subsequently. 1969. this form was partially adapted as the regular construction for a complete dwelling unit. p . (See Fig. 2 5 . as they progressed to two story dwellings. J . The Norwegian L a f t e h u s . New York: P r a e g e r .METE TURAN 238 Fig. 1958. have a rather large absorptivity which is of great help in receiving and absorbing the incident radiation. Norwegian Architecture Past and Present. LLOYD. Shelter and Society. 7 F i g . 1958.l m s .. together with the color of the wood itself. especially in areas where more precipitation occurred— mainly to prevent moisture from penetrating up from the ground. G. ) . O s l o : D r o y i u r s i ' o r l a y .27 2 7 . Tllf Norwijg^an Lai" u . KAVLİ. 10) were used as sleeping quarters in summer months. 2 7 ) . 11). p . p . 1969. p . Elevated store houses(See Fig. p . J . Prat-giir. At first. a closed box of stone. independent of the main structure. O l i v o r d ' d . Its drawbacks—cold winds under the floors—are obvious therefore. Different variations of it various reinforcements can . 1958. ill P.9). It was not until about 1500 that the regular chimney was introduced in the Scandinavian peninsula. ) . 4 4 . they built the first story walls with stone. 2 8 . G. KAVLI. G. 2 6 .26 The "smoke stove". used in this chinking process. 28. heating was done by an elevated open hearth. was placed in the north corner of the dividing wall of the small rooms of the tripartite plan.25 In the 12 Century a different heating system was introduced. Oslo: Dreyfers Forlay. Built Dwelling/Hot-Arid The predominant house type in hot-arid regions is one made of mud.-tij. This way a lot of heat could be stored in the stone and could be radiated at night to keep a comfortable temperature. 3 9 . iViWCi-r •ıııd Snri.

. 96). et aJ. p.1950. E. 11 (Adapted from Alneas.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Fie. 10 '. A r*\1?-'^&:A Fig. 9 Fig. 239 .

There is no standard size adobe. CARTER. like the aborigines of Australia.240 29. and the Yuma Indians of south-west America. sometimes mixed with straw(for reinforcement). TurkeyCSee Fig. But its development was rapid.A. METE TURAN still be seen in use today. "Beehive" houses of Harran.32 Still. 30. both Fig. London: The Religious Tract Society. From archeological evidence we see that the initial introduction of rectangular brick houses. E. as mentioned earlier. p. (1964). was rather late to appear as a material. G. 49. a peasant house in southern Apulia in Italy. drywall stone masonry.31 Stone. B. "Trulli". 1968. The beginning of this type of construction obviously preceded a developed civilization. 84.29 was made around 4000 B.ıud the Life.: Doubleday and Co. they may vary from 25 by 25 by 10 cm to 25 by 50 by 10 cm. 1968 (1964). 1964. sun-dried bricks. Garden City. Man .30 Progress continued with great adobe structures. oven-baked bricks. These types of material in these particular regions seem to be the natural response to conditions of specific environmental factors. Man and the Life. adobe brick making. •Rinchart and Winston. G. Architecture Without Architects. p. The heat stored in the heavy walls during the day radiates itself at night when. 1925(1884). 91. CARTER.. Rudofsky points out the fact that this is an archaic form of an early megalithic period.W.Y. dating back to 2000 B. and the consequences were rather unusual forms that enclosed lofty spaces which provided comfortable conditions against the thermal stresses of summer particularly. has a very similar conic cupola built of annular layers of stone.12 . of course.C. Rini'hart and Winston.F. The high heat capacity of this material. with extended time-lag. provides the most suitable living conditions under the existing environmental factors. New York: Holt. There are exceptions.C. BUDGE. Then. N. 31. baked in the sun. Babylonian Life and History. New York: Holt. where the intensity of summer sun İs as great as in arid zones. RUDOFSKY. 12) are not only suitable for summer conditions but quite resistant to diurnal and seasonal changes in temperatures. despite its favorable thermophysical properties of arid lands.K. Mortar of mud is used for cohesion and sealing. 32. the most commonly used type of built dwelling in these regions is one of mud and straw combination. no. the air temperature is lower. To minimize the effect of solar radiation all the openings are small. due to the high fluctuations in the diurnal sinusoidal cycle. in Mesopotamia. The material used in the walls is generally wet earth with sufficient clay content for impermeability. and stone and adobe wall construction. which were to follow the wattle and daub huts.

as well as for sleeping purposes at night in certain instances. in order-to maximize the energy received which is the heavy walls stored and received when it is needed. This has its advantage in the cold winter periods. Thus. A layer of thatch is topped with a thick layer of tamped earth mixed with pulverized clay. 1965 ( 1 8 8 1 ) . 14). the thickness of a wall may vary from 30 cm to 100 cm depending on the load it is going to carry. The humble crofts of the Middle East minimize the exposed surface areas by building one croft adjacent to other crofts. (See Fig. since the heat produced by the animals provides an extra source of heating for the living and sleeping quarters. of C h i c a g o . 13). Their rather accurately designed and expandable clusters are almost always open to the south or southeast. Deficiency in ventilation is a problem. N.H. the first floors are used for sheltering the animals.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 3 3 . MORGAW. considering the other benefits they received with small openings. Fig. 13 . 241 inside and outside are plastered with daub and straw. p . outside surfaces sometimes are white-washed to increase the reflection of the incident radiation which is very strong in the summer time.33 Roofs are usually built on closely set poles resting on the load bearing walls. 1 7 3 . Since roofs are used for various activities during the day. they are flat.M. Climatic characteristics of both places are very much alike. This is certainly true for the MiddleEastern people. This may not have been a poor design choice. of SW America and of the Turkish settlements in Mardin and Birecik of SE Turkey— can be seen in Figures 15 and 16. a light gray color. are sensible solutions which adapt to the environment and provide the space needed for socio-cultural influences. Chicago: Un. Normally. The striking edifices of the south-west American Indians(See Fig. Generally. Also. This extends to not using mortar for cohesion purposes but instead using small stones to fill the intervals between the beds of stone used for masonry. a compact geometrical form which minimizes the exposed surfaces with the maximum volumetric spaces. Striking similarities in the buildings and their arrangements in two different cultures—that of Indians in Taos. Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. L. Different specimens of masonry have been used depending on the availability of local materials. most of the daily activities take place outdoors.

15 Fig.16 .242 METE TURAN *& Fig. 14 Fİg.

climatic restrictions on particular plants and animals). 60 . . 30 . This. of course. for instance difficulties of terrain. 80 • 20 . 17 temperature face temperature ndoor air temperature MARINE-COOL REGIONS(TIMBER-LOG CONSTRUCTION) . respectively are shown in Figure 17. the difference between indoor minimum and outdoor air temperatures is an important parameter in humid regions with warm and still nights. L o n d o n : Methuen and C o . 1 9 6 1 (1934) . C D . we are now able to calculate theoretical indoor temperature-s. and also excludes the heat produced by the inhabitants of the building. excludes the factor of an artificial heating system in the building. Habitat.VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES 34. Diurnal temperature fluctuations of outdoor and indoor air. are windy and of moderate temperatures. Nevertheless.v3k ANALYSIS For the given environmental conditions and the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction of the building under consideration. from those which acquire positive significance only in connection with specific cultural achievements. 243 Although great similarities exist in people's responses to environmental factors under the same conditions. Economy and Society. "it is necessary to distinguish negative conditions that are limiting factors at all stages of culture. in contrast to the nights. For these DIURNAL TEMPERATURES: HOT-ARID REGIONS(ADOBE CONSTRUCTION) 100 . individual differences and cultural divergences help shape the variable forms within a context of sensible solutions. and with the inference from the values obtained from decrement factors. FORDE. especially in hot-arid regions where there is a noticeable diurnal difference in temperature from day to night. 4 6 3 . The difference between maxima and minima of external and internal temperatures is important in the selection of the material to be used. p . 10 • 40 0- 20 • -10Fig. and which demand special efforts and unusual costs if they are to be overcome(such are. of external and internal surfaces for adobe and timber-log constructions for hot-arid and marinecool regions. SO . The analysis and results are presented in tables and graphs. The thermophysical properties of materials mentioned in section two are summarized in TABLE IV. The difference between maximum external temperature and indoor temperature is a major factor to be considered. This parameter becomes especially significant for the coastal regions where daytime conditions.

00 TIMBER 20 . and 20 cm for timber-log construction was assumed. karşılıklı süregiden etki ve tepkileri. TABLE V shows the observed readings of temperatures and relative humidities taken at different times and at different locations. Conductance (kcal/m2 h° C) HOT-ARID REGIONS MARINE-COOL REGIONS ADOBE 40 1. Hourly Heat Required to raise the Temperature to 20°C (kcal/h) Thickness (cm) 'able VI Energy Expenditure for Heating. An average of 5 by 6 by 3 m room size for the hot-arid regions and 8 by 10 by 3 m room size for the marine-cool regions were assumed. Bunun yanı sıra salt soyut . bu da gerek çevrenin gerekse de insanın doğasına karşıdır. an average of 40 cm wall thickness for adobe construction. is included in these calculations. The heat required to raise winter indoor temperatures to a comfortable level of 20°C was calculated for the two different zones. Bu çalışma. genel "enerji-bütçesi" denklemini (In = LE + H + G ) oluşturan veriler içinde yapı gereçlerinin ısı biriktirme/saklama yeteneklerini (G). ortaya koymayı amaç edinmiştir. değişik iklimsel Özellikleri olan iki bölgeyi örnek alarak.71 BRICK 22 1. hatta barınak ya da konutları çevresel dizgenin bir altdizgesi olarak onayan bir varsayım sonucu tek tek yapılardaki enerji dengesini çözümleyebiliriz. karmaşık olan insan-çevre ilişkilerini. yalnızca mekanik bir düzeyde ele almak olur ki.85 4268 12028 CONCRETE 2438 -5608 YÖRESEL MİMARLIK VE ÇEVRESEL ETKİ: CÖZÜMSEL VE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ÇALIŞMA ÖZET Yerleşmeleri.METE TURAN 244 \ calculations. Heat loss due to imperfections. Two different materials commonly used at present required to raise the winter temperatures to 20°C under the same environmental influences.96 2768 6898 20 2. ve yöresel mimarlıkta bu enerjiyi kullanma ve yararlanmada ki evrimi. Değişik toplum ve kültürlerin yöresel mimarlıklarını karşılaştırarak. çevresel etmenlerine. especially in timber-log constructions. Yöresel mimarlıktaki evrime yalnızca çevresel-gerekircilik (environmental determinism) anlayışı ile yaklaşmaktaki sakınca ve eksiklik.konutların oluşumunda ve evrimindeki etkililiğini incelerken seçilen değişik iki iklim bölgesi. kuru-sıcak ve nemli-serin bölgelerdir. These are summarized in TABLE VI.

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