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# Chapter 2

Thermodynamics, Fluid Dynamics,
and Heat Transfer
2.1

Introduction

In this chapter we will review fundamental concepts from Thermodynamics, Fluid
Dynamics, and Heat Transfer. Each section first begins with a review of the fundamentals. Subsequently, a review of important equations and solutions to fundamental
problems from each of the three fields. This chapter is only intended to provide the
necessary reference material for the course. It is not intended as a substitute for the
basic texts used in the thermo-fluids courses. During this course extensive reference
will be made to the following texts dealing with thermo-fluid fundamentals. These
are:
1) Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Potter and Wiggert
2) Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Moran and Shapiro
3) Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Incropera and DeWitt
Where possible, the use of robust design models or correlations which span a wide
range of flow conditions will be encouraged. These comprehensive models allow for
greater flexibility in the design and optimization of thermal systems. Whereas piecewise models, i.e. those which consider each different flow region separately, tend to
detract from the integrated design approach developed in the notes.

13

14

2.2
2.2.1

Mechanical Equipment and Systems

Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics, better known as the conservation of energy will
be utilized for both open and closed systems throughout this course. We shall begin
by examining the different ways of stating the First Law for both open and closed
systems.
The First Law of Thermodynamics for a closed system states
E2 − E1 = Q1−2 + W1−2

(2.1)

This is understood to imply that the change in energy of a closed system is related
to the net heat input and the net work done on the system. In terms of instantaneous
transfer rates, the First Law may be written on a per unit time basis
dE
˙
= Q˙ + W
(2.2)
dt
The First Law of Thermodynamics may also be written for an open system containing a number of inlets and outlets
µ

µ
Vi2
Ve2
dEcv
˙ cv (2.3)
=m
˙ i ui + p i v i +
+ gzi − m
+ gze + Q˙ cv + W
˙ e ue + p e v e +
dt
2
2
This equation states that the accumulation of energy within the control volume
must equal the net inflow of energy into the control volume minus the net outflow
of energy from the control volume plus the increase in energy due to work and heat
transfers. The sign convention adopted in these notes is that any work done on
a system is considered positive, while any work done by the system is considered
negative. This convention reflects the notion that work done on a system increases
the energy of the system, i.e. the use of a pump or compressor. Contemporary texts
in Thermodynamics have preferred the use of the “heat engine” convention which
reflects that useful work done by the system is considered positive. Either convention
may be applied so long as consistency is applied throughout the analysis of a problem.

2.2.2

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics deals with the irreversibility of thermodynamic
processes. A reversible process is one in which there is no production of entropy. For
a closed system the second law of thermodynamics states that
Z 2
δQ
≤ S2 − S1
(2.4)
T
1
We define the entropy production Sgen as the difference between the entropy change
and the entropy transfer such that

We may also define exergy as an intensive property.2.6) This equation states that the rate of entropy accumulation within the control volume is balanced by the net transfer of entropy through heat exchanges with the surroundings plus the net flow of entropy into the control volume and the rate of entropy production within the control volume. Whereas the rate of accumulation of entropy within the control volume is zero for a steady state process. 2.8) The change in exergy between any two states is merely E2 − E1 = (E2 − E1 ) + po (V2 − V1 ) − To (S2 − S1 ) For a closed system the exergy balance yields ¶ Z 2µ To 1− E2 − E1 = δQ − [W − po (V2 − V1 )] − Ed Tb 1 (2. Exergy analysis. and V is the volume of the system.15 Fundamentals Sgen = (S2 − S1 ) − Z 1 2 δQ ≥0 T (2.7) Here E = (U + P.E. S is entropy. exergy can be destroyed.9) (2. Exergy is defined as E = (E − Uo ) + po (V − Vo ) − To (S − So ) (2.). For an open system with a number of inlets and outlets the exergy balance yields: . U is internal energy. Unlike energy.3 Exergy The first and second laws of thermodynamics may be combined to develop a new relation which governs a new quantity Exergy. is used quite frequently in the design and analysis of thermal systems. + K. that is on a per unit mass basis. Exergy is a measure of the potential of a thermodynamic system to do work. is the exergy which is destroyed due to irreversibilities in the system.10) The term Ed = To Sgen . such that e = [(u + V 2 /2 + gz) − uo ] + po (v − vo ) − To (s − so ) (2.E. sometimes called availability analysis.5) The Second Law of Thermodynamics for an open system containing a number of inlets and outlets becomes X dScv X Qj X = + m i si − me se + S˙ gen dt Tj (2. The reference or dead state as it is referred is denoted by the subscript (·)o . It should be noted that for a steady state analysis the entropy production rate is not zero (except for reversible processes). the energy of the system.

Table 1 Dimensionless Groups Group Definition hL ks ρV L Reynolds Number Re ∼ µ ν Prandtl Number Pr ∼ α VL ∼ ReP r Peclet Number Pe ∼ α gβ∆T L3 Grashof Number Gr ∼ ν2 gβ∆T L3 Rayleigh Number Ra ∼ ∼ ∼ GrP r αν hL (q/A)L ∼ Nusselt Number Nu ∼ kf ∆T kf Nu Stanton Number St ∼ ReP r Nu Colburn Factor j∼ ReP r1/3 τ Friction Coefficient Cf ∼ 1 2 ρV 2 (∆p/L)(A/P ) Fanning Friction Factor f∼ 1 ρV 2 2 Biot Number Bi ∼ (2.11) where e = (h − ho ) − To (s − so ) + V 2 /2 + gz is the flow exergy.16 Mechanical Equipment and Systems ¶ X ¶ µ µ X dEcv X To ˙ dVcv ˙ + m ˙ i ei − m ˙ e ee − E˙d 1− Qj − Wcv − po = dt Tj dt (2.12) .

2.15) Internal Flows When analyzing flow in ducting or piping systems as well as flow through mechanical equipment. Conservation of Mass X X dmCV = m ˙i− m ˙e dt Conservation of Momentum X X X ~ = ~ e (ρV ~ e Ae ) − ~ i (ρV ~ i Ai ) F V V (2. a brief discussion on the use of dimensionless quantities is required. It is defined as follows: A ∆p Dh ∆p τ f = 1 2 = P1 L2 = 41 L2 ρu ρu ρu 2 2 2 (2.2 (2.1 Fluid Dynamics Conservation Equations Conservation of mass and momentum for a control volume will be applied throughout the course.14) In addition.16) .4 2. The Fanning friction factor will be adopted for this course.3 Dimensionless Groups Before proceeding to the review of fluid dynamics and heat transfer models. The student should familiarize himself or herself with these parameters and their use. Table 1 summarizes the most important groups that will be encountered during this course.4. Bernoulli’s Equation P2 V22 P1 V12 + + z1 = + + z2 + hL γ 2g γ 2g 2.17 Fundamentals 2. The most common method is through the definition of the friction factor. Here we will merely state the general form as previously discussed in fluid mechanics courses.13) (2. a number of design models and correlations are required for relating the mass flow rate to the pressure drop of the working fluid. we will also apply Bernoulli’s equation for a number of incompressible flows.4. A number of important dimensionless quantities appear throughout the text.

17) P where A is the cross-sectional area and P is the perimeter of the duct.74 Hexagon 15.23 Rectangular 8:1 20.15 Rectangular 2:1 15.21) .058DReD Table 2 Typical values of f ReDh = C for Non-Circular Ducts Shape f ReDh = C Equilateral Triangle 13.20) In circular tubes the flow is developing in a region where L∗ < 0. In fully developed laminar flows the friction factor takes the following form: Dh = f= C ReDh (2.18) where C is a constant which is a function of the shape and aspect ratio of the duct.24 Elliptic 8:1 19.18 Mechanical Equipment and Systems where 4A (2.058.82 Elliptic 4:1 18.41 Circle 16 Elliptic 2:1 16. The entrance length for flow development is Le = 0.58 Parallel Plates 24 (2.19) (2.05 Octagon 15.44 √ L∗ where L∗ = ¶2 + (f ReDh )2 #1/2 L Dh ReDh (2.55 Rectangular 4:1 18. Table 2 summarizes a number of values for common duct shapes.23 Pentagon 14.33 Square 14. Apparent friction factors for developing flows may be computed from the following formula fapp ReDh = "µ 3.

4. the important parameters are the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient: δ(x) = Cf. 500.51 ǫ/D √ = −2 log √ + (2.x = Cf = 5x 1/2 (2.30) .29) Rex 0.3 External Flows A number of important design equations for external fluid flows are required to relate the free stream velocity to the overall drag force.074 1/5 ReL (2.664 Rex 1. 1000 < ReL < 500. the cylinder. and the sphere. This correlation is the basis for the Moody diagram µ ¶ 1 2. 000.x = Cf = 0.24) In non-circular ducts we use the concept of the hydraulic diameter D = Dh = 4A/P to compute an equivalent duct diameter.328 1/2 ReL (2.23) The entrance length for turbulent flow in a tube is Le = 4.25) 1/2 (2.28) 1/5 (2.22) 3. The three most common geometries are the flat plate.38x 1/5 (2.059 Rex 0.27) For turbulent boundary layer flows.4D(ReD )1/6 (2. the boundary layer thickness and friction coefficient are: δ(x) = Cf. 000 < ReL < 107 .26) Rex 0. Flat Plate For laminar boundary layer flows. 2.7 fd ReD fd where the subscript d denotes the Darcy friction factor defined as: ∆p fd = 1 L2 ρu 2 D (2.19 Fundamentals For turbulent flows the friction factor is predicted using the Colebrook relation.

31) Finally.5 2.35) Note care must be taken to ensure the correct characteristic area A is chosen based upon the geometry. The thermal resistance is defined such that ∆T = QRt (2. Flat Plate 0. and spheres in low Reynolds number flows are also provided.4 ReD 1 + Re1/2 D (2. 2. . a number of useful models for predicting drag on flat plates.328 1/2 ReL (2.5.1 < ReD < 250. the following thermal resistance results are useful. 000 CD = 10 2/3 ReD + 1. 000 CD = 6 24 + + 0.01 < ReD < 250. 000 Cf = 2.33) Sphere 0. and spheres is easily analyzed using the resistance concept. Cf = F/A 1 ρu2 2 (2.66 7/8 ReL + 1.34) where CD .0 (2.1 Heat Transfer Conduction 1-Dimensional Steady Conduction Steady one-dimensional conduction in plane walls. ReL > 500. cylinders.01 < ReL < 500. cylinders. These models will provide the building blocks for analysing a fluid component or system.32) Cylinder 0. 000.074 − 1/5 ReL 1742 ReL (2. the friction coefficient is computed from the integrated value: Cf = 0.20 Mechanical Equipment and Systems If the boundary layer is composed of a combined laminar-turbulent flow.36) For a multi-component system containing j layers.

Many multi-dimensional solutions of practical interest have been obtained and are outlined below. heat transfer by means of conduction is best analyzed using shape factors. The shape factor S. The overall heat transfer rate is then related to an appropriate temperature difference: R= Q = Sk∆T (2. Transient Conduction Transient conduction in finite and semi-infinite regions are also of interest.42) . is only a function of the geometry of the system.40) Sk where R is the thermal resistance and k is the thermal conductivity of the medium.37) Cylinder Rt = X ln(roj /rij ) 1 1 + + (2πri L)hi (2πkj L) (2πro L)ho (2. A number of useful shape factors are tabulated in the handout.39) Multi-Dimensional Steady Conduction In two or three dimensions. The following solutions are useful for modelling a number of thermal systems. Semi-Infinite Regions Isothermal Wall T (x. is defined such that: 1 (2.41) where ∆T is the temperature difference between two isothermal surfaces. The conduction shape factor S.21 Fundamentals Plane Wall Rt = X tj 1 1 + + hi A kj A ho A (2.38) Sphere X 1 1 + Rt = (4πri2 )hi 4πkj µ 1 1 − rij roj ¶ + 1 (4πro2 )ho (2. t) − Ts = erf Ti − Ts µ x √ 2 αt ¶ (2.

45) Surface Convection √ ¶¸ ¶¸ · µ · µ x h αt hx h2 αt erf c √ + + 2 − exp k k k 2 αt (2. Plane Wall ∞ where X θ = An exp(−δn2 F o) cos(δn X) θi n=1 An = 4 sin(δn ) 2δn + sin(2δn ) (2.46) µ √ ¶ µ 2 ¶ h αt h αt Ts (t) − Ti erf c = 1 − exp (2. X = x/L.47) 2 T∞ − Ti k k √ µ √ ¶ µ 2 ¶ h αt qs (t) αt h αt erf c = exp (2. The heat flow at the surface of the wall is determined from . and Qi = ρcp V (Ti − Tf ).51) In the expressions above. t) − Ti = 2qs p αt/π exp k µ −x2 4αt 2qs Ts (t) − Ti = k µ ¶ αt π qs x − erf c k ¶1/2 µ x √ 2 αt ¶ (2. t) − Ti = erf c T∞ − Ti µ x √ 2 αt ¶ Finite Regions Transient conduction from finite one dimensional and multi-dimensional regions may be analyzed using the following solutions. F o = αt/L2 .44) (2.48) k(T∞ − T i) k2 k T (x. The notation adopted in this section follows that of Yovanovich (1999). θi = Ti − Tf . In the solutions below θ = T − Tf .43) Isoflux Wall T (x. and Bi = hL/k.50) The eigenvalues δn are determined from δn sin(δn ) = Bi cos(δn ) (2.49) (2.22 Mechanical Equipment and Systems qs (t) = k(Ts − Ti ) √ παt (2.

24.4675 (2.5708/ Bi)2.61) Next if F o > 0.56) Q = 1 − exp(−BiF o) Qi (2.5708 √ [1 + (1.58) (2.52) Next if F o > 0.59) The eigenvalues δn are determined from δn J1 (δn ) = J0 (δn )Bi (2.55) Finally.60) In the expressions above. the series solutions for temperature and heat flow reduce to single term approximations .23 Fundamentals ¶ ∞ µ X Q 2Bi2 =1− exp(−δn2 F o) 2 (Bi2 + Bi + δ 2 ) Qi δ n n n=1 (2.139 ]0.53) (2. the series solutions for temperature and heat flow reduce to single term approximations where θ = A1 exp(−δ12 F o) cos(δ1 X) θi µ ¶ Q 2Bi2 =1− exp(−δ12 F o) 2 2 2 Qi δ1 (Bi + Bi + δ1 ) δ1 = 1.2). if the Biot number is small (Bi < 0. and Bi = ha/k. R = r/a. spatial effects are no longer significant and the lumped capacitance model applies.54) (2.21. F o = αt/a2 . For a plane wall this results in θ = exp(−BiF o) θi (2. The heat flow at the surface of the cylinder is determined from ¶ ∞ µ X Q 4Bi2 exp(−δn2 F o) =1− 2 (Bi2 + δ 2 ) Qi δ n n n=1 (2.57) Infinite Cylinder ∞ where X θ = An exp(−δn2 F o)J0 (δn R) θi n=1 An = 2J1 (δn ) 2 δn (J0 (δn ) + J12 (δn )) (2.

68) δn cos(δn ) = (1 − Bi) sin(δn ) (2.4048/ 2Bi)2.2). the series solutions for temperature and heat flow reduce to single term approximations sin(δ1 R) θ = A1 exp(−δ12 F o) θi δ1 R µ ¶ Q 6Bi2 =1− exp(−δ12 F o) Qi δ12 (Bi2 − Bi + δ12 ) (2.238 ]0.24 Mechanical Equipment and Systems θ = A1 exp(−δ12 F o)J0 (δ1 R) θi ¶ µ Q 4Bi2 exp(−δ12 F o) =1− 2 2 2 Qi δ1 (Bi + δ1 ) (2.69) An = The eigenvalues δn are determined from In the expressions above. F o = αt/a2 . if the Biot number is small (Bi < 0. For an infinite cylinder this results in θ = exp(−2BiF o) θi (2.65) Q = 1 − exp(−2BiF o) Qi (2.4048 √ [1 + (2. spatial effects are no longer significant and the lumped capacitance model applies.72) .18.63) where δ1 = 2.71) (2. R = a/L.4468 (2. The heat flow at the surface of the sphere is determined from ¶ ∞ µ X Q 6Bi2 =1− exp(−δn2 F o) 2 2 2 Qi δn (Bi − Bi + δn ) n=1 (2.64) Finally. and Bi = ha/k.70) Next if F o > 0.66) Sphere ∞ where X θ sin(δn R) = An exp(−δn2 F o) θi δn R n=1 (2.62) (2.67) 4[sin(δn ) − δn cos(δn )] 2δn − sin(2δn ) (2.

For a sphere this results in 2.77) (2. Internal Forced Convection Circular and Non-Circular Ducts In laminar flow. electronic enclosures. A number of useful design models and correlations are now presented for internal and external flows.74) Q = 1 − exp(−3BiF o) Qi (2.14159/ 3Bi)2.75) Convection Convective heat transfer models for internal and external flows are required for modelling heat exchangers.25 Fundamentals where δ1 = 3.73) Finally.14159 √ [1 + (3.27 + 1.76) (2.78) and f Re√A = 12 ³ π ´¸ 192ǫ 1/2 ǫ (1 + ǫ) 1 − 5 tanh π 2ǫ · (2. if the Biot number is small (Bi < 0.4322 (2.2 θ = exp(−3BiF o) θi (2.5.2).79) . etc. heat sinks.314 ]0.65P r1/3 and z∗ = √ z ARe√A P r (2. Muzychka and Yovanovich (2001) proposed the following model for developing laminar flows: ( N u√A (z ∗ ) =  C1 C2 where µ f Re√A z∗ ¶ 13 )5 +  ¾m 1/m ½ µ ¶¾5 !m/5 ½ √ f Re A C4 f (P r)  √ √ γ C3 + 8 πǫ z∗ m = 2. spatial effects are no longer significant and the lumped capacitance model applies.

7(f /8)1/2 (P r2/3 − 1) (2.07 + 12.24 C2 = 0.82) .26 Mechanical Equipment and Systems In the above model. The parameter γ is chosen based upon the duct geometry. For turbulent flows the most popular expression is the correlation developed by Gneilinski (1976).e.909P r1/6 ) Nusselt Type Local C1 = 1 C4 = 1 Average C1 = 3/2 C4 = 2 i2/9 i2/9 Shape Parameter Upper Bound γ = 1/10 Lower Bound γ = −3/10 External Forced Convection Flate Plate For a flat plate in laminar boundary layer flow. The upper bound is for ducts with rounded corners.79 ln Redh − 1. C3 = 3.501.564 1+ 9/2 (1.409. rectangular or elliptical shapes. The coefficients are tabulated in Table 3 for various conditions.664P r1/6 ) 0. The lower bound value is for ducts that have re-entrant corners. the Nusselt number is obtained from the following expressions: N ux = (Rex P r)1/2 f (P r) (2. C3 = 3. 000.886 9/2 1 + (1. the characteristic length scale is the square root of the crosssectional duct area.81) Table 3 Coefficients for General Model Boundary Condition Isothermal Isoflux C2 = 0.80) f = (0. N uDh = where (f /8)ReDh P r 1. 1000 < ReL < 500. i.86 f (P r) = h f (P r) = h 0.64)−2 (2. angles less than 90 degrees.

037ReL − 871)P r1/3 (2.7 For a sphere or spheroidal shaped body Yovanovich (1988) recommends the following model N u√A # " µ ¶1/2 √ P 1/2 √ = 2 π + 0.62ReD P r1/3 ReD N uD = 0.35Re0.566 A A where A is the surface area and P is the maximum equitorial perimeter. the following integrated expression is useful: 4/5 N uL = (0. the following equations are often used: 1/3 N ux = 0.037ReL P r1/3 (2.88) Cylinder P eD > 0.83) where for the constant surface temperature.27 Fundamentals N uL = 2(ReL P r)1/2 f (P r) (2.84) (2. boundary condition f (P r) = h i2/9 0. qs .85) In turbulent boundary layer flow.564 1+ 9/2 (1. 500.86) (2. boundary condition f (P r) = h 0. ReL > 500.90) .3 + 1+ [1 + (0. (2.89) Spheroids 0 < Re√A < 2 × 105 and P r > 0.15 √ P r1/3 Re√A + 0.2 For a cylinder in crossflow Churchill and Bernstein (1977) proposed the following correlation of experimental data: " ¶5/8 #4/5 µ 1/2 0.664P r1/6 ) and for the constant heat flux.87) For a combined laminar/turbulent boundary layer.0296Re4/5 x Pr 4/5 N uL = 0.909P r1/6 ) i2/9 (2. 000 < ReL < 107 .4/P r)2/3 ]1/4 282.886 1+ 9/2 (1. 000. 000 (2. Ts .

Circular and Non-Circular Ducts For laminar natural convection in vertical isothermal ducts.2 ǫ1/9 (2.6 Ra A   f Re√A P L   (2.95) ³ π ´¸ 192ǫ ǫ1/2 (1 + ǫ) 1 − 5 tanh π 2ǫ In the above model. the characteristic length scale is the square root of the crosssectional duct area.87 576 + (2. f Re√A = · External Natural Convection Flate Plate For a vertical isothermal wall the following correlation is recommended for laminar .51 48 + N ub = ∗ ∗ 2 [Rab (b/L)] [Rab (b/L)]2/5 ¸−1/2 (2.(2001) recommend: N u √A   ³√ ´Ã !2 −n  Ã !1/4 −n −1/n √ √   Ra√A  A/L A  A √    2 = + 0.91) N ub = [Rab (b/L)]2 [Rab (b/L)]1/2 The Nusselt number for laminar natural convection flow between parallel isoflux plates is obtained from the follow correlation developed by Bar-Cohen and Rohsenow (1984) · · 2.93) where n= 1.92) where Rab = gβ∆T b3 /(αν) and Ra∗b = gβq ′′ b4 /(kαν). and b is the plate spacing.94) and 12 (2.28 Mechanical Equipment and Systems Internal Natural Convection Parallel Plates The Nusselt number for laminar natural convection flow between parallel isothermal plates is obtained from the following correlation developed by Bar-Cohen and Rohsenow (1984) ¸−1/2 2. Yovanovich et al.

503Ra1/4 x f (P r) (2. Their correlation takes the following form: N uL = Ã 1/6 0.97) where µ f (P r) = Pr (P r + 0.96) 4 1/4 N uL = RaL f (P r) 3 (2.387RaL 0.102) (2. the following correlation is recommended: 1/4 N uD = 2 + 0.100) Sphere For a sphere with Ra < 1011 .825 + [1 + (0.492/P r)9/16 ]4/9 and A is the surface area of the body. Yovanovich (1987) recommends the following correlation for 0 < Ra√A < 108 : √ 1/4 N u√A = 2 π + Ra√A f (P r) where f (P r) = 0.103) .986P r1/2 + 0. (2.99) Horizontal Cylinder A correlation which is valid for both the laminar and turbulent regions 10−5 < RaL < 1012 was proposed by Churchill and Chu (1975).387RaL 0.29 Fundamentals flow GrL < 109 : N ux = 0.589RaD [1 + (0.492) ¶1/4 (2.101) Other Three Dimensional Bodies For three dimensional bodies in any orientation.67 [1 + (0.98) A correlation which is valid for both the laminar and turbulent regions 10−1 < RaL < 1012 was proposed by Churchill and Chu (1975).492/P r)9/16 ]8/27 !2 (2.469/P r)9/16 ]4/9 (2. Their correlation takes the following form: N uD = Ã 1/6 0.559/P r)9/16 ]8/27 !2 (2.60 + [1 + (0.

.5. A number of common two surface enclosure problems are: Parallel Plates q1−2 = σ(T14 − T24 ) 1 1 + −1 ǫ1 ǫ2 (2.106) Concentric Spheres q1−2 = σ(T14 − T24 ) µ ¶2 1 1 − ǫ2 r1 + ǫ1 ǫ2 r2 (2.30 2. the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.3 Mechanical Equipment and Systems Radiation Radiative heat transfer transfer is determined using the Stefan-Boltzmann law: q1−2 = ǫF1−2 σ(T14 − T24 ) (2. F1−2 is the view factor.107) Additional enclosure problems are discussed in all basic heat transfer texts.104) where ǫ is the surface emissivity. the student should refer to the course text on heat transfer.105) Concentric Cylinders q1−2 σ(T14 − T24 ) µ ¶ = 1 1 − ǫ 2 r1 + ǫ1 ǫ2 r2 (2. and σ = 5.670e−8 W/(m2 · K 4 ). For more information on radiative exchange and radiative properties.

99. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Heat Transfer.J..I. 2001. New York.Fundamentals 2.M. D.. Journal of Heat Transfer. M. Wiley. Wiley. Gnielinski. A. 264-268. Handbook of Heat Transfer.P. NY. 22.. Vol. M. AIAA Paper 88-0743. “New Equations for Heat and Mass Transfer in Turbulent Pipe and Channel Flow”.P. Thermal Design and Optimization. Wiley.W. Wiley.H. 1976. NY. G. 359-368. T. Submitted to the 2001 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. 1999.. S.H.. January 11-14. and Chu. “Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection from a Horizontal Cylinder”. .6 31 References Bar-Cohen.S.M. Rohsenow. Y. pp. “A Comprehensive Correlating Equation for Forced Convection from Flat Plates”. 1977. Bejan. 300-306. Vol. and DeWitt. H. 1975. New York. Bejan. D.. pp. M. New York. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. NY. New York. and Cho. NV. New York.N. 1988. F. and Moran. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. NY. B. International Chemical Engineering. M.F. 1996. Churchill. pp. H. Journal of Heat Transfer.. V. A. W. 2000.. 18. New York. Vol.. Churchill. S. NY. M. November. 106. Muzychka.. 1996.W. A.M. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Yovanovich. Moran.. and Rohsenow.. Incropera. NY. Wiley. 1998. New York.. Wiley. McGraw-Hill. S.R. 1976.W. 1997. Hartnett. 1993. pp.. and Bernstein. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. Young. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. Reno.. “Forced Convection Heat Transfer in the Combined Entry Region of Non-Circular Ducts”. “Thermally Optimum Spacing of Vertical Natural Convection Cooled Parallel Plates”. and Yovanovich. Vol.. Okiishi. 1323-1329. J. New York. Vol. Tsatsaronis.P. 16. Munson. Y.. AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. Churchill.M. Bejan. W. 1984. and Shapiro. “General Expression for Forced Convection Heat and Mass Transfer from Isopotential Spheroids”. “A Correlating Equation for Forced Convection from gases and Liquids to a Circular Cylinder in Cross Flow”. A.S..

AIAA Paper 01-0368.. 82. Y. .32 Mechanical Equipment and Systems Yovanovich. NV. “Natural Convection Inside Vertical Isothermal Ducts of Constant Arbitrary Cross-Section”. Teertstra. and Muzychka. Aspect Ratio. 121-129. P. M.M. “On the Effect of Shape..M. ASME HTD Vol. M. Yovanovich.M. January 8-11. and Orientation Upon natural Convection from Isothermal Bodies of Complex Shape”.. pp. Reno. 1987. AIAA 39th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. 2001.S.