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HCL Perot Systems

VSAM Training

VSAM CONCEPTS
The VSAM means Virtual Storage Access Method is most commonly used access method on MVS
Systems. VSAM does more than just replace non-VSAM access methods with VSAM access methods. It
also provides efficiency improvements and a comprehensive catalog facility that centralises information
about all VSAM datasets. In addition, the multi-functional utility program – AMS – has a variety of file
related functions for VSAM as well as non-–VSAM files.
DASD Labels and Space Management
Direct Access Storage Devices, or DASDs allow direct access to large quantities of data. They are used not
only to store user programs and data but also to store operating system programs and data.
The various models of DASD units can be divided into two basic categories, depending on the format in
which they store data – CKD devices and FBA devices. On Count-Key-Data (CKD) devices data is stored
in variable length blocks, while in Fixed-Block Architecture (FBA) devices data is stored in 512 byte
blocks, CKD devices are more common.
An important function of the operating system and access methods in managing how spaces on a DASD
volume is allocated to the files that reside on it. The system must
1.
2.
3.
4.

Keep track of the location of existing files
Be able to add new files to the volume
Allocate additional space to existing file
Remove files from a volume

The information necessary to manage all this is stored in special DASD records called labels.
There are two types of labels
1.

Volume labels – the VOL1 label

All DASD volumes must contain a volume label, called the VOL1 label. This label is always in the same
place on a disk volume. It identifies the volume with a volume serial number, vol-ser, which is a unique
six character number. It also contains the disk address of the VTOC.
2.

File Labels

The VTOC (Volume Table Of Contents) is a special file that contains the labels for the files on the volume.
These file labels also called Data set Control Blocks (DSCB) have several formats called Format-1,
Format-2 and so on.
Space Management
An important function of any operating system is managing space. On OS systems a special OS component
called Direct Access Device Space Management – DADSM – does the space management function. It
automates the process of allocating space to the file.
The drawbacks of DADSM are
1.

Limitation of sixteen free extents. If a file grows beyond this the program will abend, and the file will
have to be reorganised to used fewer extents.

VSAM Concepts

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This means that anyone who has to work on an IBM mainframe system will certainly need to have knowledge about VSAM. This often leads free extents are broken into smaller pieces rather than searching the all the DSCB for a free extent closer to the size required. Present and future mainframe software released by IBM will be designed to process records stored in VSAM datasets. VSAM provides for alternate indexes a feature not available in native access methods. So. This means that the first free extent that is large enough will be used for the file and not the one that is close to the right size i. DB2 and TSO use VSAM datasets in a majority of applications. but it did not gain wide popularity till almost a decade later. Also. 3370 etc. There are four major processing environments under which VSAM is used. It can be used as a stand-alone product. PDS directories. These older methods are also often referred to as Native Access Methods. VSAM is available under all of IBM’s mainframe operating systems MVS. 4.PL/1. It provides comprehensive support for application development in many environments such as COBOL. The powerful AMS utility in VSAM provides a variety of services dealing with catalogs. Batch application programs in COBOL. such as CICS. the older access methods could not be discarded immediately. 3380. ISAM. QISAM and BSAM. 3350. Which are now grouped as non-VSAM dataset organisations to distinguish them from VSAM dataset organisations.HCL Perot Systems 2. security. VSAM Concepts Page 2 of 16 . So VSAM datasets had to force co-exist with non-VSAM datasets. file management etc. such as 3390. VSAM provides four types of the organisations along with their respective access methods and utilities. In some of them. BDAM. non-VSAM dataset organisations. Linear Dataset (LDS) Relative Record Dataset (RRDS) is like a direct file Entry Sequenced Dataset (ESDS) is like standard sequential file Key Sequenced Dataset (KSDS) is like an indexed sequential access method file There four dataset organisations were developed to replace existing non-VSAM datasets. IMS.PL/1. as a strategic step. ‘best fit’. 3. VSAM datasets can be created and processed by a powerful software product called IDCAMS. 1. Because of the large number of files that existed at that time native access methods. The VSAM dataset organisations are superior to the native access methods. VSAM and NON-VSAM dataset organisations had to coexist on the same platform.e.VM. such QSAM. In dataset management. Many major IBM software products. Before VSAM.FORTRAN. files. The MVS implementation of VSAM is the most comprehensive. but this could not obviously be done overnight. ASSEMBLER AND CICS. It has an admirable catalog facility that stores more information about VSAM and other datasets. VSAM Fundamentals IBM announced VSAM in 1973. Also. VSE and OS/390. IBM has a long range plan now to replace all the nonVSAM dataset organisations with VSAM on their mainframes. VSAM datasets can be stored on almost all standard disk devices. catalogs and generating data groups can be manipulated through specific IDCAMS commands. VSAM datasets are the only ones that are compatible. GDGs and catalogs are themselves VSAM datasets. Access methods are system software that provide technical details to system developers. 2. IBM mainframe computers used other data management facilities and access methods. the IDCAMS utility can be used to process older.Assembler etc can access VSAM datasets. VSAM Training When DADSM searches the VTOC for free space it uses a technique called ‘first-fit’.

All user catalogs must be cataloged in the master catalog and all VSAM datasets must be in the master catalog. There are two types of catalogs MASTER CATALOG USER CATALOG Each OS system has just one master catalog but can have an unlimited number of user catalogs. a file named DATA. the only difference is in the internal structure and in how they are defined. An INDEX COMPONENT . Under MVS. All of the basic catalog manipulation functions apply to both VSAM and ICF catalogs. Each IDCAMS command returns a condition Codes. 3. Very little JCL coding is needed for processing a VSAM file. It consists of two components : A DATA COMPONENT . no special coding is required to identify it. A cluster is a set of catalog entries that represent a file catalog. any field can be used to sequentially or randomly process the records 4.which represents the actual records of a file. 5. Since the file name indicates the user catalog. This imparts to a disk dataset a Concept generally associated with main memory and amply increases the processing capabilities of a VSAM dataset. 2. Byte addressing can be used as an alternative method to randomly access and process records in a KSDS and ESDS are using their relative byte addressing (RBA). ICF catalogs are similar to VSAM catalogs in operation. Status codes are returned following every I/O operation. VSAM Catalog Concepts VSAM provides a comprehensive catalog facility that stores information about VSAM datasets and other files.FILE is cataloged in a user catalog indicated by DATA.CUSTOMER. For example. VSAM Clusters In VSAM terms. VSAM Concepts Page 3 of 16 .HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training An overview of the major advantages of using VSAM is as follows : 1. The DD statement is one-line statement needing only the DSNAME and DISP parameters. In KSDS and ESDS.MASTER. the high-level qualifier of a dataset name normally indicates the user catalog that owns the file. a file is often called a cluster.which represents the indexes for KSDS. Records can be accessed through one or more secondary keys using alternative indexes built and maintained by VSAM. Some MVS installations use a facility called the Integrated Catalog Facility(ICF) instead of VSAM catalogs.

VSAM has complete control over subsequent allocations within that space. Its concept is similar to that of blocking for non-VSAM files. Unique Files Within a space. Thus. RECORD management under MVS Record management a major component under MVS is responsible for maintaining the logical records of a VSAM file. Control intervals. beyond that is a multiple of 2K. When a file is defined. Alternatively. Control Intervals The fundamental building block of every component of a VSAM dataset is the control interval (CI). once allocated. VSAM Concepts Page 4 of 16 . It is used to store records for all four types of VSAM datasets and for alternate indexes and catalogs. All I/O operations with the file are done by VSAM. VSAM invokes DADSM to make an entry in the VTOC for the space. the high-level qualifier and the user catalog name are the same. Record management groups logical records into blocks called control intervals. 32K. For example if DATA is an alias for user catalog named TRNG. the space is just another file. However.MPS800. Every unique file has an entry in the VTOC of the file for the data component and for the index component for a KSDS. This information more comprehensive and flexible than the equivalent information stored for a non-VSAM file in a VTOC. VSAM Space Management VSAM maintains detailed information about DASD space allocated to VSAM files. Up to 8K.MPS800. It is managed by DADSM rather than by VSAM. There could be design considerations which may need the CI size to be different from what VSAM would have calculated. an entire space can be allocated to a single VSAM file. files with different aliases can be cataloged in the same user catalog. i. The size of a CI must be between 512 and 32. are grouped into control areas.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training In some cases. any file whose high-level qualifier is AREA is also cataloged in that user catalog user. DADSM must be used to allocate or extend a space.768 bytes. And. VSAM can create sub allocated files. VSAM and DADSM jointly manage all unique files. More often. Unique files allow a certain degree of flexibility not available with sub allocated files. Allocation information is maintained at two places: the VSAM catalog entry for the file and the VTOC entry for the space that contains the file. any file whose high level qualifier is DATA is cataloged in TRNG. VSAM automatically determines a CI size based on the average size of record specified and the characteristics of the device on which the file will reside. By using aliases. in turn. if AREA is an alias of TRNG. This can be done through the AMS utility. to operating system. VSAM uses its own space management files to create. The size of the control interval affects the performance of a VSAM file. This is an area of a disk volume that is under the control of the VSAM. the high-level qualifier is an alias of the actual name. the CI size must be a multiple of 512 bytes. To indicate that control.e. For this a concept of data space was introduced. This file is called a unique file. It is the unit of data VSAM transfers between virtual and disk storage. or delete sub allocated files. extend. Concept of Data Space VSAM was designed to co-exist with the space management functions provided by the VTOC and DADSM.MPS800.

Beyond the first control interval. an entire cylinder is used. if all the records are 256 bytes in length. The CIDF contains a flag that is set when the control interval is in the process of being updated. If any record in the CI is to be expanded through addition of fields or increase in filed lengths (ESDS or KSDS) or if another record is to be inserted (KSDS only). the RBA of the first record is 0. Also spanned records are not allowed in a dataset in which VSAM constructs an alternate index.e. The control information occupies the right most part of the CI. A spanned record must be entirely contained within a control area. The left most two bytes identify the size of the data area. The RBA is an indication of how far. Characteristics of VSAM datasets VSAM Concepts Page 5 of 16 . In the simplest case. A control area can be as small as one track or as large as one cylinder. That’s because the record can be identified by a Relative Byte Address – RBA. Control Areas A group of adjacent control intervals is called a control area. If there is unused space in the second control interval. It consists of two binary fields each two bytes in length. For example. The control area size is determined based on the amount space that is allocated to the file and the characteristics of the device on which the file will be stored. Logical Record 1 Record 2 Record 3 Unused Space Control Information The logical records are grouped together at the beginning of the control interval. usually. A RDF can also identify spanned record segments. It consists of two values – a leading control byte and a two-byte numeric value. the records of an ESDS can be processed directly rather than sequentially.e. Record Descriptor Fields (RDF) These are located to the left of the CIDF. These fields describe the logical records in the control interval. They are not available in an RRDS. Spanned Records A record that is larger than a single control interval is called a spanned record. records do not have RBA’s that are multiples of 256 because the control information at the end of each record interval is part of the RBA value. Each RDF is 3 bytes long. The right-most two bytes contain the amount of unused space in the CI. 2. in bytes. each record is displaced from the beginning of the file. The RDF are stored from right to left.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Structure of a Control Interval A CI consists of three parts: one or more logical records. of the second is 256. i. however. there is one RDF for each record in the Control interval. Control information consists of two fields: 1. i. Control Interval Descriptor Field (CIDF) It is contained in the rightmost four bytes of each control interval. a spanned record occupies two or more control intervals. the extra space is not available for the other records. of the third is 512 and so on to the end of the control interval. which means that a record cannot span across two control areas. Spanned records are possible only in ESDS and KSDS. Relative Byte Address Although uncommon. it is generally preferable to initially specify a control interval that is larger enough to accommodate the biggest record in the file. Because of this. the area occupied by the logical records. control information and (optionally) unused space. this unused space is adjusted as needed.

The highest level of an index set always has just one record. Each slot contains one RDF. It contains the data component only. Because VSAM has a better index structure and improved overflow handling most users have converted their applications to VSAM and today it is the widely used file organisation on IBM mainframes. and these are arranged in levels as required. That relates to 58 control areas since each sequence set record corresponds to one control area. Since RBA for the spanned CI will again begin from zero in the new CI. that is just enough for 58 sequence set records. For this datasets there is no Control Information. Relative Record Dataset (RRDS) The RRDS used for fixed length records. If the file is larger than that. The sequence set is searched to determine which CI in the data component contains a particular record. numbered as Slots. RDF indicates whether the record is empty or full. The index set is used to locate sequence set records. Records are stored in preformatted i. Many KSDS files use just one index set record. It can be access by randomly using relative record number and also possible to access sequentially. Each Control Interval contains the data of the record. Index set records are arranged in one or more levels. Since typically control areas are one cylinder in size.e. A KSDS consists of two components: a data component and an index component. If there is any space left over in the control interval because the records of that control interval don’t completely fill it. The RBA is an indication of how far.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Linear Dataset (LDS) Linear datasets contains Data Component only. This index entry contains the highest key value in the respective CI. This type of processing however is applicable only to non-spanned ESDS records. There is one sequence set for each control area. A KSDS can be processed sequentially or randomly when used for sequentially processing the records are processed in the order of the key values in the file’s index. Although uncommon. we can have 58 cylinders of data which is about 32 million bytes on a typical 3350 DASD. Each sequence set record contains an index entry for each CI in the corresponding control area. The data component contains the records and the index component contains the indexes necessary to access the records. that would not be usable. Entry-Sequenced Datasets (ESDS) An ESDS is a sequential file in which records are typically retrieved in the order in which they were written to the dataset and additions are always made at the end of the file. The CI sizes of the LDS datasets are always 4K bytes. The index component of a KSDS has two parts: a sequence set and an index set. Key-Sequenced Datasets (KSDS) A KSDS is in many ways similar to an ISAM file. each record is displaced from the beginning of a file. Assuming an index-CI size of 512 bytes. index entries are stored in sequence from right to left. The sequence set is the lowest level of the index. records can also be processed directly using a relative byte address (RBA). in bytes. Within the sequence set records. additional index set records are created by VSAM as needed. The search sequence is as follows : VSAM Concepts Page 6 of 16 .

VSAM uses a key-compression algorithm to compress the index keys to just about three or four bytes. This is called a Control Interval Split. In sequential processing. the control interval split is performed. the RRN must be identified or specified by moving the value to a designated 4 byte key field in WORKING-STORAGE before attempting an I-O operation. To access slot in an RRDS in an application program in COBOL. In RRDS. a new control area is allocated. about half the control intervals from the original control area are moved to the new one. These numbers called relative record numbers (RRNs) are used to access the records of an RRDS directly. Concept of Control Interval Split The concept is applicable in the case of control intervals containing KSDS files. In a KSDS records are stored in key sequence. Free space can be reserved to accommodate new records within the data component of a KSDS. and so it is more prudent to allocate enough free control intervals to accommodate expected control interval splits. Control Area Split When a record in a KSDS is to be inserted and all the control intervals within a control area are full. A Control Area split involves a lot of disk I/O. The free space is defined when defining a KSDS cluster using AMS.HCL Perot Systems 1. Since control interval and control area splits affect the performance of the application system using VSAM datasets. and the records that follow it in the control interval are shifted If an insertion is made into a control interval that is already full. VSAM Concepts Page 7 of 16 . This results in considerable saving of space. Finally. the control interval is searched to locate the needed record VSAM Training The pointers used for locating a record in this way are called vertical pointers. VSAM automatically skips over empty slots. The sequence set record is then searched to locate which control level to use. the design of space requirements must take these into consideration while designing the system. a control area split takes place before a control interval split. some of the records in it are moved into a free control interval. VSAM also uses horizontal pointers in the sequence set of a KSDS to process the file sequentially without using the index set. In its index entries. Random Processing is based on each records relative position in the file. any individual record can be randomly read or written in exactly one I-O operation whereas in an KSDS it takes a minimum of two I-O operations. it is inserted in its correct sequential location in the proper control interval. Relative Record Datasets An RRDS consists of fixed length slots which are sequentially numbered beginning with 1. Because an RRDS doesn’t have an index component to search. and a new sequence set record is created for the new control area. The index set is searched to determine which sequence set record to use. The RRN is processed sequentially or directly. This can be done in two ways: leave space within each control interval or leave entire control intervals empty. Then. Each slot either contains a record or is empty. 2. When a record is added to a KSDS. it can be processed more efficiently than a KSDS. To do this. 3.

When an alternate index is associated with one primary key. Add them to the end of the file. It can be associated with duplicate or non-unique keys also. The dataset over which an alternate index exists is called a base cluster. like DEFINE AIX is not supported The slot number to associate with a record is very difficult to determine. Additions to an RRDS can be done in two ways 1. the alternate key is called a unique key. just as in a standard KSDS. If the base cluster is an ESDS. An alternate index is itself a KSDS. then writes the record. When an alternate index file is processed with duplicate keys directly. each record in the alternate index’s data component contains an alternate key value and one or more primary keys for the corresponding in the base cluster. most alternate indexes are built over key sequenced datasets. 2. If a record is written to slot 5000 then VSAM will allocate and preformat four more control areas before it writes the record. users must know that changes to their files will not be reflected in the alternate indexes until the next day. then this will have to be clearly specified in the AMS command. If the base cluster is a KSDS. If an automatic upgrade is required whenever changes are made to the base cluster. 3. In such cases. In a department there can be more than one employee. Upgradable indexes add considerable overhead to alternate index processing and so alternate indexes are generally rebuilt rightly to return the alternate indexes to prime-key sequence. For example. suppose an RRDS contains 1000 slots. It is not necessary to upgrade an alternative index each time its base cluster is changed. To do so the application program must be able to identify the empty slots. If a record is written to slot 1001. New records can be inserted in empty slots in the file. Although an ESDS can be used as a base cluster. The index component of an alternate index contains the alternate keys that index the records in the data component. Access Method Services Access Method Services or AMS (also known as IDCAMS) is a powerful general purpose utility program providing a variety of services for VSAM files.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training The limitations of RRDS are 1. 4. VSAM Concepts Page 8 of 16 . 2. Only fixed-length records are allowed RBA processing is not supported Standard IDCAMS alternate key processing. AMS is used to Define VSAM objects such as catalogs. preformats the slots in it. spaces and datasets List information about VSAM objects. Only the first base cluster record for each alternate key value is available. VSAM allocates an additional control area. Alternate Indexes Alternate indexes can be used to access the records of a VSAM KSDS in an order than that of the file’s primary key. When this alternate index file is processed directly then the first base cluster record is available. For example consider a case in which there is an alternate key for a department number. That’s not always easy to do. each record in the data component contains an alternate key value and one or more RBAs for the corresponding records in the base cluster.

.... cluster.. Categories of AMS commands AMS commands come under two categories Functional Commands Modal Commands Functional commands instruct AMS to actually do something. alternate index or path EXPORT IMPORT LISTCAT Produces a transportable file Copies a previously exported file Lists information about datasets PRINT Prints the contents of a VSAM or non-VSAM file REPRO Copies records from one file to another Functional Commands IF Controls the flow of command execution by testing condition Codes returned by functional commands SET Controls the flow of command execution by altering condition codes returned by functional commands PARM Sets option values that affects the way AMS executes Coding AMS Commands The general format for AMS commands is Verb parameters.. cluster. VSAM Concepts Page 9 of 16 . printing... renaming or deleting datasets. alternate index or path DELETE Removes a catalog entry for a catalog..HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Perform basic file maintenance functions such as copying... AMS Command -------------------DEFINE MASTERCATALOG DEFINE USERCATALOG DEFINE CLUSTER DEFINE ALTERNATEINDEX Function ----------Defines a master catalog Defines a user catalog Defines a VSAM file Defines an alternate index DEFINE PATH Defines the path to relate an alternate index to its base cluster BLDINDEX ALTER Builds an alternate index Changes information specified for a catalog... AMS is an essential part of VSAM. while modal commands control the execution of functional commands.

HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Where verb is a command (DEFINE CLUSTER. file 2. There are five standard IBM condition codes 0 Successful execution .) /* // VSAM Concepts Page 10 of 16 . no errors 4 A minor problem was encountered but AMS was able to complete the command 8 A major problem was encountered. The IF command provides conditional processing based on LASTCC or MAXCC and the SET command can be used to modify either of these at any time.. LASTCC and MAXCC.... and parameters supply additional information that tells AMS what should be done.. There should be at least one blank between the end of the parameter and the hyphen. AMS maintains two conditional codes.. file 3) Condition Codes : Each AMS functional command issues a condition code that tells you whether or not the command was successfully executed. execution is not likely to be successful 12 A major problem was encountered. while MAXCC represents the highest condition code returned by any command in the AMS job step. for example). Parameters can be abbreviated. USER-ID= . AMS could not complete the command 16 Disaster Processing terminated As it executes. AMS commands can be coded between columns 2 and 72. LASTCC always represents the condition code issued by the most recently executed AMS command. Example : IF LASTCC > 0 THEN SET MAXCC = 16 IF MAXCC <= 4 THEN PRINT. Invoking AMS AMS can be invoked in MVS under two environments – OS and TSO. Some abbreviations are CONTROLINTEVALSIZE ALTERNATEINDEX as CNVSZ OR CISZ as AIX Many parameters need a value to be coded in parentheses like RECORDS(300) KEYS(5 0) ENTRIES(file 1. a hyphen has to be coded after the last parameter on that line. Example : Under OS //LISTCAT JOB // EXEC PGM=IDCAMS //SYSPRINT DD SYSOUT = a //SYSIN DD * DEFINE CLUSTER(NAME. To continue a command from one line to another.

CATALOG/xxxxxxxxxx) The DEFINE ALIAS command DEFINE ALIAS (NAME(entry-name) RELATE(entry-name[/password])) [CATALOG(name[/password])] VSAM Concepts Page 11 of 16 . One to eight character owner-id for the catalog FOR : Optional.MASTER. Identifies the Volume which will contain the catalog OWNER : Optional. required to define a user catalog if the master catalog is password protected. Specifies the name of the catalog VOLUME : Required. tracks. while the upper case text is a TSO message) AMS Commands | Commands for defining catalogs and space 1.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Under TSO READY Define usercatalog (The lower case text represents data entered by the terminal operator. expressed in cylinders. Specifies a retention period (dddd) OR an expiry date (YYDDD) TO: for the catalog Primary : Specifies how much space to allocate initially to the catalog or component.USER. DEFINE USERCATALOG (NAME(entry-name) VOLUME (vol-ser) [OWNER(Owner-id) ] [FOR(days) | TO (days) ] [(CYLINDERS) {TRACKS } (Primary [secondary] ) ] {BLOCKS} {RECORDS} | DATA ([{CYLINDERS} {TRACKS} {BLOCKS}(Primary [secondary]) (REOCRDS) |CATALOG (name[/password])] Explanations : NAME : Required. Specifies the secondary space allocation CATALOG : Optional. Secondary : Optional. specifies the name and password of the master catalog. records or blocks.CATALOG) VOLUME(VOL400) CYLINDERS(200 15)) DATA (TRACKS(60 15)) CATALOG (VSAM. Example : DEFINE USERCATALOG (NAME(AR.

SSN. Specifies the name of the alias to be specified) Required.PUR.PUR.MAST. BLDINDEX INDATASET(MATL. Specifies name and password of an existing catalog with which the alias name is to be associated.USER.USER. DEFINE AIX (NAME(MATL.AIX) RELATE (MATL.AIX) CATALOG(MATL) VSAM Concepts Page 12 of 16 .MAST.PUR.MAST) OUTDATASET(MATL.SSN.AIX.PUR.INDEX)) Example for Some Commands 1.PMAST.PUR.CATALOG) 2.CATALOG)) CATALOG(VSAM.MAST.SSN.DATA) CYLINDERS(1)) INDEX(NAME(MATL.PUR.PUR. COMMAND TO DEFINE CLUSTERS Example : DEFINE CLUSTER(NAME(MATL. Example : DEFINE ALIAS (NAME(BILLING) RELATE(AR.MASTER.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training Explanations : NAME RELATE CATALOG Required.MAST) OWNER(PRS) INDEXED RECORDSIZE(200) KEYS(6 0) VOLUMES(MPS300) UNIQUE) DATA(NAME(MATL.MAST.MAST) OWNER(PRS) TO(99340) KEYS(9 12) UNIQUEKEY NOUPGRADE VOLUMES(MPS300) UNIQUE) DATA (NAME(MATL. Name and Password of master catalog only if it is password protected.AIX) UPDATE) - - 2. Optional.CATALOG/xxxxxxxx) Example for defining space : The DEFINE SPACE parameter : DEFINE SPACE (VOLUMES(VOL400 VOL500) CYLINDERS(200 20) ) CATALOG(AR.

whether VS COBOL or VS COBOL II.VENDOR. REPRO INDATASET(MATL.MAST NEWNAME(MATL.REPRO) - Application Programming in COBOL The compiler version for COBOL.PUR. To identify a VSAM file in a COBOL program.MAST) CHARACTER SKIP(23) COUNT(6) 7.MAST) LISTCAT LEVEL(MATL) 4. It relates the internal name the COBOL program uses to an external name the system uses to identify the file at execution time.PUR. PRINT INDATASET (MATL. does not directly affect the way VSAM files are processed in COBOL. entries in the Environment and Data divisions are coded just as for a non-VSAM file.*.PUR.MAST PURGE 6. LISTCAT ENTRIES(MATL. The format of the assignment name depends on the operating system and the file’s organisation. DELETE MATL. It specifies how the file is organized and how the program will execute it.PURMAST.VENDMAST) 5. This name is used in the JCL on a DD statement for OS/MVS to allocate the file. Entries in the ENVIRONMENT and DATA divisions for VSAM files.MAST) OUTDATASET(MATL. FD entries are made in the File Section of the Data division to describe the file’s records. It. The format for the SELECT statement is SELECT file-name ASSIGN TO assignment-name ORGANIZATION IS (sequential/indexed name) [ACCESS MODE is (sequential/random/dynamic)] [RELATIVE KEY is data-name ] [RECORD KEY is data-name] [PASSWORD is data-name] [ALTERNATE RECORD KEY is data-name] [PASSWORD is data-name] [WITH DUPLICATES] [FILE STATUS is data-name] The ASSIGN Clause Specifies an assignment name for the file. The SELECT statement is coded in the Input-Output section of the Environment division.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training 3.PUR. For OS/MVS it is as follows : VSAM Concepts Page 13 of 16 . The SELECT Statement This statement has two functions for VSAM files. ALTER MATL.MAST) LISTCAT ENTRIES(MATL.

the RELATIVE KEY clause is coded for random or dynamic access. a working storage field is named that will contain a relative record number. The field named in each ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause must be within the file’s record descriptions. 2. 2. the program can alternate between sequential and random access. If the ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause is coded. Only one (the highest level) password needs to be specified. WITH DUPLICATES must be specified 5. it is optional for sequential access. the RECORD KEY clause must be coded to name the file’s primary key field. The ACCESS MODE clause. RELATIVE KEY only for RRDS. a DD statement must be included in the JCL for the path associated with each alternate index specified. but before the WITH DUPLICATES clause. In the PASSWORD clause. VSAM Concepts Page 14 of 16 . for example 05 RELATIVB KEY PIC 9(8) COMP. For a KSDS. The value coded must agree with the organisation specified for the file when it was defined. it is coded after the RECORD KEY Clause. This value is checked when an OPEN statement is issued. and an alternate index that uses field must exist. Two or more will be required if alternate keys are specified for a KSDS. regardless of the file’s access mode.HCL Perot Systems File Organisation KSDS RRDS ESDS VSAM Training Syntax [Comment-]name Example CUSTMAST [Comment-]As-name AS-INVTRAN The ORGANISATION Clause Coded to indicate a VSAM file’s organisation – SEQUENTIAL. In it. Coded to specify how the program will process the file. For KSDS or RRDS it can be SEQUENTIAL or RANDOM. The value must be at a high enough level to permit the COBOL operations on the file. Used if the file is protected by VSAM password. 4. This field must be defined within one of the record descriptions coded in the FD entry for the file. if it is included. It is recommended that the relative key be defined as an unsigned binary full word. RECORD KEY and ALTERNATE KEY only for KSDS. This can be defined as a packed decimal field also. None of these clauses are applicable for ESDS. 3. For ESDS is must be SEQUENTIAL. INDEXED or RELATIVE. For a RRDS or an ESDS the clause may be coded anywhere in the SELECT statement. If the alternate index allows non-unique keys. If DYNAMIC is specified for KSDS or RRDS. The PASSWORD Clause 1. To supply a password for a KSDS base cluster. 3. For a KSDS it must be coded right after the RECORD KEY or ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause. a field with eight bytes is named. For a RRDS. To supply a password clause is coded right after the ALTERNATE RECORD KEY clause. The Key Clause 1.

The program written should examine the FILE STATUS field after each I/O statement to determine whether an error occurred. Following this entry. The key of reference can be changed by using a START statement in the case of sequential or dynamic access and by coding the KEY clause on a random READ statement for random or dynamic access. and if so. For as reusable the OUTPUT can be specified. The only entry required is LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD.READ. REWRITE. The field must be defined in the working-storage and PIC must be XX. The statements that are used are OPEN. If EXTEND is specified. This clause specifies a field that’s updated by VSAM after each I/O statement for the file is executed. 4. 3. 2. PIC X(15).CLOSE. PIC 9(10). If the file is a KSDS. File Section Entries for VSAM files As for any other file. 05 EM-EMPLOYEE-NUMBER 05 EM-LAST-NAME 05 EM-PASSPORT-NUMBER PIC 9(5). For working with alternate indexes. at least one record description for the file must be coded. WRITE. Procedure Division Statements for VSAM files. that record description must include the record key field and all alternate key fields specified in the file’s SELECT statement. records that exist in the reusable file will be retained. an FD entry has to be coded. START EMPMAST KEY IS EQUAL TO EMP-PASSPORT NUMBER READ EMPMAST KEY IS EMP-PASSPORT NUMBER. But when an error condition occurs. VSAM puts 00 in the FILE STATUS field. VSAM puts a non-zero two digit error code in FILE STATUS field. 1. DELETE and START. When an I/O statement executes successfully. Example: 1. we need to know two things How to switch from the primary key to an alternate key changing the key of reference. what action to take. SELECT EMPMAST ASSIGN TO EMPMAST ORGANISATION IS INDEXED ACCESS MODE IS DYNAMIC RECORD KEY IS EM-EMPLOYEE-NUMBER ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS EM-LAST NAME WITH DUPLICATES ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS EM-PASSPORT-NUMBER FILE STATUS IS EMPMAST-STATUS FD EMPMAST LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD. 2.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training The FILE STATUS Clause 1. 01 EMPLOYEE MASTER RECORD. How the random and sequential versions of the READ statement differ when the alternate key is used. VSAM Concepts Page 15 of 16 .

E ND VSAM Concepts Page 16 of 16 . In the second example. another START statement is issued. a subsequent random READ statement uses the primary key field unless the KEY clause is coded again. The passport number alternate key becomes the key of reference for subsequent sequential READ statements. Then subsequent sequential READ statement will retrieve records in passport number sequence. the employee master is read based on the contents of the passport number. this time specifying the RECORD KEY field or omitting the KEY clause altogether. To switch back to the primary key. The key of reference applies only to the sequential READ statements.HCL Perot Systems VSAM Training In the first example the file is positioned to the record indicated by the employee passport number alternate key.