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- A Probability Primer
- Daily Lesson Log Probability and Statistics
- Session 5 PostWork(1)
- SPC Basics
- Kirchner - Matlab Demo
- 2011-biosystems
- r05220101-probability-and-statistics
- fan_chart
- 10.1.1.132
- 59A0682 Final Report
- les5e_minitab_05
- Maxima Book Chapter 10
- MATH30-6 Course Syllabus
- qarm
- STPM Trials 2009 Math T Paper 2 (Malacca)
- Statistics
- OPRE 6301-SYSM 6303 Chapter 09 Slides_students
- c7.pdf
- Probability:Basic ideas
- AppendixA Common Statiscal Distribution

You are on page 1of 14

1.1 List all possible values of a discrete random variable.

scoring 12A in a group of 5 pupils, list

all the possible values of X.

getting the number 1 when tossing a

fair dice three times, list all the

possible values of Y.

times. If Z represents the number of

times he passes the examination, list

all the possible values of Z.

containing 5 red marbles and 4 black

marbles. If X represents the number

of black marbles chosen, list all the

possible values of X.

P ( X r ) nCr p r q n r , p q 1

(a) Given p = 0.7 , q =

(b) Given p = 0.2

r =3

, q=

n = 10 ,

r =2

Find P(X = 2).

n=7,

r =3

Find P( X = 3).

n = 10 ,

r =2

Find P(X = 2).

n=5,

Find P(X = 3).

[0.3087]

[ 0.3020]

[0.2918]

late for a meeting is 0.6. Find the

probability that Bernard will be late

for 3 out of five meetings.

[ 0.3456]

8. Probability Distributions

[ 0.2330]

(f)

scoring 1A for English in the

monthly test is 0.4. Find the

probability that Minimum will be

scoring 1A for English twice out of 6

monthly tests.

[ 0.3110]

a singing competition is 0.65. Find

the probability that Chandra will win

4 out of 6 singing competitions.

[ 0.3280]

batik shirt for a meeting is 0.55. Find

the probability that Ahmad will wear

batik shirt for 2 out of five meetings.

[ 0.2757]

probability that Siva will win a game

is 0.55. If the binomial random

variable X represents the number of

games that Siva won,

find the probability that Siva wins 0,

1, 2, 3 or 4 games .

Plot a binomial distribution graph.

8. Probability Distributions

probability of getting the number 2

is

9

.

20

times of getting the number 2,

find the probability of getting

0,1,2,3,or 4 times of number 2

Plot a binomial distribution graph.

np ; 2 npq ; npq ; p q 1

(a)

(c)

1

6

(b)

of

i) q,

ii)

of

i) q,

ii)

iii) 2

iv)

iii) 2

iv)

options to choose from. There is only

one correct answer for each question.

Johnny guessed all the answers .

Find

(a) the mean number of questions that

he will get it right.

(b) the variance and the standard

deviation of the number of correct

answers obtained.

students, 70% of them pass in a

mathematics test. Find

(a) the mean number of students pass

the test.

(b) the variance and the standard

deviation of the number of

students pass the test

(e)

1

3

continuously. The probability of

obtaining the number 2 is

1

.

6

Find

number 2 appears

(b) the variance and the standard

deviation of number 2 is

obtained.

[2.5, 2.083,1.443]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

by a jet fighter, the probability that a

bomb will hit its target is 0.65. Find

(a) the mean number bombs hit

its target.

(b) the variance and the standard

deviation of the number of bombs

hit its target

[19.5,6.825,2.612]

n

r n r

1.5 Solve problems involving binomial distributions. P( X r ) Cr p q , p q 1

(a)

probability of a pupil being latein

Form 3D is 8%. Calculate the

probability that in a group of 10

students from Form 3D, the number

of pupils being late is

(i) exactly two

(ii) less than two

by a jet fighter, the probability that a

bomb will hit its target is 0.65.

calculate the probability that

(a) exactly 10 bombs hit the target

(b) all the bombs hit the target

[ 0.1088, 0.005688]

[ 0.1478, 0.8121]

(c)

teenager owns a mobile phone is

4

.A

5

random from Kuantan. Find the

probability

(i) that exactly 7 of the selected

teenagers own a mobile phone.

(ii) at least 8 of the selected

teenagers own a mobile phone.

their aptitude test. If 4 pupils are

selected at random from the class.

Calculate the probability that

(i) at least half of the selected pupils

pass their aptitude test

(ii) at most 1 of the selected pupils

pass heir aptitude test,

[ 0.9306, 0.0694]

[ 0.2013, 0.6778]

(e)

for John to hit the target on any one

shot is 95%. John fires 8 shots. Find

the probability that

(i) at least 7 shots hit the target

(ii) at most 3 of the shots hit the

target.

[0.9428, 0.0000154]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

continuously. The probability of

obtaining the number 2 is

1

. Find

6

(i) number 2 not more than 3

tosses

(ii) number 2 in 4 or more tosses

[ 0.9303,0.0697]

(g)

(i)

(k)

passed. If a sample of 8 students is

randomly selected, find the probability

that 6 students from the sample passed

the examination.

[0.2965]

The result of a study shows that 20% of

the pupils in a city cycle to school. If 8

pupils from the city are chosen at

random, calculate the probability that

(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school

(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school

[0.2936, 0.79691]

It is known that 18 out of 30 students in a

class like to read during their free time. 9

students are selected at random from the

class. Find the probability that

(i) all the selected students like to read

during their free time.

(ii) at least 7 of the selected students like

to read during their free time.

[ 0.01008, 0.2318]

8. Probability Distributions

population of a settlement.

If 7 people are randomly selected from

the settlement, find the probability that at

least two of them are senior citizens.

(j)

[0.4233]

The probability that each shot fired by

Ramli hits a target is 1/3

(i) If Ramli fires 10 shots, find the

probability that exactly 2 shots hit

the target.

(ii) If Ramli fires n shots, the

probability that all the n shots hit

the target is 1/243. Find the value

of n.

[0.1951, 5]

(l)

is found that every one out of three

homes has computers. If 10 homes are

randomly selected, find the probability

that

(i) not a single home has computers

(ii) at least two homes have computers.

[0.01734, 0.8960]

2.2 Find probability of z-values for standard normal distribution.

1

(a)

Given that Z is the standard normal distribution variable, find the values for the

following:

P(Z>0.2)

(b) P(Z>1.2)

[ 0.4207 ]

(c)

P( Z < -0.6 )

[ 0.1151 ]

[ 0.0668]

[ 0.2743]

(e)

P( Z > -1.511)

(f)

[0.9346]

(g)

P( Z < 1.327)

[0.5805]

[0.9078]

(i)

[0.7085]

(j)

[0.3056]

(k)

[ 0.2075]

(m) P ( 0 Z 1.511 )

[ 0.4346]

8. Probability Distributions

P( Z > -0.203)

[0.1996]

(l)

[0.2640]

[ 0.4882]

(o)

P ( Z 1.334 )

(p) P ( Z 0.625 )

(q)

[0.1824]

P ( Z 1.112 )

(r)

[ 0.7338]

[ 0.5320]

P ( Z 0.336 )

[ 0.2630]

(a)

P( Z > z ) =0.4207

(b)

(c)

[0.2]

P( Z < z ) =0.2743

(d)

[1.2]

P( Z < z ) =0.0668

(e)

[-0.6]

P( Z > z ) = 0.5805

(f)

[-1.5]

P( Z > z ) = 0.9346

(g)

[-0.203 ]

P( Z < z ) = 0.9332

(h)

[-1.511]

P( Z< z ) = 0.8757

(i)

[1.5]

P( -1.2 Z z ) 0.2369, z <0

(j)

[1.154]

P( z Z 0.5 ) =0.6152, z < 0

[-0.38]

8. Probability Distributions

[-1.431]

(1)

(a)

For each normal distribution below, convert the random variable X to standardized variable

Z. Then, find the probability of the event given the mean and the standard deviation.

(b)

X

12

X

43.26

10

50

3

10

Z

Probabilit

y of event

P(Z>z)

Probabilit

y of event

P( Z<z)

[ 0.667, 0.2523]

[-0.674, 0.2501]

(c)

(d)

X

X

Z

68

70

10

X

Z

Probabilit

y of event

P(Z>z)

[ -0.2 , 0.5793]

43

50

8

Probabilit

y of event

P( Z >z)

[ -0.875, 0.6184]

2.5 Determine probability of an event.

2.6 Solve problems involving normal distributions.

(a) X is random variable of a normal

(b)

distribution with mean and standard

deviation 6. Find

(i) the value of , if the z-value is 1.5

when X= 42

(ii) P( X<47)

[33, 0.9902]

8. Probability Distributions

distribution with mean 4.8 and standard

deviation 1.2 . Find

(i) the value of X if the z score =1.5

(ii) P (X 3.2)

[6.6, 0.9977]

(c)

distribution with mean 6.7 and standard

deviation 1.5. Find

(i) the z-score given X=4.6

(ii) P ( X 4.6)

(d)

distribution with mean and variance

2.25. Find

(i) the value of if the z score =2

when X = 8.5

(ii) P (X < 7)

[5.5, 0.8413]

(e)

(g)

(i)

[-1.4, 0.9192]

X is random variable of a normal

distribution with mean 108 and standard

deviation 10. Find

(i) the Z score if X=100

(ii) P ( 100 X 108)

[-0.8, 0.2881]

X is random variable of a normal

distribution with 10 and standard

deviation 3. . Find the value of k if

P( X < k) = 0.975

[15.88]

A random variable X has a normal

distribution with mean 50 and variance,

2 . Given that

P (X > 51) = 0.288, find the value of

[1.795]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

(h)

(j)

distribution with mean 24 and standard

deviation 2.5. Find

(i) P( X >26 )

(ii) value of k if P( X < k) = 0.1151

[ 0.2119, 27]

X is a continuous random variable such

that X~N( ,25) . Given that

P (X < 9)= 0.7257. Find the value of .

[6]

X is random variable of a normal

distribution with mean 38.5 and

variance 10.24 . Find the value of a

given P (X > a) = 0.268

[44.84]

(k)

distribution graph.

(l)

F(z)

=9

[0.1872]

Diagram below shows a standardized

normal distribution graph.

X mm

region is o.4522. Find the value of h

(m)

by a factory are normally distributed

with a mean of 9mm and a standard

deviation of 0.1 mm. Diagram below

shows the normal distribution graph for

the diameter of the marbles, X mm

[9.012]

(n)

f (z)

0.3643

of the shaded region is 0.3643

(i) Find the value of k.

(ii) X is a continuous random variable

which is normally distributed with a

mean of and a standard deviation of

8.

Find the value of if X = 70 when the

z-score is k.

[ 1.1, 61.2]

8. Probability Distributions

distribution graph.

The probability represented by the area

of the shaded region is 0.3485.

(i)Find the value of k

(ii) X is a continuous random variable

which is normally distributed with a

mean of 79 and a standard deviation of

3. Find the value of X when the z-score is

k

[ 1.03, 82.09]

10

(o)

(q)

an examination are normally distributed

with a mean of 48 marks and standard

deviation of 10 marks.

(i) If a student is selected at random,

calculate the probability that the students

mark is more than 60

(ii)If 30% of the students fail in the

examination, estimate the minimum mark

required to pass the examination.

[0.1151,42.76]

The mass of a packet of cookies has a

normal distribution with mass of 248 g

and a standard deviation of 16 g. Find

(i) The probability that a packet of

cookies is chosen at random has mass

between 240 g and 250 g.

(ii) the value of x if 20% of the packet of

cookies chosen at random have a mass

greater than x g

[0.2412, 261.47]

8. Probability Distributions

(p)

(r)

check up. The blood pressure of a

worker has a normal distribution with a

mean of 130 mmHg and a standard

deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure

that is more than 150 mmHg is classify

as high blood pressure

(i) a worker is chosen at random from

the group. Find the probability that the

worker has a blood pressure between

114mm Hg and 150mmHg

(ii) It is found that 132 workers have

high blood pressure. Find the total

number of workers in the group.

[ 0.7357, 1249]

In a training session with a group of

Form 5 boys, it is discovered that the

rate of heart beats has a normal

distribution with a mean of 80 beats per

minute and a standard deviation of 10

beats per minutes.

(i) If one form 5 boy is randomly

selected, find the probability that

his rate of heart beats is between

75 to 85 beats per minutes.

(ii) Given that 20% of the Form 5

boys have rate of heart bets less

than k beats per minute, find the

value of k.

[0.383, 71.58]

11

(s)

(u)

produced by a factory is normally

distributed with mean 325 hours and

standard deviation of 25 hours. Find

(i) the probability that a unit of battery

chosen at random, has a life span

between 280 hours and 350 hours,

(ii) the percentage of battery that has a

life span of more than 320 hours.

[0.8054, 57.93%]

The mass of water melons produced from

an orchard follows a normal distribution

with a mean of 3.2kg and a standard

deviation of 0.5 kg. find

(i) the probability that a water-melon

chosen randomly from the orchard have a

mass of not more than 4.0 kg

(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water

melons from the orchard have a mass

more than m kg

[ 0.9452,3.0735,]

(a)Government servants make up 15% of

8. Probability Distributions

(t)

(v)

orchard is normally distributed with a

mean and variance 0.64 g

(i) Given that 10.5% of the papayas

produced exceed 3.5 kg. Find the value

of

(ii) The papayas that have masses less

than 1.0 kg and more than 4.0 kg are

rejected from packaging. Calculate the

percentage of acceptable papayas.

[ 2.4976, 93.92%]

The mass of mango fruits from a farm is

normally distributed with a mean of

820 g and standard deviation of 100 g.

(i)Find the probability that a mango fruit

chosen randomly has a minimum mass

of 700 g.

(ii)Find the expected number of mango

fruits from a basket containing 200 fruits

that have a mass of less than 700 g.

[ 0.8849, 23 ]

(a) A football team is having a practice

12

(i) If 8 people are selected randomly from

the village, find the probability that at

least two of them are government

servants.

(ii) If the variance of government

servants is 91.8, what is the population of

the village?

[5 marks]

(b) The height of the workers in a factory

is normally distributed with a mean of

162.5 cm and a variance of 90.25 cm2.

180 of the workers are between 151.3 cm

and 169.7 cm tall. Find the total number

of workers in the factory.

[ 5marks]

kicks. Each player takes 10 penalty . The

probability that a player scores a goal

from a penalty kick is p. After the

practice session, it is found that the mean

number of goals for a player is 3.6

(i) Find the value of p.

(ii) If a player is chosen at random, find

the probability that he scores at least one

goal.

[5 marks]

(b) The heights of students are normally

distributed with a mean of 162 cm, and a

standard deviation of 12 cm

(i) If a student is chosen at random,

calculate the probability that his height

is less than 154 cm.

(ii)Given that 15% of the students are

taller than h cm, find the value of h

[5 marks]

[0.36, 0.9885, 0.2523,174.4]

[0.3428, 720,268]

(a)

The masses of mangoes from an orchard

has a normal distribution with a mean of

300 g and a standard deviation of 80 g.

(a) Find the probability that a mango

chosen randomly from this orchard has a

mass of more than 168 g

[3marks]

(b) A random sample of 500 mangoes is

chosen.

(i) calculate the number of mangoes from

this sample that have a mass of more than

168 g

(ii) Given that 435 mangoes from this

sample have a mass of more than m g,

find the value of m

[7marks]

(b)

(a) In a survey carried out in a school, it

is found that 2 out of 5 students have

handphones. If 8 students from that

school are chosen at random, calculate

the probability that

(i) exactly 2 students have handphones

(ii) more than 2 students have

handphones

[5marks]

(b) A group of workers are given medical

check up. The blood pressure of a

worker has a normal distribution with a

mean of 130 mmHg and a standard

deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure

that is more than 150 mmHg is classify

as high blood pressure

(i) a worker is chosen at random from

the group. Find the probability that the

worker has a blood pressure between

114mm Hg and 150mmHg

(ii) It is found that 132 workers have

high blood pressure. Find the total

number of workers in the group.

[5marks]

[0.95053,475/476, 209.84]

(c)

SPM 2006 P2 Q 11

8. Probability Distributions

(d)

SPM 2005 P2 Q11

13

lemons with diameter, x greater than k

cm are graded and marketed. Table below

show the grades of the lemons based on

their diameters.

Grade

A

B

C

Diameter,

x(cm)

X>7

7>x>5

of the pupils in a city cycle to school. If

8 pupils from the city are chosen at

random, calculate the probability that

(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school

(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school

[4marks]

(b) The mass of water melons produced

from an orchard follows a normal

distribution with a mean of 3.2kg and a

standard deviation of 0.5 kg. find

(i) the probability that a water-melon

chosen randomly from the orchard have

a mass of not more than 4.0 kg

(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water

melons from the orchard have a mass

more than m kg

[6marks]

5>x>k

has a normal distribution with a mean of

5.8 cm and a standard deviation of 1.5

cm

(a) If one lemon is picked at random,

calculate the probability that it is of grade

A

[2marks]

(b) In a basket of 500 lemons, estimate

the number of grade B lemons.

[4marks]

(c) If 85.7% of the lemons is marketed,

find the value of k.

[4marks]

(e)

SPM 2004 P2 Q11

(a) A club organizes a practice session for

trainees on scoring goals from penalty

kicks.. each trainee takes 8 penalty kicks.

The probability that a trainee scores a

goal from a penalty kick is p. After the

session, it is found that the mean number

of goals for a trainee is 4.8

(i) Find the value of p.

(ii) If a trainee is chosen at random, find

the probability that he scores at least one

goal.

[5 marks]

(b) A survey on body-mass is done on a

group of students. The mass of a student

has a normal distribution with a mean of

50kg and a standard deviation of 15 kg

(i) If a student is chosen at random,

calculate the probability that his mass is

less than 41kg

(ii) Given that 12% of the students have a

mass of more than m kg, find the value of

m.

[5 marks]

[0.6, 0.9993,0.2743,67.63]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

SPM 2003 P2 Q 10

(a) Senior citizens make up 20% of the

population of a settlement.

(i) If 7 people are randomly selected

from the settlement, find the probability

that at least two of them are senior

citizens

(ii) If the variance of the senior citizens

in 128, what is the population of the

settlement.

[5 marks]

(b) The mass of the workers in a factory

is normally distributed with a mean of

67.86 kg and a variance of 42.25 kg2.

200 of the workers in the factory weigh

between 50 kg and 70kg.

Find the total number of worker in the

factory.

[5 marks]

14

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