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Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual

Volume 1 - Foreword
January 2013

First published 1978

as Drafting References.

Second edition 1987

Part additions to Drafting References.

Third edition 2006

Published by Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads,


Brisbane, Australia.
Part reprinted with corrections 2010 & 2011.

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2013
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

Revision Register
Issue/

Reference

Rev No.

Section

Description of Revision
First Issue

Updated to reflect current Transport and

Authorised
By
Steering

January

Committee

2006

Don Hicks

February

Main Roads policies and standards


3

2010

Update to Reflect copyright and GILF

February

requirements
4

Update to Volume 1, Chapter 1 to reflect

Date

2011
Owen Arndt

current departmental practice

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

January
2013

Contents
1

Foreword............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Approved by ...................................................................................................................................2

Important information ...................................................................................................................3

Philosophy of the Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual ................................3

Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................4

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

ii

Volume 1, Foreword

Foreword

This Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual provides guidance for designers and
construction personnel in the standards and guidelines (examples) for the presentation of road
infrastructure projects covering the full preconstruction and construction delivery processes for the
Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland.
In developing this manual particular attention has been given to the management of quality in the
planning, design and construction of road infrastructure projects. This manual has been produced by
the Road Design unit of Engineering & Technology Branch in consultation with representatives from
other E&T units, Program Delivery & Operations, and the construction industry. It also sets the policy
and standards for presenting the design to provide an agreed and consistent interface with the
construction industry. Its purpose is:

to provide the rules for presenting the design at any stage of the design development process
to ensure outputs are fit for their intended purpose

to ensure the construction is in accordance with "the design" through the supply of appropriate
construction information.

This manual is a living document and will be revised and updated on a continuing basis as new
information and techniques become available. The process will be enhanced and kept relevant and
useful to users if the users continue to make appropriate contributions to the manual. Feedback is
therefore essential to the continued relevance of the document.
Officers responsible for the design and its presentation for construction purposes shall seek to
improve the quality of design together with its interface with the construction process by adhering to
the standards and practices contained in this manual.
Non-compliance with the requirements and intent of this manual must be considered a design
exception and will require appropriate technical certification and approval by Department of Transport
and Main Roads, Queensland.

Julie Mitchell
Chief Engineer
Engineering & Technology Branch

Date

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

Volume 1, Foreword

Approved by

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

Volume 1, Foreword

Important information

The requirements of this document represent Technical Policy of the department and contain
Technical Standards. Compliance with the departments Technical Standards is mandatory for all
applications for the design, construction, maintenance and operation of road transport infrastructure in
Queensland by or on behalf of the State of Queensland.
This document will be reviewed from time to time as the need arises and in response to improvement
suggestions by users.

Philosophy of the Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual

This manual specifies the Transport and Main Roads corporate requirements for the delivery
presentation requirements of projects of all sizes and complexities. It includes paper based details
(drawings) and electronic details (electronic project model). It is a modern and holistic approach to
road infrastructure project preconstruction and construction delivery support methods. Appropriate
recognition is made of the different roles between corporate requirements and service delivery
(construction contractor) needs.
The manual is designed to support project development and delivery through the stages of concept
planning, design detailing, project approval, tendering, construction, as constructed
(drawings/electronic model) and archival by:

specifying the drafting standards

specifying the presentation requirements.

The manual provides presentation examples that adequately show:

drawing layouts and arrangements (drawing readability)

design intent (purpose of the design)

design detailing (what is required to be constructed).

Due to the different methods/techniques (e.g. Manual, Computer Aided Design and Drafting software)
that may be used in the drawing preparation process, minor variations may be appropriate on how
detail is actually presented. This must not to be confused with the need to comply with the specified
drafting and design presentation standards.
Research has shown that poor design and documentation is significantly increasing the costs of
projects. The Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual is aimed at improving the quality
of design and documentation by ensuring appropriate standards are developed and implemented.
Compliance will reduce rework, design changes, claims for extras, and requests for extensions of
time.
Perceived benefits are:

achievement of outcomes

satisfied client

satisfied contractor.

It is intended that users should rely on their own skill and judgement when applying these standards to
particular issues.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

Volume 1, Foreword

Acknowledgements

The Content Owners of this edition wish to acknowledge the effort of the various authors (both internal
and external to the department) and members of steering committees involved with the previous
releases. Much of their work exists in this edition.
The on-going development and maintenance of the manual is the responsibility of the Road Design
Unit of Engineering & Technology Branch.
Manual content will be reviewed / updated / re-released as required, to reflect any changes to
legislation, departmental policy and user feedback that impacts manual content.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, January 2013

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 - Chapter 1: Introduction
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Authorised
by

Date

First Issue

Steering
Committee

January
2006

Signatures/Names on Drawings

Steering
Committee

July 2006

Certifying and Approving of drawings

Steering
Committee

February
2007

Don Hicks

February
2008

Don Hicks

February
2010

Don Hicks

June 2010

Don Hicks

February
2011

Owen Arndt

January
2013

Owen Arndt

December
2013

Description of revision

Use of Coloured Drawings


4

Signatures on scheme drawings


-

Legislative requirements
Main Roads design requirements
Signatures in the title block

Updated to reflect current Transport and


Main Roads policies and standards
Drawing management, requirements and
costing

Unusual features
Critical aspects of design
As Constructed drawings

1.6.2 and
1.8.1

Chapter 1

Signatures of an overall nature, Standard


Title block and Geospatial information
Contents updated to reflect current
departmental policies, standards and
requirements:
Table of Contents
Design Certification
Requirements for Submission of
Drawings for Registration
As Constructed

Chapter 1

Contents updated to reflect current TMR


policies, standards and requirements:
Submission of Drawings for Registration
As constructed process and drawing
revisions

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

10

1.7.1 and
1.7.2

Description of revision

Authorised
by

Date

Owen Arndt

February
2014

Contents updated to reflect current TMR


policies, standards and requirements:
Submission of Drawings for Registration
Construction drawing development
process and drawing revisions

Fig 1.6.2
and Dwg
485712

Drawings revised

Chapter 1

Update to Corporate Template

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

ii

Contents
1.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2

Computer software for road design and presentation ............................................................ 2

1.3

Requirements for tendering and construction ......................................................................... 2

1.3.1 General ...........................................................................................................................................2


1.4

Project drawings.......................................................................................................................... 3

1.4.1 Drawing responsibilities ..................................................................................................................3


1.4.2 Specifying the design......................................................................................................................3
1.4.3 Providing tendering and construction information ..........................................................................4
1.4.4 Functional drafting ..........................................................................................................................4
1.4.5 Use of coloured drawings ...............................................................................................................4
1.5

Preserving the design intent during construction ................................................................... 5

1.5.1 Design changes ..............................................................................................................................5


1.5.2 Critical aspects of design................................................................................................................5
1.5.3 Design responsibilities and accountability ......................................................................................5
1.5.4 Project electronic models and engineering drawings .....................................................................5
1.6

Departmental requirements ........................................................................................................ 6

1.6.1 Use of consultants LOGO...............................................................................................................6


1.6.2 Signatures and names on scheme drawings..................................................................................6
1.6.2.1 Signatures of an overall nature ..................................................................................... 6
1.6.2.2 Scheme Submitted to the client..................................................................................... 7
1.6.2.3 Scheme scope and financial approval........................................................................... 7
1.6.3 Other names on drawings and responsibilities...............................................................................8
1.6.3.1 Names and signatures in the title block ........................................................................ 8
1.6.3.2 Drawn .......................................................................................................................... 10
1.6.3.3 Designed ..................................................................................................................... 10
1.6.3.4 Design certification ...................................................................................................... 10
1.7 Management of project drawings ............................................................................................ 11
1.7.1 As Constructed .............................................................................................................................11
1.7.1.1 Construction drawing development process ............................................................... 11
1.7.1.2 Submission of drawings .............................................................................................. 12
1.7.1.3 Asset documents ......................................................................................................... 13
1.7.1.4 Drawings for archival ................................................................................................... 13
1.7.2 Drawing management...................................................................................................................13
1.7.2.1 Project cost amount for management of drawings...................................................... 13
1.7.2.2 Cost of approved design change................................................................................. 14
1.8

Drawing documentation............................................................................................................ 14

1.8.1 Standard drawings........................................................................................................................14


1.8.2 Design presentation drawings ......................................................................................................14
1.8.2.1 Road infrastructure design .......................................................................................... 14
1.8.2.2 Bridges ........................................................................................................................ 14
1.8.2.3 Retaining walls ............................................................................................................ 14
1.8.2.4 Noise barriers .............................................................................................................. 14
1.8.2.5 Drainage infrastructure................................................................................................ 15
1.8.3 Urban design.................................................................................................................................15

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

iii

1.8.4 Environmental design ...................................................................................................................15


1.8.4.1 Environmental features and management drawings................................................... 16
1.8.4.2 Soil suitability drawings ............................................................................................... 16
1.8.4.3 Erosion and sediment control plan drawings .............................................................. 16
1.8.4.4 Landscape and revegetation drawings ....................................................................... 16
1.8.4.5 Compensatory revegetation drawings......................................................................... 16
1.9

Copyright .................................................................................................................................... 17

References ............................................................................................................................................17
Appendix 1A: Engineering Certification and Safety in Design........................................................18

Figures
Figure 1.6.3.1(a) Scheme scope and approval statement ...................................................................... 8
Figure 1.6.3.1(b) Standard titleblock signature requirements ................................................................. 9

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

iv

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1

Introduction

This manual provides the drafting and design presentation standards for the production of all drawings
and project electronic models delivered as outputs of the planning and/or design activity of road
infrastructure projects performed for the Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR)
Queensland. Volume 1 provides general guidance for presentation. It also specifies departmental
requirements for civil design drawings. It is intended volume 2 will detail expectations for specific road
planning and design drawings. Structural drafting standards are detailed in Volume 3 which stipulate
departmental requirements for these drawings. For additional structural requirements refer to other
bridge and structures technical publications.
There is no requirement for projects not performed for the department to adhere to these standards
although designs for such projects within a state controlled road reserve would be subject to review for
acceptability. Although, the expectation is that the final As Constructed revision of these drawings are
to be submitted to the departments plan room where it is required under the Public Record Act to
keep and maintain a true and accurate record of its road assets. This also includes when external
parties undertake works on departmental assets not in conjunction with Transport and Main Roads.
The drawings will be allocated a departmental drawing number upon submission and will be scanned,
microfilmed and registered by the Plan Room.
For projects performed for Transport and Main Roads it is important to understand that drawings
and/or project electronic models form only a part of the overall project documentation provided to
tenderers and constructors of road infrastructure projects. Generally these instructions comprise:

engineering drawings and project electronic models

specifications, including supplementary specifications

schedules of work to be performed, quantities of materials

test instructions

intent of the design, including critical/unusual design issues

visualisations for:

stakeholder engagement, and general communication of project impacts

visual checking of the design

showing the design intent.

The primary purpose of these instructions is to specify the design of the proposed road and to
convey the engineering requirements for tendering and construction of road infrastructure.
This manual has a focus on the production of:

certified engineering drawings for approval, tendering and construction purposes, and

project electronic models for approval, tendering and construction purposes.

Where drawings are produced for stakeholder and community display purposes it is important for them
to present the information in a way suitable for the group concerned. In this respect the drawing would
have a focus on clearly showing project intent and impacts rather than design/construction detail.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

1.2

Computer software for road design and presentation

Computer programs should be used as tools to assist in the road design development process. They
must not be considered in the context of automated design systems. The great strength of computers
is in their ability to accurately and quickly perform many numbers of calculations. This in turn allows
alternative design options to be quickly examined and evaluated at a relatively low cost with full
designer control of outcomes.
Most road authorities in Australia restrict the software packages that can be used to produce planning
and design projects. This is because of interoperability issues, software purchasing cost, macro
development cost and the on-going training cost. The department has adopted 12d Model, AutoCAD,
and other CADD software as its standard for the delivery of all departmental projects from survey
through planning, design, tendering, construction, as constructed and archival activities.
The primary function of road design and presentation software is to support the design development
process, including the production of:

geometrics/shapes/profiles

quantities

cross road drainage design and presentation

the project electronic model

project drawings

production of an project electronic model assists in:

checking all aspects of the design in a three dimensional project electronic model

validation of the design through traffic simulation activities to confirm the required traffic
performance outcomes are being achieved

visualising the proposal in the community engagement process

verification to confirm design aspects on a progressive basis

supplying accurate construction information, including electronic information for GNSS


guided road plant

production of contract drawings, including visualisation

production of cross sections at any scale, frequency or skew

integration of design variations during construction, and

production of As Constructed drawings from the project electronic model.

For straight forward restoration projects with minimal survey input it may not be appropriate to create a
project electronic model.
1.3

Requirements for tendering and construction

1.3.1

General

A set of project drawings must contain the engineering information that supports the key functions of:

setting out the works

ordering material and component parts

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

identify available work areas

support tendering processes for constructors

planning construction methods and to seek opportunities to optimise construction activities


and processes

working of materials

inspect and control construction quality and reliability

traffic management during construction as appropriate (on major projects this will be part of
the tendering process)

determine costs

facilitate construction material quantity calculations.

1.4

Project drawings

The primary purpose of project drawings is to clearly represent the design that is required to be
constructed. It is important that the shapes and location of the different materials together with their
interfaces are clearly articulated. The information shown must be adequate for the tendering and
construction contractor to be able to calculate any construction information from the drawings.
A prerequisite to the tendering and construction stages of project delivery is that construction
companies will have appropriately experienced staff with appropriate/modern systems. In many cases
it is found that misinterpretation of the drawings has resulted in costly construction errors. Pretendering and pre-construction meetings are essential to develop a common understanding of
requirements between the client and the contractor.
The project electronic model removes the need for contractors to interpret drawings and to manually
transfer data from the drawings to their construction equipment.
The changing world of technology is resulting in improved connectivity between survey, design, and
construction. In some cases the same software is being used throughout the total delivery process
eliminating all interfaces between delivery stages.
1.4.1

Drawing responsibilities

The key person responsible for preparing the various drawings and design activities and their
presentation is required to include their name in text in the relevant parts of the drawing.
This ensures the legibility of the persons name allowing ready identification where there is a need for
further information, additional design, or to correct an error or omission. This information together with
the claims history and the consultant performance reports may be used in consultant prequalification
assessment processes.
1.4.2

Specifying the design

The drawings must precisely detail those parameters that specify the design:

locating the project job site

the precise location of the project on the ground

the road component shapes

the road structure (materials)

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

full details of turnouts, intersections, interchanges etc.

the type, size, shape and full detail of structures (bridges, retaining walls, culverts), including
their precise location within the project

portray a clear visual understanding of the project and its environs

satisfying these requirements will allow the constructor to readily generate accurate
information from the drawings for setting out and control of the works in their own construction
support systems.

1.4.3

Providing tendering and construction information

Construction personnel invariably have their own discrete methods for setting out and constructing the
works. Attempting to pre-empt the method that will actually be used and then providing aligned detail
in the drawings is quite futile. History has demonstrated this fact by the rework that has been required
to suit another method when someone else ends up performing the work. The project electronic model
allows construction personnel to produce the requirements they actually need to do their work.
Individual constructors can produce a range of information to suit their particular requirements e.g.
cross sections from the project electronic model at any chainage, interval, scale (including distorted
scales), or at any skew angle, all on command.
There is no requirement to produce cross section drawings for inclusion in scheme documents on the
basis it is what construction crews actually require. Construction contractors can produce the cross
sections or any other information they actually require to suit their own operational processes whether
it be for tendering or construction purposes.
1.4.4

Functional drafting

Functional drafting refers to a technique that eliminates all unnecessary detail while maintaining the
full clarity, completeness and accuracy of the finished drawing without being subject to variable
interpretation. The use of rectified aerial photography as the backdrop for engineering survey used in
the planning and/or design process is one method of achieving this approach. This is because the
impacts of the design process (either immediate or surrounding) are immediately recognisable without
the need for further detailing. This manual exploits the functional drafting approach in the text and
example figures/drawings throughout this manual.
Functional drafting should be an output from the project electronic models.
1.4.5

Use of coloured drawings

Coloured drawings may be used where it is necessary to provide improved readability of the drawings.
The use of standard line styles and features will in most cases avoid the need for colour drawings.
However, where additional information is required to be added such as traffic management and stage
construction scenarios or in cases of very complex detail then the use of colour drawings should be
seriously considered as colour significantly enhances quality and readability.
These drawings should be produced for information purposes only and will not form part of the
drawings submitted to Plan Room for registration and archival.
Care should be taken however to ensure any colour can be reproduced clearly in black and white
copies.

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

Most benefit achieved from using colour is the additional means of separating types of functional detail
or objects. Colour does help to distinguish material from dimensions from elements/shapes also
supported by different line weight.
In addition, drawing quality is improved together with improved project communication due to the
removal of uncertainty in the understanding of the drawings.
1.5

Preserving the design intent during construction

The department is tasked with maintaining the integrity of design after financial approval has been
provided. Instances have occurred where changes are made during the construction and maintenance
operations to suit the efficiency of those operations. Some of these changes should not have been
made as they have degraded the design intent to an unacceptable level. Ease of construction is not
necessarily a valid reason to change the design and especially without reference to the original
designer or approved experienced designer.
1.5.1

Design changes

Design changes after financial approved requires the specific certification of a Registered Professional
Engineer Queensland (RPEQ) in the revision area in the bottom left hand corner of the title block, see
Figure 1.6.3.1(b). This certification must ensure that the original design intent has not been degraded,
unless specifically approved otherwise by the client. The RPEQ is fully responsible for the
consequences of the design change.
1.5.2

Critical aspects of design

It is very important for any critical aspects of the design be explained to the construction contractor to
avoid compromising the integrity of the design intent during construction. These requirements must be
highlighted in the drawings, project electronic model, and/or supplementary specifications and they
must be addressed at the pre-tendering and pre-construction meetings so that the contractor clearly
understands these issues and requirements. Typical examples of critical aspects of design are:

Varying the crossfall of road pavements to manage surface drainage, including aquaplaning
potential. On a multi lane facility the lane crossfall may be different in adjacent lanes.

product durability

traffic performance

safety

functionally.

1.5.3

Design responsibilities and accountability

The overall responsibility for quality of the project design and documentation lies with the organisation
carrying out the design. This responsibility is identified in the submission statement Scheme
Submitted on the first drawing of any set of project drawings.
However, the relevant RPEQ remains responsible for the overall provision of engineering services in
terms of compliance with the Professional Engineers Act 2002.
1.5.4

Project electronic models and engineering drawings

The attributed project electronic model is becoming a standard method to check the design together
with its interfaces with the site and various design interfaces, and between design disciplines, e.g.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

bridges, traffic signals, etc. Once the design has been checked via the project electronic model, the
projects engineering drawings can then be produced directly from this model. This process is
designed to achieve a good engineering output avoiding errors in the project electronic model and
engineering drawings.
Visualisations can also be produced to assist tendering and constructors to identify what they have to
build.
1.6

Departmental requirements

The department requires engineering drawings issued for construction to be certified by a RPEQ.
The RPEQ must place their name, signature, and registration number under Engineering Certification
in each drawing title block. The RPEQ number must be clearly shown and it may be hand written or
printed.
The design responsibility for each area of engineering within a design drawing is identified by the
various engineering certification signatures.
Only an RPEQ qualified in the area may certify that relevant part of the design drawing.
Drawings with revised design produced after the initial release for construction must record any
significant changes to the design detail/intent/functionality made during the construction period. These
changes must be certified by the relevant RPEQ(s) in the revision area of the drawing sheets title
block by initials and RPEQ number.
1.6.1

Use of consultants LOGO

The consultant responsible for preparing the drawings shall include their logo on the drawings,
provided the logo does not occupy an area on the drawing greater than that occupied by the
Queensland Government logo. In addition, where the consultant decides to include its logo on the
drawing then it must be inserted in the top right hand corner of the drawing sheet.
1.6.2

Signatures and names on scheme drawings

Signatures on scheme drawings play a very important role in the legitimisation of scheme documents
and the authorisation for the scheme to progress through the various process steps.
Signatures are used for the following purposes:

Engineering certification of the design, including its presentation on drawings for each area of
engineering concerned. It also verifies all names and signatures on the drawings relating to
engineering matters. This certification also includes the appropriate application of relevant
departmental standards, specifications and project supplementary specifications.

Where a design amendment has been approved after financial approval has been made then
the same certification requirements apply to that design change.

1.6.2.1

Signatures of an overall nature

Signatures are required to cover the entire scheme drawings and are included on the first sheet of the
drawing set under a listing of all the drawings appropriately identified (including document version and
date). Refer to Figure 1.6.3.1(a) for the signature box required which includes:

Scheme Submitted, and

Scheme Scope and Financial Approval.

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

Where the scheme drawings listing require more than one sheet, the statement will appear only on the
first sheet of the drawing listing.
1.6.2.2

Scheme Submitted to the client

The person duly authorised by the service provider (engineering consultant or internal business unit)
shall formally (under a covering letter) submit the contract materials (scheme documents) to the client.
The meaning of Scheme Submitted is:

The scheme satisfies the requirements of the client's brief/ functional specification.

The client has been progressively involved in the evolution of the design, including Peer
Review.

The engineering design has been certified by the relevant RPEQ(s), and that all signatures in
the drawing title block are bona fide.

Scheme submission is a commercial response to a brief. The submission is by a single signature


under a listing of all scheme drawings on the first drawing of the drawing set. The organisation or
internal business units approving officer must sign under the words Scheme Submitted and indicate
their organisation.
In addition, the submission covering letter shall state that the scheme has been prepared in
accordance with the (name of organisation) fully certified quality system and other relevant
organisational standard process and practices, and departmental technical requirements published in
various departmental documents, including manuals.
1.6.2.3

Scheme scope and financial approval

The Regional Director (or delegate) shall approve a scheme for tendering purposes. Approved means
the relevant Regional Director (or delegate) is satisfied that:

The scheme satisfies departmental priorities in relation to:

Investment Strategies

Functional Road Hierarchy

Traffic Operation Function

Corridor Development Plans

The need to be satisfied by the project

The scheme satisfies the requirements of the QTRIP in terms of:

Prioritisation

Scope, and

Cost

The appropriate level and extent of external communication has been undertaken.

Also, approval applies to approved design variations during construction.


Scheme scope and financial approval is by a single signature under a listing of all scheme drawings
on the first drawing of the drawing set.

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

The required scheme submitted and scheme scope and financial approval statements are to be
included on the front sheet of a project set of scheme drawings in accordance with the details shown
in Figure 1.6.3.1(a).
1.6.3

Other names on drawings and responsibilities

Names and signatures on engineering drawings play a very important role in the legitimisation of
scheme documents.
In this context each engineering drawing must include the names and signatures, as relevant of the
person responsible for:

producing the engineering drawing

carrying out the design considering all areas of engineering, and

certifying the design for each area of engineering, as relevant.

1.6.3.1

Names and signatures in the title block

Every drawing must have a standard departmental title block that requires a range of names and
signatures to be applied in order to complete the drawing.
Names in text are required for Drawn, Designed, and Engineering Certification by a RPEQ.
Actual hand written signatures for Engineering Certifications are to be completed in blue to facilitate
identification of original drawings and to satisfy the departments responsibilities in accordance with
the Public Records Act and the Evidence Act.
The standard title block for the departments produced project drawings is shown in Figure 1.6.3.1(b).
Figure 1.6.3.1(a) Scheme scope and approval statement

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1.6.3.1(b) Standard titleblock signature requirements

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

1.6.3.2

Drawn

The meaning of the word Drawn in the title block is that reasonable skill, care and diligence has been
exercised by the external consultant or internal business unit in preparing the engineering drawings in
accordance with the ethics of the engineering profession, departmental drafting and design
presentation standards manual and includes:

the process of structuring the layout of the drawing (drafting and readability)

the intent of the design is absolutely clear

the accuracy of the design detail included in the drawing, and

the appropriateness of the drawing to the users performing the next step in the process, e.g.
approval, tendering, and construction.

The key person responsible for this function must insert their name with a date in text within the
Drawn box in the title block.
1.6.3.3

Designed

The meaning of the word Designed in the title block is that reasonable skill, care and diligence has
been exercised by the external consultant or internal business unit in carrying out the design in
accordance with the ethics of the engineering profession, the departments suite of road design
standards, manuals and guidelines and includes:

the appropriateness of the designed components for their intended function

the design complies with the relevant standards, guides, legislation, and codes

the design has been carried out in accordance with an approved quality system

the appropriateness of design inputs, including assumptions

the appropriateness and accuracy of the design calculations.

The department requires the key person responsible for the design within the drawing to insert their
name with a date in text within the Designed box in the title block.
Individuals performing these tasks would be expected to have obtained a two year civil engineering
qualification from a recognised tertiary institution as a minimum qualification.
1.6.3.4

Design certification

Design certification is the formal RPEQ signoff of the design to confirm all professional skill, care and
diligence has been exercised in ensuring the design has been completed in accordance with sound
engineering principles and practice, including:

the overall design complies with the relevant standards, guides, legislation, and codes

design exceptions have been documented and approved

the work has been completed under their direct supervision

the overall design solution is appropriate for the problem being solved

the design details have been reviewed for constructability

Road Safety audits confirm safety aspects of the design satisfy departmental standards where
undertaken

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

the constructed infrastructure will achieve the required operational performance outcomes

the relevant environmental issues have been appropriately considered in the design, including
the long term impact of the constructed works on the environment.

The department requires the key person responsible for the scheme certification to ensure integration
of relevant areas of engineering as part of their design certification obligations.
Individuals performing these tasks would be expected to have obtained a four year Bachelor degree
engineering qualification from a recognised tertiary institution as a minimum qualification.
1.7

Management of project drawings

The departments Plan Room is the depository where all departmental drawings are received,
processed and stored for the statutory period. The management of all project drawings includes
microfilming and storage at state archives.
As part of all transport infrastructure projects undertaken on behalf of Transport and Main Roads
design documentation, including drawings, need to be prepared and submitted to the department to
provide a record of works undertaken.
The need for capture, storage and retention of information is driven by the statutory requirements and
particularly by the following legislation:

Transport Infrastructure Act 1994

Public Records Act 2002

Each of these statutes supports different objectives. To satisfy these requirements all project drawings
are required to be archived as part of the construction drawing development process. Project drawings
are the mechanism by which this need is addressed. The department manages these drawings
through its plan room operations.
Where drawings form part of a report they will be retained as part of the report as individual report
references.
1.7.1
1.7.1.1

As Constructed
Construction drawing development process

The term As Constructed is acknowledged within industry as a method to record final construction of
road infrastructure and will generally fall into one of the following categories:

Issued for Construction

Design revisions

As Constructed

Issued for Construction is the term given to the first project drawing/s produced and released for
inclusion in the scheme. These drawings are the A drawings initially issued that have all the
appropriate signatures for certification and approvals prior to the drawings being placed in the
documentation for project construction.
Design Revision is the term used when a project drawing has design content amended after it has
been released for construction. Areas in the drawing where the content design has been amended
must show clouds around amendments with revision identifiers matching the new revision and then

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certified in the relevant area in the bottom left hand side of the standard departmental title block.
Clouds from the previous revision are to be removed.
Where works are constructed out of tolerance that would affect the engineering intent or functionality
the revision shall be certified by the relevant RPEQ design engineer/s. Where the principal has
supplied the Issue for Construction drawings this will be the Principals RPEQ design engineer. In all
other cases it will be the Contractors RPEQ design engineer. The revision must be certified (signed in
blue) by an appropriate RPEQ and reissued for construction with the next sequential revision identifier.
Where the drawings require amendment but changes do not affect the engineering intent or
functionality (e.g. a service is located in a different position to that shown on the Issued for
Construction drawings) the information should be included but does not require certification by RPEQ
design engineers. The revision must be reissued with the next sequential revision identifier.
Similarly, where the Issued for Construction drawings are not required to be amended during the
construction process the drawings should be reissued as As Constructed drawings and do not
require certification by RPEQ design engineers.
As Constructed drawings are those drawings that represent the design as it has been constructed,
including any design modifications made since the Issued for Construction issue of the drawings.
The Administrators construction representative (in the case where the Principal has supplied the
Issue for Construction drawings), or Contractors construction representative (in all other cases), shall
sign a statement on each drawing stating that the Works shown on the drawing are a factual
representation of works constructed, and reissue the drawing as an As Constructed drawing. For
further details on conformance and responsibilities for various delivery methods and contract types
refer to specification MRTS50 Specific Quality System Requirements.
Where the As Constructed issue drawing follows on from a revised drawing and only involves the
removal of clouds around the previously certified and issued revision, this removal of clouds has no
engineering design content and there is no requirement for RPEQ certification. However the person
taking responsibility for the removal of the clouds is required to sign off for this process.
The final payment certificate certifies that the road infrastructure has been built in accordance with
project drawings and specifications.
At the end of the construction process the Drawing Index will be updated to reflect which issue
(Issued for Construction or Design Revision issue) is to be considered as record for the As
Constructed drawing.
It is not intended for the completed works to be established by survey except for changes to new or
relocated underground services, drainage, foundations and other subsurface infrastructure which must
be established before backfilling occurs (or for piles as driving or drilling is completed).
1.7.1.2

Submission of drawings

For registration purposes drawing numbers obtained from Plan Room are to be placed on the
appropriate title block for the Issued for Construction project drawing/s produced and released for
inclusion in the scheme under any contract type.
They are to be submitted to plan room for microfilming and archival purposes on permanent paperwhite film, thickness between 100mic and 135mic.

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As a public record the expectation is that presentation of detailed design drawings complies with this
manual.
Bridge drawings are to be presented in accordance with Volume 3 of this manual.
It is mandatory that all drawings produced for construction purposes must:

be allocated a Transport and Main Roads drawing number

comply with presentation standards described in this manual

be scanned, microfilmed and registered by the departments Plan Room.

Drawings other than civil design drawings that depict project information that informs the final design
e.g. Geotechnical Investigations, Resumptions, Native Title and so on that require registered plan
numbers need to be submitted to the departments Plan Room.
Planning drawings, or those drawings prepared during project development, are not required to be
submitted for public record to the Plan Room.
It is expected that Regional offices and contractors engaged in the production of such drawings will
maintain their own system for identification and records management of these drawings. All original
and amended drawings must be to the same standard.
It is preferable to submit Design Revision drawings to Plan Room for microfilming although these may
be on plain white photocopy paper.
Detailed As Constructed design drawings including the drawing containing the updated Drawing
Index are required to be submitted to Plan Room for microfilming and storage by the Superintendent.
They are to be forwarded to the ARMIS section of the department for updating of the ARMIS
database.
Where bridges and/or other structures occur in the project a separate copy of the bridge drawings and
bridge related reports, shall be forwarded to the bridge design branch for the updating of bridge design
records.
1.7.1.3

Asset documents

There should be no construction notes on the asset documents. Where emergency work has been
performed asset drawings must be developed from actual construction work details and recorded on
new drawings or by updating existing asset drawings.
1.7.1.4

Drawings for archival

As Constructed drawings are to be plotted from CADD files on A3 paper with the required signatures
i.e. no hand markups or be produced from photocopies. As Constructed drawings are to be submitted
for microfilming and archival purposes on permanent paper-white film, thickness between 100mic and
135mic.
1.7.2
1.7.2.1

Drawing management
Project cost amount for management of drawings

The principal shall pay the costs associated with management of all project drawings includes
microfilming and storage at state archives.

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1.7.2.2

Cost of approved design change

The organisation responsible for the providing the Issued for Construction drawings is responsible for
amending the relevant drawings.
The practice of hand written notes on the last drawing issued are not acceptable. All issues of project
drawings must be to the departments standards of drafting and design presentation and produced in
CADD format.
1.8

Drawing documentation

Drawing documentation provides the basic elements for tenderers and construction personnel to carry
out their respective activities.
1.8.1

Standard drawings

Standard drawings have been developed to reduce the number of details that have to be shown in the
project drawings.
These standard drawings are provided in the departments Standard Drawings Roads Manual and are
updated on a regular basis, and can be referenced in the design documentation.
The manual contains a number of drawings which provide standardised construction details for
selected road related structures including drainage, retaining structures and protective treatments,
general earthworks, road furniture, noise barriers, road lighting, traffic signals and bridges.
1.8.2
1.8.2.1

Design presentation drawings


Road infrastructure design

Road infrastructure design drawings diagrammatically show the actual extent and types of treatment
necessary to provide for both horizontal and vertical alignments of specific infrastructure profiles.
1.8.2.2

Bridges

Bridge design drawings show the general layout of the bridge, profiles and structural details. Bridges
are typically built over streams, railways or other roads.
The structural details include reinforcement details as well as stressing and welding symbols. They
also specify the exposure classifications for durability. In complex structures, there may also be
construction sequence drawings to ensure that the imposed design loads are the same as the
designer assumed.
1.8.2.3

Retaining walls

There is a large range of types of retaining wall. The choice of retaining wall may depend on
appearance, environment, construction restraints and structural action. Care should be made in the
correct choice of system for the project. In urban situation, the job restraints may impact severely on
the choice of system.
The road designer should consider the maximum depth of excavation for road construction and the
impact of this excavation on the retaining wall.
1.8.2.4

Noise barriers

Noise barrier walls and earth mounds are a very effective means of reducing road traffic noise if
designed and constructed to the requirements of the Noise Code of Practice.

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Noise barrier drawings are to depict, construction detail and consider all design elements of the
proposed noise barrier including, location, height and length as determined from an approved noise
assessment report.
These drawings are to refer to other relevant standard drawings and standard specifications as they
relate to the project specific requirements.
1.8.2.5

Drainage infrastructure

'Drainage devices' are components of a project that are designed and constructed for the purpose of
controlling runoff and form part of a 'drainage system'. A 'drainage system' is a system of natural and
constructed pathways that are used to convey runoff through a project site to its receiving waters.
Examples of drainage devices are: culverts, gully inlets, pipes, drainage system, overland flow paths,
open channels, energy dissipaters, kerb & channel, sedimentation traps and retention & detention
basins.
Water flows as a result of fall in the ground i.e. a negative level difference between two points.
Therefore with regard to drainage devices, the most important details that have to be shown in design
drawings are the heights to which the devices are to be constructed.
Other details that are required are:

Plan views to clearly show location and orientation of devices and the linkage between them,
e.g. the outlet of a culvert linking to a diversion channel then to a retention basin.

Drainage cross sections to clearly show the position and design details of cross drainage
(culverts).

Longitudinal sections to clearly show the position and design details of underground piped
systems, in conjunction with gully inlets and pits.

Construction details (dimensions etc) for drainage devices which cannot be simply purchased
and have to be built, e.g. open channels, scour protection and drop inlets.

A complete project electronic model will provide all of the details necessary to tender and
construct the drainage structure concerned.

1.8.3

Urban design

Urban design, promotes an integrated relationship between the road user, roads and the environment
(location, function and character), through which they pass. The functional, architectural and aesthetic
forms and treatments for selected road related structures and elements demonstrate this integration.
Urban design documentation is typically associated with structures, including bridges, retaining walls,
and noise barriers, but may be delivered by various design disciplines including landscape architects,
engineers and architects.
1.8.4

Environmental design

The environmental design drawings are divided into two phases:

the planning phase

the development phase.

The drawings in each phase contain the information relevant for that stage of the project.

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1.8.4.1

Environmental features and management drawings

Environmental features and management drawings show the existing environmental features and the
recommended management of these features to ensure compliance with legislation.
These drawings are on large-scale and/or complex projects.
These drawings are a diagrammatic representation of the environmental assessment taken from such
documents as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Environmental Approval Report (EAR)
and/or an Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
1.8.4.2

Soil suitability drawings

Soil suitability drawings show the suitability of a site soil for use as planting media and for the
construction of drainage devices.
The drawings diagrammatically show the extent and types of soil along a road alignment and relate to
the Planting Media Management Plan.
1.8.4.3

Erosion and sediment control plan drawings

An erosion and sediment control plan drawing shows a possible approach for sediment and erosion
management.
The drawing is included in contract documentation so that tenderers can use it as a basis for pricing.
After the contract has been awarded the contractors can choose to adopt the drawing/s or develop
their own:

Environmental Management Plan (Construction) Drawings

Environmental Management Plan (Construction) Drawing shows the environmental risks


associated with the construction of a project.

The standard sets out what must be contained on the drawings but allows the option that information
is shown on drawings and diagrams as opposed to just text. EMP(C) drawings are not intended to
replace a text-based document but to provide an efficient means of conveying information.
1.8.4.4

Landscape and revegetation drawings

Landscape and revegetation drawings show the scope and extent of landscape and revegetation
works.
The scope may be as simple as the grassing and turfing of batters and table drains or as complex as
the revegetation of environmentally sensitive areas or the more horticultural based landscape projects
that are typical of the major urban roadways.
It should be noted that the planting material used for these projects may impact on civil engineering
components of the design e.g. clear zones, sight distance, or structural components e.g. retaining
walls, tunnel portals etc.
These drawings will require RPEQ certification from the area of engineering that may be affected by
landscape treatments.
1.8.4.5

Compensatory revegetation drawings

Compensatory revegetation drawings show the scope and extent of landscape and revegetation works
specifically intended as compensatory plantings beyond the limit of clearing. They are separate, but

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

complementary to the landscape and revegetation works that typically include the vegetations of areas
within the limit of clearing.
The planting areas typically fall within the road reserve but may, in some instances where local
landowners and/or the community are involved, extend into adjoining properties The works may be
contracted separately to the associated road contract and start during the pre-construction phase of a
project and continue after final inspection into the maintenance activities.
1.9

Copyright

If you outsource the creation of a design to an external consultant, you must ensure there is an
agreement that copyright ownership belongs to the department and you must apply a copyright
statement and GILF licence.
The 'BY' licence has been identified as the best fit. The 'BY' licence does not restrict the public in any
way and does not incur any charges. The public may use copyright marked 'BY' for any use they wish
as long as they note the original work belongs to the department. The intention of these licences is for
the public to be able to know at first glance what they can and cannot do with our copyright.
http://creativecommons/licences/by/3.0/au

References

Professional Engineers Act 2002 together with the Code of Practice.

Work Health and Safety Act 2011 together with amendments. (WH&S Act 2011)

Public Records Act 2002 together with amendments

Evidence Act 1997 together with amendments

Queensland Government Information Policies and Standards Intellectual Property Standard


(2012)

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

Appendix 1A: Engineering Certification and Safety in Design


Road design is becoming an increasingly complex process with significant Legislative and
Departmental requirements to be satisfied.
The legal requirements emanate from:

The Professional Engineers Act 2002 together with the Code of Practice

The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 together with amendments

Professional Engineers Act 2002


The Act regulates the carrying out of professional engineering services in Queensland. Professional
engineering services are defined as meaning:
an engineering service that requires, or is based on, the application of engineering principles and
data to a design, or to a construction or production activity, relating to engineering, and does not
include an engineering service that is provided only in accordance with a prescriptive standard.
Specifically, the responsibilities of RPEQ are set out both within the Act, and its accompanying Code
of Practice (The Code).
The Code has many similarities to other Codes of Ethics but it has the force of law in Queensland. It
includes the following definition of engineering:
"Engineering is a creative process of synthesising and implementing the knowledge and
experience of humanity to enhance the welfare, health, and safety of all members of the
community, with due regard to the environment in which they live and the sustainability of the
resources employed. Engineering professionals must display detailed technical and professional
understanding and the wise application of that understanding".
Key requirements of the Act and the Code, are as follows:

An RPEQ can practice only within their engineering competency.

The relevant Code must be complied with when carrying out professional engineering
services.

Compliance with all government legislation is mandatory (eg WH&S Act 2011).

All engineering design work must be performed by or under the direct supervision of a RPEQ
with such design work being in accordance with Australian standards and the departments
codes, manuals and guidelines.

The Board of Professional Engineers accepts an RPEQ may delegate the carrying out of professional
engineering services to a non-RPEQ but that work must be performed under the direct supervision of
the RPEQ.
Ultimately, RPEQs must exercise their judgment to determine if the delegate is competent to
undertake the work (includes design and inspection), as the RPEQ will retain responsibility for work
performed.
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Legal obligations for designers of road infrastructure were introduced in Queensland on
1 January 2012 under amendments to the WH&S Act 2011.

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Volume 1, Chapter 1 Introduction

Under the legislation a person conducting a business or undertaking that designs a structure that will
be used, or could reasonably be expected to be used, as a workplace must ensure, so far as is
reasonably practicable, that the structure is without risks to health and safety.
The WH&S Act 2011 includes designers as one of the several duty holders for health and safety in the
workplace.
A designer is a person conducting a business or undertaking whose profession, trade or business
involves them in:

preparing sketches, plans or drawings for a structure, including variations to a plan or changes
to a structure

making decisions for incorporation into a design that may affect the health or safety of persons
who construct, use or carry out other activities in relation to the structure.

They include:

architects, building designers, engineers, building surveyors, interior designers, landscape


architects, town planners and all other design practitioners contributing to, or having overall
responsibility for, any part of the design (for example, drainage engineers designing the drain
for a new development)

building service designers, engineering firms or others designing services that are part of the
structure such as ventilation, electrical systems and permanent fire extinguisher installations

contractors carrying out design work as part of their contribution to a project (for example, an
engineering contractor providing design, procurement and construction management services)

temporary works engineers, including those designing formwork, falsework, scaffolding and
sheet piling

persons who specify how structural alteration, demolition or dismantling work is to be carried
out.

A person conducting a business or undertaking who alters or modifies a design without consulting the
original or subsequent designer will assume the duties of a designer. Any changes to the design of a
structure may affect the health and safety of those who work on or use the structure and must be
considered by the person altering or modifying a design.
Complying with these responsibilities is part of the designer obligations under law.

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Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 - Chapter 2: General Standards
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Appendix 2A
Appendix 2E

Description of revision
First Issue
Addition of the first page
Amended drawing sheets

Appendix 2E
Appendix 2F

Authorised
by

Date

Steering
Committee

January
2006

Steering
Committee

March
2006

Steering
Committee

December
2006

Amended drawing sheets


Additional and amended XRef names and
Additional and amended drawing type codes

2.1, 2.2 and


2.3
Appendix
updates

Update Sections

Appendix 2D

Update Title Blocks

February
2011

Owen
Arndt

February
2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Chapter 2
2.2.3.1

Update to corporate template


Update Section

Contents
2.1

Data modelling ............................................................................................................................. 1

2.1.1 Scope..............................................................................................................................................1
2.1.2 Media ..............................................................................................................................................1
2.1.2.1 Type............................................................................................................................... 1
2.1.2.2 Format ........................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.2.3 Compression ................................................................................................................. 2
2.1.3 CADD software ...............................................................................................................................2
2.1.3.1 Data format.................................................................................................................... 3
2.1.3.2 Target data formats ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1.4 Data delivery ...................................................................................................................................4
2.1.4.1 Data presentation .......................................................................................................... 4
2.1.4.2 Data delivery.................................................................................................................. 4
2.1.4.3 Data ownership.............................................................................................................. 4
2.1.5 CADD data transmission ................................................................................................................4
2.1.6 Naming convention for modelling systems .....................................................................................4
2.1.6.1 Model naming convention ............................................................................................. 5
2.1.6.2 Survey feature codes .................................................................................................... 5
2.1.6.3 Design string naming convention .................................................................................. 5
2.1.6.4 Project data file structure............................................................................................. 23
2.2 Line types, symbols and text.................................................................................................... 24
2.2.1 Line types......................................................................................................................................24
2.2.1.1 Spacing of parallel lines .............................................................................................. 24
2.2.2 Symbols ........................................................................................................................................24
2.2.2.1 Arrowheads ................................................................................................................. 26
2.2.3 Text ...............................................................................................................................................26
2.2.3.1 Font ............................................................................................................................. 26
2.2.3.2 Height of characters .................................................................................................... 27
2.2.3.3 Thickness of character pen strokes............................................................................. 28
2.2.3.4 Spacing between lines of lettering............................................................................... 28
2.2.3.5 Fractions/decimals....................................................................................................... 28
2.2.3.6 Abbreviations, contractions and acronyms ................................................................. 28
2.2.3.7 Glossary of terms ........................................................................................................ 29
2.2.3.8 Units of measurements ............................................................................................... 29
2.2.3.9 Chainages ................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.3.10 Curve components ...................................................................................................... 33
2.3 Drawings..................................................................................................................................... 34
2.3.1 General .........................................................................................................................................34
2.3.2 Drawing size .................................................................................................................................35
2.3.3 Drawing sheets .............................................................................................................................35
2.3.3.1 Electronic drawing sheets ........................................................................................... 35
2.3.3.2 Copyright and GILF ..................................................................................................... 36
2.3.3.3 North point ................................................................................................................... 36
2.3.3.4 Sheet overlap .............................................................................................................. 36
2.3.3.5 Adjoins lines and numbers .......................................................................................... 37
2.3.3.6 Issue identifier ............................................................................................................. 37
2.3.3.7 Consultants logo.......................................................................................................... 38
2.3.3.8 Drawing Revisions....................................................................................................... 38
2.3.4 Drawing media ..............................................................................................................................38
2.3.4.1 Use of media ............................................................................................................... 38

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ii

2.3.4.2 Preliminary drawings ................................................................................................... 38


2.3.4.3 Final drawings ............................................................................................................. 38
2.3.5 Title block data..............................................................................................................................39
2.3.5.1 Job numbers................................................................................................................ 39
2.3.5.2 Contract numbers ........................................................................................................ 39
2.3.5.3 Associated job numbers .............................................................................................. 39
2.3.5.4 Auxiliary drawing numbers .......................................................................................... 39
2.3.5.5 Through distance......................................................................................................... 40
2.3.5.6 Scales.......................................................................................................................... 40

Tables
Table 2.1.3.1 - Data format description ................................................................................................... 3
Table - 2.1.3.2 Data format/CADD package matrix................................................................................. 3
Table 2.1.6.3 - Model names................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 2.1.6.4 - Example of project data file structure .......................................................................... 23
Table 2.2.1 - Line type / symbol categories........................................................................................... 24
Table 2.2.1.1 - Spacing of parallel lines ................................................................................................ 24
Table 2.2.2 - Standard line types (generic) ........................................................................................... 25
Table 2.2.3.2 - Minimum height of characters on drawings .................................................................. 27
Table 2.2.3.8(a) - Approved shortened forms ....................................................................................... 29
Table 2.2.3.8(b) - Approved units of measurement............................................................................... 32
Table 2.2.3.10 - Standard curve notations ............................................................................................ 34
Table 2.3.1 - Standard drawing sheets ................................................................................................. 35
Table 2.3.3.4 - Standard electronic drawing sheets.............................................................................. 36

Figures
Figure 2.1.2 - Overview of CADD Data Modelling Components ............................................................. 1
Figure 2.1.6.3(a) - Typical cross section of two lane two way rural road ................................................ 9
Figure 2.1.6.3(b) - Typical cross section of multilane rural road independently aligned.................... 10
Figure 2.1.6.3(c) - Typical cross section of undivided urban road ........................................................ 11
Figure 2.1.6.3(d) - Typical cross section of multilane urban road ......................................................... 12
Figure 2.1.6.3(e) - Typical cross section of urban arterial road separated function type................... 13
Figure 2.1.6.3(f) - Typical cross section of urban arterial road separated function type.................... 14
Figure 2.1.6.3(g) - Typical cross section of multilane motorway (no transit lanes) ............................... 15
Figure 2.1.6.3(h) - Design string labels plan view example ............................................................... 16
Figure 2.1.6.3(i) - Design string labels drainage profile example....................................................... 17

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iii

Figure 2.1.6.3(j) - Example of strings required for headstocks, pier columns and footing.................... 18
Figure 2.1.6.3(k) - Example of strings required for headstocks, pier columns and piles ...................... 19
Figure 2.1.6.3(l) - Example of strings required for abutments............................................................... 20
Figure 2.1.6.3(m) - Example of strings required for deck and kerbs ..................................................... 21
Figure 2.1.6.3(n) - Example of strings required for spillthrough ............................................................ 22
Figure 2.2.3.10(a) - Standard alignment ............................................................................................... 33
Figure 2.2.3.10(b) - Standard curve components ................................................................................. 34
Figure 2.3.1 Characteristics of A series paper size ............................................................................. 35

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 General Standards

2.1

Data modelling

The purpose of this section is to provide guidance in the modeling and transfer of data, to ensure
uniformity of both data generated using internal systems or data supplied to the department from
external sources.
2.1.1

Scope

Generally, all documents prepared by or on behalf of the department are in electronic format and use
data modelled with Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) software. The general standards
outlined in this Chapter detail data modeling standards that are acceptable to the department. They
are to be read in conjunction with the requirements for preparation and presentation of each specific
type of CADD data used by the department, which are detailed in the following chapters of this
manual. Figure 2.1.2 provides an overview of CADD Data Modeling Components.
2.1.2

Media

A Standard Operating Environment (SOE) based on the Microsoft Windows platform is the default
desktop across the department. At the time of writing, the platform is Windows XP (Service Pack 2).
Figure 2.1.2 - Overview of CADD Data Modelling Components

2.1.2.1

Type

The media on which the data is to be supplied is to be agreed to by the Project Manager and the data
supplier and set out in the brief. Hardware compression on devices must not be used under any
circumstances. Accepted media types are:

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 General Standards

1. Data CD (CD-ROM or DVD), single session, finalised, compliant with Joliet File System. The
only requirement for this file system is:
a. A file name shall not be more than 64 characters in length, including spaces. This is
generally the default option used to record most CDs. Joliet also records the associated
DOS-standard name (8+3 characters) for each file so that the CD may be read on DOS
systems or earlier versions of Windows.
b. Electronic Mail (email). Email size is generally restricted to 5Mb. This includes the mail
message and any accompanying attachments.
Floppy disks and ZIP disks are no longer acceptable as deliverable media.
The data supplier is to certify that the data is virus free. Particular care is to be taken where data files
are being transferred as compressed executable files (.exe).
2.1.2.2

Format

Only media formatted using the Windows format command is acceptable. It is the data supplier's
responsibility to supply data in a media format appropriate to the department's systems.
2.1.2.3

Compression

Data may be supplied in compressed format agreed to by the Project Coordinator. This must be
detailed on accompanying documentation and a copy of the software to reverse the process. Also,
instructions on how to use the programme to extract the file(s) shall be provided. Hardware
compression on devices must not be used under any circumstances. The use of utilities that produce
compressed files compatible with the Standard Operating Environment detailed in Clause 2.1.2 is the
only acceptable method of file compression.
It is the data supplier's responsibility to supply data using a compression format appropriate to the
department's systems.
2.1.3

CADD software

The department currently uses both propriety and in-house developed software for modeling a
drawing presentation. This software is continually developed and customised to meet the needs of the
department.
The current CADD software systems used in design offices throughout the department and a
description of their uses are as follows:

COGO
A civil engineering problem oriented language used in the solution of geometric problems and
based on COordinate GeOmetry where coordinates resulting from executed commands are
stored and used as input for succeeding commands.

12D
12D Model is an interactive three dimensional modeling package designed to quickly build
terrain, conceptual and detail design string models. The survey features of the software are
extensively used by the Survey section of the department for inputting terrain and feature
data. Large survey data models can be triangulated and contoured to build an initial terrain
model. Roads, channels and other design features can be added interactively and a merged
model containing the initial terrain and the new design features formed to produce conceptual
design models. All models can be examined in plan, section or perspective views including

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extensive visualisation and drive through facilities. The departments 12D customisation, used
in the design process and conforming to the Data Modeling Standards, is included in
Appendix 2B.

AutoCAD / MAP 3D
A general purpose Computer Aided Drafting system designed with an open architecture that
can be customised to individual requirements. For the departments purposes, AutoCAD has
been customised to include standard plan sheets, blocks (or shapes) containing survey
symbols and traffic signs and a layer naming convention with assigned line styles for use in
survey, design and environmental drawings. This customisation is also used to simplify the
importing of survey data from other systems with MR customisation, such as 12D.

Data is to be supplied in a format suitable for the receiving CADD package.

2.1.3.1

Data format

In many instances, information is required to be transferred between various software systems. There
is no simple or perfect mechanism for data transfer that satisfies all systems. Some systems are
specialised in their application requiring specific software to operate.
CADD data is to be supplied in a data format agreed to by the Project Manager and compatible with
currently used versions of the supported CADD software listed above. The more common data
exchange systems used in the department are shown in Table 2.1.3.1.
Table 2.1.3.1 - Data format description
Data Format

Description

AutoCAD drawing (DWG)

AutoCAD's binary drawing file format (.dwg). Guidelines for


AutoCAD drawing exchange are included in Appendix 2A.

Data eXchange Format (DXF)

An ascii based data transfer system developed by AutoDesk.


The exchange of data in this format may vary across packages
possibly causing some incompatibilities. If this format is to be
used, it is the data supplier's responsibility to supply data
compatible with the department's CADD software.

12D Ascii

A proprietary model file format developed by 12D Solutions for


the modeling of road infrastructure design using 12D model.

Not all design offices are able to accept all of the data formats listed above. It is the data supplier's
responsibility to supply data in a format agreed to by the issuing office.
2.1.3.2

Target data formats

The following Table 2.1.3.2 shows a matrix of data formats and the CADD packages they can receive.
Table - 2.1.3.2 Data format/CADD package matrix
Data Formats

Receiving CADD Package


12D

AutoCAD

AutoCAD drawing

12D Models

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2.1.4
2.1.4.1

Data delivery
Data presentation

CADD data will be presented in accordance with the following chapters of this manual for preparation
and presentation of each specific type of CADD data used by the department.
2.1.4.2

Data delivery

CADD data is to be delivered as detailed in the following chapters of this manual for preparation and
presentation of each specific type of CADD data used by the department. A copy of all data files as
delivered to the department will be stored in accordance with the issuing office's quality system.
2.1.4.3

Data ownership

All data supplied by the data supplier shall become the property of the department. Nominal ownership
shall reside with the officer responsible, for the provision of funds, for the acquisition of such data.
It shall not be used, copied or reproduced by the data supplier for any other purpose without the prior
written approval by the owners or the department.
2.1.5

CADD data transmission

Transmission of data is to be carried out in accordance with the Project Managers quality system.
Data may be transferred as an attachment to an email, memo or letter, or made available over the
Internet. Regardless of the method of transmission, the following information should typically be
included with the data:

Direction of transfer (From:... - To:..)

Name and address details of data supplier

Contact person for data supply

Date

Road Number

Job number and location

Media type

Media format

Compression method

Authoring software and version number

Data format

CADD filename(s) and description(s)

Adequacy of data and data verification (proof plot etc.)

Person responsible for data verification.

2.1.6

Naming convention for modelling systems

For uniformity throughout all departmental design offices within the state, a standard naming
convention for models and strings has been developed for use within all design software modelling
packages.

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2.1.6.1

Model naming convention

To take full advantage of current and proposed automated procedures within our modelling packages,
a standard model naming convention is required. Designers and constructors then will have immediate
recognition of model contents no matter from which design office the project originated.
This naming convention follows closely the names associated with the types of models and the
surfaces they contain. Table 2.1.6.3 shows the model names to be adopted together with a brief
description of their contents and general uses.
2.1.6.2

Survey feature codes

All survey feature coding and modelling must be in accordance with the department's current
standards as set out in Main Roads Surveying Standards (Reference 7). No variations will be
allowed to the codes, symbols, line styles or designated models for each code.
2.1.6.3

Design string naming convention

The department has adopted a standard convention for the naming of design model strings. The use
of a labelling convention during design will allow for a more efficient use of current and future
automated features. These features, such as the transfer of data, are available within existing design
software.
A further benefit of a standard string naming convention (SNC) is that a string label signifies the same
feature throughout all design offices and to all constructors. This results in easier understanding of any
project model regardless of the origin of the design.
Appendix 2A, represents the departments string naming convention. In most cases only the first two
characters of the string label are relevant for string recognition. The number of characters in the string
label and its definition will be dependant on the modelling software used. Line style names have been
included in the table (see also Clause 2.2.1 Line Types).
Examples showing design elements for roadways of the string naming convention are included as
Figure 2.1.6.3(a) to Figure 2.1.6.3(i). Bridge feature string naming convention is included as
Figure 2.1.6.3(j) to Figure 2.1.6.3(n).
Table 2.1.6.3 - Model names
Model Name

Contents

Use

SURVEY

Survey marks, strings & points

Feature drawings

SURVEY BOUNDARY

Strings for defining the extents of


survey

Limit triangulation

SURVEY CADASTRAL

Land survey, mapping and property


boundaries

Drawings

SURVEY COMMENTS

Strings containing text information

Survey information

SURVEY CONTROL

Control strings produced by


contouring the survey triangle model

Analysing the DTM

SURVEY DATUM

Survey datum information

Feature Drawings

SURVEY DCDB

Property boundaries from the DERM


DCDB

Planning

SURVEY DRAINAGE

Existing surveyed drainage networks

Drawings and profiles

SURVEY DTM

All original survey data used for

Generate the natural surface

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Model Name

Contents
generation of a triangulation

Use
triangulation model

SURVEY ELECTRICITY

Existing surveyed electricity services

Drawings

SURVEY FENCES

Existing surveyed fence structures

Drawings

SURVEY GENERAL

Miscellaneous surveyed features not


contained in other survey models

Drawings

SURVEY LINEMARKING

Existing road line marking

Drawings

SURVEY METADATA

Customisation version number and


relevant data

Checking customisation used


for survey generation

SURVEY NUMBERS

Strings containing survey points


Nos.

Survey information

SURVEY QUALITY

Survey strings & points for quality


assurance

Survey information

SURVEY ROAD

Existing road furnishing e.g. signs,


signals

Feature drawings

SURVEY STREAMS

Drainage information

Information and drawings

SURVEY STRUCTURES

Strings representing existing


buildings, bridges etc.

Feature drawings

SURVEY TRAVERSE

Instrument stations

Feature drawings

SURVEY TELECOMM

Existing surveyed communications


services

Drawings

SURVEY UTILITIES

Existing miscellaneous services not


shown in other models

Drawings and profiles

SURVEY TRIANGLES

Triangulation of SURVEY DTM


model representing the original
ground surface

Initial ground model

TERRAIN TRIANGLES

Triangulation of SURVEY DTM


model and substituted STEPPING
model

Accurate earthwork volumes


calculations

DESIGN

Strings defining the complete design


surface. Used to generate the
triangulation model DESIGN
TRIANGLES

Drawings and construction


details

DESIGN BOUNDARY

Strings for defining the extents of the


DESIGN model

Limiting DESIGN TRIANGLES


triangulation

DESIGN CADASTRAL

Un-surveyed property boundaries


and proposed resumption
boundaries

Drawings

DESIGN BRIDGE [X]

Strings defining bridge [X]

Visualisation and construction

DESIGN CONTROL

All control line strings

To identify all control line strings


in a project

DESIGN CONTOURS

Contour strings produced by


contouring the DESIGN TRIANGLES
model

Pavement drainage and design


verification

DESIGN CULVERT [X]

Strings defining culvert [X]

Visualisation and construction

DESIGN DRAINAGE

Proposed new drainage networks

Drawings and profiles

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Model Name

Contents

Use

DESIGN ENVIRONMENT

Proposed landscaping & erosion &


sediments conditions treatments

Drawings & visualisation

DESIGN FURNITURE

Proposed new road furniture

Drawings

DESIGN GENERAL

Miscellaneous new features not


contained in other models

Drawings

DESIGN LINEMARKING

Proposed new road line marking

Drawings and visualisation

DESIGN TRIANGLES

Triangulation representing the


complete design surface derived
from DESIGN model

Design verification, quantities,


visualisation and construction

DESIGN TUNNEL [X]

Strings defining tunnel where [X] can


be upper or lower section of tunnel

Visualisation and construction

DESIGN UTILITIES

Proposed new public utility plant

Drawings and profiles

DESIGN VOLUMES

Proposed volumes strings

Showing volumes on long


sections

COMPOSITE

Strings representing the integration


of the final design with the existing
terrain

Drawings and visualisation

COMPOSITE CONTOURS

Contours strings produced by


contours composite model

Drainage & design verification

COMPOSITE TRAINGLES

Triangle representing the composite


model

Design verification,
visualisation, drainage

MATERIAL TRIANGLES
[N]

Triangulation representing a
materials layer surface, where [N] is
the layer number commencing at 1

Long and cross sections,


volume calculations

SETTING OUT

All setting out strings

Design detail features

SAFE

Contains various strings copied or


transferred from models

Strings to be kept for future use

XXXX DESIGN

Strings defining the design surface


associated with control line XXXX

Drawings and construction


details

XXXX DESIGN
TRIANGLES

Triangulation of model XXXX


DESIGN

Design verification and


quantities

XXXX BOUNDARY

Strings defining the extent of the


design model associated with control
line XXXX

Limiting triangulation of design


model

XXXX STRIPPING

Strings for defining stripping


associated with control line XXXX

Used in triangulation of
modified surface (for future use)

XXXX STRIPPING
BOUNDARY

Determining boundaries of
triangulation

XXXX STRIPPING
TRIANGLES

Triangulation of XXXX STRIPPING


model representing the stripped
ground surface

Used in triangulation of
modified surface (for future use)

XXXX STEPPING

Strings for defining the STEPPING


under embankments associated with
control line XXXX

Used in triangulation of
modified surface (for future use)

XXXX STEPPING
BOUNDARY

Strings for defining the extents of


model XXXX STEPPING

Determining boundaries of
triangulation

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Model Name

Contents

Use

XXXX STEPPING
TRIANGLES

Triangulation of XXXX STEPPING


model representing the stepped
ground surface.

Used in triangulation of
modified surface (for future use)

XXXX BOX SECTION [N]

Subgrade section strings generated


along control line XXXX where [N] is
the layer number commencing at 1

Drawings, construction
sections, details and volumes

XXXX PAVEMENT LAYER


[N]

Strings defining a pavement layer


surface generated along control line
XXXX where [N] is the layer number.
1 Represents the Subgrade Layer >1
represents pavement layer.

Drawings, construction
sections, details and volumes

XXXX PAVEMENT
TRIANGLES [N]

Triangulation of XXXX pavement


layer [N]

Long and cross sections,


volume calculations

XXXX CROSS SECTIONS

Cross section strings generated


along control line XXXX

Drawings, construction details,


volumes

XXXX LONG SECTIONS

Long section strings generated along


control line XXXX

Drawings, construction details,


volumes

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Figure 2.1.6.3(a) - Typical cross section of two lane two way rural road

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Figure 2.1.6.3(b) - Typical cross section of multilane rural road independently aligned

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Figure 2.1.6.3(c) - Typical cross section of undivided urban road

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Figure 2.1.6.3(d) - Typical cross section of multilane urban road

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Figure 2.1.6.3(e) - Typical cross section of urban arterial road separated function type

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Figure 2.1.6.3(f) - Typical cross section of urban arterial road separated function type

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Figure 2.1.6.3(g) - Typical cross section of multilane motorway (no transit lanes)

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Figure 2.1.6.3(h) - Design string labels plan view example

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Figure 2.1.6.3(i) - Design string labels drainage profile example

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Figure 2.1.6.3(j) - Example of strings required for headstocks, pier columns and footing

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Figure 2.1.6.3(k) - Example of strings required for headstocks, pier columns and piles

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Figure 2.1.6.3(l) - Example of strings required for abutments

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Figure 2.1.6.3(m) - Example of strings required for deck and kerbs

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Figure 2.1.6.3(n) - Example of strings required for spillthrough

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2.1.6.4

Project data file structure

To facilitate data retrieval and other processes within the department, it is necessary to have a
common file structure for the long-term storage of relevant project data information.
All internal and external designers should adopt the following file structure. It divides the data directory
path into Roads under which are placed relevant Projects. Under each project is placed the data for
the software used under their various application names such as 12D, and AutoCAD / Map 3D.
Advantages to be achieved in using this method are:

all relevant project files are kept together

a common directory path is easily accessed by all users

copying and archiving a project's data files is more easily achieved.

An example of this project data file structure is shown in Figure 2.1.6.4 and is recommended as a
standard to be used in all design offices and by all consultants. It shows a typical road project folder
for (17B) Cunningham Highway. Under this are held relevant Jobs such as (2) Eight Mile Intersection.
This folder then contains the project data for each of the software applications used for that project
(e.g. 12D, AutoCAD/Map 3D). Also included is any project Documentation as well as provision for
Management Correspondence. On completion of the design the entire contents of the Project Folder is
to be placed on CD(s) /DVD for distribution and archiving.
Figure 2.1.6.4 - Example of project data file structure

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2.2

Line types, symbols and text

2.2.1

Line types

Line types are divided into categories, those that are generic as shown in Table 2.2.2 and those that
are applicable to specific disciplines. Table 2.2.1 shows each category, the prefix used for the
category and the table reference, which provides examples of each line type.
Table 2.2.1 - Line type / symbol categories
Prefix

2.2.1.1

Category

Table Reference

MR

Generic

Table 2.2.3.2

MRS

Survey

Appendix 2A

MRR

Road Design

Appendix 2A

MRB

Bridge Design

Appendix 2A

MRE

Erosion and Sediment Control

Appendix 2A

MRT

Traffic Signals

Appendix 2A

MRL

Roadway Lighting

Appendix 2A

MRG

Geotechnical

Appendix 2A

MRLR

Landscaping & Revegetation

Appendix 2A

Spacing of parallel lines

To allow for the reduction in the microfilm process and the subsequent enlargement for reproduction
purposes, it is necessary to draw parallel lines on the original with a clear space between them as
shown in Table 2.2.1.1
Minimum line spacing should not be less than 0.5 mm on an A3 drawing.
Table 2.2.1.1 - Spacing of parallel lines
Reduction

2.2.2

Minimum Line

Size

Ratio

Spacing

A0 to A2

2.0:1

0.8 mm

A0 to A3

3.0:1

1.2 mm

A1 to A3

2.0:1

0.8 mm

Symbols

Symbols are also divided into categories applicable to specific disciplines. Refer to Appendix 2A for
string naming conventions.
The departments' customised features in AutoCAD contains blocks of all the required symbols and
features used for scheme presentation purposes as follows:

Kerb types as shown on Standard Drawing 1033 of the Manual of Standard Drawings
(Reference 4)

Selected traffic signs and pavement markings as shown in the Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (Reference 5)

North Points

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Scale Bars

Selected standard notes.

Table 2.2.2 - Standard line types (generic)


Description of Line Type

Line Type name

CAD Line Type

Continuous lines 0.18 mm

MR_CON_018

CONTINUOUS

Continuous lines 0.25 mm

MR_CON_025

CONTINUOUS

Continuous lines 0.35 mm

MR_CON_035

CONTINUOUS

Continuous lines 0.50 mm

MR_CON_050

CONTINUOUS

Continuous lines 0.70 mm

MR_CON_070

CONTINUOUS

Continuous lines 1.00 mm

MR_CON_100

CONTINUOUS

Chain lines 0.18 mm

MR_CHN_018

MR_CHN

Chain lines 0.25 mm

MR_CHN_025

MR_CHN

Chain lines 0.35 mm

MR_CHN_035

MR_CHN

Chain lines 0.50 mm

MR_CHN_050

MR_CHN

Chain lines 0.70 mm

MR_CHN_070

MR_CHN

Chain lines 1.00 mm

MR_CHN_100

MR_CHN

Double dashed chain lines 0.18 mm

MR_DCH_018

MR_DCH

Double dashed chain lines 0.25 mm

MR_DCH_025

MR_DCH

Double dashed chain lines 0.35 mm

MR_DCH_035

MR_DCH

Double dashed chain lines 0.50 mm

MR_DCH_050

MR_DCH

Double dashed chain lines 0.70 mm

MR_DCH_070

MR_DCH

Double dashed chain lines 1.00 mm

MR_DCH_100

MR_DCH

Dashed lines 0.18 mm

MR_DSH_018

MR_DSH

Dashed lines 0.25 mm

MR_DSH_025

MR_DSH

Dashed lines 0.35 mm

MR_DSH_035

MR_DSH

Dashed lines 0.50 mm

MR_DSH_050

MR_DSH

Dashed lines 0.70 mm

MR_DSH_070

MR_DSH

Dashed lines 1.00 mm

MR_DSH_100

MR_DSH

MR_CON

CONTINUOUS

MR_PHM

MR_PHM

Continuous lines

Chain lines

Double dashed chain lines

Dashed lines

Construction Lines
Construction lines 0.25 mm
Phantom Lines
Phantom lines 0.25 mm

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2.2.2.1

Arrowheads

Dimension leader lines should terminate in arrowheads rather than in dots. Arrowheads should be
drawn to suit detail scale.
2.2.3

Text

The photocopier is the means by which most drawings are reproduced for issue. The microfilm
camera is the means by which drawings are archived. These methods dictate a need to produce
original drawings capable of being reduced to the required size and copied or reduced to a 35 mm
negative for later enlargement.
In the microfilm process, the camera through a photoelectric cell scans the background only of the
drawing sheet to determine the exposure. The drawing, therefore, must be dense and clear with
lettering size and thickness of line complying with minimum standards. Drawings must be planned to
avoid cramping of detail, and a bold open spaced original should produce a clear print.
Lettering, numerals and dimensions should be drawn to be readable from the bottom or right hand
side of the sheet.
Contour values should be arranged to be read in the direction of increasing height.
Chainage values should be located on the left hand side of the base/control line(s) when looking in the
direction of increasing chainage.
2.2.3.1

Font

Characters shall be of a simple open form, without serifs. They must remain legible when reduced for
documentation purposes, and as an image on a microfilm viewing screen (also see Table 2.2.3.2 for
minimum character height).
For consistency, one style of character should be used throughout a drawing and across all scheme
drawings, with a preference for vertical characters. Vertical characters must be used for titles, drawing
numbers and reference numbers.
Underlined lettering should be avoided. Special emphasis may be achieved by using larger
characters, different character font, sloping versus vertical characters or with care, different pen size.
Vertical characters/numerals are to be used where they refer to either established or existing data and
features. Referencing to design information and design details should be shown in italic. For example,
height values established by survey as recorded in the survey books, such as for spot and BM's,
would be shown vertical. Interpolated height values would be shown sloping. In addition, designed
heights would be shown sloping.
The use of upper-case characters for all characters in a large block of text (e.g. paragraphs of notes)
is to be discouraged, as this makes the text less readable.
The Transport and Main Roads AutoCAD and 12d customisations define text styles, called
MR_ROMANS amd MR_ROMANSI, that reference the font shape file ROMANS.shx, provided with
each application. ROMANS.shx suits the simple open form, without serifs requirement above. Being
a native AutoCAD font, it has also proven to be efficient in drawings containing large amounts of text.

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Two additional text styles have been defined in the AutoCAD customisation and are purpose specific:

Parish_Vegetation_Soil

Rivers_Creeks

These reference ROMANC.shx and ROMANT.shx respectively.


For output produced from AutoCAD and 12d, the MR_ROMANS and MR_ROMANSI text styles are
expected to be used, as supplied with the associated customisations, for the vast majority of text.
For applications other that AutoCAD and 12d an alternative font, compliant with the simple open form,
without serifs requirement will be acceptable.
The font should be freely available, either supplied with the Windows operating system, or able to be
supplied to Transport and Main Roads without cost or copyright restrictions.
Examples of such fonts include:

Arial

Arial Narrow

Verdana.

One caveat is that width factors less than 1.0 may not provide the level or clarity and legibility
required. On-screen appearance is not necessarily an indicator of output clarity. Please verify that
output quality and clarity are acceptable prior to committing to a font.
2.2.3.2

Height of characters

The height, in millimetres, of characters on original (full scale) drawings should preferably be one of
the following:

2.5*, 3.5, 5, 7, 10, 14, 20 (*note not suitable for reduction).

These text heights are included as standard sizes in the Main Roads AutoCAD Customisation system.
Other heights may be used provided that the minimum height requirements of this clause are met.
The minimum height of characters is shown in Table 2.2.3.2 and is to be adopted on original drawings
for the various reductions required for documentation purposes. Transport and Main Roads
customisation requires that text be shown in upper and lower case. Some notes and text have been
forced to upper case in the departments customisation for their importance. When reduced for
scheme documentation the character height for capitals should desirably be not less than 1.5 mm.
Table 2.2.3.2 shows the minimum heights of characters.
Table 2.2.3.2 - Minimum height of characters on drawings
Reduction

Character Size

Character Size

Original drawings

Reduced Drawings

Size

Ratio

Caps

Caps/ lower
case

Caps

Caps/ lower
case

A0>A3

3:1

4.5

5.0

1.5

1.7

A1>A3

2:1

3.0#

3.5

1.5

1.75

# note - 3.0 mm is not a standard text height and may only be used where all characters are capitals and where
its use can be justified due to limited space on a drawing.

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2.2.3.3

Thickness of character pen strokes

The German standards DIN 15, 16, 17, Series 1 refer to the ratio of lettering thickness to height for
microfilming purposes. Two ratios are referred to:

1:10 medium thick, and

1:14 thin.

Use of the 1:10 ratio is consistent with departmental practice, however 1:14 may be achieved using
the next finer pen.
2.2.3.4

Spacing between lines of lettering

Line spacing is not to be less than 1.6 'h', where 'h' is the height of capitals. This is normally a
predefined standard in CAD packages.
2.2.3.5

Fractions/decimals

All values that are not whole numbers shall be expressed in decimal form to two decimal places.
Where the quantity is less than one, the decimal should be preceded by the number '0', e.g. 0.45. The
number of decimal places is two,. Chainages to be to three decimal places. Concrete to one decimal
place. Reference MRS01.
2.2.3.6

Abbreviations, contractions and acronyms

This section details the abbreviations, contractions and acronyms (see also Reference 3), glossary of
terms and units of measurements, which have been selected from those commonly used in civil
engineering drawings and documents.
It is necessary that consistency of usage be maintained throughout the department, particularly in
relation to the presentation in contract documents.
The object of using shortened forms is to save space and make reading easier by avoiding needless
repetition. They should not be used for their own sake but only when appropriate. Their best use is
with words and phrases which are important in context but become so familiar to the reader, from
constant repetition, that all the reader needs is some simple code to identify them.
The word 'contraction' refers to a shortened form of a word that ends in the same letter as the word
itself (e.g. Dept for Department). The word 'abbreviation' refers to a shortened form consisting of the
initial letter alone or of the initial letter followed by other letters of the word except the final one (e.g.
Mon. for Monday). Contractions normally have no full stop, abbreviations normally do. Avoid using
apostrophes in abbreviations and contractions.
An acronym is a word developed usually from the initial letters of other words. These letters are
always in capitals, e.g. Reinforced Concrete Slab Deck Culvert (RCSDC). Common departmental
usage is shown in Table 2.2.3.8(a).
The correct names of Local Authorities and Roads must be used. Some minor abbreviations and
contractions of road names will be permitted as indicated below but in general, if space is available,
the full names should be given:

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Highway

Hwy

Road

Rd

Shire

Sh.

Developmental

Dev.

Town

T.

City

C.

Note that although highways and developmental roads have numbered and lettered sections to assist
in identification, they are known by name only, never by number.
Contractions in place names are discouraged but if it should be decided to shorten place names, care
must be taken that the contraction is well known with no misinterpretation.
For example, the following may be acceptable:
Townsville

Tville

Rockhampton

Rton

Bundaberg

Bberg

Charters Towers

Ch. Towers

Reference 2 tabulates further abbreviations outside normal departmental usage.


2.2.3.7

Glossary of terms

Words and terms that have specific meaning in road design and construction are generally to be
adopted from Australian Standard AS 1348.1 (Reference 1). Where conflict arises between
departmental terminology and the Australian Standard, the departmental standard shall prevail.
2.2.3.8

Units of measurements

There are many units of measurements commonly used in society, e.g. centimetre, which are not to
be used in departmental documents. Table 2.2.3.8(b) lists the approved units of measurements
together with their abbreviations that are to be used in the department's documentation.
Table 2.2.3.8(a) - Approved shortened forms
Description

Abbreviation

About

Abt

Approximate

Approx.

Authorisation

Auth.

Auxiliary

Aux

Bitumen

Bit_

Boundary

Bdy

Centre Line

CL (prefer C)

Chainage

Ch

Communication Cables:
Low Band

L (line type use)

High Band

H (line type use)

Coaxial

Cx

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Description
FibreOptics

Abbreviation
FO

Coordinate Geometry System

COGO

Roadway Earthworks Design System

REDS

Control

Ctl

Crossfall

Cfall

Culvert

Clvt

Corrugated Steel Helical Pipe

CSHP

Corrugated Steel Nestable Pipe

GSNP

Corrugated Steel Plate Arch

CSPA

Corrugated Steel Plate Pipe

CSPP

Corrugated Steel Plate Pipe-Arch

GSPPipe-Arch

Reinforced Concrete Box Culvert

RCBC

Reinforced Concrete Culvert

RCC

Reinforced Concrete Pipe

RCP

Reinforced Concrete Slab Deck Culvert

RCSDC

Reinforced Concrete Spanning Slab

RCSS

Slab Link Box Culvert

SLBC

Special RC Spanning Slab

SRCSS

Curve Widening

CW

Deck Wearing Surface

DWS

Distance

Dist.

District

Dist

Drawing

Drg

Earthworks

Ewks

Excavation Inlet and Outlet

Excav.
l&O

Except or Excluding

Ex.

Existing

Exist.

Formation

Form.

Gravel

No abbreviation

Height

Ht

Australian Height Datum

AHD

Australian Height Datum Correction

AHD Corr_

Australian Height Datum Derived

AHDD

Job Number

Job No,

Left or left hand

L or LH

Limited Access Drawing

LA Drg

Opposite

Opp.

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Description

Abbreviation

Pavement

Pvt

Pavement Marking

Pvt Mkg

Pegged

Pgd (in context P}

Real Property Plans

RP Plans

Reinforced Concrete

RC

Reinforcing.

Reinf.

Right or right hand

R or RH

Remaining

Rem.

Required

Reqd

Restricted Visibility Widening

RVW

Resumption Drawing

RDrg

Rock

No abbreviation

Crushed

Cr.

Uncrushed

Uncr.

Handpacked

Hndpkd

Round Fence Post

RFP

Square Fence Post

SEP

Shift

Sh (in contex 5)

Special

Spcl

Superelevation

Super.

Surfacing or Surface

Surf.

Survey

Svy

Benchmark

BM

Cadastral Survey Mark

CSM

Field Book

FB

Geocentric Datum of Australia

GDA

Level Book

LB

Universal Survey Book

USB

Instrument (traverse Station) Station

IS

Land Survey Pin

LSPin

Land Survey Plans

LS Plans

Land Survey Post

LS Post

Map Grid of Australia

MGA

Offset Peg

OP

Offset Mark

OM

Permanent Reference Point

PRP

Permanent Survey Mark

PSM

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Description

Abbreviation

Project Control Station

PCS

Survey Mark

SM

Vertical Curve

VC

Working Drawing

W Drg

Table 2.2.3.8(b) - Approved units of measurement


Quantity

Unit

Abbreviation

kilometre

km

metre

millimetre

mm

square kilometre

km

hectare

ha

square metre

cubic metre

litre

tonne

kilogram

kg

gram

kilogram/cubic metre

kg/m

kilogram/litre

kg/L

kilometre/hour

km/h

metre/second

m/s

acceleration

metre/second squared

m/s

flow

cubic metres/second

m/s

energy

joule

J (kgm/s=Nm)

force

newton

N (kgm/s=J/m)

power

watt

pascal

Pa (N/m)

kilopascal

kPa

megapascal

Mpa

temperature

degree Celsius

time

second

degree

...

degree minute second

dms

minute

...'

radian

rad

second

..."

lumen

Im

length/height

area

volume

mass

density
velocity

pressure and stress

angle

luminous flux

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Quantity

Unit

Abbreviation

luminous intensity

candela

cd

illumination (illuminance)

lux

lx

luminance

candela/square metre

cd/m

-6

-3

10 - micro
PREFIXES

10 - milli
10 - kilo
10 - mega

2.2.3.9

Chainages

Standard alignment descriptions and notation are shown in Figure 2.2.3.10(a) and Table 2.2.3.10.
Chainages are shown on the drawing sheets generally left to right in the direction of increasing
chainage (road gazettal).
Chainages are to be given at the beginning and end of each plan and are normally shown at the top of
the control line. These chainages are normally at intervals of 100 m and at a regular offset from the
control line.
Control line chainages are generally to be clear of road boundaries and details and positioned in such
a way as to identify the relevant chainage mark. All chainages and references to the alignment are to
be in italic. It may be necessary in extreme cases of curved alignment to draw lead lines (thin, short,
and broken) to the points to which they refer.
2.2.3.10 Curve components
Standard curve component descriptions and notation are shown in Figure 2.2.3.10(b) and
Table 2.2.3.10.
In urban schemes, where complex geometry is used, it may be necessary to show the full geometric
details for use by field staff during construction. Normally all that is required for a control line are the
tangent points that occur between straights for transitioned curves and circular curves.
These should be shown on the drawings in the form of their relevant abbreviation and corresponding
chainage.
Figure 2.2.3.10(a) - Standard alignment

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Figure 2.2.3.10(b) - Standard curve components

Table 2.2.3.10 - Standard curve notations


XXXX

Control Line Label

Alignment part or alignment segment number

SLT

Long Tangent of spiral

BgBT

Bearing Back Tangent

SST

Short Tangent of spiral

BgAT

Bearing Ahead Tangent

SEC

Secant length

Radius of circular curve

TC

Tangent to Circle

Tangent length of circular curve

CT

Circle to Tangent

TT

Total Tangent length

CC

Circle to Circle

Intersection Angle at point of intersection (in degrees)

SS

Spiral to Spiral

Spiral Length

TS

Tangent to Spiral

Shift Distance

SC

Spiral to Circle

Spiral Angle

CS

Circle to Spiral

Intersection Angle of circular curve (Vertex angle)

ST

Spiral to Tangent

ARC

Total arc length

IP

Intersection Point

(circular curve plus spirals)

SP

Secant Point

For transitioned curves with unequal spiral lengths, the abbreviations TT, L, S, , SLT, SST, are to be suffixed by
the letter A (ahead) or B (back), e.g. LA=Spiral Length Ahead.

2.3
2.3.1

Drawings
General

This section sets out the department's general requirements for drawing size, borders and media to be
used for the preparation and presentation of drawings.
AS 1612 (Reference 6) lists the standard specification for paper sizes in millimetres. Transport and
Main Roads uses the standard A series drawing sheets that have the characteristics shown in
Figure 2.3.1.

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Figure 2.3.1 Characteristics of A series paper size

A standard drawing sheet depicts a standard title block and border with the overall sheet sizes
outlined in Table 2.3.1.
Table 2.3.1 - Standard drawing sheets
Sheet Designation

Trimmed Width (W) mm

Trimmed Length (L) mm

A0

841

1189

A1

594

841

A2

420

594

A3

297

420

A4

210

297

A drawing refers to a standard drawing sheet with project design and construction information included
together with a completed title block. .When completed this forms part of a scheme prototype
document.
2.3.2

Drawing size

The cost and time in drawing preparation and the serviceability of the finished product in use must be
taken into account when making initial decisions as to the basic drawing sheet material and size.
Throughout a particular scheme, it is necessary to adopt a standard drawing size. Therefore, when
drawing work is undertaken by more than one office, early liaison is necessary.
A4 or smaller is not to be used for final drawing presentation.
2.3.3
2.3.3.1

Drawing sheets
Electronic drawing sheets

The department has developed standard electronic drawing sheets in the sizes and for the uses
specified in Table 2.3.3.4 and as shown in Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets.
These drawing sheets are included in the electronic drawing and are output when the drawing is
plotted. These frames are available as part of the department's standardised drafting system and are
made available to outside parties engaged to prepare drawings for the department as requested.
Title block formats have been standardised in order to facilitate the inclusion of the necessary
information in a uniform manner.
The information presented in Appendix 2D provides guidelines for predefined information associated
with drawings created using AutoCAD/Map 3D.

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2.3.3.2

Copyright and GILF

A copyright and GILF licence agreement is required on all internally produced road infrastructure
drawings and would include civil, structural, electrical etc.
Designs outsourced by the department i.e. designed and produced by external consultants, will not be
required to show the copyright or GILF statement on the drawings. These drawings would be expected
to have the consultants logo in the top right hand corner.
2.3.3.2.1

Road infrastructure design drawings

When these drawings are designed and produced within the department the copyright statement is
State of Queensland ( Department of Transport and Main Roads) [YEAR] and a GILF attribute
with the associated URL_http://creativecommons.org.licence/by/3.0/au
When Consultants produce drawings for the department they will retain their copyright for the design.
But the department retains the right to use this product. In this case the original individual copyright
work is not ours and therefore not ours to apply a GILF licence to.
2.3.3.3

North point

Where possible, it is preferred that all plans in a drawing set share the same orientation on the
drawing sheet.
North points are to occupy (where practicable) the same position within the standard border for each
sheet throughout the drawing set.
2.3.3.4

Sheet overlap

The plan information depicted on sheets is to overlap marginally with immediately preceding and
succeeding drawings within the documentation set.
This will assist in the overall legibility of site drawings by demonstrating each drawings relationship to
adjoining ones.
A minimum of 15 mm page space overlap (at A1 size) is recommended, depending on the road
alignment.
Table 2.3.3.4 - Standard electronic drawing sheets
Drawing Sheet Name

Size

Usage

GENERIC LOCALITY
MR_Detail and (_Con)
With Local_Index)

A1

First sheet in series

MRR_Resumption and (_Con)

A1

Resumption drawing

MRR_Native Title and (_Con)

A1

Native Title drawing

MRR_Limited
Access

A1

Limited Access drawing

MRR_Detail and (_Con)

A1

Detail plan drawings

ROADS

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Drawing Sheet Name

Size

Usage

GEOTECHNICAL
MRG_Detail and (_Con)

A1

Geotechnical Drawing

A1

Bridge detail drawing

A1

Detail Plan Drawings

A1

Traffic Signals cabling table

A1

Detail Plan drawings

BRIDGE
MRB_Detail and (_Con)
ROADWAY LIGHTING
MRR_Detail and (_Con)
TRAFFIC SIGNALS
MRT_Detail and (_Con)
ROAD DECLARATION
These plans are prepared in MapInfo
2.3.3.5

Adjoins lines and numbers

Each drawing must bear a reference to preceding and succeeding drawings within the drawing set.
The drawing number of adjoining preceding and succeeding drawings is to be printed parallel to and
against the right and/or left hand borders of the drawing.
The line at which adjoining drawings abut is also to be clearly marked along the width of the drawing.
2.3.3.6

Issue identifier

Each page of the drawing set is to be clearly marked near the top left hand corner with the drawing
sets issue identifier (departments plot stamp) during drawing development stages prior to completion
and release approval:

Preliminary

Preliminary Advice Only

Issued for Pricing Only

Issued for Constructability

Issued for Review/Check.

The names are for the different stages of drawings issued that is, status until approved for
construction, and is to have the date and time clearly within this plot stamp detailing when the
drawing/s is plotted.
Preliminary
These are preliminary drawings comprising the workings/ building up or development of the design i.e.
design work in progress.
Preliminary Advice Only
Typically Preliminary Advice Only drawings would still be under development. These drawings may be
transmitted to other parties and signifies the drawings are not final and may change.

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Issued for Pricing Only


Issued for Pricing Only drawings are provided for the taking off of quantities and development of unit
rates.
Issued for Constructability
Issued for Constructability drawings are those prepared for review/check by all stakeholders that is,
public utility plant services managers, electrical, structural, landscaping specialists, environmental,
maintenance and construction personnel and other officers necessary to provide input into design.
Issued for Review/Check
These drawings are typically issued for the checking and review process prior to completion.
2.3.3.7

Consultants logo

Where drawing/s are prepared by a consultant their logo is to appear in the top right corner of the
drawing sheet.
2.3.3.8

Drawing Revisions

'Revision clouds' are to be used when revisions are shown on previously approved drawings. This
revisions cloud will outline the modification being made to that particular drawing. The revisions area
in the bottom left of the title block is to be filled in outlining the modification being made to the drawing.
2.3.4
2.3.4.1

Drawing media
Use of media

Tracing, bond and high gloss papers and double matte polyester films can be supplied for general
drafting purposes in sheets or rolls to suit most ink jet printers or plotters.
It is essential that the correct plotting media, suitable for the required presentation standard, be used
when plotting on electronic printers or plotters.
2.3.4.2

Preliminary drawings

Drawings provided for preliminary purposes are to be plotted on plain paper.


2.3.4.3

Final drawings

Final drawings for approval and release are now produced as A3 size. A media called A3 Permanent
Paper, ranging from 100mic to 135mic, has been found suitable for final drawing presentation. It will
not rip or smudge and produces drawings suitable for storage and microfilming.
A1 size film is also a suitable medium for approval and release as it is a stable medium to store and
archive, also it reproduces well when it comes to microfilming as the mat finish on the film does not
cause flaring.
The colours of all standard line types and symbols have been chosen so that they are reproducible
when photocopied and retain their legibility when microfilmed.
Drawings are to be printed on the media and at the size set out in the brief.

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2.3.5
2.3.5.1

Title block data


Job numbers

The Job Number is the unique project identifier used through the concept, development and
implementation phases. On major projects a 900 series job number may be issued for the project to
the end of business case. A different job number will then be issued for the development and
implementation phase.
The purpose of this number is to track all project specified correspondence, to capture total project
costs and for reporting purposes. This number is identified in the Queensland Transport and Roads
Investment Program (QTRIP), which list the project, cost and construction timing. The Job Number will
be shown on all drawings.
The format of the job number is LG/RD/JOB where:

LG is the number allocated to the regional council shire council or city council

RD is the number allocated to the road or highway. An alpha character is usually suffixed to
this number to indicate sections of a highway

JOB is the unique number issued to each project by the district.

The issue of the job number is the responsibility of the regional/district office.
Where a project is located within more than one local government area or on more than one state
controlled road, multiple job numbers may be required. The job number relating to the coverage of the
drawing shall be shown as the primary job number.
2.3.5.2

Contract numbers

A Contract Number is issued for the purpose of the administration of a construction contract. This
number is in addition to the Job Number/s and will be shown on all the drawings, documents and
correspondence with the construction contractor.
The common format of the Contract Number is ABCD-ZZZ where:

ABC is three characters representing the district name and D is for district

ZZZ is the unique number issued to each project by the district.

The issue of the contract numbers is the district responsibility. Only one contract number will be issued
for each contract irrespective of how many job numbers.
2.3.5.3

Associated job numbers

On each drawing, other job numbers in the scheme are to be shown.


Where a project is located within more than one local government area or on more than one state
controlled road, multiple job numbers may be required. The job number relating to the coverage of the
drawing shall be shown as the primary job number.
2.3.5.4

Auxiliary drawing numbers

A listing of all drawings in the scheme is to be shown on all drawings. The Drawing Index sheet will
also detail all drawings. This list will be identical on all drawings.

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2.3.5.5

Through distance

The through distance (measured in kilometres to two decimals) from the start of gazettal shall be
shown on all drawings. The origin point for the through distance may be a town or intersection but
should be consistent with the departments ARMIS system. The through distance will be measured to
the start and end of the job.
2.3.5.6

Scales

The scale/s of the drawing shall be shown by the placing of a drawn scale bar annotated by numbers
indicating the metric distance with the added wording Metres. The original A1 scale is not necessary.
References
1. Australian Standard 1348.1, Road and Traffic Engineering Glossary of Terms, Part 1 Road
Design and Construction. Standards Association of Australia, Sydney.
2. Engineering Handbook Basic Principles and Techniques ASCZ1, Part 1. Institute of Engineers,
Australia.
3. Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. Australian Government Publishing Service.
4. Standard Drawings Roads Manual. Department of Transport and Main Roads.
5. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (MUTCD Queensland).
6. Australian Standard 1612, Paper sizes. Standards Association of Australia, Sydney.
7. Main Roads Surveying Standards. V 1.3. April 2012.

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Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2A - String Naming Conventions
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2A String Naming Conventions

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Description of revision
Update to Corporate Template

Authorised by
Owen Arndt

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Date
February
2014

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Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2B - Guidelines for AutoCAD Drawing
Exchange
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Description of revision
Update to Corporate Template

Authorised by

Date

Owen Arndt

February
2014

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Contents
1

AutoCAD external references and drawing exchange...............................................................1

AutoCAD text styles and drawing exchange ..............................................................................1

AutoCAD linetypes and drawing exchange ................................................................................2

AutoCAD drawing exchange ........................................................................................................2

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2B TMR Guidelines for AutoCAD Drawing Exchange

AutoCAD external references and drawing exchange

This section provides detailed guidelines for known issues relating to AutoCAD drawing exchange.
These guidelines are designed to make it easier to exchange drawings within the department and with
external organisations.
When drawings are created that contain external reference files (XREFS), the initial configuration of
the XREFS must be addressed when the drawing is setup to enable the drawing to be exchanged or
shared across a network successfully. This is because XREFS are separate AutoCAD drawing files
that are read and displayed when the parent drawing is opened.
When you attach XREFS to a drawing, there are methods for pathing the XREF files to ensure
problem-free file operations for the life of an AutoCAD project, including when our data is archived to
CD. XREFS should be placed in a sub-folder immediately below the folder in which the main (parent)
drawing is located. This is good for file housekeeping, and many operators have already identified the
benefits of keeping the XREFS separate. This file structure is shown in Figure 2.1.6.4 in
Section 2.1.6.4 (Project Data File Structure).
When this sub-folder file structure is used, XREFs should be attached using relative paths. Information
on relative paths can be found in the AutoCAD helpfile.
If this is done, the XREFS will be found no matter from which computer (and logical drive) the parent
drawing is accessed. Another benefit is that after the job is archived on CD (with the same sub-folder
structure), any drawing accessed directly from the CD will load the xrefs stored on the CD, rather than
a drawing file on the hard disk with the same filename. This is vital to re-create the archived drawing
correctly as XREFS may remain as living documents on the hard disk and be loaded instead of the
archived copy.
For drawings with XREFS in sub-folders already loaded and with paths already saved, it is a simple
matter to re-path the XREFS using this same method.
This method should also be used for image files also i.e. create a sub-folder below the main drawing
folder called "Images" (as shown in Figure 2.1.6.4 of Section 2.1.6.4 (Project Data File Structure)) and
edit the path in the same manner as for XREFS.
When you distribute drawing files that contain XREFS, to ensure that the drawing can be read
successfully it is important that you do one of the following things:

path the XREFS correctly and ensure that you include all the XREFS that are used by the
drawing

use the bind option to bind all XREFS into the drawing. The drawing file will no longer depend
on external reference files, however the advantages of using XREFS in the drawing will be
lost.

AutoCAD text styles and drawing exchange

AutoCAD text styles can be created using either AutoCAD SHX fonts, PostScript fonts or TrueType
fonts. When AutoCAD opens a drawing file it must have access to the font files that are referenced by
the text styles in the drawing. If AutoCAD is unable to locate the font files that are required by a text
style then it will display an error message.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2B TMR Guidelines for AutoCAD Drawing Exchange

The departments AutoCAD System defines text styles that use fonts supplied with AutoCAD. The
creation of additional text styles is strongly discouraged. However should it be necessary to create
additional text styles then they should only use fonts which are supplied as standard with AutoCAD.
Under no circumstances should third party text fonts be used. The use of third party fonts makes it
difficult to exchange drawing files with other parties who do not have access to these fonts. In most
situations it is a breach of copyright to distribute the required third party fonts with your drawing.

AutoCAD linetypes and drawing exchange

AutoCAD linetypes can be defined using shapes that have been defined in a compiled shape file (eg.
MRS.shx & MRR.shx). These shape files must be sent with the AutoCAD drawings. If the shape file is
not present in the AutoCAD Support File Search Path, opening and working in the drawing becomes
very slow.

AutoCAD drawing exchange

Using the AutoCAD etransmit command is an easy way of ensuring that all the relevant data (e.g.
external references, text style, linotypes and shape files) is included when distributing your drawing
file. Etransmit gives you the ability to create a folder containing the relevant files, a self-extracting
executable file (*.exe) or a Zip file.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2C - TMR 12D Model Customisation
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Description of revision
Update to Corporate Template

Authorised by
Owen Arndt

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Date
February
2014

Contents
1

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................1

Model And string naming convention .........................................................................................1

Survey strings ................................................................................................................................1

Design strings ................................................................................................................................1

Output sections..............................................................................................................................3

Templates .......................................................................................................................................3

Standard drawing sheets ..............................................................................................................4

Model naming conventions ..........................................................................................................4

General Notes continued ............................................................................................................11

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

ii

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Introduction

To maintain uniformity throughout the department, customised features have been developed and
added to 12D Model to simplify the planning and design process. These customised features are
designed to maintain departmental standards and include standard drawing sheets, line styles,
mapping files, title files, plot parameter files, definition files, fonts and various macros.

Model And string naming convention

A model and string naming convention has now been adopted throughout the department for all
modelling software packages used in the road planning and design process.
To take full advantage of current and proposed automated procedures within our design packages, a
standard model naming convention is required. This will give designers immediate recognition of
model contents no matter from which Regional/District Design Office the project originated.
This naming convention follows closely the names associated with the types of models and the
surfaces they contain. Model names are chosen in order to reflect the actual contents of the model.
The use of a string labelling convention, during design, will also allow for more efficient use of current
and future automated features. This is utilised within existing design software - such as the transfer of
data.
A further benefit of a standard string naming convention (SNC) is that a string label signifies the same
feature throughout all design offices. This results in easier understanding of any design project
regardless of where it originated.
The model and string naming convention is discussed in Chapter 2 General Standards of the Drafting
and Design Presentation Standards manual.

Survey strings

Survey data is input into 12D Model using various mapping files. These files place data into correct
models with appropriate line styles and colours. For more detail on Mapping, Processes, Output
Sections the use of standards templates and the production of drawing sheet is explained in the 12D
Customisation Manual which can be found on the departments web site www.tmr.qld.gov.au.
The 12D Customisation Manual describes a procedure for producing working plans - using long
section plot parameter files (lplotppf) - as well as producing cross section plans - using cross section
plot parameter files (xplotppf).

Design strings

When creating new design strings in 12D, the name of the string should start with the label as the first
two characters as shown in the string naming convention eg.:
CE for an Edge of Carriageway string.
Only the first two characters of the string name are required for all mapping files used in the
customisation data transfer facilities.
Where a string depicts a symbol type to be displayed in cross sections, then extra characters are
added to the string name. This naming convention is used for placing plot symbols on cross section
plots.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

For guard rail symbols to be displayed in a cross section, an extra character L or R needs to be added
to the string name to determine if it is drawn as a Left or Right hand rail e.g.
FBL for a W-Beam Guard Rail on the Left.
FHR for a Thrie Beam Guard Rail on the Right.
For concrete barriers there are two types Type F and Single slope. Their widths vary depending on
whether lighting is present or not. To cater for the variations the following string naming conventions
apply:
CBFXL

Concrete Barrier, Type F, Without light, string on Left of symbol

CBFWL

Concrete Barrier, Type F, With light, string on Left of symbol

CBFXR

Concrete Barrier, Type F, Without light, string on Right of symbol

CBFWR

Concrete Barrier, Type F, With light, string on Right of symbol

CBSXL

Concrete Barrier, Single slope, Without light, string on Left of symbol

CBSWL

Concrete Barrier, Single slope, With light, string on Left of symbol

CBSXR

Concrete Barrier, Single slope, Without light, string on Right of symbol

CBSWR

Concrete Barrier, Single slope, With light, string on Right of symbol

For kerb symbols, extra characters are added to depict the Kerb Types 1 to 27 as shown in Standard
Drawing 1033. The Kerb should be designed into the template profile using the Kerb Lip, Invert, Top
and Back points with corresponding string names. The Top of Kerb (KT) is used as the key point for
determining if a kerb symbol is to be drawn on the cross sections e.g.:
KT06L
The first two characters - KT - determine it is a Top of Kerb string so a symbol will be drawn.
The third and fourth characters - 06 - determine it is a Kerb Type 6.
The fifth character - L - determines it is on the Left of the carriageway in the direction of alignment
chainage.
Any number of characters can then follow these string names to further define the string.
Symbols are only placed on cross sections if the relevant strings are given the correct names. Where
the cross section cuts through these strings, it checks for the appropriate upper case or lower case
string name to apply the symbol. It follows therefore that a string name with a combination of upper
and lower case characters will not apply the symbol.
New Design line styles have been developed for final plan presentation of all new design strings. The
line styles have been grouped together under relevant group names for ease of operation when
selecting a line style in 12D.
Because line styles generated from template are defaulted to style 1, a mapping file called e.g.:
SADV04_des_in.mf
has been developed to convert all template generated string lines to their respective line styles as per
the string naming convention. This is achieved by selecting the Map option within 12D. Select the
mapping file and apply it to all Design strings.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

When design detail is output into AutoCAD, a new mapping file called e.g.:
SADV04_des_out.mf
has been developed.
Note that survey and design data is mapped separately, using their respective mapping files, when
being output into AutoCAD or other modelling packages. Data is mapped as two-dimensional files
(2D) when being output to AutoCAD.

Output sections

If cross sections or long sections are to be output into AutoCAD, AutoCAD drawing format specific
plotters should be used. The name for these plotters will have the following format:
DWG <AutoCAD Version number> (DMR mapping)
for example:
DWG 2007 (DMR mapping), or
DWG 2010 (DMR mapping).
Support for each format will be provided in the customisation release that follows the12d version
providing support for that format. When plotting sections directly from 12d to a printer, the following
printers have been configured to provide the correct plotter pen mapping:

Windows with DMR Colours (A1), and

Windows with DMR Colours (A3).

The A3 printer applies half the pen weights of the A1 printer.


When plotting the sections in 12D, select the pen mapping file e.g.:
MR_plot_map_FINAL_PLAN_A1.pmf
to plot the sections with the correct pen thicknesses, then select the plotter type
windows
and send directly to the relevant plotter.

Templates

A series of templates have been developed that conform to the string naming convention and comply
with the standard cross sections as shown in the Road Planning and Design Manual (RPDM). These
templates can be modified to suit specific applications. Some templates contain decision tables for
defining more complex side slopes. These are added as examples of the type of complexity of side
slopes that can be achieved. Decision tables can be copied from one template to another by
outputting the templates as ASCII files.
To input the templates into 12D select:

Templates>Utilities>Input>user_lib>SADV04_templates.tpl

File I/O>Templates input>user_lib>SADV04_templates.tpl

or

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Template A Two Lane Two Way Rural is based on Figure 7.27 of the RPDM. The control line
(MC10) runs down the centre of the carriageway.
Template B Divided Multilane Rural is based on Figure 7.28 of the RPDM. The carriageways
consist of two directions North and South. The control lines (MC10 and MC20) run down the centre of
the North and South carriageways respectively. Each carriageway has a verge and median template.
Template C Two Lane Two Way Urban is based on Figure 7.29 of the RPDM. The control line
(MC10) runs down the centre of the carriageway. Kerb type 15 is coded into the templates.
Template D Median Barrier Multilane Urban is based on Figure 7.30 of the RPDM. The control line
(MC10) runs down the centre of the median barrier. Kerb type 15 is coded into both templates at the
verge. Median barrier BCSWL is coded into the left template.
Template E Multilane Urban Arterial is based on Figure 7.31(a) of the RPDM. The carriageways
consist of two directions North and South. The control lines (MC10 and MC20) run down the crown of
the North and South carriageways respectively. Each carriageway has a verge and median template.
Kerb type 15 is coded into the templates at the verge and kerb type 5 at the median in both directions.
Template F Multilane Motorway is based on Figure 7.32(a) of the RPDM. The carriageways consist
of two directions North and South. The control lines (MC10 and MC20) run down the crown of the
North and South carriageways respectively. Each carriageway has verge and median templates. The
median templates - in both directions - contain a template with Kerb type 22 encoded for a 6.7 m
median and a template without kerbs for a 12 m median. Median barrier BCSWL is encoded into the
North median template with kerbs (6.7 m). The verge templates - in both directions - contain Kerb type
22 encoded for cut conditions and templates without kerbs for fill conditions. These templates can be
alternated between cut and fill situations in the MTF file.
The boxing file SADV04_pavement.bf contains coding to generate boxing that corresponds to the
previously defined templates and is input via the MTF file.

Standard drawing sheets

A description of how drawings are produced using standard departmental sheets and customised
features is explained in the 12D Customisation Manual which can be found on the departments web
site www.tmr.qld.gov.au.
The 12D Customisation Manual describes a procedure for producing working plans - using long
section plot parameter files (lplotppf) - as well as producing cross section plans - using cross section
plot parameter files (xplotppf).

Model naming conventions

Refer Note 1 for general comment on 12d Customisation implementation.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Survey and
Design

Strings defining
the extent of data
or a processing
restriction.

- **** BOUNDARY
- **** BOUNDARY
****
- BOUNDARY ****

- SURVEY BOUNDARY
- SURVEY BOUNDARY LIDAR
- SURVEY BOUNDARY 23-01-2011
- DESIGN BOUNDARY
- BOUNDARY DESIGN
- MC00 DESIGN BOUNDARY
- MC00 BOUNDARY DESIGN
- BOUNDARY MC00 DESIGN
- BOUNDARY DESIGN MC00
- BOUNDARY SUBGRADE LAYER 2
- SUBGRADE LAYER 2 BOUNDARY

Design

Alignment /
Design Control
strings.

- ALIGNMENT ****
- **** ALIGNMENT
****
- **** ALIGNMENT

- ALIGNMENTS
- ALIGNMENT MC00
- ALIGNMENT VPATH
- MC00 ALIGNMENT 23-01-2011
- MC00 ALIGNMENT
- VPATH ALIGNMENT

Survey and
Design

Land Survey,
mapping and
property
boundaries.

- **** CADASTRAL
- **** CADASTRAL
****
- CADASTRAL ****

- SURVEY CADASTRAL
- DESIGN CADASTRAL
- SURVEY CADASTRAL 23-01-2011
- DESIGN CADASTRAL 23-01-2011

Survey and
Design

Strings containing
text information.

- **** COMMENTS
- COMMENTS ****

- SURVEY COMMENTS
- DESIGN COMMENTS
- COMMENTS DESIGN

Survey and
Design

Contour strings
input directly from
a data source, or
derived from a
triangulation.

- **** CONTOUR
- **** COUNTOUR ****
- CONTOUR ****

- SURVEY CONTOURS
- DESIGN CONTOURS
- MC00 DESIGN CONTOURS
- DESIGN CONTOURS MC00
- SURVEY CONTOURS MAJOR
- DEISGN CONTOURS MAJOR
- CONTOURS SURVEY
- CONTOURS DESIGN
- CONTOURS MC00 DESIGN
- CONTOURS DESIGN MC00
- CONTOURS SURVEY MAJOR
- CONTOURS DESIGN MAJOR

Survey

Survey Datum
Information

- SURVEY DATUM ****


- **** SURVEY DATUM

- SURVEY DATUM
- SURVEY DATUM 23-01-2011
- SURVEY DATUM STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY DATUM
- STAGE 1 SURVEY DATUM

Survey

Property
boundaries from
DERM DCDB.

- SURVEY DCDB ****

- SURVEY DCDB
- SURVEY DCDB 23-01-2011
- SURVEY DCDB STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY DCDB
- STAGE 1 SURVEY DCDB

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Survey and
Design

Drainage
networks

- **** DRAINAGE
- **** DRAINAGE ****
- DRAINAGE ****

- SURVEY DRAINAGE
- DESIGN DRAINAGE
- SURVEY DRAINAGE 23-01-2011
- DESIGN DRAINAGE MC00
- DESIGN DRAINAGE 23-01-2011
- DRAINAGE MC00
- DRAINAGE DESIGN MC00

Survey

All Original survey


data used to
generation of a
triangulation.
(Refer Note 2)

- SURVEY DTM ****

- SURVEY DTM
- SURVEY DTM 23-01-2011
- SURVEY DTM STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY DTM
- STAGE 1 SURVEY DTM

Survey and
Design

Electricity
services

- **** ELECTRICITY
- **** ELECTRICITY ****
- ELECTRICITY ****

- SURVEY ELECTRICITY
- DESIGN ELECTRICITY
- MC00 DESIGN ELECTRICITY
- SURVEY ELECTRICITY 23-01-2011
- DESIGN ELECTRICITY MC00
- ELECTRICITY SURVEY
- ELECTRICITY SURVEY 23-01-2011
- ELECTRICITY DESIGN
- ELECTRICITY DESIGN MC00

Survey and
Design

Fence Structures

- **** FENCES
- **** FENCES ****
- FENCES ****

- SURVEY FENCES
- DESIGN FENCES
- SURVEY FENCES 23-01-2011
- DESIGN FENCES 23-01-2011
- FENCES SURVEY
- FENCES DESIGN

Survey and
Design

Miscellaneous
features not
contained in other
models. (Refer
Note 3)

- **** GENERAL
- **** GENERAL ****
- GENERAL ****

- SURVEY GENERAL
- DESIGN GENERAL
- SURVEY GENERAL 23-01-2011
- DESIGN GENERAL 23-01-2011
- GENERAL SURVEY
- GENERAL DESIGN

Survey and
Design

Road Line
Marking

- **** LINEMARKING
- **** LINEMARKING ****
- LINEMARKING ****

- SURVEY LINEMARKING
- DESIGN LINEMARKING
- MC00 LINEMARKING
- SURVEY LINEMARKING 23-01-2011
- DESIGN LINEMARKING MC00
- LINEMARKING SURVEY
- LINEMARKING DESIGN
- LINEMARKING MC00
- LINEMARKING DESIGN MC00

Survey and
Design

Project wide
metadata. (Refer
Note 4)

- **** METADATA
- **** METADATA ****
- METADATA ****

- SURVEY METADATA
- DESIGN METADATA
- SURVEY METADATA 23-01-2011
- DESIGN METADATA 23-01-2011
- METADATA SURVEY
- METADATA DESIGN

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Survey

Text strings
containing survey
point numbers.

- SURVEY NUMBERS ****

- SURVEY NUMBERS
- SURVEY NUMBERS 23-01-2011
- SURVEY NUMBERS STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY NUMBERS
- STAGE 1 SURVEY NUMBERS

Survey

Survey strings
and points for
quality assurance.

- SURVEY QUALITY ****

- SURVEY QUALITY
- SURVEY QUALITY 23-01-2011
- SURVEY QUALITY STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY QUALITY
- STAGE 1 SURVEY QUALITY

Survey and
Design

Existing road
furnishings e.g.
signs, signals.
(Refer Note 5)

- **** FURNITURE
- **** FURNITURE ****
- FURNITURE ****

- SURVEY FURNITURE
- DESIGN FURNITURE
- SURVEY FURNITURE 23-01-2011
- DESIGN FURNITURE MC00
- DESIGN FURNITURE 23-01-2011
- DESIGN FURNITURE MC00 23-01-2011
- FURNITURE SURVEY
- FURNITURE DESIGN
- FURNITURE SURVEY 23-01-2011

Survey

Strings and points


relating to existing
streams and
water ways.

- SURVEY STREAMS ****

- SURVEY STREAMS
- SURVEY STREAMS 23-01-2011
- SURVEY STREAMS STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY STREAMS
- STAGE 1 SURVEY STREAMS

Survey

Strings
representing
existing buildings,
bridges etc.

- SURVEY STRUCTURES ****

- SURVEY STRUCTURES
- SURVEY STRUCTURES 23-01-2011
- SURVEY STRUCTURES STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 STRUCTURES DATUM
- STAGE 1 STRUCTURES DATUM

Survey

Instrument
stations

- SURVEY TRAVERSE
****

- SURVEY TRAVERSE
- SURVEY TRAVERSE 23-01-2011
- SURVEY TRAVERSE STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY TRAVERSE
- STAGE 1 SURVEY TRAVERSE

Survey and
Design

Communication
Services

- **** TELECOMM
- **** TELECOMM ****
- TELECOMM ****

- SURVEY TELECOMM
- DESIGN TELECOMM
- MC00 TELECOMM
- SURVEY TELECOMM 23-01-2011
- DESIGN TELECOMM MC00
- DESIGN TELECOMM 23-01-2011
- TELECOMM SURVEY
- TELECOMM DESIGN MC00
- TELECOMM DESIGN

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Survey and
Design

Services not in
other models

- **** UTILITIES
- **** UTILITIES ****
- UTILITIES ****

- SURVEY UTILITIES
- DESIGN UTILITIES
- MC00 UTILITIES
- SURVEY UTILITIES 23-01-2011
- DESIGN UTILITIES MC00
- DESIGN UTILITIES 23-01-2011
- UTILITIES SURVEY
- UTILITIES DESIGN MC00
- UTILITIES DESIGN

Survey and
Design

Triangulation
models (Refer
Note 6)

- **** TRIANGLES
- **** TRIANGLES ****
- TRIANGLES ****

- SURVEY TRIANGLES
- TERRAIN TRIANGLES
- DESIGN TRIANGLES
- SUBGRADE TRIANGLES
- COMPOSITE TRIANGLES
- MC00 TRIANGLES
- SURVEY TRIANGLES 23-01-2011
- DESIGN TRIANGLES MC00
- DESIGN TRIANGLES 23-01-2011
- TRIANGLES SURVEY
- TRIANGLES DESIGN MC00
- TRIANGLES DESIGN
- TRIANGLES COMPOSITE

Design

Strings defining a
bridge

- **** DESIGN BRIDGE


- **** BRIDGE DESIGN
- **** DESIGN BRIDGE
****
- **** BRIDGE DESIGN
****
- DESIGN BRIDGE ****
- BRIDGE DESIGN ****

- MC00 CH300 DESIGN BRIDGE


- COOPER CK DESIGN BRIDGE
- COPPER CK BRIDGE DESIGN
- MC00 DESIGN BRIDGE COOPER CK
- DESIGN BRIDGE MC00 COPPER CK
- BRIDGE DESIGN COOPER CK MC00

Design

Strings defining a
culvert
(Refer Note 7)

- **** CULVERT
- **** CULVERT ****
- CULVERT ****

- MC00 CH3834 CULVERT


- MC00 CULVERT CH 3834
- CULVERT MC00 CH 3834

Design

Proposed
landscaping and
erosion and
sediment
conditions
treatments

- **** DESIGN ENVIRONMENT


- **** DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
****
- DESIGN ENVIRONMENT ****

- DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
- MC00 DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
- DESIGN ENVIRONMENT MC00
- MC00 DESIGN ENVIRONMENT TREES
- MC00 DESIGN ENVIRONMENT SHRUBS

Design

Strings defining a
tunnel

- **** DESIGN TUNNEL


- **** DESIGN TUNNEL
****
- DESIGN TUNNEL ****

- MOORE ST TOP DESIGN TUNNEL


- MOORE ST BOT DESIGN TUNNEL
- MOORE ST DESIGN TUNNEL TOP
- MOORE ST DESIGN TUNNEL BOT
- DESIGN TUNNEL MOORE ST TOP
- DESIGN TUNNEL MOORE ST BOT

Design

Strings
representing the
integration of the
final design with
the existing
terrain

- **** COMPOSITE
- **** COMPOSITE ****
- COMPOSITE ****

- STAGE 1 COMPOSITE
- STAGE 1 COMPOSITE OPTION 1
- COMPOSITE STAGE 1

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Design

Strings for
defining the
stepping under
embankments

- **** STEPPING
- **** STEPPING ****
- STEPPING ****

- STAGE 1 STEPPING
- MC00 STEPPING
- STAGE 1 STEPPING OPTION 1
- STAGE 1 STEPPING MC00
- STEPPING STAGE 1
- STEPPING STAGE 1 MC00

Design

Strings for
defining stripping

- **** STRIPPING
- **** STRIPPING ****
- STRIPPING ****

- STAGE 1 STRIPPING
- MC00 STRIPPING
- STAGE 1 STRIPPING OPTION 1
- STAGE 1 STRIPPING MC00
- STRIPPING STAGE 1
- STRIPPING STAGE 1 MC00

Design

Strings
associated with a
setting out task
(Refer Note 8)

- **** SETTING OUT


- **** SETTING OUT ****
- SETTING OUT ****

- STAGE 1 SETTING OUT


- MC00 SETTING OUT
- STAGE 1 SETTING OUT OPTION 1
- STAGE 1 SETTING OUT MC00
- SETTING OUT STAGE 1
- SETTING OUT STAGE 1 MC00

Design

Longitudinal
strings, along
control line XXXX,
defining a
pavement
surface.
(Refer Note 9)

- **** XXXX BOX STRS [N]


- **** XXXX BOX STRS [N] ****
- **** BOX STRS [N] XXXX ****
- BOX STRS [N] XXXX ****

- MC00 BOX STRS 1


- STAGE 1 MC00 BOX STRS 1
- BOX STRS 1 MC00
- BOX STRS 1 MC00 OPTION 1

Design

Transverse
strings,
perpendicular to
control line XXXX,
defining a
pavement surface
(Refer Note 9)

- **** XXXX BOX SECTS [N]


- **** XXXX BOX SECTS [N]
****
- **** BOX SECTS [N] XXXX
****
- BOX SECTS [N] XXXX
****

- MC00 BOX SECTS 1


- STAGE 1 MC00 BOX SECTS 1
- BOX SECTS 1 MC00
- BOX SECTS 1 MC00 OPTION 1

Design

Cross Section
strings generated
along a control
line

- **** SECTIONS
- **** SECTIONS ****
- SECTIONS ****

- MC00 TERRAIN SECTIONS


- MC00 DESIGN SECTIONS
- TERRAIN SECTIONS MC00
- DESIGN SECTION MC00
- DESIGN SECTION MC00 OPTION 1
- SECTIONS TERRAIN
- SECTIONS DESIGN MC00
- SECTIONS DESIGN MC00 OPT 1

Design

Strings used to
generate non
control line long
sections (e.g.
Long sections
through
geotechnical
data, Drainage
channel section)

- **** LONG SECTIONS


- **** LONG SECTIONS ****
- LONG SECTIONS ****

- GEOTECH LONG SECTIONS


- CHANNEL 1 LONG SECTIONS
- OPTION 1 LONG SECTIONS CHANNEL 1
- LONG SECTIONS OPTION 1
- LONG SECTIONS CHANNEL 1

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Example Model Names

Design

Strings defining a
barrier such as
Noise barriers,
median barriers
etc.
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN BARRIER


- **** DESIGN BARRIER
****
- DESIGN BARRIER ****

- MC00 DESIGN BARRIER


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN BARRIER
- MC00 DESIGN BARRIER OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN BARRIER MC00
- DESIGN BARRIER MC00

Design

Strings that do
not define a
specific feature,
but are used to
modify the shape
of a surface for
drainage
purposes.
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN
BREAKLINES
- **** LONG SECTIONS
****
- DESIGN BREAKLINES
****

- MC00 DESIGN BREAKLINES


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN BREAKLINES
- MC00 DESIGN BREAKLINES OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN BREAKLINES MC00
- DESIGN BREAKLINES MC00

Design

Strings defining
the carriageway,
such as
Carriageway
Edge,
Carriageway
Median, etc.
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY


- **** DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY
****
- DESIGN
CARRIAGEWAY ****

- MC00 DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY
- MC00 DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY MC00
- DESIGN CARRIAGEWAY MC00

Design

Strings defining
embankment and
excavation
profiles.
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN INTERFACE


- **** DESIGN INTERFACE ****
- DESIGN INTERFACE ****

- MC00 DESIGN INTERFACE


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN INTERFACE
- MC00 DESIGN INTERFACE OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN INTERFACE MC00
- DESIGN INTERFACE MC00

Design

Strings defining
kerb features.
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN KERB


- **** DESIGN KERB ****
- DESIGN KERB ****

- MC00 DESIGN KERB


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN KERB
- MC00 DESIGN KERB OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN KERB MC00
- DESIGN KERB MC00

Design

Strings
representing
features not
defined in the
current string
naming
convention.
(Refer Note 11)

- **** DESIGN NON


STANDARD
- **** DESIGN NON
STANDARD ****
- DESIGN NON
STANDARD ****

- MC00 DESIGN NON STANDARD


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN NON STANDARD
- MC00 DESIGN NON STANDARD OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN NON STANDARD MC00
- DESIGN NON STANDARD MC00

Design

Strings defining
retaining
structures
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN RETAINING


WALLS
- **** DESIGN RETAINING
WALLS ****
- DESIGN RETAINING WALLS
****

- MC00 DESIGN RETAINING WALLS


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN RETAINING
WALLS
- MC00 DESIGN RETAINING WALLS OPT
1
- OPT 1 DESIGN RETAINING WALLS
MC00
- DESIGN RETAINING WALLS MC00

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

Discipline

Contents

Acceptable Conventions

Design

Strings defining
safety fences
such as WBeam/Thrie Beam
guardrail or Wire
Rope
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN SAFETY FENCE


- **** DESIGN SAFETY FENCE
****
- DESIGN SAFETY FENCE ****

- MC00 DESIGN SAFETY FENCE


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN SAFETY FENCE
- MC00 DESIGN SAFETY FENCE OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN SAFETY FENCE MC00
- DESIGN SAFETY FENCE MC00

Design

Strings defining
shoulder features
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN SHOULDERS


- **** DESIGN SHOULDERS
****
- DESIGN SHOULDERS ****

- MC00 DESIGN SHOULDERS


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN SHOULDERS
- MC00 DESIGN SHOULDERS OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN SHOULDERS MC00
- DESIGN SHOULDERS MC00

Design

Strings for
temporary use
(Refer Note 11)

- **** DESIGN TEMP STRINGS


- **** DESIGN TEMP STRINGS
****
- DESIGN TEMP
STRINGS ****

- MC00 DESIGN TEMP STRINGS


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN TEMP STRINGS
- MC00 DESIGN TEMP STRINGS OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN TEMP STRINGS MC00
- DESIGN TEMP STRINGS MC00

Design

Strings defining a
traffic island
(Refer Note 10)

- **** DESIGN TRAFFIC


ISLAND
- **** DESIGN TRAFFIC
ISLAND ****
- DESIGN TRAFFIC
ISLAND ****

- MC00 DESIGN TRAFFIC ISLAND


- OPT 1 MC00 DESIGN TRAFFIC ISLAND
- MC00 DESIGN TRAFFIC ISLAND OPT 1
- OPT 1 DESIGN TRAFFIC ISLAND MC00
- DESIGN TRAFFIC ISLAND MC00

Survey

Strings and point


relating to
vegetation such
as trees, shrubs,
ground cover etc.

- SURVEY VEGETATION ****

- SURVEY VEGETATION
- SURVEY VEGETATION 23-01-2011
- SURVEY VEGETATION STAGE 1
- 23-01-2011 SURVEY VEGETATION
- STAGE 1 SURVEY VEGETATION

Example Model Names

General Notes continued

12d
Customisation

Not withstanding the conventions defined here, the 12d customisation


has been configured to adopt a single instance of each model naming
convention. This is because the customisation files will only permit a
single definition per feature within a given "environment". Examples are
the names.4d files for survey and design, the Apply Many Defaults and
a number of defaults applied through macro functions. These default
configurations are workable, but should not be interpreted as precluding
the use of variations within the acceptable conventions in order to ease
project data management.

SURVEY DTM

It is recognised that there are other ways of managing this content, such
as toggling "tinable" for strings in 12d. There are numerous justifications
for each method. Using the SURVEY DTM model is still currently seen
as the easiest mechanism for managing this. The surveyor does not
need to set the tinable toggle, and the designer does not need to select
multiple models.

GENERAL
Models

Although a GENERAL model has been provided for design purposes,


the content of this model should not form part of the design data to be
constructed. Valid uses for this model would be for storing "construction"
strings used as references by 12d modifiers, or used in some other way
to arrive at the final design.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

METADATA
Models

12d provides project attributes that can store project information for
future use and extraction. Until the department is satisfied with the
stability, export and import features of this functionality, the METADATA
models will be used to store information such as that generated through
the departments customisation Metadata generation macros: - User ->
TMR Survey -> Create Text -> Create MetaData Information- User ->
TMR Design -> Create Design Meta Data Information

FURNITURE

The existing survey model for road furniture is SURVEY ROAD, while
the existing model for design is DESIGN FURNITURE. It would be
more consistent to change the survey model to reflect its contents (i.e.
SURVEY FURNTURE)

TRIANGLES

Although the name of the survey/existing triangulation can be anything


that conforms to the provided convention, TERRAIN TRIANGLES is
deeply embedded in many components of the departments 12d
customisation. Therefore it is recommended that this model name be
adopted for the foreseeable future. This situation may change. Most
likely when 12d allows the triangulation name to be passed to
components such as Templates.

CULVERT

Notwithstanding the conventions provided, the Culvert program currently


creates the following models dependent on the design options chosen: <Alignment model> MR Culvert (e.g. ALIGNMENT MC00 MR Culvert)
Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> (e.g. Culvert ALIGNMENT
MC00 10157 332)
- Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Construct
- Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> IO
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Embankment
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Embankment Left
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Embankment Right
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Excavation Left end
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Excavation Right end
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Excavation Base
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Excavation Left Base
- tin Culvert <Alignment Name> < Chainage> Excavation Right Base

SETTING OUT

This model convention is provided as a place holder for setting out data
if required. The model requirements for setting out will be dependent on
the technology available to the surveyor carry out the activity. Some
may be able to interrogate the 12d model and upload details directly to
their instruments. Others may require all strings to be set out to be
collected together in a single model.

BOXING

Layer numbers are from the top, increasing downwards. This correlates
to the boxing layer numbering applied in 12d. Although this is not how
pavement layers are constructed (i.e. bottom up), it should make it
easier to keep 12d Apply Many outputs aligned with 12d MTF inputs.
Although it is possible to name models to reflect the pavement type (e.g.
MC00 200MM PAVT STRS), a more generic naming convention has
been adopted because "pavement type" model naming only works
where pavement layers are consistent over the entire length of a control
line. This is rarely the case, tie-ins being an example. Model names
containing a consistent text string (i.e. BOX STRS and BOX SECTS) will
enable more concise filtering to be applied in any future 12d
functionality.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2C TMR 12D Model Customisation

10

Additional Models

During the design process, many different features can be stored in a


single model. For example, Carriageway Edges, Shoulders, Interfaces
and Kerbs can all be contained within the MC00 DESIGN model. A
number of the departments customisation options make use of
individual models for specific features. The Guardrail Flare macro
creates a *** SAFETY FENCE, *** SHOULDERS and *** GUARDRAIL
LONGSECT CUTS model for all flares belonging to an alignment. The
Design names.4d files has models applied to each string label to cater
for situations where strings are created in isolation from an Apply Many
such as when CAD functions are used. These models may never get
used, but are provided for in this convention.

11

Non Standard
and Temporary
models

Non standard and temporary models should be avoided where possible.


As an absolute minimum, the purpose and content of the model should
be described through model attributes or other documentation system.
This documentation must be provided upon data hand-over.

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

13

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2D - TMR Drawing Sheets
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Chapter 2
Appendix 2D

Description of revision
Contents updated to reflect current
departmental policies, standards and
requirements:

Authorised by

Date

Owen Arndt

February
2014

Standard titleblocks
Update to Corporate Template

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Standard drawing sheets detail

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2D TMR Drawing Sheets

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2E - AutoCAD Drawing Environments
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Description of revision
Update to Corporate Template

Authorised by

Date

Owen Arndt

February
2014

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Contents
1

Drawing composition ....................................................................................................................1

Using model space and paper space ..........................................................................................1

Drawing borders ............................................................................................................................2

Layering ..........................................................................................................................................3

Layer guidelines by discipline......................................................................................................3

5.1

Line layers....................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2

Text layers ...................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3

Dimension layer .............................................................................................................................. 4

5.4

Hatching layer ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5

Miscellaneous layers ...................................................................................................................... 4

5.6

Object colour and line type ............................................................................................................. 5

5.7

Plot style modes ............................................................................................................................. 5

5.8

External Reference (XREF) drawing files....................................................................................... 5

CAD data filename convention.....................................................................................................6

6.1

General ........................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2

Drawing Series Number (DSN)....................................................................................................... 6

6.3

Naming drawings containing single layouts (1 final drawing per CAD file) .................................. 12

6.4

Naming drawings containing multiple layouts (more than 1 final drawing per CAD file) .............. 12

6.5

Naming AutoCAD External Reference (XREF) drawing files ....................................................... 14

6.6

Dimensioning ................................................................................................................................ 17

Standard coordinate system ......................................................................................................17

Sheet sets .....................................................................................................................................17

Tables
Table 2E.1 - Layout tabs small projects .................................................................................................. 2
Table 2E.2 - Layout Tabs Larger Projects............................................................................................... 2
Table 2E.3 - Drawing type codes ............................................................................................................ 8
Table 2E.4 - Drawing subtype codes .................................................................................................... 10
Table 2E.5 - XREF discipline identifiers ................................................................................................ 14
Table 2E.6 - Survey group codes.......................................................................................................... 14
Table 2E.7 - Extended survey codes .................................................................................................... 15
Table 2E.8 - Design group codes.......................................................................................................... 15
Table 2E.9 - Extended design group codes .......................................................................................... 16
Table 2E.10 - Extended design public utility plant codes...................................................................... 16

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

ii

Figures
Figure 2E.1 - Layout ................................................................................................................................ 1
Figure 2E.2 - Components ...................................................................................................................... 1

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

Drawing composition

Figure 2E.1 and Figure 2E.2 illustrate the basic components used in the preparation of a final CAD
drawing.
Figure 2E.1 - Layout

Figure 2E.2 - Components

Each completed drawing file shall contain necessary information only, and any extraneous or
unnecessary data shall be deleted prior to delivery to the department. All unused blocks, layers and
line types are to be purged from the drawing files.

Using model space and paper space

AutoCAD allows the user to choose between two drawing environments model space and paper
space and the appropriate use of each space for the departments drawings is detailed as follows:

Model space (the Model tab) is where the physical objects forming the model (including items
that help define the model such as text, hatching, dimensioning etc.) are created and edited in
the drawing. Elements drawn in model space must be to full scale, including additional
sections or details.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

Paper space (the Layout tab) is the environment used to layout and prepare drawings for
printing. Each layout tab in the electronic CAD environment simulates a sheet of paper and
provides a paper space drawing environment with a predictable printing setup. It is in the
Layout tab that various views (viewports) of object in the model are created and positioned,
and standard drawing borders are added. Other secondary drawing elements such as locality
maps, legends, standard notes or tables should also be drawn in paper space. Unlike model
space the features represented here are scaled to fit on the sheet. Single or multiple layouts
may be created in a single CAD file to display various drawings, as they will be finally output.

Only one standard drawing border is permitted per layout tab.


Layout tabs are to be named with reference to the departments Drawing Series Number (see CAD
Data Filename Convention in this appendix). This allows a name (to match the drawing type of the
drawing to be output using the layout) to be assigned to the tab at the time of creation of the layout. All
Layouts are initially named using a contraction of the Drawing Series Numbers.
Depending upon the number of drawings involved, this name assignment may or may not remain for
the full drawing lifecycle. For small projects, (say no more than twenty drawings), prior to supply of
CAD data to the department, Layout tabs are to be renamed from the initial Drawing Series Number
(DSN) to the same six-digit number as shown in Table 2E.1 for representation on the final drawing.
Table 2E.1 - Layout tabs small projects
Initial Layout Name
(DSN)

Final Layout Name

Final DSN

General Details

GD-1

345678

6 of 12

Plan & Profile

PP-9

345679

7 of 12

Drawing Type

For larger projects, final Layout tabs are to be assigned the same Drawing Series Number as shown in
Table 2E.2 for representation on the final drawing.
Table 2E.2 - Layout Tabs Larger Projects
Initial Layout Name
(DSN)

Final Layout Name

Final DSN

General Details

GD-1

GD-1

GD-1 of 2

Plan & Profile

PP-9

PP-1

PP-9 of 9

Drawing Type

(For more details regarding drawing series number, see also CAD Data Filename Convention in this
appendix).

Drawing borders

The departments drawing border must be used for each drawing. The department has developed
standard electronic drawing sheets for specified use as shown in Appendix 2D.
These borders are included in the CAD drawing and are output when the drawing is printed. These
frames are available as part of the Departments 12D and AutoCAD Customisation system and is
available to outside parties engaged to prepare drawings for the Department as requested.
Title block formats have been standardised in order to facilitate the inclusion of the necessary
information in a uniform manner. This is achieved by the use of pre-defined attributes and data entry
fields included in the block definition for each of the borders.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

It is a mandatory requirement that all relevant attribute data fields are completed at the completion of
every final drawing.

Layering

The structure of CAD data needs to be understood when data is transferred between internal systems
(within Transport and Main Roads) and between external organisations and Transport and Main
Roads in order to efficiently manage the data.
Layering is a technique to be used to achieve such structure of the data. Unique names are assigned
to data layers in CAD files and collections of survey and design graphical data are assigned to
designated layers. This principle is also to apply when graphical data is contained in external
reference files (XREFS), Refer to the Section External Reference (XREF) Drawing Files in this
appendix for additional information.
Only applicable layers are to be used and blank layers are not to be included in the CAD data
deliverables.

Layer guidelines by discipline

The department has adopted a system that divides layers into categories generic (or non-discipline
based) layers and those that relate to specific disciplines. The organisation of cad layer names by
discipline is merely a convenience to assist in using the appropriate layer.

e.g. MR_TLE is the only acceptable layer for locating the standard department drawing border
in drawings for all disciplines. In the same manner, MRS_BP is the only acceptable layer for
indicating a property boundary in a resumption drawing or a traffic signals drawing.

Layer names are subdivided into major and minor groups using the following format:

##_**_nnn

, where

##

Major Group Identifier

(min. 2, max. 3 characters)

=
=

the underscore character; **


Minor Group Identifier
(min. 2, max. as required)

nnn

Minor Group Modifier (used only for generic MR group)

Major Group Identifiers define the layers discipline (or generic nature in the MR case) as follows
(groups shown bracketed in italics are to be included in future revisions):

MR

Generic lines, text, dimensions, hatching and miscellaneous elements

MRB

Bridge discipline

MRE

STAT discipline

[MRI

Intelligent Transport Systems discipline]

MRLR =

Landscape & Revegetation discipline

MRR

Roads discipline

[MRRL =

Roadway Lighting discipline]

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

MRS

Survey discipline

[MRT

Traffic Signals discipline]

Minor Group Identifiers define sub-types of each of the major groups.


Some examples are:

MRS_RC is the layer used to represent Road Crown lines for survey data

MRR_MC is the layer used to represent Master Control lines for road design data

MRE_FS is the layer used to represent grassed Filter Strips for erosion and sediment control
data.

Minor Group Identifiers for each of the various disciplines are specified in the following chapters of this
manual for preparation and presentation of each specific type of CAD data used by the department.
Following are details of the minor group identifiers for the generic MR group of layers
5.1

Line layers

MR_CON

Used to draw general construction lines (not normally plotted)

MR_CON_nnn

Used to draw general continuous lines, further subdivided by a modifier


(nnn = modifier relating to line thickness at full scale - e.g. 035)

MR_CHN_nnn

Used to draw general chain style lines, further subdivided by a modifier


(nnn = modifier relating to line thickness at full scale - e.g. 035)

MR_DSH_nnn

Used to draw general dashed style lines, further subdivided by a modifier


(nnn = modifier relating to line thickness at full scale - e.g. 035)

5.2

Text layers

MR_TXT_@@

Used to draw general text, further subdivided by a modifier


(@@ = modifier relating to text height at full scale - e.g. 035)

5.3

Dimension layer

MR_DIM
5.4

Hatching layer

MR_HAT
5.5

Used to draw dimensions

Used to draw hatch patterns

Miscellaneous layers

MR_TIMESTAMP

Used for timestamp information on drawing prior to plotting

MR_TLE

Used for standard title block

MR_VPT

Used for viewports (not normally plotted)

The Transport and Main Roads AutoCAD Customisation system (Reference 7) provides automation of
structuring CAD data suitable for delivery to the department.
Where additional layers are required to structure the data, due to the nature of the project or drawing,
expansions of the layering standard may be proposed. The proposed expansion must be detailed in
writing and agreed to by the officer responsible for the provision of funds for the acquisition of the CAD

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

data. In all cases of any proposed expansions to the layering standard, the varied layer must be
assigned a standard departmental line type and plot style (see Plot Style Modes).
5.6

Object colour and line type

Object colour and line type (and line weight and plot style where applicable) for all objects in a CAD
file supplied to the department are to be determined by the properties assigned to the object's layer
i.e. objects are to be drawn bylayer and inherit the colour and line type (and line weight and plot style
where applicable) associated with the layer on which they reside.
5.7

Plot style modes

All CAD data files must be capable of being printed using the departments AutoCAD Customisation
system using either colour-dependent or named plot style tables. Each drawing must contain layers
that are completely one mode or the other and must not contain layers with mixed modes. Colourdependent plot style tables are stored in files with the extension .ctb while named plot style tables are
stored in files with the extension .stb. Standard files for a range of enlargements or reductions of each
type are supplied with the customisation system.
5.8

External Reference (XREF) drawing files

The principle of using external references is based on the need for clear separation and logical
organisation of information (e.g. survey and design data). A benefit of this approach is that it is easy to
split up and combine information in a CAD file to suit the needs of end users of the information.
The type of files that should be xrefed include:

any file with line work that typically appears throughout multiple or the majority of project
drawings

survey base files

design base files

title blocks

standard notes.

Using XREFS, when data needs to be changed you only change it in one location and the information
is updated in all drawings.
CAD data is generally to be presented using external references attached to a parent-drawing file. A
basic requirement is that separate survey data and design data files are created. The extent and
complexity of data division and subdivision must match the technical complexity of the project and suit
the ultimate purpose for which the data is presented. An example of where further subdivision is
warranted is on complex road design projects where a full range of utility services may be
encountered, and/or there are multiple design disciplines, construction sequencing or staging to be
presented.
Where a project warrants special requirements, the actual structure of data to be presented, in terms
of external references, is to be agreed to by the Project Officer and the data supplier and set out in the
brief.
Where external references are attached to a parent-drawing file, the relative pathing technique is to be
used (see Appendix 2B). Attach or overlay all xrefs at coordinates 0,0,0 unless absolutely necessary
to do otherwise.

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2E AutoCAD Drawing Environments

XREF layer placement can take the following forms:


1. Layer 0 as the most basic option and appropriate for simple drawings.
2. A single dedicated layer for XREFs.
3. A layer for each XREF.
Options 2 will release layer 0 for other purposes and enable locking of the XREF layer to avoid
accidental relocations.
Option 3 will provide the additional benefit of layer locking to be set for each XREF independently.
Names for XREF layers should be clear and easily understood. AutoCAD will prefix the external layers
with the drawing name and the pipe ( | ) character (e.g. X_S_250_1|MRS_RC). Therefore a logical
name for the XREF layer could be the name of the referenced drawing (e.g. X_S_250_1). An
alternative could be to use XREF at the start and use the remainder of the drawing name (e.g.
XREF_S_250_1). This will have the advantage of allowing the creation of layer filters in the drawing
that isolate the XREF_ layers while not presenting all the layers from the external reference as well.
Where external references are used in conjunction with a file, the names of all referenced drawing
filenames are to be included on the drawing. The departments AutoCAD Customisation system
includes a utility to automatically generate the external reference filename annotation on a drawing.

CAD data filename convention

All files included in the electronic data deliverable package must conform to the following file naming
convention. Alternative file naming conventions may be utilised only with prior written approval of a
detailed alternative. Approval of alternate naming conventions is solely at the discretion of the officer
responsible for the provision of funds for the acquisition of the data.
CAD data file naming for Resumption, Native Title and Limited Access drawings is to follow the format
specified in the relevant chapter of this manual.
Each drawing shall include the CAD data filename reference in the area provided at the bottom right
corner of each drawing sheet title block. The departments AutoCAD Customisation system
automatically includes the drawing name and computer on which it is held. e.g.
\\computername\..\filename.dwg.
Naming Final AutoCAD Drawing (.dwg) Files
6.1

General

For small projects (say no more than twenty drawings) final CAD data files are to be named using a
convention based on the six-digit drawing number(s) as shown on the final drawing(s).
For larger projects, final CAD data files are to be named using a convention based on the Drawing
Series Number(s) as shown on the final drawing(s).
Since single or multiple layouts may be created in a single CAD file to display various drawings, it is
necessary for a file naming convention to cater for both possibilities.
6.2

Drawing Series Number (DSN)

A DSN is the . of . information that is included in the title block area of the standard drawing
borders (near the bottom right corner).

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The purpose of a DSN is to allow drawings to be placed in groups in sequential order before the
allocation of a 6-digit final drawing numbers occurs, as the assignment of final drawing numbers does
not usually occur until immediately prior to printing the final drawings.
For small projects (say no more than twenty drawings), the DSN is assigned using the following
format:

number

of

total

number

a number indicating the order in which a drawing is sorted in a set of


project drawings (incrementing, starting with the number 1 for the 1st
project drawing). Note: leading zeros are to be omitted

total

the total number of project drawings.

, where

For example:
The first drawing in a set of 8 project drawings (it may, for example, be a Typical Cross Sections and
Details drawing) would be numbered:
1

of

For large projects each drawing is classified using a drawing type code, extracted from a standard
list of drawing types (see Table 2E.3), and this is incorporated in the drawing series number using the
following format:

where
drawing type code

drawing type identifier (see Table 2E.3).

element index

an index to identify a particular element in a series of like elements


e.g. a series of retaining structures or bridges. Indices may be either
alpha (A, B ) or numeric (1, 2 or 01, 02 )(use only if required)

the hyphen character

drawing subtype code =

for use where further subdivision of drawing type is required. (see


Table 2E.4) (use only if required)

order code

a number indicating the order in which a drawing is sorted in a


sequence of drawings of the same type or subtype (incrementing,
starting with the number 1). Note: padding using leading zeros is
permitted

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sub-total code

subtotal of number of drawings of this type or subtype in the (not the


total number of project drawings as for small projects).

For example:
The 1st Typical Cross Sections and Details drawing in a series of 4 Typical Cross Sections and
Details drawings would be numbered:
TC-1 of 4
The 9th Alignment Detail drawing in a series of 12 Alignment Detail drawings would be numbered:
AL-09 of 12
The 75th Cross Section drawing in a series of 100 Cross Section drawings would be numbered:
XS-75 of 100
The 4th Bridge Abutment drawing in a series of 20 Bridge Abutment drawings would be numbered:
BR-AB-04 of 20
The 4th Bridge Abutment drawing in a series of 20 Bridge Abutment drawings for the 2nd bridge in a
series of bridges would be numbered:
BR02-AB-04 of 20 or BRB-AB-04 of 20
Table 2E.3 - Drawing type codes
Identifier

Drawing Type

AL

Horizontal / Vertical Alignment Details

BR

Bridge Layout / Details

BW

Bikeway Layout / Details

CC

Cut and Cover Tunnel Layout / details

CD

Construction Drawing

CL

Control Line and Setout Details

CM

Communications Layout / Details

CO

Concept Drawing

CP

Concrete Pavement Layout / Details

CR

Compensatory Revegetation Layouts

CS

Construction Sequencing / Temporary Works Layout / Details

CT

Construction Tables

DD

Drainage Layout / Details

DI

Locality Plan, Drawing Index and/or Works Element Index

DK

Drawing Key Diagram

DS

Detail Setout

DT

Driven Tunnel Layout / Details

EC

Environmental Management Plan (Construction Layouts)

EF

Existing Features Layout / Details

EL

Electrical Services Layout / Details

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Identifier

Drawing Type

EM

Environmental Features and Management Layouts

ES

Erosion & Sediment Control Layout / Details

EW

Earthworks

FN

Fencing Details

GA

General Arrangement Layout / Details

GD

General Details

GE

Geotechnical Layout / Details

IN

Interchange Layout / Details

IS

Intersection Layout / Details

IT

ITS Layout / Detail

LI

Limited Access Plan

LR

Landscape and Revegetation Layouts / Details

LP

Locality Plan

LS

Longitudinal Section

MD

Miscellaneous Details

ME

Mechanical Services

NB

Noise Barriers Layout / Details

PA

Private Access Location / Details

PC

Power / Communications Network Layout / Details

PD

Pavement Layout / Details

PE

Pedestrian Path Layout / Details

PP

Plan and Profile

PU

Public Utility Plant Layout / Details

RE

Rehabilitation Works Layout / Details

RF

Road Furniture

RL

Roadway Lighting Layout / Details

RP

Resumption Plan

RS

Relieving Slab Details

RW

Railway Line / Details

SD

Structural Details

SL

Signs and Pavement Markings Layout / Details

SN

Structural Notes and / or Legend

SP

Site Plan

SF

Signs / Signs Fixtures

SS

Soil Suitability Layouts

ST

Signs / Traffic Control

TC

Typical Cross Sections and Details

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Identifier

Drawing Type

TD

Turnout Layout / Details

TM

Traffic Management Layout / Details

TS

Traffic Signals Layout / Details

TU

Tunnel Layout / Details

TW

Tramway Line / Details

WM

Waste Management Layout / Details

WP

Working Plan

WS

Weigh Station Layout / Details

XS

Cross Sections

Table 2E.4 - Drawing subtype codes


Identifier

Drawing Type
Bridge

BR-AB

Abutment Layout / Details

BR-BA

Balustrade Layout / Details

BR-DD

Drainage Layout / Details

BR-DU

Deck Units Layout / Details

BR-GA

General Arrangement

BR-GI

Girders Layout / Details

BR-LD

Lighting Drawing

BR-MD

Miscellaneous Details

BR-PA

Parapet Layout / Details

BR-PI

Piles Layout / Details

BR-PR

Pier Layout / Details

BR-RS

Relieving Slab

BR-SC

Stage Construction Layout / Details

BR-SF

Sign Frames Layout / Details

BR-TR

Traffic Rail Layout / Details


Drainage Detail Drawing Subtype Codes

DD-CS

Drainage Cross Sections

DD-CU

Culvert

DD-DS

Drainage Schedule

DD-FL

Flood Levels

DD-GP

Gully Pit Details

DD-LD

Layout Drawings

DD-LS

Longitudinal Sections

DD-MD

Miscellaneous Details

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Identifier

Drawing Type

DD-PS

Pump Station Layout / Details

DD-SB

Sediment Basin Layout / Details

DD-SD

Subsoil Drains Layout / Details

DD-ST

Structure Details

DD-WS

Watersheds
Public Utility Drawing Subtype Codes

PU-EA

Electricity - Above ground Layout / Details

PU-EL

Electrical Services Layout / Details

PU-EU

Electricity - Underground Layout / Details

PU-FA

Optical Fibre - Above ground Layout / Details

PU-FL

Fuel Layout / Details

PU-FR

Fire Protection Services

PU-FU

Optical Fibre - Underground Layout / Details

PU-GS

Gas Layout / Details

PU-SE

Sewerage Layout / Details

PU-SS

SubSoil drains Layout / Details

PU-SW

Stormwater Layout / Details

PU-TA

Telecommunications - Above ground Layout / Details

PU-TU

Telecommunications - Underground Layout / Details

PU-WA

Water Layout / Details


Structural Drawing Subtype Codes

SD-BO

Boat Ramp Layout / Details

SD-BU

Building Layout / Details

SD-JE

Jetty Layout / Details

SD-RW

Retaining Structure Layout / Details

SD-WH

Wharf Layout / Details


Environmental Features and Management

EM-NL

Env. Features & Management / Notes & Legends

EM-LD

Env. Features & Management / Layout Drawings


Soil Suitability

SS-NL

Soil Suitability / Notes & Legends

SS-LD

Soil Suitability / Layout Drawings


Erosion & Sediment Control

ES-NL

Erosion & Sediment Control / Notes & Legend

ES-LD

Erosion & Sediment Control / Layout Drawings

ES-CD

Erosion & Sediment Control / Construction Details

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Identifier

Drawing Type
Environmental Management Plans (Construction)

EC-NL

Env. Management Plans (Construction) / Notes & Legend

EC-LD

Env. Management Plans (Construction) / Layout Drawings


Landscape & Revegetation

LR-NL

Landscape & Revegetation / Notes & Legend

LR-LD

Landscape & Revegetation / Layout Drawings

LR-CD

Landscape & Revegetation / Construction Details

LR-XS

Landscape & Revegetation / Cross Sections


Compensatory Revegetation

CR-NL

Compensatory Revegetation / Notes & Legends

CR-LD

Compensatory Revegetation / Layout Drawings

6.3

Naming drawings containing single layouts (1 final drawing per CAD file)

For small projects, (say no more than 20 drawings), final CAD data files are to be assigned the same
six-digit number as shown on the final drawing, in the bottom right corner of the relevant departmental
drawing border. The number is issued by the District responsible for the provision of funds for the
acquisition of the data.
Example:

The CAD file containing a layout of final drawing number 345678 would be named:
345678.dwg

For large projects, final CAD data files are to be named using a contraction of the Drawing Series
Number(s) (DSN) as shown on the final drawing(s), in the bottom right corner of the relevant
departmental drawing border.
Example:

6.4

The CAD file containing a layout of a Drawing Key Diagram with a DSN of DK-1 of 1
would be named: DK-1.dwg

Naming drawings containing multiple layouts (more than 1 final drawing per CAD file)

Drawing numbers are generally issued in blocks sufficient to include all final drawings required for a
scheme or project. While it is desirable for drawing numbers issued for a project to run sequentially,
this is not always the case.
For small projects where drawing numbers are sequential, the CAD file shall be named using the
following format:
######_*.dwg

where

######

the first 6 digit drawing number in project sequence

the underscore character

a number containing only sufficient number of digits to clearly indicate the last
drawing number in project sequence

Sequential Examples: (small projects)


The CAD file containing layouts of final drawings numbered 345678 to 345688 inclusive would be
named: 345678_88.dwg

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The CAD file containing layouts of final drawings numbered 345698 to 345708 inclusive would be
named: 345698_708.dwg
The CAD file containing layouts of final drawings numbered 345998 to 346008 inclusive would be
named: 345998_6008.dwg
For large projects, if multiple layouts are used in a single CAD file, Final Drawing Series Numbers
(DSNs) will always be sequential (i.e. drawing series numbers will never skip a number) and the CAD
file shall be named using the following format:
######_*.dwg

where

######

alpha-numeric characters comprising the drawing type identifier and the order
number in the series of the first included drawing

the underscore character

a number containing only sufficient digits to indicate the last DSN in series
(note the alpha characters relating to drawing type are not included).

Sequential Examples: (large projects)


The CAD file containing layouts of cross section drawings with DSNs XS-1 of 120 to XS-7 of 120
inclusive would be named: XS-1_7.dwg
The CAD file containing layouts of cross section drawings with DSNs XS-07 of 120 to XS-14 of 120
inclusive would be named: XS-07_14.dwg
The CAD file containing layouts of cross section drawings with DSNs XS-90 of 120 to XS-100 of 120
inclusive would be named: XS-90_100.dwg
For small projects where drawing numbers are non-sequential, the CAD file shall be named using the
following format:
######_*, nnnnnn.dwg

where

######

the first 6 digit drawing number of first series of numbers

the underscore character used where the following numbers in the series of
numbers are sequential

a number containing only sufficient number of digits to clearly indicate last


drawing number in first series of numbers

the comma character used to separate different series of numbers

nnnnnn

add digits and underscores as necessary for next number(s) in series (only
sufficient number of digits to clearly indicate drawing number)

Non-sequential Examples: (small projects)


The CAD file containing layouts of final drawings numbered 345678 to 345688 inclusive and final
drawing 345720 would be named: 345678_88,720.dwg"
The CAD file containing layouts of final drawings numbered 345678 to 345688 inclusive and final
drawings 345720 to 345725 inclusive would be named: 345678_88,720_722.dwg"

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6.5

Naming AutoCAD External Reference (XREF) drawing files

Each external reference drawing file shall be named using the following format:
X_***_**_*,where
X

external reference

the underscore character

***

discipline identifier (4 characters max see Table of XREF Discipline Identifiers)

**

stage identifier (if required)

scale (to be provided where feature blocks are required to be presented at different
scales)

Naming of AutoCAD images


Each image file shall be named using the following format:
X_IMG_Name , where
X

external reference

the underscore character

Name =

name/description of image

Table 2E.5 - XREF discipline identifiers


Discipline

Identifier

Data included in XREF

SURVEY

Survey (where further subdivided, S is replaced by Survey Group Code


see Table of Survey Group Codes)

DESIGN

Design (where further subdivided, D is replaced by Design Group Code see


Table of Design Group Codes)

TITLE

TLE

Title Sheet (to be used where a standard departmental drawing border with
common Project specific attribute data is used for multiple drawings)

Table 2E.6 - Survey group codes


Survey Group Code

Data included in XREF

SCAD

Survey CADastral

SDCD

Survey DCDB

SCON

Survey CONtours

SDRA

Survey DRAinage (where further subdivided, SDRA is replaced by code


shown in Table of Extended Survey Codes)

SDTM

Survey DTM

SELE

Survey ELEctricity (where further subdivided, SELE is replaced by code


shown in Table of Extended Survey Codes)

SFEN

Survey FENces

SGEN

Survey GENeral

SLIN

Survey LINemarking

SPRA

Survey PRotected Area

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Survey Group Code

Data included in XREF

SROA

Survey ROAd (where further subdivided, SROA is replaced by code shown in


Table of Extended Survey Codes)

SSTM

Survey STreaM

SSTR

Survey STRuctures

SSUR

Survey SURvey

STEL

Survey TELecomm (where further subdivided, STEL is replaced by code


shown in Table of Extended Survey Codes)

SUTI

Survey UTIlities (where further subdivided, SUTI is replaced by code shown in


Table of Extended Survey Codes)

SVEG

Survey VEGetation

Table 2E.7 - Extended survey codes


Survey Group Code
to be replaced

Extended Survey
Code to be used

SDRA

SDSS

[Survey Drainage] SubSoil drainage

SDRA

SDSW

[Survey Drainage] StormWater drainage

SELE

SEEA

[Survey Electricity] Electricity - Above ground

SELE

SEEU

[Survey Electricity] Electricity Underground

SROA

SRSI

[Survey Road] SIgns

STEL

STFA

[Survey Telecomm] optical Fibre Above ground

STEL

STFU

[Survey Telecomm] optical Fibre Underground

STEL

STTA

[Survey Telecomm] Telecomms Above ground

STEL

STTU

[Survey Telecomm] Telecomms Underground

SUTI

SUFL

[Survey Utilities] Fuel Line

SUTI

SUGS

[Survey Utilities] GaS

SUTI

SUSE

[Survey Utilities] SEwer

SUTI

SUWA

[Survey Utilities] WAter

Data included in XREF

Table 2E.8 - Design group codes


Design Group
Code

Data included in XREF

DBRI

Design BRIdge

DCON

Design CONtours

DDRA

Design DRAinage (where further subdivided, DDRA is replaced by code shown


in Table of Extended Design Group Codes)

DESC

Design Erosion & Sediment Control

DITS

Design Intelligent Transport Systems

DLRV

Design Landscape and Revegetation

DPAM

Design Pavement Marking

DLIG

Design Roadway LIGhting

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Design Group
Code

Data included in XREF

DPUP

Design Public Utility Plant (where further subdivided, DPUP is replaced by code
shown in Table of Extended Design Public Utility Plant Codes)

DRES

Design RESumptions

DROA

Design ROAd (where further subdivided, DROA is replaced by code shown in


Table of Extended Design Group Codes)

DROF

Design ROadway Furniture

DTRS

Design TRaffic Signals

DSSU

Design Soil SUitability

DCRV

Design Compensatory REvegetation

Table 2E.9 - Extended design group codes


Design Group
Code to be
replaced

Extended Design
Code to be used

Data included in XREF

DDRA

DDSS

[Design Drainage] SubSoil drainage

DDRA

DDSW

[Design Drainage] StormWater drainage

DROA

DRRF

[Design Road] Road Furniture

DROA

DRSI

[Design Road] SIgns

DROA

DRNB

[Design Road] Noise Barriers

DROA

DRPM

[Design Road] Pavement Markings

Table 2E.10 - Extended design public utility plant codes


Design Group
Code to be
replaced

Extended PUP
Code to be used

Data included in XREF

DPUP

DUEA

[Design public Utility plant] Electricity - Above ground

DPUP

DUEU

[Design public Utility plant] Electricity - Underground

DPUP

DUFA

[Design public Utility plant] optical Fibre Above ground

DPUP

DUFL

[Design public Utility plant] Fuel Line

DPUP

DUFU

[Design public Utility plant] optical Fibre Underground

DPUP

DUFR

[Design public Utility plant] FiRe Protection Services

DPUP

DUGS

[Design public Utility plant] GaS

DPUP

DUSE

[Design public Utility plant] SEwer

DPUP

DUSS

[Design public Utility plant] SubSoil drainage

DPUP

DUSW

[Design Public utility plant] StormWater drainage

DPUP

DUTA

[Design Public utility plant] Telecomms Above ground

DPUP

DUTU

[Design Public utility plant] Telecomms Underground

DPUP

DUWA

[Design Public utility plant] WAter

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Examples:
Filename

Description

X_S_1000

External reference containing general survey data to suit presentation scale of


1:1000

X_D_1

External reference containing general design data (strings) for project Stage 1
(note: general design data does not contain blocks and therefore does not
need scale suffix)

X_SFEN_500

External reference containing only survey fence data to suit presentation


scale of 1:500

X_SEEA_2000

External reference containing only survey above ground electricity data to suit
presentation scale of 1:2000

X_DROA

External reference containing only road design data

X_DPEU_250

External reference containing only the design public utility plant underground
electricity data to suit presentation scale of 1:250

X_TLE

External reference containing only the project specific title sheet with Project
title data common to multiple drawings included

X_IMG_AerialPhotoBaseJune05

6.6

External reference containing an aerial photo image


flown in June 2005.

Dimensioning

All dimensions included in the project deliverables shall be fully associative. Dimension definition
points should be located with an appropriate Object Snap (End Point, Mid Point, etc.) or otherwise
located precisely on the model. Manual input of dimension text or otherwise over-riding the actual
dimensions is NOT acceptable in CAD data submitted to the department.

Standard coordinate system

For all plan view drawing files using a coordinate system, easting, northing and height coordinates are
to be provided in the project coordinate datum in metres, as established by the project survey data.

Sheet sets

The use of sheet sets for drawing management purposes is encouraged.


Sheet sets allow:

Single point of access to multiple drawing files regardless of location.

Single point access for plotting/publishing.

Single point access for carrying out e-transmits.

The departments AutoCAD customisation provides a default sheet set containing custom properties
that can then be called by fields stored in plan sheet attributes.
The AutoCAD customisation help file documents this default sheet set and its custom properties.
Refer to the heading "Sheet Sets - Main Roads Default" under Customisation Content.

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Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 Chapter 2 : Appendix 2F - TMR Drawing Attributes
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

Description of revision
Update to Corporate Template

Authorised by

Date

Owen Arndt

February
2014

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Contents
1

Background ....................................................................................................................................1

Drawing attribute input .................................................................................................................1

Drawing attribute output ...............................................................................................................1

Tables
Table 2F.1 - Attribute tags ....................................................................................................................... 1

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

This section provides information on pre-defined attribute information associated with the departments
standard electronic drawings sheets used in AutoCAD. The information presented in this section is
provided to document the existing data and to make users aware of the role of this data in the future
automation of the capture of final drawing data, for use with the departments long-term drawing
management systems.

Background

The Department of Transport and Main Roads has a centrally based Drawing Register, the role of
which is to issue drawing numbers and to archive, store and retrieve drawings.
It is the intention of the department to commence capturing drawing data for entry into a Graphical
Information System (GIS). Extraction of pre-defined attributes attached to electronic drawings
produced by and on behalf of the department will form the basis for automated input into the drawing
management system.
The first step towards this automation is to standardize and document the drawing attributes for all
standard electronic drawing sheets.

Drawing attribute input

An attribute provides a label or tag for you to attach text to a block. Multiple attributes may be
associated with a block, provided that each attribute has a different tag. Whenever you insert a block
that has a variable attribute, AutoCAD prompts you to enter the data to be stored with the block.
In the case of the departments drawings, all electronic drawing borders include attached data
attributes such as drawing number, job number, Local Authority and Road Name. Table 2F.1 Attribute
Tags lists all pre-defined variable attribute tags and their meanings for the currently available
electronic drawing sheets.

Drawing attribute output

AutoCAD provides a utility to write an attribute extract file, however the department will require
additional drawing data relating to the spatial location of the drawings. Coordinates, relative to the
project datum, are required for the corners of key viewports.
The departments AutoCAD Customisation system in future will provide a utility to extract all the
relevant data from each layout, including spatial information of key plan view viewports nominated by
the user:
Table 2F.1 - Attribute tags
ACCESSNO.L1

Access Number - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

ACCESSNO.L2

Access Number - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

ACCESSNO.L3

Access Number - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

ACCESSNO.L4

Access Number - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

ACCESSNO.L5

Access Number - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

ACCESSNO.L6

Access Number - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

APPDRG

Drawing containing the scheme approval

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APPNO

Number in series of drawings containing the scheme approval

AREAAFFECT1

Affected area relating to File Reference No. 1 (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAAFFECT2

Affected area relating to File Reference No. 2 (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAAFFECT3

Affected area relating to File Reference No. 3 (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAAFFECT4

Affected area relating to File Reference No. 4 (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAAFFECT5

Affected area relating to File Reference No. 5 (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREM1

Area remaining relating to File Reference No.1 (MRR_Resumption_A1


and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREM2

Area remaining relating to File Reference No.2 (MRR_Resumption_A1


and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREM3

Area remaining relating to File Reference No.3 (MRR_Resumption_A1


and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREM4

Area remaining relating to File Reference No.4 (MRR_Resumption_A1


and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREM5

Area remaining relating to File Reference No.5 (MRR_Resumption_A1


and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

AREAREQD1

Resumption area required relating to File Reference No.1


(MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

AREAREQD2

Resumption area required relating to File Reference No.2


(MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

AREAREQD3

Resumption area required relating to File Reference No.3


(MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

AREAREQD4

Resumption area required relating to File Reference No.4


(MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

AREAREQD5

Resumption area required relating to File Reference No.5


(MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

ASSJOB1

Associated Job No.1

ASSJOB2

Associated Job No.2

AUXDRG1

Auxiliary Drg No.1

AUXDRG2

Auxiliary Drg No.2

AUXDRG3

Auxiliary Drg No.3

AUXDRG4

Auxiliary Drg No.4

AUXDRGS

Auxiliary Drawings (MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

BARRIER_PERFORMANCE

Barrier Performance Level

BIS_NO.

Bridge Inventory System Number

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

BRIDGE_TYPE

Bridge Type (MRB_Detail_A1_Only)

CADASTMAP

Cadastral Map (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

CLIENT

Name of Client (MRG_DETAIL_A1 only)

COMMENTSL1

Comments - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COMMENTSL2

Comments - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COMMENTSL3

Comments - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COMMENTSL4

Comments - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COMMENTSL5

Comments - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COMMENTSL6

Comments - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

COUNTY

County Name (MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

DESIGN

Designed by

DESIGN_CODE

Design Code

DESIGN_LOADING

Design Loading

DESIGN_SPEED

Design Speed

DESIGNREV

Design Review by

DESVERIFY

Design Verified

DIM

Dimensions (metres/millimetres)

DIST_END

Distance from end of project to following RPC

DIST_JOB

Distance from start to end of project

DIST_START

Distance to start of project from preceding RPC

DLNEW1

Declaration Length New 1

DLNEW2

Declaration Length New 2

DLNEW3

Declaration Length New 3

DLNEW4

Declaration Length New 4

DLOLD1

Declaration Length Old 1

DLOLD2

Declaration Length Old 2

DLOLD3

Declaration Length Old 3

DLOLD4

Declaration Length Old 4

DOF

Total number of drawings of Drawing Index Sheets

DRAWN

Drawn by

DRGNO

Drawing Number

DWNCKD

Drawing checked by

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

EARTHQUAKE_ZONE

Earthquake Zone

ECAREA1

Engineering Area 1

ECAREA2

Engineering Area 2

ECAREA3

Engineering Area 3

ECDATE1

Engineering Certified Date 1

ECDATE2

Engineering Certified Date 2

ECDATE3

Engineering Certified Date 3

ECNAME1

Engineering Certified Name 1

ECNAME2

Engineering Certified Name 2

ECNAME3

Engineering Certified Name 3

ECNUM1

Engineering Certified Number 1

ECNUM2

Engineering Certified Number 2

ECNUM3

Engineering Certified Number 3

EXMND

Examined Date

FILEREF1

File Reference No.1 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1


only)

FILEREF2

File Reference No.2 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1


only)

FILEREF3

File Reference No.3 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1


only)

FILEREF4

File Reference No.4 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1


only)

FILEREF5

File Reference No.5 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1


only)

HCOPY1

Hard Copy 1

HCOPY2

Hard Copy 2

HCOPY3

Hard Copy 3

HCOPY4

Hard Copy 4

HGHTDAT

Height Datum

HORDAT

Horizontal Datum

INVESTIGATIONTYPE

Investigation Type (MRG_Detail_A1 only)

JOBNO

Job Number

JOINDRG1

Joins Drawing 1

JOINDRG2

Joins Drawing 2

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

LANDUSEL1

Land Use - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LANDUSEL2

Land Use - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LANDUSEL3

Land Use - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LANDUSEL4

Land Use - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LANDUSEL5

Land Use - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LANDUSEL6

Land Use - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LDD1

Local Government Regional/District Director 1

LDD2

Local Government Regional/District Director 2

LDD3

Local Government Regional/District Director 3

LDD4

Local Government Regional/District Director 4

LDDDATE1

Local Government Regional/District Director Date 1

LDDDATE2

Local Government Regional/District Director Date 2

LDDDATE3

Local Government Regional/District Director Date 3

LDDDATE4

Local Government Regional/District Director Date 4

LENGTH

Resumptions Length

LEVELOFACCESSL1

Level of Access - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LEVELOFACCESSL2

Level of Access - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LEVELOFACCESSL3

Level of Access - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LEVELOFACCESSL4

Level of Access - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LEVELOFACCESSL5

Level of Access - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LEVELOFACCESSL6

Level of Access - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

LG

Local Government

LG1

Local Government 1

LG2

Local Government 2

LG3

Local Government 3

LG4

Local Government 4

LGPLANNO

Local Government Plan number

LOTDET1

Lot Details relating to File Reference No.1 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTDET2

Lot Details relating to File Reference No.2 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTDET3

Lot Details relating to File Reference No.3 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

LOTDET4

Lot Details relating to File Reference No.4 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTDET5

Lot Details relating to File Reference No.5 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTNO1

Lot Number relating to File Reference No.1 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTNO2

Lot Number relating to File Reference No.2 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTNO3

Lot Number relating to File Reference No.3 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTNO4

Lot Number relating to File Reference No.4 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

LOTNO5

Lot Number relating to File Reference No.5 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL1

Maximum width of access - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL2

Maximum width of access - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL3

Maximum width of access - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL4

Maximum width of access - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL5

Maximum width of access - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MAXWIDTHOFACCESSL6

Maximum width of access - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

MIN1

Minister 1

MIN2

Minister 2

MIN3

Minister 3

MIN4

Minister 4

MINDATE1

Minister Date1

MINDATE2

Minister Date2

MINDATE3

Minister Date3

MINDATE4

Minister Date4

MRCONTNO

Contract Number

NATPLANNO

Native Title Plan number (MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

NO.

Number in series of this drawing

OF

Total number of drawings in series

PARISH

Parish Name (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PDF1

Digital PDF 1

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

PDF2

Digital PDF 2

PDF3

Digital PDF 3

PDF4

Digital PDF 4

PERMITISSUEDDATEL1

Permit Issued Date - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDDATEL2

Permit Issued Date - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDDATEL3

Permit Issued Date - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDDATEL4

Permit Issued Date - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDDATEL5

Permit Issued Date - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDDATEL6

Permit Issued Date - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL1

Permit Issued - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL2

Permit Issued - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL3

Permit Issued - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL4

Permit Issued - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL5

Permit Issued - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PERMITISSUEDL6

Permit Issued - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PLANNO1

Survey Plan relating to File Reference No.1 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PLANNO2

Survey Plan relating to File Reference No.2 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PLANNO3

Survey Plan relating to File Reference No.3 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PLANNO4

Survey Plan relating to File Reference No.4 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PLANNO5

Survey Plan relating to File Reference No.5 (MRR_Resumption_A1 and


MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

PROJECTNAME

Project Name (MRG_Detail_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL1

Property Description - Line 1 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL2

Property Description - Line 2 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL3

Property Description - Line 3 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL4

Property Description - Line 4 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL5

Property Description - Line 5 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

PROPERTYDESCRIPTIONL6

Property Description - Line 6 (MRR_Limited_Access_A1 only)

QRDD1

Queensland Rail District Director 1

QRDD2

Queensland Rail District Director 2

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Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

QRDD3

Queensland Rail District Director 3

QRDD4

Queensland Rail District Director 4

QRDDDATE1

Queensland Rail District Director Date 1

QRDDDATE2

Queensland Rail District Director Date 2

QRDDDATE3

Queensland Rail District Director Date 3

QRDDDATE4

Queensland Rail District Director Date 4

RDDRNNO

Road Declaration Plan Number (MRD_RoadDecleration _A1 only)

REQCHECK

Requirements Checker

REQMTS

Requirements

RESPLANNO

Resumption Plan Number (MRR_Resumption_A1 only)

RESPLANS

Resumptions Plans

REV

Revision Identifier

ROAD

Road Name

ROADEXTENTS

Mileage of Road Extents (MRD_RoadDecleration _A1 only)

ROADSECT

Control chainage range

RPC_NEXT

Following RPC

RPC_P

Preceding RPC

RPEQ_NAME

Registered Professional Engineer of QLD (RPEQ) Name

RPEQ_NO

Registered Professional Engineer of QLD (RPEQ) Number

SITE_NO

Site Number (MRT_Cabling_A1 & MRT_Details_A1 only)

SURBKS

Survey Books

THRUCH

Through Chainage from

TITLE1

Drawing Title - Line 1

TITLE2

Drawing Title - Line 2

TITLE3

Drawing Title - Line 3

VERS1

Version 1

VERS2

Version 2

VERS3

Version 3

VERS4

Version 4

WORKDRGS

Working Drawings (MRR_Resumption_A1 and MRR_NativeTitle_A1 only)

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 2 Appendix 2F TMR Drawing Attributes

Drafting & Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 - Chapter 3: Aerial Surveying
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

3.1, 3.2, 3.3,


3.6

Description of revision

Authorised by

Date

First Issue

Steering Committee

Jan 2006

Geospatial Information

Steering Committee

Feb 2011

Update to Corporate Template

Owen Arndt

Feb 2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Contents
3.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

3.1.1 Purpose...........................................................................................................................................1
3.1.2 Scope..............................................................................................................................................1
3.1.3 Geospatial Technologies Branch....................................................................................................1
3.1.4 References......................................................................................................................................1
3.1.5 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................1
3.2

Background .................................................................................................................................. 3

3.2.1 General ...........................................................................................................................................3


3.2.2 Aerial surveying information ...........................................................................................................3
3.2.2.1
General ..................................................................................................................... 3
3.2.2.2
Imagery and its derivative products .......................................................................... 3
3.2.2.3
Laser scanning.......................................................................................................... 3
3.3

Aerial imagery .............................................................................................................................. 4

3.3.1 Film based aerial photography .......................................................................................................4


3.3.2 Digital photo ....................................................................................................................................4
3.3.3 Defining requirements.....................................................................................................................4
3.3.3.1
General ..................................................................................................................... 4
3.3.3.2
Purposes of aerial photography ................................................................................ 4
3.3.3.3
Factors to be assessed ............................................................................................. 4
3.4

Digital imagery from aerial photography .................................................................................. 5

3.4.1 General ...........................................................................................................................................5


3.4.2 Defining requirements.....................................................................................................................5
3.4.2.1
Purposes of air photography imagery ....................................................................... 5
3.4.2.2
Factors to be assessed ............................................................................................. 5
3.4.2.3
Imagery vs mosaics .................................................................................................. 6
3.5

Digital surveying data from photogrammetry........................................................................... 6

3.5.1 General ...........................................................................................................................................6


3.5.2 Defining requirements.....................................................................................................................6
3.5.2.1
Purposes of photogrammetric surveys ..................................................................... 6
3.5.2.2
Factors to be assessed ............................................................................................. 7
3.5.2.3
Photogrammetry vs field survey................................................................................ 7
3.6 Existing products ........................................................................................................................ 8
3.6.1 Aerial photography..........................................................................................................................8
3.6.2 Air Photo Library .............................................................................................................................8
3.6.3 Satellite imagery .............................................................................................................................8
3.6.4 Standard / topographic mapping ....................................................................................................9
3.6.5 Cadastral mapping........................................................................................................................10
Appendix 3A

Practical Applications............................................................................................11

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

ii

Tables
Table 3.5.2.2 - Guide to accuracy and recommended usage ................................................................. 7

Figures
Figure 3A.1 Scan resolution for a required enlargement factor ............................................................ 12

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

iii

Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

3.1
3.1.1

Introduction
Purpose

This chapter outlines the departments requirements for obtaining aerial surveying services and the
resultant derivative products. These services cover a broad range of techniques with a wide range of
products that are suitable for many design purposes.
3.1.2

Scope

This chapter outlines the different techniques used to capture aerial information and gives their relative
strengths and weaknesses for use in the various suggested design activities.
3.1.3

Geospatial Technologies Branch

As well as administering the Air Photo Library, Geospatial Technologies is also responsible for the
departments Annual Aerial Photography Programme and provides expertise in relation to all aerial
photography and photogrammetry products and projects. References to Geospatial Technologies in
this document refer in particular to its role as custodian of the Air Photo Library and departmental
expertise.
3.1.4

References

Main Roads Surveying Standards Ver. 1.3.


3.1.5

Definitions

The following definitions are to be used in the context of this document.


Term

Definition

Aerial Photography

The art, science, or process of taking photographs from an aerial


platform.

Air Photo Scanned Imagery (Raster Image)

A digital image that can be stored on a computer. It is effectively


continuous imagery comprised of a series of small picture elements
(pixels). It is usually captured by scanning prints, diapositives or
film. The future use of digital aerial cameras will lead to the direct
capture of imagery.

DCDB

Digital Cadastral Database.

Diapositive

A transparency directly produced on stable film from the aero-film


negative, which is used as the data source in photogrammetric
plotting machines and also as a source for scanning.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

The result of systematically recording X, Y, Z coordinates at every


point of a dense network of points throughout a stereomodel
directly into a computer, thereby providing a digital output
availability. The points can be both spot heights and feature points.

Flying height

The vertical distance of an aircraft above the mean ground level of


an area being photographed.

Flight line

A line or path drawn on a map or chart to represent the actual track


of the aircraft whilst capturing a run of photography.

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Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

Global Navigation Satellite


System (GNSS)

GNSS is a satellite based radio navigation system which enables


determination of accurate three dimensional point position, velocity
and time.

Georeferencing

The process where images are positioned and, in some cases,


rectified to fit into real world map coordinates.

Ground Control

Existing or purpose placed recognisable features with known


coordinates appearing within the confines of the photography for
the purpose of providing the relationships between the photography
and true spatial position.

DERM

Department of the Environment and Resources Management.

Orthorectification

The orthorectification process produces an image that is true to


scale. An orthoimage (orthorectified image) has had all distortions
due to height differences removed from it.

Photo base length

The distance along the flight line between two principal points of a
stereoscopic pair of photographs.

Photogrammetry

The science or art of obtaining reliable measurements by means of


photography. The result is the production of an accurate planimetric
plot or map.

Aerial photogrammetry

Denotes that branch of photogrammetry wherein photographs of


the terrain in an area are taken by a precision camera in an aircraft
flying over the area.

Photogrammetric control point

A ground point, having known three dimensional coordinates, which


can be used to enable the solution of the space position and
orientation of an aerial photographs.

Stereo overlap

When vertical photography is captured along a flight line, the


photographs are exposed so that each successive frame overlaps
part of the previous frame to permit stereoscopic visualisation.

Stereoscopic Visualisation

The three dimensional impression gained when viewing the same


area in two overlapping photographs. One with the left eye, and
one with the right eye simultaneously.

Other satellite constellations used are:

GPS is a USA constellation of satellite used for global positioning

GLONASS which is a Russian system

GALEALO which is the confederation of European states.

Other systems proposed in the future are from India, China and Japan.

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

3.2

Background

3.2.1

General

Aerial photography has been used as a planning, display and design tool for many years world wide.
Aerial photography is also an ideal base tool for use in the planning, design and maintenance of
transport infrastructure.
Mosaics and photo enlargements can be used to show possible future developments when public
consultation and display are required.
Computer scanned aerial photography imagery provides a flexible alternative to mosaics, the digital
images can be rectified and additional digital data such as the DCDB, proposed designs etc can be
superimposed on these rectified images.
Photogrammetric surveys, plans and associated data can provide either a plot enabling a clear and
concise appreciation of terrain or a digital feature and terrain model for use in computer aided design.
3.2.2
3.2.2.1

Aerial surveying information


General

Aerial surveying information comes from two broad sources:


1. Passive capture of electromagnetic radiation. Imagery, where the sun is the source of the
radiation and Film or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) are the media on which the capture is
made after reflection from the target surface.
2. Active transmission and capture of electromagnetic radiation. Laser scanning, where the
scanning apparatus is the source of the radiation which is captured by sensors after reflection
from the target surface.
3.2.2.2

Imagery and its derivative products

Imagery can be divided into four broad categories:

Traditional Film based Photography

Digital Imagery (either scanned from film or taken by digital camera)

Digital Surveying Data (such as Photogrammetry which is digested from stereoscopic


overlapped pairs of images)

By-products of aerial imagery such as Topographic maps and plans as well as photomosiacs.

3.2.2.3

Laser scanning

Laser scanning has been around for up to twenty years, but until the maturity of the Global Navigation
Satellite System for positioning was difficult to get adequate accuracies for anything other than broad
planning purposes.
Currently, the positional accuracies, as well as the height resolution, are in the order of 15 cm with
special targeted projects down to 5 cm.
Aerial laser scanning, because of the large areas covered and the density of the scans, can produce
extremely large data files.

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Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

3.3

Aerial imagery

3.3.1

Film based aerial photography

Traditionally, imagery for aerial surveying was aerial photography recorded on film. After capture, the
film is developed and positives produced to give the standard 230 mm square format (9 inch)
dispositive with which we are all familiar.
3.3.2

Digital photo

Digital cameras capture a 4-band (blue, green, red, and infra-red) georeferenced, unrectified image
directly in a camera specific format. While conventional aerial photography is captured with 60%
overlap, digital aerial photography is usually captured with 80% overlap. It is still possible to produce
prints from the digital images. The main advantages of digital aerial photography are the increased
analysis and image manipulation possible with the 4-band image and the direct access to georeferenced images for use in mapping systems. The full range of possible uses will develop as digital
aerial cameras are acquired and used by the local aerial photography contractors.
3.3.3

Defining requirements

3.3.3.1

General

If existing aerial photography is unsuitable for a project requirement, particularly where large scale
photographs are indicated, project specific photography will need to be captured.
Consultation in planning such specific photography should be held with the Principal Surveyor,
Geospatial Technologies who will then coordinate the capture of the photography and supply of colour
prints.
3.3.3.2

Purposes of aerial photography

Aerial photography can be captured for a number of purposes:

route investigation

preliminary planning and location for upgrades and/or maintenance

record of road assets and/or conditions

production of image mosaics and/or photogrammetry.

3.3.3.3

Factors to be assessed

The following factors should be considered when requesting aerial photography:

the purpose of the aerial photography

investigation

location

presentation

the extent of the coverage

the photography scale most suitable to satisfy the requirement

possible additional uses beyond the primary use for the photography

timeframe for supply.

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Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

3.4

Digital imagery from aerial photography

3.4.1

General

Digital Images obtained from aerial photography and produced in the form of strip mosaics or frames
provide an extremely versatile format for planning or presentation purposes. Additional digital data is
easily superimposed over the base image.
This involves scanning the photography, then performing photogrammetric tasks on a computer,
without using hardcopy photographs during the actual process. The result can be a digital terrain
model and/or orthorectified images.
3.4.2
3.4.2.1

Defining requirements
Purposes of air photography imagery

Imagery can be produced for the following purposes:

public display/presentation

route investigation

preliminary planning and location

base for DCDB, planning/design layouts or similar overlays.

3.4.2.2

Factors to be assessed

The following factors should be considered when requesting imagery:


Purpose of the imagery

public consultation

background for design layouts

defines the parameters for photo scale, image resolution, orthorectification.

Display scale of imagery

For plotting at 1:1,000 scale, a pixel size of 150 mm is needed, usually requiring scanning of
film or dispositive at high resolution with a professional quality scanner

For plotting at 1:5,000 or larger, it may be possible to scan prints using a desktop scanner.

Orthorectified imagery

imagery must be orthorectified to be scale correct like a map

requires ground control and a digital elevation model; can use existing information if available.

Availability of imagery

there may be suitable existing orthorectified imagery

orthorectified imagery may be available from DERM, Local Government Councils or private
companies

existing or new aerial photography may be scanned and orthorectified.

Hardware/software

define the file format for the imagery

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

compatible software to view and/or manipulate the imagery

suitable hardware to store and transfer the imagery (a single frame scanned at 24 microns
produces a 250MB TIFF file).

Practical applications of scanning, resolution and enlargement issues are included in Appendix 4A.
3.4.2.3

Imagery vs mosaics

Imagery has some significant advantages over conventional air photography enlargements or
mosaics.
Advantages

if the image is orthorectified, the resultant product is true to scale

a digital image can have layers of digital data superimposed over the image

colour matching between models is more consistent

production time is less

multiple copies are available

a non rectified image can be approximately matched to the DCDB.

Disadvantages

time delay in establishing control for rectification

processing time

clients hardware/software capability

photography

processing / Data production.

3.5

Digital surveying data from photogrammetry

3.5.1

General

Digital surveying data has become more frequently used by planners and designers to form the
feature and terrain model necessary in road planning and design processes. A source of digital data
for such models is photogrammetric modelling derived from aerial photography.
Topographic plotting and terrain modelling can be produced by field survey or by photogrammetry. In
many cases a combination of both techniques will give the best result.
3.5.2
3.5.2.1

Defining requirements
Purposes of photogrammetric surveys

Photogrammetric surveys are undertaken for the following purposes:

Route Investigation

Location and Design

Catchment Areas

Landslips

Production of Digital Terrain Models

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Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

Base for DCDB Overlays.

3.5.2.2

Factors to be assessed

The following factors should be considered when requesting photogrammetric surveys:

purpose of the photogrammetric survey

planning

design

existing or new aerial photography

the amount of ground concealed by dense vegetation cover or by long grass

the extent of feature details required

the accuracy required for the feature and terrain model

features

spot heights

contour interval

inclusion of cadastral boundaries

DCDB

best fit of DCDB to observed cadastral corners

accurate boundaries from survey plans.

Table 3.5.2.2 - Guide to accuracy and recommended usage


Photo
Scale

Coverage across
flight line

Horizontal /
Vertical accuracy

Contour Interval
(DTM derived )

Recommended Usage

1:3,000

690 m

0.100 m

0.25 m

Design

1:5,000

1150 m

0.120 m

0.5 m

Planning / Rural Design

1:7,500

1725 m

0.175 m

1.0 m

Planning

1:10,000

2300 m

0.250 m

1.0 m

Planning

1:15,000

3450 m

0.350 m

2.0 m

Planning

1:20,000

4600 m

0.600 m

2.0 m

Planning

The Horizontal / Vertical accuracies as quoted are only achievable on hard clear surfaces with no error
allowance in the ground control as used.
The Contour Interval accuracy as stated is that which is deemed achievable over clear and consistent
terrain conditions and is derived from the observed spot heights.
3.5.2.3

Photogrammetry vs field survey

In determining the relative merits of photogrammetry over field surveys, the following advantages and
disadvantages of photogrammetry should be considered:
Advantages

large areas, especially where the strip of land to be covered is wide

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Volume 1, Chapter 3 Aerial Surveying

mountainous country

areas with difficult access

politically sensitive areas where plans can be produced with a minimum disturbance to
property owners.

Disadvantages

Delays can occur if new aerial photography has to be obtained. Aerial photography capture is
controlled by the seasons and the weather.

Long grass, trees, other vegetation, structures and water may obscure the ground.

Inaccuracies in obtuse, but critical, areas such as long / low cuts; long / low fills or cut/fill lines.

3.6

Existing products

3.6.1

Aerial photography

The State of Queensland has been covered photographically at various scales, although not
completely at any particular scale. Coverage is available in the following forms:

Commonwealth Photography

State Photography

Specific Project Photography

Specific Departmental Photography (e.g. Main Roads)

In general photography scales range from 1:25,000 to 1:80,000. Project photography has been
captured over limited areas for special requirements and varies in scale from 1:5,000 upwards. Most
of these forms of photography are suitable for investigation purposes and are obtainable from DERM
in Brisbane.
The NR&M Brisbane maintains an index of all aerial photography flown for Queensland Government
Departments and Authorities. Supply or loan of aerial photographs may be arranged by Geospatial
Technologies.
3.6.2

Air Photo Library

The departments existing aerial photography is stored in the Air Photo Library which is administered
and maintained by the Geospatial Technologies unit of Engineering and Technology Division. This
Library holds one set of prints and the film for all departmental photography and maintains the records
for all the photography undertaken for the department.
3.6.3

Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery is another option that may be used for planning projects. Satellite imagery covers all
of Queensland. Different satellites can capture imagery at various resolutions. Satellites traverse
Queensland on a regular basis; imagery can be used to capture features existing at a particular time
and can be used to show changes over time. Satellite imagery is useful to show features over a large
area. Another advantage of satellite imagery is the availability of additional wavelengths such as the
thermal and near infra-red bands. These data can be useful for planning and analysis by
environmental scientists and geologists.

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Different options include:

Landsat has a pixel size of 30 m or 15 m. This is not suitable for road infrastructure
planning except for preliminary planning or use in remote areas.

Spot has a pixel size ranging from 10 m to 2.5 m. This is suitable for general planning and
preliminary route analysis for large areas.

Ikonos has a pixel size of ranging from 3.3 m to 1 m.

Quickbird has a pixel size of 2.4 m to 0.6 m.

Both Ikonos and Quickbird imagery can be useful for road planning, especially broad scale planning
over a large area. The resolution available is comparable to smaller scale aerial photography
(1:20000). Satellite imagery has a distinct advantage over aerial photography at these scales for larger
areas (more than 5 km width) due to the consistency of the satellite image over the entire area.
Contact Geospatial Technologies for more information about resolution and satellite revisit times and if
interested in acquiring satellite imagery.
3.6.4

Standard / topographic mapping

The DERM is the official map producing agency for the state of Queensland.
A topographic map provides representation of the shape of the land, and natural and built features on
the land. It allows the user to obtain measurements (within map scale limits) of distance, direction and
quantity.
The DERM latest type of topographic map utilizes a digital image of aerial photography corrected to
scale as a background, and is called a Topographic Image Map. In addition, the maps are enhanced
to highlight natural characteristics and cultural features. This series of maps will become the standard
map for Queensland.
The schedule below indicates the type, coverage and scale available mapping over Queensland.
Topographic
Whole coverage of QLD

1:250,000
1:100,000

Part coverage of QLD

1:50,000
1:25,000

Topographic Image
Part coverage of QLD

1:25,000

Orthophoto Maps
Part coverage of QLD

1:100,000
1:25,000

(Urban & developing areas)

1:10,000

(Urban & developing areas)

1:2,500

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3.6.5

Cadastral mapping

Cadastral information and aerial photography images are available on a new system from DERM
called SmartMap. It is a specific customer requirement product produced on demand. To obtain
access to SmartMap, contact the Senior Advisor (GIS) in Geospatial Technologies.
Users may also generate their own cadastral maps using the DCDB. For assistance in doing this,
contact GIS staff in Geospatial Technologies.

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Appendix 3A

Practical Applications

Introduction
These guidelines provide additional information for the planner or designer regarding the implications
of scanning, resolution and enlargement issues in real-world situations which are not covered
elsewhere in this manual. It is the intent of this section only to provide sufficient technical information
to aid in discussions with Geospatial Technologies in its role as custodian of the Air Photo Library and
departmental expertise, and to enhance the end-users appreciation of what they are asking for when
they request digital imagery data.
Scan resolution
Resolution is generally expressed in terms of dots per inch (dpi) units in a drawing office environment.
This imperial unit of measurement is commonly used by scanning hardware and software found in the
drawing office and hence designers and planners are generally familiar with this terminology.
Photography practitioners express resolution in terms of microns (m), a metric unit of measurement.
Following is the derivation of the relationship of dpi units to m units:
Since

1m

1 x 10 -6 m

and

25.4 mm

then

25,400 m

1 x 10 -3 mm

From this relationship, the following approximations can be derived:


300dpi (1/300)

84 m

600dpi

42 m

1200dpi

21 m

2400dpi

10 m

3600dpi

7 m

In basic terms, the smallest picture element (pixel) of a conventional photograph is approximately
7m. Aerial photography for departmental work is generally captured at a scale of either 1:3,000 or
1:7,500. It may be useful to consider the actual size (in metres on the ground) of a single dot on a
photograph at various resolutions to have an appreciation of the actual level of detail of the photo
(visible features) at its original scale. This in turn will allow for better judgment of the effect of
enlargement of each dot in a photograph. The photograph scale multiplied by the scan resolution in
microns produces the size of each dot in metres. The dot size in metres for common combinations of
photograph scale and scan resolution is shown below:
Dot size (m)

Resolution
Photo Scale 1:3,000

Photo Scale 1:7,500

84 m

0.25

0.63

42 m

0.13

0.32

21 m

0.06

0.16

10 m

0.03

0.07

7 m

0.02

0.05

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Enlargement
Selection of an appropriate resolution when scanning aerial photography for use as digital imagery
requires consideration of the desired presentation scale in relation to the original photography scale. A
choice of the source of the enlargement must be made, depending upon the magnitude of
enlargement required for final presentation.
Enlargements of up to about five times the original photography scale are generally able to be
produced by scanning the prints in the drawing office, with a general maximum resolution of 600dpi. It
is generally the case that increasing the scan resolution above 600dpi (e.g. 1200dpi) when scanning
prints using scanners found in the drawing office does not produce an increase in image quality in
proportion to the increase in resulting file size. Enlargements of greater magnitude require a higher
resolution and scanning from diapositives, or in the case of up to 20 times enlargements, directly from
the negatives is the only way to obtain a suitable image. A guide to the suggested scan resolution for
a required enlargement factor (relative to original photography scale) is shown in Figure 3A.1.
The information shown in Figure 3A.1 should only be used as a guide, since many factors e.g. photo
characteristics or scanner properties can influence the quality (and therefore suitability) of a scanned
image. It must be remembered that scanned images require considerable amounts of digital memory
and this factor will influence the choice of resolution and the extent of photo area to be included in the
scan.
Figure 3A.1 Scan resolution for a required enlargement factor

Image formats
Images are supplied in a number of formats with TIFF, BMP, JPEG and ECW being the most
commonly used. These are acronyms for:

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Acronym

Description

File extension

BMP

Bitmap

.bmp

ECW

Enhanced Compressed Wavelet

.ecw

JPEG

Joint Photographic Expert Group

.jpg

TIFF

Tagged Image File Format

.tif

BMP and TIFF files give each pixel an individual value resulting in very large file sizes. JPEG and
ECW are compressed image formats resulting in much smaller file sizes. Generally with compressed
image formats, areas of pixels with the same or similar value are converted to a mathematical
expression. As the compression ratio is increased, the range of similar values converted is increased
leading to a loss of definition when the image file is decompressed. Image file formats like ECW allow
greater compression with less loss. The developers of ECW have also developed tools to minimize the
computing overhead in displaying ECW images. These new compressed image file formats have been
developed for display of very large images over the internet.
Orthorectified imagery is usually over large areas with high resolution resulting in extremely large file
sizes. This imagery will usually be supplied as an ECW file to take advantage of the high compression
capability and the superior manipulation of the imagery in the survey and design packages that
support the ECW format.

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Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 - Chapter 4: Right of Way
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.
1

Reference
section
4.1

2
Various
Appendix 4F
3
4.1
4.4
Various
4

4.5
Various
Chapter 4

Description of revision
First Issue
Introduction, Use of coordinates, Ambulatory
boundaries
Amended Drawing Sheets

Authorised
by

Date

Steering
Committee

Jan 2006

Steering
Committee

Feb 2007

List of Abbreviations Used in Land and


Mining Tenures
Busway, Amended Drawings Sheets

Feb 2011

Introduction Purpose updated

Owen Arndt

Contents updated to reflect current


departmental policies, standards and
requirements

Owen Arndt

Contents updated to reflect current


departmental policies, standards and
requirements

Owen Arndt

Update to Corporate Template

Owen Arndt

Feb 2014

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Contents
4.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

4.1.1 Purpose...........................................................................................................................................1
4.1.2 Scope..............................................................................................................................................1
4.1.3 Terminology ....................................................................................................................................1
4.2

Resumptions ................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................1


4.2.2 General ...........................................................................................................................................2
4.2.3 Fixing resumption requirements .....................................................................................................3
4.2.4 Preparation of resumption drawings...............................................................................................5
4.2.5 Limitation of access considerations..............................................................................................36
4.2.6 Native Title considerations............................................................................................................36
4.3

Native Title.................................................................................................................................. 36

4.3.1 General .........................................................................................................................................36


4.3.2 Determining areas affected...........................................................................................................37
4.3.3 Preparation of Native Title drawings.............................................................................................38
4.4

Limited access ........................................................................................................................... 43

4.4.1 General .........................................................................................................................................43


4.4.2 Terminology ..................................................................................................................................44
4.4.3 Preparation of limited access plans..............................................................................................45
4.4.4 Additional requirements ................................................................................................................53
4.5

Road declaration........................................................................................................................ 54

4.5.1 General .........................................................................................................................................54


4.5.2 Reasons for a road declaration.....................................................................................................54
4.5.3 Road declaration process overview..............................................................................................55
4.5.4 Road declaration plan preparation ...............................................................................................66
Appendix 4A: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for resumption drawings....................................68
Appendix 4B: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for Native Title drawings ....................................70
Appendix 4C: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for limited access drawings...............................72
Appendix 4D: Guide to MapInfo patterns for road declaration plans .............................................74
Appendix 4E: List of abbreviations used in land and mining tenures............................................75
Appendix 4F: List of limited access state-controlled roads (as at October 2013).........................78

Tables
Table 4.2.4.3(a) - Resumption line chord lengths ................................................................................. 15
Table 4 2.4.3(b) - Truncations ............................................................................................................... 16
Table 4 2.4.3(a) - Urban areas .............................................................................................................. 19
Table 4 2.4.3(b) - Rural areas ............................................................................................................... 19

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ii

Figures
Figure 4.2.4.2(a) - Resumption drawing Rural ..................................................................................... 7
Figure 4.2.4.2(b) - Resumption drawing Urban .................................................................................... 8
Figure 4.2.4.2(c) - Resumption drawing Lithograph............................................................................. 9
Figure 4.2.4.3(a) - Truncations.............................................................................................................. 16
Figure 4 2.4.3(b) - Resumptions in urban areas ................................................................................... 17
Figure 4.2.4.3(a) - Resumption drawing - one lot on two drawings (1 of 2) .......................................... 20
Figure 4.2.4.3(b) - Resumption drawing - one lot on two drawings (2 of 2) .......................................... 21
Figure 4.2.4.3(c) - Resumption drawing - Easement ............................................................................ 25
Figure 4.2.4.3(d) - Resumption drawing - Severance ........................................................................... 26
Figure 4.2.4.3(e) - Resumption drawing - Incidental Areas................................................................... 27
Figure 4.2.4.3(f) - Resumption drawing - Volumetric Requirements (Soil Nailing) ............................... 28
Figure 4.2.4.3(g) - Resumption drawing - Volumetric Requirements (Bridge) ...................................... 29
Figure 4.2.4.4 - Resumption drawing - Common Area.......................................................................... 32
Figure 4.3.3.4(a) - Native Title drawings associated with resumption .................................................. 41
Figure 4.3.3.4(b) - Other Native Title drawings ..................................................................................... 42
Figure 4 4.3.3(a) - Limited access drawing Permitted........................................................................ 48
Figure 4.4.3.3(b) - Limited access drawing Provided......................................................................... 49
Figure 4.4.3.3(c) - Limited access plan Motorway ............................................................................. 51
Figure 4.5.3.3(a) - Line based road declaration example ..................................................................... 57
Figure 4.5.3.3(b) - Line based road declaration example ..................................................................... 58
Figure 4.5.3.3(c) - Line based_common area example ........................................................................ 59
Figure 4.5.3.3(d) - Area based example................................................................................................ 60
Figure 4.5.3.3(e) - Area based example................................................................................................ 61
Figure 4.5.3.3(f) - Future state-controlled road example....................................................................... 62
Figure 4.5.3.3(g) - Common area survey plan (sheet 1 of 2) ................................................................ 63
Figure 4.5.3.3(h) - Common area survey plan (sheet 2 of 2) ................................................................ 64
Figure 4.5.3.3(i) - ARMIS reference point plan...................................................................................... 65

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4.1
4.1.1

Introduction
Purpose

A Right of Way is the State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR))
obligation to acquire, affect interests or apply access limitation over a property for transportation
purposes to and from another property.
This section outlines the departments Drafting and Design Presentation Standards for the production
of all Right of Way (ROW) drawings. The resultant ROW will ensure all property issues will be finalised
eg. Resumptions, Native Title, Limited Access, and Road Declaration.
4.1.2

Scope

This section describes the different products and provides guidelines to assist in defining requirements
when producing ROW drawings.
4.1.3

Terminology

Resumptions
These are required whenever the taking of land is involved. A resumption drawing must be submitted
in order to authorise the setting aside of land as road.
Native Title
These drawings are prepared to assist in the process of notification, consultation and statutory These
(LA) drawings show permitted road access locations to a limited access state-controlled road or to
land which is intended to become a limited access state-controlled road and are prepared as part of
road-specific access policies.
Road declaration
These drawings are compiled using the latest cadastral and best alignment information available so as
to ensure the location of the road being identified is clear and concise.
4.2
4.2.1

Resumptions
Introduction

The State of Queensland's responsibility to provide a better and safer transport network sometimes
means that privately owned land must be acquired by the department for construction purposes.
The Acquisition of Land Act sets out the process for the acquisition of interests in land.
Some aspects of the acquisition process can be complex and district designers should consult the
departments Property Officers when they are choosing alignments for new schemes. Property
Officers can provide comment on likely impacts to and compensation payable concerning to particular
corridors and properties thereon. They can also provide estimates for comparison purposes on a
number of alignments.
If a property is affected by proposed works, district designers prepare a drawing showing the
approximate location and area of the land required, together with background information on the
resumption scheme.
When the district/regional director completes the Land Resumption Request form (M695), district staff
should prepare a letter of intent to the land owner, enclosing a copy of the drawing and background
information. The letter will also inform the owner he/she has a choice of either completing an

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Agreement for the Taking of Land form, or receiving a Notice of Intention to Resume. (Completion of
an Agreement simply expedites the acquisition process. So long as all parties with an interest in the
land sign a form. They waive their rights to object to the proposed resumption.) Their right to claim
compensation is the same in either case.
Letters of intent, where possible, should be hand delivered by design and/or engineering staff.
Property Officers are available to attend these meetings with owners. Design and/or engineering staff
can talk to design aspects. Property Officers are best equipped to handle owner enquiries regarding
the acquisition and compensation process.
The Notice of Intention to Resume will outline the procedure to follow if an owner wishes to object. The
objection must be in writing, be made within the time specified in the Notice, state their grounds for
objection (with supporting details) and state whether they wish to be heard in support of the objection.
They may appear by themselves at the objection hearing and/or be represented by a solicitor or other
agent. Matters relating to the amount of compensation to be paid are not grounds for objection.
All objections, if any, are considered. The delegated officer then prepares an Objection Hearing
Report as soon as possible after the hearing. He makes a recommendation to proceed, to discontinue
or to proceed to acquire an amended (reduced) area. If the delegated officer recommends a change of
alignment, the district must recommence the process. The district officer forwards a copy of the
Objection Hearing Report to all objectors, allowing them 14 days to make further submissions.
The district then forwards the Objection Hearing Report and any further submissions, together with
Decision Following Objection Hearing form (M709), to Strategic Property Management section as
soon as possible after the expiry of the 14 days, to allow processing for the Minister to apply to the
Governor in Council to have a notice published in the Government Gazette formally taking the land.
From the date of gazettal the land becomes the property of the State and the owner's interest in the
land is converted to a right to claim compensation.
If you wish clarification of any of the above points, do not hesitate to contact a Property Officer in
Strategic Property Management section.
4.2.2

General

As part of the planning and preliminary design phase, the right of way requirements for the proposed
roadway needs to be taken into account. This may involve the resumption of property or parts of a
property and needs to be shown on the design drawings.
Resumption drawings are prepared to assist in the acquisition of land by:

identifying the boundaries of the land to be acquired and to provide survey information to
assist with the correction of Title

showing the areas of all land parcels affected, including balance and severance areas etc, and

assisting property owners to identify the extent of land required and improvements affected.

Resumption drawings must show clearly and precisely the following details:

area to be resumed, and

the exact details of the requirement.

There are a few acceptable methods for showing proposed new property boundaries as a result of
land acquisition.

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4.2.3

Fixing resumption requirements

This section deals with the fixing of property requirements suitable for cadastral surveyors to peg the
requirement on the ground.
4.2.3.1

Resumption of small areas

During the detailed planning process, the designer usually considers resumption only from the point of
view of avoiding very small areas and/or resumption on both sides of an existing road.
When a resumption of a small truncation or sliver area is proposed, the designer should carefully
reassess the requirements which make the resumption necessary while being aware that a
considerable cost is incurred in internal resources and external administration, excluding any
compensation payment.
4.2.3.2

Considerations in determining resumption boundaries

The designer determines the initial position of the proposed resumption from consideration of the road
reservation requirements. The relative importance of any one of these may vary with the district
concerned, the job and the locality. The requirements may cover the following features:

the width required by the completed earthworks, i.e. the extent of the batter points

the clearance from the batter points. For details of the widths to be adopted refer current
policy statement on ROW Widths

sediment filter dams for road surface runoff and any other environmental protection structure,
if relevant

provision for further development including widening, channelisation and/or additional lanes,
including truncations, to suit road improvements not included in the present scheme

an access zone for maintenance vehicles (e.g. culvert maintenance, mowing of fill batters,
maintenance of collector drains from catch banks and table drains, etc.)

constructability and future upgrading/maintenance issues, e.g. the provision of side tracks for
traffic management

possible future road upgrades, e.g. duplication, adding an overtaking lane, driver fatigue pull
over rest areas, and so on

the provision of clear zones for errant vehicles

provision of accesses to properties in difficult terrain

the relocation of Public Utility Plant (PUP) and the long term maintenance of this plant (it's
difficult to keep PUP out of the road corridor)

sight distance requirements on horizontal curves and at side and cross-road intersections

service roads

parking strips

footpaths

access conditions

sedimentation basins

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drainage outlet considerations

accident containment zones (for the majority of accidents), and

location of improvements.

Remember that a saw-tooth resumption line is difficult to fence and the use of longer even
chords/lines aids fencing and also provides regular property boundaries.
In urban areas the ROW clearance needs to include appropriate:

footpath widths

clearances to buildings

provision for difficult accesses with safety.

ROW considerations in urban areas are driven by the cost of resumptions (land, buildings,
businesses).
Once land is taken, even for small `snippets, a claim could arise with respect to land value and
injurious affection and severance damage could apply.
4.2.3.3

Method of fixing land requirements

After the horizontal and vertical alignments are fixed, the land requirements can be determined from
using a plot of the proposed road batter points or batter points plus the required clearance but in
situations where batters are quite irregular an additional requirement of a minimum clear zone
distance from the shoulder will be of advantage to ensure a more regular resumption line.
In all cases after fixing the minimum requirements the proposed resumption should be adjusted to
form a smooth line of straights and chords (see Table 4.2.4.3(a).
Generally, in rural areas, the preliminary designed widths of road reservation are rounded to the next
even five metres above the actual designed total, but this may vary with the District concerned. The
rounding is usually done when the land to be resumed is of low value and/or no improvements of any
value are involved. However, in areas of low earthworks and/or low value of land a regular width
resumption should be taken for the sake of uniformity and simplicity. In urban areas or any areas of
high cost land, the land taken should be the designed requirement plus approved clearances.
4.2.3.4

Ambulatory boundaries

Ambulatory boundary is either the high or low bank of a water way (creek/river). Surveyors, Designers
and Property Officers need to be aware of the potential for a problem/complication to exist at
creek/river crossings and its potential to impact on the resumption process.
In the case of ambulatory boundaries it is recommended that the cadastral reinstatement of the
ambulatory boundary is performed prior to the gazettal of the resumption drawings.
The location of the alignment of the resumption where it intersects the ambulatory boundary is needed
to instruct the cadastral surveyor.
The final position of the ambulatory boundary has to be determined to be able to calculate intended
resumption areas.

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4.2.3.5

Access Restriction Strips (ARS)

When an existing ARS, i.e. a narrow strip of land held in fee simple by the Local Authority, exists along
the road frontage where a resumption is proposed then the Local Authority should be consulted as to
whether or not the ARS is to be reinstated along the proposed resumption boundary.
Where the Local Authority requires an existing ARS to be reinstated along the proposed resumption
boundary as part of the resumption process, an additional like area to that of the existing strip should
be allowed for in the total resumption area.
The Manager (Property Services) must be advised of the need to reinstate the ARS along the
proposed resumption boundary.
4.2.3.6

Severances

Another aspect of property acquisition concerns the taking or non-taking of severances. Where a new
road leaves small severances it is almost impossible to decide what land should be taken unless the
owners of the various parcels of land are known. Where affected adjoining lots are in common
ownership, problems of access to severed areas may not arise. However, if the severances were in
different ownership, land may have to be taken by reason of its small size and/or absence of access.
Therefore, precise information on ownership is essential in such cases. The point still arises that no
mandate exists to take more land than is required for road works unless the owner is agreeable to
such taking.
4.2.4

Preparation of resumption drawings

Resumption drawings are prepared to identify and detail the requirements of land to be acquired.
Three main aspects are involved are:

to provide the cadastral surveyor with sufficient information to survey the boundaries of the
resumed land

to enable the property owner to readily identify with certainty the land to be resumed, and

to show all relevant information for assessment of compensation by the assessing agency.

Resumption drawings are required whenever the taking of land is involved, irrespective of the tenure
thereof, including taking the whole title and including requirements from reserves and Unallocated
State Land. This statement also applies to land held in fee simple by the director general of the
Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads. In other words, unless the land on which the
works are to be carried out is already dedicated road, a Form M695 and a resumption drawing must
be submitted in order to authorise the setting aside of the land as road.
4.2.4.1

Types of resumption drawings

There are two types of resumption drawings that are likely to be required and they are as follows:

Standard resumption drawings


In rural and urban areas resumption drawings can generally be produced from the normal
working feature drawings on which the boundaries are normally shown in red, provided these
boundaries are plotted using registered survey plans (see Figure 4.2.4.2(a) and
Figure 4.2.4.2(b). Standard resumption drawings usually detail the requirements for areas to
be resumed in a single plane, however there are some situations where the resumption of a
volumetric area is required. The requirements for the preparation and presentation of drawings

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that include volumetric resumptions are identical to standard resumption drawings, except for
some additional information that is required to set-out the area in three dimensions instead of
two (see Figure 4.2.4.3(g) and Figure 4.2.4.4).

Lithographs
In rural areas where the resumption is mainly through holdings, this type of resumption
drawing may be shown by means of an accurately marked alignment on a lithograph, on which
reference to the working drawing numbers is to be made (see Figure 4.2.4.2(c). Note that this
type does not include holdings through which a surveyed road reservation has already been
provided.

4.2.4.2

Preparation of standard resumption drawings

Resumption drawing preparation will require a decision as to the type of drawing required (see
Clause 4.2.4.1). This section will detail the procedures for the preparation of these standard
resumption drawings.
Draftspersons should remember that resumption drawings will ultimately be reduced to half-size and
the minimum lettering sizes will apply. Refer to Chapter 2 General Standards.
Number of acquisitions per resumption drawing
It is undesirable to have too many different resumptions (i.e. different properties being resumed from)
on the one drawing in the event that one property is held up for negotiations or amendments. A
reasonable maximum is five properties, and drawing sizes should be selected to suit. The maximum
number of resumptions per drawing sheet is six.
In urban areas it is normal practice to have only one resumption drawing per drawing sheet.

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Figure 4.2.4.2(a) - Resumption drawing Rural

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Figure 4.2.4.2(b) - Resumption drawing Urban

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Figure 4.2.4.2(c) - Resumption drawing Lithograph

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Drawing reading by the layman


Anything that will assist the owner to identify the section of his property involved should be included on
the drawing. For example, the owner is sure to recognise such features as a building, a driveway, a
dam, a well, a gate, etc. Even if in some cases these occur on a neighbours property, such features
outside the owners property as power poles, Reference Point (RPs) or natural features such as a
creek are recognisable on the drawing.
Normally, existing tracks are omitted from a drawing but where property information is sparse, their
inclusion in the absence of other details can assist the owner in identifying and locating the section
involved. It is important that a north point is shown on each drawing.
Distances along property boundaries and offsets from them should be shown to aid in the approximate
location of the resumption boundary. "Approx." should be used in conjunction with these distances and
offsets.
Inclusion of the proposed road control line is not necessary unless it is considered desirable for
discussions with property owners. If it is included it should be annotated, but details such as tangent
lines produced to the intersection points are extraneous on a resumption drawing and are to be
omitted.
Locality map
Where identification of the land proposed for resumption cannot readily be made, for example due to a
lack of street names or well known features, it will be necessary to show a locality map on every
resumption drawing and/or distances to well known points.
It is recommended that the locality map be an extract from the appropriate cadastral map scanned and
inserted at as large a scale as possible to give a clear picture of the resumption location.
The locality map should include a conspicuous north point, cadastral map name and if required
distances to well known features for example towns, road junctions, rivers, etc.
It should be remembered that the original resumption drawing is reduced half-size for convenient
handing before issue and unless the locality map is clear and uncluttered in its natural state, it will, on
reduction become unreadable and its purpose destroyed.
Where the extract from the cadastral map will not fit on the first resumption drawing, a new drawing
showing the extract should be prepared, this drawing becoming number one in the series of drawings.
A suitable drawing title is then required, the drawing should be registered and a cross-reference made
on both drawings, one to the other.
Drawing size
Resumption drawings are to be prepared on a standard A1 size title sheet, as shown in Chapter 2
General Standards. Final plotted output is to be A3 size (50% reduction). From the point of view of
economy of drafting it is reasonable to use a single sheet in order to cover the maximum area on the
one drawing, but this can be carried to extremes and no attempt should be made to cram the drawing
merely for reasons of drafting economy.
Drawing scales
The scale chosen for the drawing should enable it to be easily read after reduction. For resumptions in
rural areas a scale of 1:2000 will generally be satisfactory whereas in urban areas, where land is
generally freehold, a larger scale is required to enable specific clearances from buildings etc, to be

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shown. The scale of the related working drawing or the design alignment drawing is a good guide to
the scale required for resumption drawings.
Drafting standard
The type of drafting required on these drawings should not differ to any extent from that of the working
drawing except that special emphasis is made to certain details and there are certain omissions of
items unrelated to resumption matters.
Typical information required on drawings
The following information is to be accurately recorded on the drawing:

the lot on plan method of describing properties should be shown on the drawing as follows:

the lot numbers and property plan numbers of properties not being resumed are to be in
vertical font, 4 mm high and 0.35 mm thick.

the lot number of the property being resumed is to be in vertical font, 6 mm high and is to
be emphasised by making figures 0.7 mm thick

the registered survey plan number of the property being resumed is to be in vertical font,
6 mm high and 0.35 mm thick

The properties being resumed from are to be listed in the relevant position in the title block.
These properties are to be listed in the file reference column sequentially, starting with the
number one on the first drawing in the series of drawings and progressively increasing to the
last property being resumed from on the last drawing of the series.

Where a property is resumed from and the area(s) required appears on two or more
resumption drawings it must be shown in the title blocks of those drawings with the same file
reference number.

Survey marks (instrument stations) should be drawn and annotated together with a table of
coordinates and offset pegs, if relevant.
Annotated grids are to be shown on the drawing including a note detailing the survey datum
information.

Bench marks are to be shown.

Reference points (RP) are to be shown on the resumption drawings where they occur.

Rivers and large creeks are to be shown and named, and if necessary scaled from the
lithograph. The direction of flow is to be indicated by a conspicuous arrow.

Property boundary lines are to be drawn long enough to divide adjacent properties clearly.

Vincula are to be shown where they apply.

All land survey marks located by the surveyor are to be shown together with the coordinates of
established survey marks (see Clause 4.2.4.3).

A prominent statement should be placed on the drawing stating that only the coordinates
should be used by the cadastral surveyor to locate the resumption boundary.

For the display of survey marks and survey datum requirements refer to Volume 2 of Drafting
and Design Presentation Standards Manual.

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Property improvements such as fences, fence posts, electricity and telecommunication lines,
existing culverts etc. are to be shown where these are affected by the resumption, and where
they will assist in accurately locating the extent of the resumption on the ground.

All structural improvements on the land to be resumed, and those within close proximity (about
25 metres) of the resumption boundary, are to be shown on the drawings.

All soil descriptions, vegetation, and cultivation details are to be given, also watering facilities
such as wells, windmills, dams etc.

Previous resumptions which have not been surveyed are to be shown. In such cases the lines
of the previous resumption boundary are to be drawn in thin black broken lines with a crossreference note in the form See Rxx-xxxx . This cross-reference will indicate that the
resumption has already been processed by the department.

Property description
To ensure that the property information to be shown on the resumption drawing is accurate, acquire
the latest Title Search and Survey Plans or use searches less than one month old. If searches indicate
the ownership of a property is a company, a company search will be required. If the title search shows
that the land is encumbered by a Caveat, an easement or similar dealing, then a search of such
dealing will also be required.
Each parcel of land has a unique identifier known as Lot-on-Plan. For freehold and non-freehold land
the Department of Natural Resources and Water is responsible for the description and registration of
the title. The unique identifier in each case is Lot on Plan, for example Lot 3 on SP80022.
Tenure of property
When land becomes alienated from the Crown it is called a Deed of Grant. When the Deed of Grant is
subdivided a Certificate of Title is issued to the property owners.
The Tenure of Property is to be given under each property description concerned with the resumption.
These details are sufficiently well known to be abbreviated to capital letters. Typical of these would be:
AF = Agricultural Farm
USL = Unallocated State Land
RE =

Reserve (including the type of reserve)

F = Freehold
A more comprehensive list is shown in Appendix 4E. The numbers of leases and agricultural farms are
also to be given with the abbreviation letters used to define these tenures. A typical example would be:
Lot 17 on RP123456
AF 685
Fee simple (FS) means land totally alienated from the Crown and held subject to certificate of title or
deed of grant.
North Point
The North Point must be drawn clear of the line work comprising the resumption drawing to reduce the
chance of confusion with a boundary line.

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Easements
Where an easement appears on a drawing, full details of that easement are to be given. Where the
resumption involves that easement then the drawing must show separate and combined areas to be
resumed and the respective balance areas (see Clause 4.2.4.3- Showing Easement Areas Required).
Reservations in Title
A Reservation in Title is an area, attached to an Estate in Fee Simple.
It is set aside for road which will benefit the community as a whole, i.e. a Reservation for a Public
Purpose.
While the position of the Reservation in Title is unspecified, i.e. a Floating Reservation, its area is
known.
If a Reservation in Title exists, consideration should be given to resuming from the Reservation in
Title, rather than from the Estate in Fee Simple.
Since no compensation is paid for the land, only for any improvements on the land, it should only be
considered if no undue severances will be created.
To determine if a Reservation in Title exists, there will be a statement:
For exclusions refer to Plan
XX nnnnnn,
on the Title Search.
On Plan XX nnnnnn there will be a three line area:
157.2 ha
4.1461 ha Rd Resn
153.0539 ha Bal
Any existing area reserved for road purposes contained in the land affected must be shown since the
resumed area may be offset against this. Show this area beneath the area required for resumption,
thus:
Lot LL on XXnnnnn
Area reqd abt 12.32 ha
(Rd Res. 4.146 ha)
Such reservation has no location within the area but is purely a reservation for future road purposes.
The area to be shown as required is the total area to be resumed; it is not to be adjusted by the area
of such reservation contained in the land affected. If the area required happens to be less than the
area of such reservation, the full area of the latter is nevertheless to be shown.
4.2.4.3

Presentation of resumption drawings

Once the land requirements have been fixed it is necessary to complete the detailing of the
resumption drawing.

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Line types
Property boundaries and resumption boundaries are to be drawn using standard line styles and are to
be output in red colour. Refer Chapter 2 General Standards.
Setting out points
The method of setting out the points which fix the proposed resumption boundaries is to be by:

coordinates

dimensions given from cadastral (property) boundaries

bearings given from coordinates.

Point numbering
At each point where the resumption line starts and ends on an existing property boundary and at each
point where that line changes direction, the point must be identified (by assigning it a number) and
located by one of the following methods.
The numbers assigned are to be consecutive, commencing at the left hand side of the drawing. The
numbers (in circles 6-7 mm diameter) are to be placed adjacent to the points to which they refer.
When individual resumption occurs on both sides of the control line, the point numbers should
progress on one side before continuing on the other side.
Each drawing should commence with point number one, but it is also correct to carry the numbering
forward to an adjoining drawing when the same resumption area is involved.
If it is required to introduce a new number for a point which was either overlooked originally or is now
required because of an amendment, the proceeding point number should be taken and the letter A
added. For example, a new point to be numbered between 27 and 28 should be numbered 27A.
Dimensions
Dimensions are to be given accurate to one decimal place in metres.
To help the property owner understand the extent of the area being considered for transport purposes
some dimensions are to be shown on the resumption drawing.
A note is to be shown on the drawing to indicate that these dimensions are provided for information
only.
Dimensions shown are approximate and for information only. Dimensions are not to be used for
setting out resumption boundaries.
New boundary points
The following particular rules are to be observed with the wording of boundary points:

when the resumption line starts from or ends on a surveyed corner, it is uncertain just
precisely what the coordinate is.

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When the resumption line starts from or ends on a surveyed boundary as distinct from a corner, the
description is to read.

(Note: here that we need a Setout Point that is on a projection of the required new road boundary).
Resumption on curves
Where the resumption line is around a curve it will be in the form of chords. Table 4.2.4.3(a) serves as
a guide to the general maximum chord lengths for fence strainer post spacing applicable to the radii
shown. The chords commonly start and end opposite the curve tangent points, but in the case of
transitioned curves the designer may carry the straight resumption line up to half way along the spiral
length before introducing the first chord. The point numbers at the chord intersections are treated as
described in Clause 4.2.4.3.
Table 4.2.4.3(a) - Resumption line chord lengths
Strainer Post Spacing not exceeding 150 m

Strainer Post Spacing not exceeding 100 m


(black soil)

Radius m

Chord length, m

Radius m

Chord length, m

120 - 180

60

120 - 270

60

180 270

75

270 - 1100

90

270 750

90

1100 - 2400

180

750 - 3000

150

>2400

270

>3000

300

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Truncations
Where the resumption line is around intersecting roads there is a minimum length of cord to provide
an acceptable offset, say 0.5 mm. Cord lengths must be at least 2 m. The first deflection angle must
be at least 30. Table 4.2.4.3(a) provides guidance to the number of chords at intersections.
Figure 4.2.4.3(b) shows the general layout.
Table 4 2.4.3(b) - Truncations
Truncation
Length (m)

Number of
Chords

Intersection
Angle

Chord Length
(m)

First Deflection
Angle

11.984

12

5.975

18

3.965

132

2.001

133

2.861

149

2.014

150

3.106

For angles < or = to 90 deg the truncation length will be 6 m, have 3 chords with a minimum chord
length of 2 m. For angles > 90 deg have 3 chords with a minimum chord length of 4-5 m (the design
footprint would be a good guide for the new boundary line, with the designer always considering a
smooth boundary alignment).
Figure 4.2.4.3(a) - Truncations

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Fixing resumptions using coordinates


A tabulation of point numbers and coordinates is to be given on the drawing together with the
coordinates and type of surveyed marks and a note detailing the datum for the survey so that the
cadastral surveyor can establish a base for his work. However, coordinates are not to be used to
identify points on property boundaries, as there is no guarantee that the coordinates actually fall on
the boundary. A point on a boundary can only be located by a cadastral surveyor using a specified
setting out line that crosses the boundary.
Where a resumption boundary ends on a property corner a notation should be shown on the
resumption boundary stating that the resumption boundary joins to the property corner.
Where a resumption boundary ends on a property boundary the bearing of the resumption boundary
could be shown from a known point.
Where a resumption boundary is straight and intersects one or more property boundaries a notation
should be shown on the resumption boundary stating that the intersection points lie on the resumption
boundary between the end points.
A minimum of three marks are required to establish a base for survey work. These marks should be
selected for ease of location and to give full coverage of the job.
Survey marks in order of ease of location are:

permanent survey marks and bench marks

screws, ramsets and nails in concrete

spike and nails in bitumen, and

pegs and steel offset pegs.

Fixing resumptions using existing property boundaries


In urban areas, or any area where subdivision has been carried out, proposed resumption boundaries
may be related to the existing property boundaries, with distances measured along the boundaries.
Cadastral boundaries must be adjusted to existing survey marks. If the angle in the resumption line is
not on a boundary, the angle point is then tied to an adjacent corner by a line at a given angle
(approx.) to a suitable boundary and at a distance from that corner. (Give an angle not a bearing for
such a tie line). Alternatively, a distance from a corner, measured along a boundary, combined with a
square offset will adequately define the point (see Figure 4.2.4.3(b)).
Figure 4 2.4.3(b) - Resumptions in urban areas

(Note: Digital Cadastral Data Base boundaries may be used as a reference only i.e. not to be used for fixing
resumption boundaries.)

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Fixing resumptions using a setting out line


In situations where the line of the proposed resumption boundary is known then it is best to locate this
line by coordinate system. The intersection of this line with the actual property boundaries locates the
resumption boundary (see Figure 4.2.4.3(d). Points A and C are located by coordinates with the
proposed resumption line being defined by the intersection of the fixed line with the actual property
boundaries.
Fixing resumptions from existing features/construction
In situations where it is required that a proposed resumption boundary be located in relation to a
particular feature, then it is best located by dimension from that feature. Such situations could be to
include a power pole from inside a property or to fix a resumption boundary relative to a road edge,
culvert, etc.
Future works
Where the resumed area makes provision for future works such as channelisation, widening or the
like, an explanatory note should be given on the drawing or alternatively the extent of the future work
should be shown in very short thin broken lines for the information of the owner.
Showing areas required
The area(s) being resumed are required to be shown in both the body of the drawing and in the
location set aside for this purpose in the title block.
There are two methods of showing the areas in the body of the drawing and they are:

under the property description to which it refers, and

in tabular form.

The rule is also varied when there happens to be more than one parcel of land covered in the total
requirements from the one property. In such a case the area of each parcel should be shown within or
adjacent to the parcel concerned and the total area required stated with the property description. This
is illustrated on Figures 4.2.4.3(a) and 4.2.4.3(b).
Note particularly that all areas are to be prefaced with the word about, contracted to abt. In
addition, the words area required (area reqd) are to be used when stating the area. In the first
instance above, the area required would be shown as:
Lot 13 on SP124578
FH
Area reqd abt 23.76 ha
Area remaining abt 146.82 ha
For volumetric resumptions, both the volume and the plan area required are to be shown under the
property description to which they refer as follows:
Lot 81
SP132799\par
Volume reqd abt 14430 m
over area abt 817m
In the title block, the area required is shown in the standard column as normal, however the volume
required is shown in the column normally used for the area remaining (see Figure 4.2.4.4). Note on

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the example that column headings were customised to clarify whether the numbers specified in the
column were areas remaining or volumes required.
The second method of showing the areas required would normally be adopted where space prohibits
the required areas being shown with the portions or allotments to which they refer, for example in
small townships and in urban areas. In such cases the areas are to be shown in tabular form as
follows.
Table 4 2.4.3(a) - Urban areas
REFERENCE TO AREAS REQUIRED
Description

Area Required

Area Remaining

Lot 1 on SP16430

abt 210m

abt 627m

Lot 7 on SP16832

abt 156m

abt 779m

Lot 8 on SP16832

abt 123m

abt 683m

Lot 2 on SP16986

abt 34m

abt 1088m

An alternative table for a rural situation, where drawing detail prohibits the showing of areas required
under the property description, is as follows.
Table 4 2.4.3(b) - Rural areas
REFERENCE TO AREAS REQUIRED
Description

Area Required

Area Remaining

Lot 2 on SP17890

abt 1.163 ha (8590m , road;


3040 m FS#

abt 29.362 ha road; 456 m FS#

# Fee Simple see Clause 4.1.4.2.

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Figure 4.2.4.3(a) - Resumption drawing - one lot on two drawings (1 of 2)

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Figure 4.2.4.3(b) - Resumption drawing - one lot on two drawings (2 of 2)

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Areas required are to be given using the following rules:

if the Deed Area is in imperial units - give the areas in both metric and imperial for example
1.76 ha (4 ac 1 - 15.8); 283 m (0 ac 0 - 11.2)

if the Title Deed is in metric units - give the metric area

Areas 1 ha and over - give in ha

Metric areas are to be given correct to four significant digits except for areas less than 100 m
which are to be given to one decimal place. for example 2376 ha, 237.6 ha, 23.76 ha,
2.376 ha, 2376 m, 237.6 m, 23.8 m, 2.4 m

all volumes are to be given in metric units - cubic metres (m) - round upwards to the nearest
whole number

amend (to suit the situation) the following drawing note, to be placed in a conspicuous position
in or near the title block.

Dimensions in metres except where shown otherwise. Areas in hectares (ha) or square metres (m)
with equivalent areas in acres, roads, perches shown in brackets.
CONVERSION OF AREAS
METRIC to IMPERIAL
10000m

= 1 ha

1 ha

= 2.47105 acres

1 acre

= 4 roods

1 rood

= 40 perches

1 perch

= (16.5 x 0.3048) = m

For example
5.106 ha

= 12.617 acres (12 acres)

0.617 acres

= 2.469 roods (2 roods)

0.469 roods

= 18.8 perches (18.8 perches)

5.106 ha

= (12ac 2 18.8)

Where the resumption through a parcel of land is continued on an adjoining drawing (a practice which
should be avoided if at all possible) the area required should be shown firstly adjacent to or in the
relevant area required or up to/from a particular chainage where the individual area required is actually
shown on separate resumption drawings. The total area to be resumed must be shown on each
drawing together with a reference to the preceding or succeeding drawing (see Figure 4.2.4.3(b) and
Figure 4.2.4.3(c).
Property requirement
With whole property requirements the resumption drawing is to show the exact area shown on the
current Survey Plan.
Showing areas remaining
When dealing with resumptions the area remaining is to be given in all cases. The area should be the
result of subtracting the area required from the Deed Area and shown with the resumption area in the
relevant position in the title block. This is illustrated in Figure 4.2.4.2(a).

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Areas remaining are to be given using the rules for showing areas required (see Showing Areas
Required).
Showing easement areas required
Where the resumption includes land covered by an easement the drawing must show separate and
combined areas to be resumed and the respective balance areas (see Figure 4.2.4.3(d).
Severances
Areas of severances must be shown since these have a bearing on the valuation. It is normal to show
the area within the severance if this is possible, or if space does not permit this, adjacent to it, for
example:
Severance area abt 6.955 ha
This type of severance is illustrated in Figure 4.2.4.3(e). Cases arise where the severed portion of land
is of no practical use to the owner or in urban areas the severance area is substandard by local
government bylaws and cannot be amalgamated with adjoining blocks by the common owner. In such
cases the severed portion may also be resumed at the owners request. Both areas are then shown on
the resumption drawing, that is, the area taken for road purposes and the severance area, not
required for road purposes, taken in fee simple, for example:
Area reqd abt 1.163 m
(8590 m road, 3040 m FS#)
# Fee Simple see Clause 4.2.4.2
Curtilage areas
If the proposed resumption line passes through a structural improvement, additional land will need to
be made available to enable the structure to be removed clear of the proposed road reserve. This land
is resumed in Fee Simple for incidental purposes. After the structure is removed the resumption
process for the curtilage area may be discontinued. If the department and the previous owner agree,
the gazetted taking of land notice of resumption can be revoked and ownership of the land would
revert to the previous owner.
Incidental areas
Where there is additional land required for some minor ancillary works, for example inlet / outlet
drainage channel improvements which are additional to the land required to include permanent
drainage structures, additional land will need to be made available to construct the works. The first
preference in this case is to include all the works (including allowance for construction clearances) in
an area resumed in Fee Simple.
In cases where the taking of this total land requirement unduly affects the amenity of the property, say
in the case of a small parcel of land, difficulties may arise in securing the agreement of the property
holder. An alternate approach may be to divide the areas into parcels. The area required for
construction and maintenance of the drainage structure (including allowance for construction
clearances) is resumed in Fee Simple as an area required for transport purposes. The additional land
required for construction of the ancillary works is resumed in Fee Simple for incidental purposes.
In cases such as this, if it is apparent after construction of the ancillary works that the department has
no further requirement for this additional land, the department and the previous owner may agree to

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revoke the gazetted taking of land notice of resumption of the incidental area, and ownership of the
land would revert to the previous owner. This type of resumption is illustrated in Figure 4.2.4.3(f). Note
that the drainage design features shown on this figure to highlight the distinction between areas would
not normally be included on the final resumption drawing.
Volumetric requirements
With instances of tunnelling, soil nailed walls and bridges, rather than proceeding with a full
resumption, volumetric resumptions for Transport Purposes should be considered. With this process,
in particular soil nailed walls and tunnelling, the owner of the property can retain full use of the surface
area of the land (see Figure 4.2.4.3(g). Volumetric resumptions for bridges involves resuming a three
dimensional space surrounding the structure in order to release the land underneath for some
continued or new use. Examples of this are when a road bridge crosses existing freehold property in
the space above the ground surface and both the property owner and the department have a need for
continued operation and maintenance of their respective areas (see Figure 4.2.4.4); or where
volumetric resumptions could release the land underneath for potential car parking where that facility
is at a premium (possibly in urban CBD areas).
The volumetric resumption should take into account any maintenance area around the structure and
access for inspection and maintenance. In the bridge example shown in Figure 4.2.4.4, allowance has
been made also for future road lighting poles, which were not included in the initial construction
contract. Note on that example also that only a nominal clearance of 0.5 m was allowed from the
underside of the deck units and the piers and piles and in this case extended to the underside of the
piles (did not stop at the ground surface). This nominal clearance would not be sufficient for cases
where inspection and maintenance is required from under the bridge, so in this case, it would be
necessary to establish a formal right of access to this area through the establishment of an easement.
Referring to Figure 4.2.4.3(g), the clearance to ground level for the end span of the bridge (between
piers 10 and 11) was diminished to such an extent as to be not viable as a volumetric resumption and
a full title resumption was invoked over that area.
A volumetric drawing is no different from a normal resumption drawing other than there being a 3rd
dimension.

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Figure 4.2.4.3(c) - Resumption drawing - Easement

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Figure 4.2.4.3(d) - Resumption drawing - Severance

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Figure 4.2.4.3(e) - Resumption drawing - Incidental Areas

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Figure 4.2.4.3(f) - Resumption drawing - Volumetric Requirements (Soil Nailing)

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Locality
Map

Figure 4.2.4.3(g) - Resumption drawing - Volumetric Requirements (Bridge)

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Intersections of state-controlled roads and railways (common area)


Provisions exist in the Transport Infrastructure Act which authorise the declaration of a state-controlled
road across a (present or proposed) railway or rail corridor, regardless of tenure arrangements. If the
Minister decides to declare a road or route, or part of a road or route, that crosses rail corridor land
and continues on the other side of the rail corridor to be a state-controlled road, the Minister must
declare the part of the rail corridor land where it is crossed by the road or route to be common area
for the rail corridor land and the state-controlled road. Under the provisions of the common area
legislation, both Transport and Main Roads and Queensland Rail have rights at each railway crossing
to gain access for construction, maintenance and safety purposes.
With a common area:

The departments area can only be:

road

a Reserve for road purposes, with the department as trustee.

If this sub lease exists there will be a statement under:

ENCUMBRANCES, EASEMENTS AND INTERESTS SUB LEASE No 701720343 to


QUEENSLAND RAIL on the title search.

Examples where the department may construct, maintain and operate the state-controlled road on the
common area are:

a level crossing

a bridge or other structure over a railway, and

bridge or other structure that allows the road to pass under the railway.

An example of one of these cases, a bridge over a railway, is included as Figure 4.3.3.4(a).
Highlighting of areas required
To assist the property owner to identify the area to be acquired it should be highlighted with hatching.
Resumption areas are to be shown using standard hatch patterns (see Appendix 4A). This procedure
will assist property services in the efficient processing of resumption drawings.
Where lettering and shaded areas coincide, the shaded area shall have a section removed to permit
the clear display of the lettering concerned.
Where areas required are too small to be effectively highlighted the area concerned should be shown
in larger detail. This will avoid the possibility of the required area being overlooked when using the
drawing.
Calculation of areas
Areas of resumptions are best measured electronically. Simple truncations and other simple regularly
shaped resumptions could be calculated as a check.
Errors in areas
It is essential that areas shown on resumption drawings be a good approximation to the actual areas
required as the compensation assessment is made on the approximate area. If such areas are
incorrect it follows that compensation paid will also be incorrect and this leads to the situation whereby

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the land owner may be overpaid or underpaid. In the latter case, the matter can be adjusted but not so
if overpayment has been made. A discrepancy of more than 10% can require additional amended
gazetted taking of land notice.
Declaration of realignment details
Never show resumption and realignment details on the same drawing as this causes confusion.
4.2.4.4

Lithograph type resumption drawing

Where a road passes through a holding and no surveyed boundaries exist and a constant width
resumption is required, the lithograph type resumption drawing is an easy and efficient method of
showing the land requirements.
The lithograph type drawing should be created on the standard Al size title sheet and be reduced to
A4 or if necessary A3 size for final plotted output.

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Map

Locality

Figure 4.2.4.4 - Resumption drawing - Common Area

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Resumption through holdings


The following details are required on the lithograph used to mark the road alignment (see
Figure 4.2.4.2):

a standard title block. A bar scale should always be shown in this type of drawing to provide
for reproduction at various sizes

the width of road reserve, and

the area to be resumed from each holding.

A north point should be shown on all drawings.


When the holding has been surveyed and consequently has a registered lot on plan number, a print of
the working drawings must also be forwarded with the marked lithograph. The alignment details may
be plotted, on a small scale.
4.2.4.5

Amended resumption drawings

If for some reason a previous resumption drawing needs to be amended, a new drawing may be
prepared and will show in the property description column of the title block only the property affected
by the amendments. The new drawing is to form a complete record of the amended resumption,
cancelling the details shown on the previous drawing, including any other resumed sections of that
property not being amended.
Other resumptions on amended resumption drawing
If the amended drawing shows other separate resumptions of other properties, those areas should
show the drawn resumption lines in a thin black line with a cross reference to the previous drawing for
details. Use standard line types for the work; see Chapter 2 General Standards. Point identification
numbers, chainages, offsets or areas of these resumptions are not to be given on the amended
drawing.
The cross-reference is to be given in the form: See RXXX-__
Amendments on amended resumption drawing
If amendments are required and a new drawing is produced, treatment of amendments depends on
whether the original resumption has been effected or not and the following rules apply.

If resumption has been effected by gazetted taking of land notice, the drawing is produced
showing the newly resumed property boundary in full line (0.35 mm) and the original boundary
in thin broken line (0.35 mm). For standard line types see Chapter 2 General Standards. The
new area (and total area if applicable) is then determined relative to the newly resumed
property boundary.

If resumption has not been effected, the drawing is produced as for a normal resumption with
no reference made to the previously proposed resumption other than a cross-reference to the
previous drawing. The new area is labelled Amended Area abt 1.32 ha and if there is more
than one area in total resumption the new total is labelled Amended Total area abt 4.75 ha.
These areas are determined relative to the original property boundary.

In both these cases, the details of the amended resumption line are shown using the same method of
set out as used previously on the drawing. Previously used point numbers may be used again, or the

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points may start with point number one as for any new drawing. A cross-reference is made to the
previous drawing in the form:
This drawing amends (part of) Drawing No. RXXX-24 printed just above the title block.
Additional point numbers
Where it is required to introduce an extra point as part of an amendment procedure, the point number
of the preceding point should be taken and the letter A added.
Drawing revision column completion
Whenever a resumption drawing is amended the title block must also be amended to register the
change for record purposes. This process is similar to that described in the chapter relating to the
working drawing and Chapter 2 General Standards (see also Clause 4.2.4.5).
4.2.4.6

Completion of standard details on drawing

It is necessary for the finished resumption drawing to be uniquely identifiable. Therefore it is necessary
to complete all of the standard details (title block, etc.) before it is ready for submission for
recommendation, approval and subsequent processing.
Drawing numbering
Each resumption drawing should have only one job number reference per resumption drawing. In the
case of a scheme with more than one job number involved the reference should be made only to the
relevant job number. Where a scheme is along a boundary road a separate drawing should be
prepared for each job number. This also means that there will be only one local authority and road
reference number per drawing.
Drawings are to be numbered consecutively in each district/regional Office commencing with the
number one. A number registering book is to be held in the district/region for this purpose. The
consecutive number is to be prefixed with the letter R and the number of the district/region, for
example
RXXX-27
Where R denotes that the drawing is a resumption drawing, XXX denotes South Coast district/region,
27 denotes No. 27 resumption drawing in the district/regional register for resumptions.
For drawings associated with limitation of access the drawing number should include a suffix of LA, for
example:
RXXX-27LA
For drawings where native title rights and interests are affected the drawing number should include a
suffix of NT, for example:
RXXX-27NT
For drawings associated with both limitation of access and native title, both suffixes are to be included,
for example:
RXXX-27LANT
Resumption drawings are also to be given a drawing number from the departments digital plan room
system (GIMS). Resumption plan information must be included into GIMS by your plan room officer.

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Resumption drawings being processed in association with limited access


When resumption drawings are prepared for a road boundary widening to an existing road on which
limitation of access has been proclaimed, the boundaries on the access limitation drawing should be
amended to agree with the proposed resumption and be submitted with the resumption drawing (see
also Clause 4.2.5).
When resumption drawings are prepared that include property which affects Native Title Rights and
interests, the boundaries on the native title drawing should be amended to agree with the resumption
drawing and be submitted with the resumption drawings (see also Clause 4.2.6).
Declaration of realignment
Where a declaration of realignment only is required, the letters RA are to be added after the drawing
number, for example:
RXXX-45RA
File references and resumption details
The file references, property descriptions, areas required and areas remaining and the relevant
published cadastral maps, parish and county names are to be correctly shown in the title block.
The file reference is a number assigned to the resumption action for each property from which
resumptions are being made. These numbers are allocated sequentially, in the file reference column,
commencing with the number one and continuing for each resumption action under the same form
M695 (Land Request Form).
General details
All survey books, working drawings, land survey plans, associated resumption drawings and job
numbers must be shown in the areas provided in the title block.
Adjoining drawings
Each resumption drawing of a group covering any one job must bear a reference to the preceding
and/or succeeding drawing, if any. This reference is to be given in the form Joins R203-24. It is to be
printed parallel to and against the right and/or left hand borders of the drawing.
Amended resumption drawings
The title block must be appropriately completed whenever there is a change after issue. Included in
the title block is a revisions column to be used in a similar manner to that described in the chapter
relating to the working drawing and Chapter 2 General Standards (see also Clause 4.2.4.5).
With the advent of electronic drawings preparation, amended drawings are regenerated in an original
format. These drawings must be re-signed as certified and approved. Electronic signatures are not
acceptable.
Amendments made up to the time of issue of the drawing may be made without entry in the column.
When the drawing is sent to Manager (Strategic Property Management) for issue the system
described in the chapter relating to amendment to the roadworks drawings is to be adopted.
Signatures on resumption drawings
Resumption drawings are not an engineering drawing so do not require an RPEQ signature.

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The "TMR Review" box is to be signed off by the person who has a comprehensive knowledge of the
project design and the process involved with the taking of land for road purposes. This can be the
project coordinator, project manager, lead designer, or project engineer.
'Resumption Requirements Approved" is to be signed off by the person with the delegated authority
for the taking of land for road purposes for prepared resumption plans. This signature is also to be
signed in blue pen.
For externally produced resumption drawings the TMR Review and Approved areas are to be
completed by the department. Also for externally produced drawings the copyright statement is
replaced with TMR. Standard drawing sheets are available in TMR AutoCAD customisation.

R210-27

4.2.5

Limitation of access considerations

Standard resumptions, and those involving limitation of access, cannot be processed on the same
drawing.
Where limitation of access is involved, a limited access (LA) drawing must accompany the resumption
drawing (see Clause 4.4 - Limited Access). This is essential for valuation and negotiation purposes
and to ensure statutory timings are strictly adhered to. If a limited access drawing is not submitted, the
acquisition procedure will necessarily be delayed.
4.2.6

Native Title considerations

Proposed resumptions must be evaluated to determine whether Native Title rights and interests are
affected. The processes of Native Title clearances are to be arranged through the district/regions
Administration Officers and are not covered in this manual.
4.3
4.3.1

Native Title
General

Construction and maintenance activities associated with road infrastructure necessarily involve
dealings in land and natural resources. The Commonwealths Native Title Act 1993 (NTA) and
amendments establishes a regime under which these dealings, where they affect native title, must
occur in order to be valid. To appropriately consider native title and satisfy the requirements of the
NTA, an assessment of native title implications for a dealing must be made to determine whether or
not a dealing can proceed. The processes of undertaking and documenting this assessment are
included in the departments document Native Title Work Procedures for Decision Making Version 1,

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30 September 1998). The process of Native Title clearance is to be arranged through the Districts
Administration Officers and is not covered by this manual.
Native Title drawings form part of the documentation and factual information relied upon in the
decision making process and are prepared to assist in the processes of notification, consultation and
statutory approvals by:

identifying the locality of the activity

providing a clear description of the land, or waters, affected by the activity

identifying the boundaries of the land and/or waters to be affected and to provide survey
information to set out the subject area

showing the areas of all land parcels affected, including balance areas, and

assisting potential native title holders to identify the extent of land and areas of cultural
significance affected.

Native Title drawings must show clearly and precisely the following details:

the area of native title rights and interests affected, and

the exact details of the requirement.

4.3.2

Determining areas affected

In assessing native title implications for an instance, the following information must generally be
considered.

tenure information (current tenure information or the tenure history of the subject land parcel
may be required) including requirements from reserves and Unallocated State Land

the terms of any current tenure (so as to identify any rights which may be inconsistent with the
continued existence of native title)

any known Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander interest (in particular, whether Aboriginal or
Torres Strait Islander occupy or use the land), and

land use information (to determine the affect of current or previous uses of the land on native
title).

In terms of road infrastructure, proposed activities will either require the resumption of property or
parts of property, be wholly contained within an existing reserve (e.g. existing road reserve) or happen
near, or around, the road reserve, but not in it. The initial determination of the affected areas is made
considering the right of way requirements for the proposed activity, based on the tenure information
discussed above and the considerations discussed in the following clauses.
4.3.2.1

Areas associated with resumption

Cultural heritage issues, including native title issues, are identified as preliminary resumption issues
during the Planning & Preliminary Design phase of a project. Where it is necessary under the
provisions of the NTA to obtain approval to proceed with a dealing affecting native title via a
notification process (Section 24KA notification), native title drawings must be prepared to detail the
affect of the proposed dealings on native title rights and interests for each land parcel affected.

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Land requirements are determined from consideration of the road reservation requirements as
documented in Section 4.2 (Resumptions). The land taken should be the designed requirement plus
approved clearances.
4.3.2.2

Areas not associated with resumption

There are a number of construction related activities that may not involve the resumption of additional
land that may proceed with or without notification under the provisions of the NTA. These activities will
need to be assessed to determine which category they fall into and duly noted on Annexure 7.1 out on
the Native Title Work Procedures for decision making. Examples of these would be:

declaration of a stock route or proposed activity on such reserve, and

temporary occupation and use of land for purposes including:

surveying (including soil)

spoil sites / borrow pits, and

forming and use of temporary roads (including sidetracks not on road reserve areas).

Determination of the area affected involves consideration of the actual area requirements and may
also consider the following (where relevant):

construction clearances from the structure or earthworks

clearing

provision for access

temporary and permanent erosion and sediment control structures, and

drainage outlet considerations.

4.3.3

Preparation of Native Title drawings

Native Title drawings are prepared to identify and detail the area where native title rights and interests
are affected. Three main aims of preparing drawings are:

to present the relevant information in a clear and concise graphical form to enable potential
native title holders to readily identify with certainty the land and/or waters to be affected

to provide the surveyor with sufficient information to survey the boundaries of the land and set
out the subject area and allow constructing authorities and native title holders to monitor
compliance with these boundaries, and

to compliment the additional documentation required for assessment of the dealing by the
assessing agency.

Native title drawings are required whenever the department proposes activities which affect native title
rights and interests and which, to proceed; require notification of potential native title holders. A native
title drawing must be submitted in order to authorise the decision to process with land and natural
resource management decisions that affect native title.

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4.3.3.1

Types of Native Title drawings

There are two types of native title drawings that are likely to be required and they are as follows:

Native Title Drawings Associated with Resumption. In rural and urban areas these native
title drawings are produced from the standard resumption drawings for cases where a
proposed dealing, associated with resumption, affects native title rights and interests. The type
of native title drawing produced would match the type of resumption drawing produced i.e. a
lithograph type native title drawing would be produced when the associated resumption
drawing is a lithograph type. An example of this type of drawing is included as
Figure 4.3.3.4(a).

Other Native Title drawings. These native title drawings are produced to a similar standard
and from similar base information as a standard resumption drawing for cases where a
proposed dealing, not associated with resumption, affects native title rights and interests. An
example of this type of drawing is included as Figure 4.3.3.4(b).

4.3.3.2

Native Title in regards to a busway

General
When constructing a busway several issues need to be taken into account regarding Native Title
requirements. These issues occur when constructing a bridge or tunnel or placing soil nails in or over
an area of land not clear of Native Title. With busways, designers need to understand how the lease is
going to be issued for that area i.e. is it going to be held with no height or depth restrictions or is it
going to be held in strata title or volumetric?
Busway areas
The construction of bridges and tunnels with its associated works such as soil nails, can be carried out
under Section 24KA of the Native Title Act because this construction is classified as public works. The
area that is being suppressed under Section 24KA should include all areas incidental to the
construction of the project to accommodate all building aspects and is to be defined on the
departments Native Title drawing.
Some of the departments Native Title drawings may need to be done in volumetric but this depends
on what is going to be constructed. For construction requirements the area defined on the
departments Native Title drawing could be larger than what is required. This will not be a problem as
the resumption process for the lease will define the area to operate and maintain the busway.
Busway requirement
In relation to the lease for the busway it will either be a perpetual style lease or a head lease (like the
railways use) which provides the operator exclusive possession rights to the land indicated in the
lease document.
To issue this lease over the area necessary to operate and maintain the busway, Native Title rights
and interests need to be acquired under Section 24MD of the Native Title Act. This would require
Resumption drawings and Native Title drawings to be drawn up to show the area to be resumed for
the lease which is necessary to operate and maintain the busway. This would include all strata title
and volumetric requirements e.g. bridges, tunnels and soil nails.
For example if Transport and Main Roads was going to construct a bridge crossing a creek the lease
would probably be done as a volumetric requirement resulting in a Strata Title Lease.

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4.3.3.3

Preparation of Native Title drawings

Native Title drawing preparation follows very similar procedures for the preparation of both types of
drawings required (see Clause 4.3.3.1), with only the reference to auxiliary resumption drawings being
the difference between the two types. Further, the procedures and presentation standards to be used
for preparation of native title drawings are to be in accordance with those for preparation of resumption
drawings as outlined in Section 4.2 (Resumptions). Only information that differs from that covered by
Clause 4.2.4.2 of Section 4.2 (Resumptions) or is unique to native title drawings is included in this
section.
Similarly to resumption drawings, native title drawings will ultimately be reduced (commonly to halfsize) and the minimum lettering sizes will apply. Refer to Chapter 2 General Standards.
Locality Map
To assist in identification of the land affected it a requirement to show a locality map on every native
title drawing. It is recommended that the locality map be an extract from a Department of Natural
Resources and Mines BLIN map scanned and inserted at as large a scale possible to give a clear
picture of the native title location. All other requirements for presentation of the locality map are as for
Clause 4.2.4.2 of Section 4.2 (Resumptions).
Drafting standard
The type of drafting required on these drawings should not differ to any extent from that of the
resumption drawing.
4.3.3.4

Presentation of Native Title drawings

Only information that differs from that covered by Clause 4.2.4.3 (Resumptions) or is unique to Native
Title drawings is included in this Clause.

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Figure 4.3.3.4(a) - Native Title drawings associated with resumption

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Figure 4.3.3.4(b) - Other Native Title drawings

Highlighting of areas required


To assist the potential native titleholder to identify the area to be affected it should be highlighted with
hatching. Affected areas are to be shown using a standard hatch pattern as shown on the various

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example drawings and as specified in Appendix 4B. This procedure will assist Strategic Property
Management in the efficient processing of native title drawings.
Errors in area
It is essential that areas shown on native title drawings are the actual areas required as the
assessment and consultation process is undertaken on the area shown on the drawings and the area
is ultimately set out on the ground and monitored. Unlike the resumption process, compensation
issues in relation to native titleholders will be addressed more through positive action of protecting
cultural heritage, minimising disturbance to the land and making good where possible.
Drawing numbering
Drawings are to be assigned in each district/region using the same registering book held for the
resumption drawings as follows:

Native Title Drawings Associated with Resumption. Native Title drawings are to be assigned
the same number as the associated resumption drawing for example:
NUMBER Resumption

NUMBER Native Title

RXXX-144NT

NTXXX-144

RXXX-145NT

NTXXX-145

Other Native Title Drawings. Native Title drawings of this sort are to be assigned the next
available number from the register, with the NT number recorded in the appropriate column,
and no corresponding resumption number entered for example:
NUMBER Resumption

NUMBER Native Title


NTXXX-148

In both cases, the number is to be prefixed with the letters NT and the number of the
district/region, for example:
NTXXX-144

Where NT denotes that the drawing is a native title drawing, XXX denotes South Coast district/region,
144 denotes No. 144 native title drawing in the district/regional register.
Native Title drawings are also to be given a drawing number from the departments digital plan room
system (GIMS). Native Title plan information must be included into GIMS by your plan room officer.
4.4
4.4.1

Limited access
General

Limited access roads are those state-controlled roads to which access limitation legislation has been
applied under the provisions of Section 54 (1) of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994. Access
limitation is applied to achieve the appropriate levels of traffic speed and traffic flow capacity required
for the highest level of safety for our road users. Access limitation legislation is the major mechanism
for development control as it gives the department total control of access, existing or proposed, from
land abutting our road. Section 62 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994 also allows the department
to manage individual access to a state-controlled road where no access limitation is in place.
Limited access plans show permitted road access locations to a limited access state-controlled road or
to land which is intended to become a limited access state-controlled road. The plans are prepared as

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part of road-specific access management policies. Provisions in the plans which identify the limited
access sections of the state-controlled road are required to satisfy the requirements of the Transport
Infrastructure Act 1994. The provisions in the plans which show approved individual property access
are not required by legislation but are included for completeness.
Road-specific policies which detail how the department will generally deal with the management of
access between state-controlled roads and individual properties must be developed before a limited
access road is declared. A policy may also be developed for limited access roads which have been
previously declared and which do not have a policy. Development of road-specific access
management policy is the responsibility of the appropriate district/region. This section will mainly deal
with the requirements relating to preparation of limited access plans.
It should be noted the decision to declare a limited access road is optional and can be made on a road
by road basis by district/regions, as considered necessary.
4.4.2

Terminology

State-controlled road
Includes a road or land, or part of a road or land, that is declared to be a state-controlled road under
Sections 24 and 25 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994 (Declaration of state-controlled road).
It also includes a road or land that the chief executive has notified the relevant local government in
writing, is intended to become a state-controlled road.
Motorway
Motorways are those state-controlled toads to which motorway legislation has been applied under the
provisions of Section 27 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994. Motorways are declared to provide
the department with increased powers to ensure that the strategic functions of its roads are preserved.
These powers include the regulation of the types of traffic using motorways and the regulation of
advertising fronting motorways.
Limited access road
Includes part or all of a state-controlled road that is declared to be a limited access road under
Section 54 (1) of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994 (Declaration of limited access roads).
Permitted road access location
Includes a permitted road access location under a decision in force under Section 62 of the Transport
Infrastructure Act 1994 (Management of access between individual properties and state-controlled
roads).
Provided road access location or route
These include access locations or route which will exist at the date of the limited access road
declaration. It will be existing by virtue of it already being an established means of access which is
acceptable with, or without, minor construction by the director general to connect it to the new or
existing carriageway; or by it being a new means of access constructed by the director general to
replace an already established means of access which is unacceptable in its position relative to the
carriageway. A proposed road access location or route is one which has been determined will be
provided by the director general at some future date in anticipation of some future development (for
example, a new subdivisional road).

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4.4.3

Preparation of limited access plans

Preparation of limited access plans generally falls into either of the following categories:
1. Preparation of new limited access plans to cover either an existing state-controlled road, a
new or proposed new road corridor, deviation of a state-controlled road or the declaration of
limitation of access over a local government road which is to be declared a state-controlled
road.
2. Amendments to existing limited access plans. These amendments may result from such
actions as changes to cadastral boundaries abutting the roadway e.g. through resumption or
subdivision, or changes to former decisions made relating to access, under the provisions of
Section 62 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994.
The plans shall show, in relation to the state-controlled road, every means of access or route
provided and proposed by the director general. It shall not show means of access permitted by
the director general subsequent to the limited access road declaration date, or the locations where he
may, subsequent to the declaration date, permit in writing the driving of animals across the limited
access road.
Limited access plan numbers are allocated by Corporate Mapping Unit within Geospatial Technologies
Section.
4.4.3.1

Limited access road notification for proposed new corridors

This applies when limitation of access is to be applied to a proposed new road (future state-controlled
road) or a deviation prior to its construction and declaration as a state-controlled road.
Limited access plans showing all proposed means of access (see Figure 4.4.3.3(a) are prepared by
a district/region and approved by the district/regional director.
Limited access plans are forwarded to Manager (Corporate Mapping) directly from a district/region
(together with a request to proceed with access limitation declaration) or, in the case of a scheme
involving land resumption, from Strategic Property Management who have also been forwarded
relevant resumption plans from a district/region.
On receipt of the request, limited access plans, access management policy and other documentation,
Corporate Mapping Unit will prepare the necessary documentation for notification in the Queensland
Government Gazette. After notification in the gazette, the gazettal details will be recorded on the
plans. Copies will be made and then distributed to the relevant district/region and local governments
where they will be made available for viewing by the public. Corporate Mapping Unit advertises details
of the notification in a local newspaper (and/or newspaper circulating throughout the State), advising
the public where they can inspect the plans.
The original plans will be retained by the Plan Room, Geospatial Technologies Section and, upon
declaration of the new corridor as a state-controlled road, updated by changing the proposed
symbols to provided where appropriate, and by making any other necessary amendments. (see
Figure 4.4.3.3(b).
4.4.3.2

Limited access road notification for state-controlled roads

This applies when limitation of access is applied to an existing state-controlled road or concurrently
with the declaration of a new state-controlled road or new road corridor or deviation. In this case the
limited access plans should be prepared to show all provided and proposed means of access or

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routes, as they will be at the declaration date and as approved by the district/regional director. A
request to proceed with access limitation declaration, limited access plans, access management policy
and other documentation are forwarded to Manager (Corporate Mapping) by a district/region for
processing as per Section 4.4.3.1 (see Figure 4.4.3.3(b)).
4.4.3.3

Preparation of new limited access plans

Plan size and media


Limited access plans are to be prepared on a standard A3 size title sheet. For using correct plotting
media, suitable for the required presentation standard, refer DDPSM Chapter 2 Section 2.3.4.
Plan scales
The scale chosen for the plan should enable it to be easily read after reduction. Generally, in rural
areas a final printed output scale of 1:5000 (A3) will be satisfactory while in urban areas a final printed
output scale of 1:2500 (A3) or larger is required.
Drafting standard
The type of drafting required on the plans should not differ to any extent from that of the resumption
plans, except that only minimal features are shown to emphasise the symbols and annotations relating
to access.
Typical information required on plan
The following information is to be accurately recorded on the plan:

the latest cadastral information available using the lot on plan method described in Section 4.2
(Resumptions)

provided and proposed road access locations and entries and exits are to be indicated
using standard symbols shown in the legend area of the title block

the road access location numbers, property descriptions, level of access permitted, the
maximum width of access, actual land use occurring, permit issue date and comments are to
be correctly shown in the title block. For each plan in the series, the access number is
assigned sequentially to each property access location in the access number column,
commencing with the number one for the first property access and progressively increasing to
the last property access

any conditions or decisions applied and the strategy that will be used to manage access to the
roadway in the future

each limited access plan of a group covering any one road or part of a road must bear a
reference to the preceding and/or succeeding plan, if any. This reference is to be given in the
form Joins Plan LA.... It is to be parallel to and against the right and/or left hand borders of
the plan

no property improvements or existing features are to be shown, except rivers and large creeks
which should be shown and named

a north point, and

vincula, where they apply.

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limited access plans are to be given a drawing number from the departments digital plan room
system (GIMS). Limited access plan information must be included into GIMS by your plan
room officer.

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Figure 4 4.3.3(a) - Limited access drawing Permitted

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Figure 4.4.3.3(b) - Limited access drawing Provided

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Service roads
Where land abutting a state-controlled road is separated from the through roadway by a service road,
only the point of access from the service road to the through roadway is shown. Individual property
access locations are not shown. The service road is not included in the area to which access is limited
(see Figure 4.4.3.3(c)).
Motorways
Motorway boundaries are normally shown on the same plans prepared for limitation of access.
Generally, limitation of access applies to the whole road reserve, while the boundaries for motorway
legislation often reflect fencing locations (within the road reserve), earthworks batter lines and, in the
case of a motorway crossing a state-controlled road, the bridge parapets.
See Figure 4.4.3.3(c) for an example of a motorway/limited access plan.

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Figure 4.4.3.3(c) - Limited access plan Motorway

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4.4.3.4

Presentation of new limited access plans

Line types
Since limitation of access generally applies to the whole road reserve, the boundaries of the limitation
of access declaration on the plan(s) are usually bound by the standard line type representing property
boundaries.
If the limited access plan is being prepared in conjunction with resumption plans, the declaration
boundary will be the proposed resumption boundary except it will be shown in a continuous line style,
as for a property boundary.
Access numbering
At each property access location, the location must be identified by assigning it a number and by
placing the appropriate standard symbol on the declaration boundary.
The numbers assigned are to be consecutive, commencing at the access the least distance from the
road origin or datum point. The numbers (in circles 6 7 mm diameter) are to be placed adjacent to
the locations to which they refer. Each plan should commence with the access number one.
If required, entry and exit locations may be identified by assigning letters, rather than numbers. This is
useful in cases where specific comments regarding entry and/or exit from existing or proposed roads
are necessary. In this case, the letters should progress sequentially, as for numbers, and each plan
where this notation is required should commence with the letter A.
Highlighting of limitation of access areas
In order to clearly identify the area to which limitation of access applies, the area should be highlighted
with hatching. Areas to which limitation of access apply are to be shown using a standard hatch
pattern (see Appendix 4C).
4.4.3.5

Amendments to existing plans

Limited access plans are enduring legal documents, which once prepared can be updated over many
years. The need to upgrade the format of the limited access plan, and the information to be shown, will
dictate whether changes are treated as minor or major amendments.
Minor amendments
Changes that would fall into this category may include:

a change in location of an existing access

changes to the conditions attached to an existing access

the provision of a new road access location, and

the revocation of an existing access.

At the time of amendment, the original cadastral information should be checked using current Digital
Cadastral Data Base (DCDB) and updated where necessary. When finalised, the plan, together with a
covering memo, shall be sent to Manager (Corporate Mapping). The memo shall address the minor
nature of the amendment and any previous communication with local governments.
Major amendments
Changes that would fall into this category may include:

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changes to the area covered by limited access e.g. resumption of land for road reserve

declaration of motorway over an existing limited access road, and

completion of a future access management policy for an existing limited access road.

At the time of amendment, the original cadastral information should be checked using current Digital
Cadastral Data Base (DCDB) and updated where necessary. Changes to the area of roadway covered
by limited access e.g. resumption of land for new road reserve, will require gazettal of that new area of
road. This in turn will require the preparation of an access management policy and the notification to
local government.
The decision to amend the existing plan or to reissue the information under a new plan number will
often be the result of a value judgment with regard to time and resources available, versus the quality
and usefulness of the finished product.
When finalised, the plan together with a covering memo, a copy of the access management policy and
a copy of the resumption plan, if applicable, shall be sent to the Manager (Corporate Mapping). The
covering memo shall address any previous communication with local governments.
4.4.4

Additional requirements

All new requests for limitation of access must be accompanied with a copy of the district/regional
directors notification to the local government of its intentions with regard to limitation of access and
also a copy of the local government letter of approval of the proposals.
The district/region must also provide an access management policy with each limited access plan or
set of plans. These policies will be prepared, consistent with future planning requirements and road
objectives, and will outline how the department intends to deal with the management of access
between individual properties and the limited access road.
4.4.4.1

Limited access roads and stock routes

All roads are potential stock routes, and in every case where a limited access road is contemplated,
the needs of travelling stock should be considered. Advice should be sought at an early planning
stage to ensure that the proposal is compatible with stock route requirements. Because stock
movements may be infrequent and costs to make alternative provision for travelling stock may be
high, there is a need to examine every case on its merits.
Under the provisions of the Land Protection Act, the administration of the Stock Route Network is
shared between local government and the Department of Natural Resources and Mines (DNRM).
Local government is responsible for day-to-day management, while the Stock Route Management Unit
of DERM is responsible for providing the framework of legislation and policy for stock route
management and support for local governments.
The initiating officer (or his delegate) within a district/region should forward all proposals for limited
access to the relevant local government. If necessary, district/regions should arrange a meeting to
discuss each case, as required, ensuring that there is no conflict with the competing needs of stock
routes. Correspondence verifying stock route clearance should be included with the limited access
package when it is forwarded to Manager (Corporate Mapping).
After notification of access limitation in the gazette, Manager (Corporate Mapping) will distribute
copies of the gazette notification and relevant plans to local government(s) for their records.

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4.5

Road declaration

4.5.1

General

The state-controlled road declaration (gazettal) process is a legal requirement under Sections 24 and
25 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994 to identify those roads that are owned/managed by the
state. The Transport Infrastructure Act outlines how and what powers the department has to do this.
Declaration of the network controlled by the department is a fundamental requirement for the
department to be able to manage its road assets including construction, maintenance and operation of
the network, management of access, adjacent development, public utilities and ancillary works and
encroachments (AWEs).
The departments district/region offices have a key role in the overall declaration process as many of
the network changes are initiated by actions undertaken by them.
4.5.2

Reasons for a road declaration

Road declaration action may be initiated for a number of reasons, including:

reviews of the state-controlled road network involving changes to ownership between the
department and a local government authority

declaration as a state-controlled road of an existing local government, private, mining or other


road

construction of a new road as a state-controlled road

revoking of a declaration of an existing state-controlled road, returning control to a local


government

major deviations involving returning control of a section/s of the old road alignment to a local
government

minor deviations involving small truncations within or outside the existing road reserve small
realignments

administrative changes e.g. local government amalgamations and boundary changes, road
number/name changes etc. (note: changes to road names require changes to the
departments various systems and shouldnt be undertaken lightly)

updates to declaration plans using the latest cadastral information (DCDB) and centreline
information.

The timing of a declaration action can be dependent on:

a specific date for the implementation of any review changes

local government amalgamations and boundary changes - the date they become effective, or

changes to the network resulting from construction of new works or deviations (the target is to
declare the changes as close as possible to when the work is open to traffic).

Once land that the department has identified as a future road corridor has been acquired/resumed, it
can then be declared as a state-controlled road and/or limited access road, ensuring the department
can control development and access to abutting land at an early stage. The Transport Infrastructure
Act 1994 also allows for this land to be declared as a future state-controlled road prior to acquisition.

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4.5.3
4.5.3.1

Road declaration process overview


Overview

Whilst Corporate Mapping Unit (Geospatial Technologies) has primary responsibility for managing and
delivering the department's state-controlled road declaration process as required under Sections 24,
25 and 26 of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994, Regions, Strategic Property Management,
Approvals Team (Policy, Planning and Investment Division), Queensland Rail and local governments
also have key roles and responsibilities.
Most declaration changes are initiated by district/regional staff and usually relate to changes in
location to the network resulting from the completion of new work.
There is a need to resolve any issues of ownership and responsibility with local government/s in the
planning stages so that declaration actions coincide with the opening of the road for public use.
Delays not only impact on the declaration process, but also affect the departments ability to enact
certain management powers (e.g., development control, AWE and public utility management and
access control).
4.5.3.2

Plan advice

The officer responsible for producing the road declaration plans must, before plan preparation, ensure
all property issues have been finalized e.g. resumptions, road dedication and road closures actions.
Crown Law advice concerning Section 24 (3) of the Transport Infrastructure Act and the level of detail
required to enable the location of the road to be identified requires;
The level of detail for identifying the location of a state-controlled road can be quite general and yet
can be made as detailed as necessary from a practical perspective to delineate between areas of
different control, so long as the state-controlled road location is sufficiently certain then it will be a valid
declaration.
Corporate Mapping Unit consults with the district/regions on the preparation of standard road
declaration plans based on road centrelines. For ARMIS purposes, the district/regional Roads
Information Systems Coordinator needs to be involved (for more detailed information, contact
Corporate Mapping Unit).
For complex road corridors, area based road declaration plans are produced by the relevant
district/region in consultation with Corporate Mapping Unit (see Figures 4.5.3.3(a) to 4.5.3.3(c)).
If needed, Corporate Mapping Unit allocates plan numbers as opposed to drawing numbers and road
numbers for new road declarations.
GIMS drawing numbers are to be allocated by the Plan Room in Geospatial Technologies Section.
4.5.3.3

Transport and Main Roads/Queensland Rail (TMR/QR) common areas

If the state-controlled road to be declared crosses rail corridor land, Section 26 of the Transport
Infrastructure Act requires the declaration of a common area.
The district/region, in consultation with the local rail manager, must agree on the limits of the common
area and produce a survey plan of the area (to be surveyed or compiled from existing plans). See
Figures 4.5.3.3(d) to 4.5.3.3(f).

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After the plan has been prepared Strategic Property Management is responsible for undertaking the
necessary action to get sign off by Queensland Rail and Transport and Main Roads. Once finalised,
the plan will be forwarded to Corporate Mapping Unit to be processed as part of the state-controlled
road declaration.
Following gazettal, Strategic Property Management will forward a copy of the gazette notification,
relevant road declaration plan with the common area shown and the original survey plan to the
Registrar of Titles (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) who records the common area
declaration on the relevant rail corridor lease.
Future state-controlled road declaration
A future state-controlled road under Section 42 (11) of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994, means a
road or land (all land, not just state land) that the chief executive has notified the local government in
writing, is intended to become a state-controlled road.
Under Section 42 (12) of the Transport Infrastructure Act 1994, the chief executive must cause a copy
of each notice under Section 42 (11) to be published in the Government Gazette.
The gazettal of the future state-controlled road corridor provides the department with the opportunity to
formally consider any impacts of future land development adjacent to the proposed new corridor, in
accordance with the Sustainable Planning Act 2009.
Area based future state-controlled road declaration plans are produced by the relevant district/region
in consultation with Corporate Mapping Unit which if needed, will allocate plan numbers and road
numbers for proposed new roads (see Figure 4.5.3.3(f) Future State-Controlled Road Example).
A request to proceed with future state-controlled road declaration together with plans, local
government notification and all relevant documentation are forwarded to Manager (Corporate
Mapping) by the district/region, for processing.
ARMIS reference point plans
Reference points help define ones position on the road and are selected locations or features which
can be easily and consistently located.
As a follow up after all state-controlled road declarations, reference point plans showing all reference
point locations and descriptions within the Road Reference System in ARMIS, are produced (see
Figure 4.5.3.3(h) ARMIS Reference Point Plan).

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Figure 4.5.3.3(a) - Line based road declaration example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(b) - Line based road declaration example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(c) - Line based_common area example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(d) - Area based example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(e) - Area based example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(f) - Future state-controlled road example

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Figure 4.5.3.3(g) - Common area survey plan (sheet 1 of 2)

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Figure 4.5.3.3(h) - Common area survey plan (sheet 2 of 2)

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Figure 4.5.3.3(i) - ARMIS reference point plan

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4.5.3.4

Local Government consultation

As required by Section 25 of the Transport Infrastructure Act, the Minister must, before making or
revoking a declaration under Section 24:
a) notify each local government that would, in the Ministers opinion, be affected by the proposed
declaration or revocation, and
b) give the local governments a reasonable opportunity to make submissions to the Minister on
the proposed declaration or revocation.
4.5.3.5

Government Gazette notification request from district/region

After fulfilling all necessary requirements district/regions should send a request for Government
Gazette notification to Manager (Corporate Mapping) within Geospatial Technologies Section together
with all details to produce the new road declaration plans (if draft plans have not already been
produced for notification to the local government) or with area based road declaration plans approved
by the district/regional director. Also required is a copy of the notification sent to the local government
and their response, if any, and any other supporting documentation.
4.5.3.6

Limitation of access and motorway

District/regions need to be mindful of any impacts the proposed change has on any access limitation
and motorway declarations if they have been previously declared on the road being re-declared.
4.5.4
4.5.4.1

Road declaration plan preparation


Plan preparation

When preparing new road declaration plans the location of the road is to be identified clearly and
concisely. This is done in consultation with district/regions. ARMIS Program Support Coordinators
need to be involved as they generally provide advice as to what details are to be included in the
declaration e.g. for complex interchanges, details of ramps, roundabouts and carriageways may be
included, service roads may be included/excluded etc. Accurate definition of the state-controlled road
network is essential for accurate calculation of the value of the departments road asset in the Asset
Valuation process and end of year reporting.
Road declaration plans are compiled using the best cadastral and alignment information available at
the time.
The department is currently collecting accurate location of the state-controlled roads (Digital Road
Network (DRN)) using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) capture technology that provides an
accurate location of the road centrelines. This alignment is matched to the latest cadastral information
on the Digital Cadastral Data Base (DCDB).
Geospatial Technologies Section is responsible for maintaining the centreline information used across
the department. The centrelines are constantly being updated for changes to the DCDB and alignment
changes to the state-controlled road network provided by district/regions as part of the DRN update
process.
For road declaration plans the location of the road is shown relative to the cadastral boundaries. (see
Figures 4.25 to 4.28).

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4.5.4.2

Plan size and media

Road declaration plans are to be prepared on a standard A3 size title sheet. For using correct plotting
media, suitable for the required presentation standard, refer DDPSM Chapter 2 Section 2.3.4.
4.5.4.3

Plan scales

The scale chosen for the plan should enable it to be easily read. Generally, in rural areas a scale of
1:25000, 1:50000 or 1:100000 (A3) will be satisfactory while in urban areas a scale of 1:5000 or
1:10000(A3) or larger is required.
4.5.4.4

Drafting standard

The type of drafting required on these plans should not differ to any extent from that of the limited
access plans, except that only minimal annotations relating to new road declarations are shown to
emphasise their location.
4.5.4.5

Typical information required on plans

The following information is to be accurately recorded on the plan:

the best alignment information and latest cadastral information available using DCDB

state-controlled road (subject road)

state-controlled road (other than subject road)

local government service road

Transport and Main Roads/Queensland Rail common area if applicable

each road declaration plan of a group covering any one road or part of a road must bear a
reference to the preceding and/or succeeding plan, if any. This reference is to be given in the
form Joins Plan.... It is to be parallel to and against the right and/or left hand borders of the
drawing

rivers and large creeks which should be shown and named

a north point, and

a scale bar.

Road declaration plans are also to be given a drawing number from the departments digital plan room
system (Geospatial Information Management System) (GIMS). Road declaration plan information
must be included into GIMS by your plan room officer.
Highlighting of road declaration areas
In order to clearly identify the area to which road declaration applies, the area should be highlighted
with hatching. Areas to which road declaration applies are to be shown using a standard hatch pattern.
These patterns are provided by Corporate Mapping Unit within Geospatial Technologies Section.
These plans are produced in Mapinfo. (see Appendix 4D).

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Appendix 4A: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for resumption drawings


Hatch Pattern Selection
Basic properties for the hatch patterns to be used are given below.
Hatch Pattern

Hatch Scale Relative


to Paper Space

Angle

Full Resumption

HONEY

20*

90

Volumetric Resumption

ZIGZAG

16*

90

Incidental Resumption

ANSI31

10*

90

Cross

12*

90

Land Requirement

Common Area Resumption


(* - see Hatch Pattern Scaling)

These hatch patterns are included in the Main Roads Customisation for AutoCAD, where scaling,
layering and plotting of the hatch a pattern is automated. The following alternatives are provided for
information.
Hatch pattern scaling
The AutoCAD system variable MEASUREMENT controls which hatch pattern file a drawing uses
when a hatch is created. The hatch scales shown in the above table are to be used where
MEASUREMENT is set to zero (0). The hatch scales should be divided by a factor of 25.4 if
MEASUREMENT is set to one (1).
When using the BHATCH command, a hatch pattern can automatically be displayed at a scale
appropriate for your layout. First enter the hatch pattern scale from the above table and then select the
Relative to paper space check box as shown below. This option is only available from Layout space
(i.e. the Layout Tab).
For hatching in Model space (i.e. the Model Tab), the following reference may be useful for manual
selection of hatch scale:
Example: For Full Resumption hatch where view scale is 1:500 (2.0xp):
View Scale (Units m)

View Scale Relatives to Paper


Space

Model Space Hatch Scale


Multiplier

1:10000

0.1xp

10

1:5000

0.2xp

1:2500

0.4xp

2.5

1:2000

0.5xp

1:1000

1.0xp

1:500

2.0xp

0.5

1:250

4.0xp

0.25

1:200

5.0xp

0.2

1:100

10.0xp

0.1

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Hatch scale in model space

Hatch Scale Relative to Paper Space x Multiplier

20 x 0.5

10

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Appendix 4B: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for Native Title drawings
Hatch pattern selection
Basic properties for the hatch patterns to be used are given below
Land/Water Affected

Hatch Pattern

Hatch Scale Relative


to Paper Space

Angle

Any

NET

30*

45

(* -see Hatch Pattern Scaling)

These hatch patterns are included in the Transport and Main Roads Customisation for AutoCAD,
where scaling, layering and plotting of the hatch a pattern is automated. The following alternatives are
provided for information.
Hatch pattern scaling
The AutoCAD system variable MEASUREMENT controls which hatch pattern file a drawing uses
when a hatch is created. The hatch scales shown in the above table are to be used where
MEASUREMENT is set to zero (0). The hatch scales should be divided by a factor of 25.4 if
MEASUREMENT is set to one (1).
When using the BHATCH command, a hatch pattern can automatically be displayed at a scale
appropriate for your layout. First enter the hatch pattern scale from the above table and then select the
Relative to paper space check box as shown below. This option is only available from Layout space
(i.e. the Layout Tab).
For hatching in Model space (i.e. the Model Tab), the following reference may be useful for manual
selection of hatch scale:
Example: For Native Title hatch where view scale is 1:2500 (0.4xp).
View Scale (Units m)

View Scale Relatives to Paper


Space

Model Space Hatch Scale


Multiplier

1:10000

0.1xp

10

1:5000

0.2xp

1:2500

0.4xp

2.5

1:2000

0.5xp

1:1000

1.0xp

1:500

2.0xp

0.5

1:250

4.0xp

0.25

1:200

5.0xp

0.2

1:100

10.0xp

0.1

Hatch scale in model space

Hatch Scale Relative to Paper Space x Multiplier

30 x 2.5

75

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Appendix 4C: Guide to Autocad hatch patterns for limited access drawings
Hatch Pattern Selection
Basic properties for the hatch pattern to be used are given below:
Hatch Pattern

Hatch Scale Relative to Paper


Space

Angle

DOTS

10*

90

(* -see Hatch Pattern Scaling)

This hatch pattern is included in the Main Roads Customisation for AutoCAD, where scaling, layering
and plotting of the hatch pattern is automated. The following alternatives are provided for information.
Hatch pattern scaling
The AutoCAD system variable MEASUREMENT controls which hatch pattern file a drawing uses
when a hatch is created. The hatch scale shown in the above table is to be used where
MEASUREMENT is set to zero (0). The hatch scale should be divided by a factor of 25.4 if
MEASUREMENT is set to one (1).
When using the BHATCH command, the hatch pattern can be automatically scaled to the scale
appropriate for your layout. First enter the appropriate scale from the above table and then select the
Relative to paper space check box as shown below. This option is only available from Layout space
(i.e. the Layout Tab).
For hatching in Model space (i.e. the Model Tab), the following reference may be useful for manual
selection of hatch scale:
Example: For limited access area where view scale is 1:2500 (0.4xp).
View Scale (Units m)

View Scale Relatives to Paper


Space

Model Space Hatch Scale


Multiplier

1:10000

0.1xp

10

1:5000

0.2xp

1:2500

0.4xp

2.5

1:2000

0.5xp

1:1000

1.0xp

1:500

2.0xp

0.5

1:250

4.0xp

0.25

1:200

5.0xp

0.2

1:100

10.0xp

0.1

Hatch scale in model space

Hatch Scale Relative to Paper Space x Multiplier

10 x 2.5

25

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Appendix 4D: Guide to MapInfo patterns for road declaration plans


Area Based Legend - Patterns
FILL

District/region Style

BORDER

Pattern

Foreground

Style

Colour

Width

State-controlled Road (Subject Road)

B1

A5

B2

D1

2 Pixel

State-controlled Road (Other than


Subject Road)

B1

A3

B2

A8

2 Pixel

Future State-controlled Road (Subject


Road)

C4

F13

B2

F14

2 Pixel

Future State-controlled Road (Other than


Subject Road)

C4

F10

B2

F10

2 Pixel

Local Government Service Road

C4

A8

B2

A10

2 Pixel

Common Area

C4

D10

B2

D10

2 Pixel

Centre Line Based Legend - Line Styles


Style

Colour

Width

State-controlled Road (Subject Road)

B1

I1

3Pixel

State-controlled Road (New Alignment)

B21

A17

1Pixel

Revoked State-controlled Road Alignment

D1

D12

4Pixel

State-controlled Road (Other than Subject Road)

C1

I1

2Pixel

Local Government Boundary

A2

G12

6Pixel

Pattern Selection
Basic properties for the patterns to be used are given above.

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Appendix 4E: List of abbreviations used in land and mining tenures

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Appendix 4F: List of limited access state-controlled roads (as at October 2013)
ROAD

DESCRIPTION

U12A

South East Arterial Road (Pacific Motorway)

U13C

Gateway Arterial Road (Gateway Motorway - North)

U14

Gympie Arterial Road

U15

Mount Lindesay Arterial Road

U16

Cunningham Arterial Road (Ipswich Motorway)

U18A

Western Arterial Road (Ellen Grove - Jindalee)

U18B

Western Arterial Road (Jindalee - Everton Park)

U19

East - West Arterial Road

U20

Griffith Arterial Road

U94

Albany Creek Sub-Arterial Road

U96

Mogill Sub-Arterial Road

U98

Cleveland Sub-Arterial Road

U99

Redcliffe Sub-Arterial Road

10A-P

Bruce Highway

11A&B

Gold Coast Highway

12A

Pacific Highway (Pacific Motorway)

13A&B

Landsborough Highway

14A&E

Flinders Highway

15A&B

Barkly Highway

16A-D

Capricorn Highway

17A-D

Cunningham Highway

18A-C

Warrego Highway

19A

Isis Highway

20A

Captain Cook Highway

22C

New England Highway

25A

Mount Lindesay Highway

26B&C

Leichhardt Highway

27A-C

Gregory Highway

28A

Gore Highway

32A&B

Kennedy Highway

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Volume 1, Chapter 4 Right of Way

ROAD

DESCRIPTION

33A&B

Peak Downs Highway

40A&C

DAguilar Highway

41C&F

Burnett Highway

42A

Brisbane Valley Highway

45B

Bunya Highway

46A

Dawson Highway

101

Smith Street Connection Road

103

Southport - Burleigh Road

105

Nerang - Broadbeach Road

109

Cleveland - Redland Bay Road

111

Mount Cotton Road

112

Capalaba-Cleveland Road

126

Caboolture - Bribie Island Road

132

Caloundra Road

133

Maroochydore - Noosa Road

136

Maroochydore Road

138

Yandina - Coolum Road

140

Eumundi - Noosa Road

142

Cooroy - Noosa Road

144

Emu Mountain Road

150A&B

Sunshine Motorway

152

Kawana Way

162

Pialba - Burrum Heads Road

163

Maryborough - Hervey Bay Road

164

Torbanlea - Pialba Road

166

Maryborough - Cooloola Road

171

Goodwood Road

172

Elliott Heads Road

174

Bundaberg - Bargara Road

175

Bundaberg - Port Road

176

Bundaberg - Gin Gin Road

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Volume 1, Chapter 4 Right of Way

ROAD

DESCRIPTION

177

Bundaberg Ring Road

179

Bundaberg - Miriam Vale Road

181

Gladstone - Mt Larcom Road

185

Gladstone - Benaraby Road

188

Bajool - Port Alma Road

196

Rockhampton - Yeppoon Road

197

Western Yeppoon - Emu Park Road

203

Beaudesert - Beenleigh Road

209

Mondoolun Connection Road

401

Brisbane - Woodford Road

450

Gavial - Gracemere Road

478

Maryborough - Biggenden Road

484

Eumundi - Kenilworth Road

492

Kilcoy - Beerwah Road

531

Rockleigh - North Mackay Road

642

Gillies Range Road

643

Malanda - Lake Barine Road

647

Cairns Western Arterial Road

651

Smithfield Bypass (proposed)

811

Portsmith Road

832

North Townsville Road

835

Garbutt Upper Ross Road

851

Proserpine - Shute Harbour Road

855

Yakapari - Seaforth Road

856

Mackay - Bucasia Road

857

Mackay - Slade Point Road

901

Burpengary Service Road

902

Linkfield Connection Road

905

Pacific Highway Connection Road

910

Centenary Motorway

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Volume 1 - Chapter 5: Project Electronic Models
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 5, Project Electronic Models

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

5.1.4
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.7
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
Appendix 5A

5.3.2
5.3.3
3

Description of revision
First Issue

Authorised
by

Date

Steering
Committee

Jan 2006

Definitions modified and added


Survey DTM Model section updated
Design String Attributes section updated
Cross Section section updated
Combination of Design Elements section
updated
Design Triangulation section updated
Project Electronic Model Delivery section
updated
Project handover section updated
Design to construct section updated
Project Electronic Model Checklist updated

Feb 2011

Sections removed
Mandatory Models
12D Project Files deleted
Update to corporate template

Owen Arndt

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Feb 2014

Volume 1, Chapter 5, Project Electronic Models

Contents
5.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 Purpose...........................................................................................................................................3
5.1.2 Scope..............................................................................................................................................3
5.1.3 Application ......................................................................................................................................3
5.1.4 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................3
5.2

Project model organisation ........................................................................................................ 5

5.2.1 Naming conventions for modelling systems ...................................................................................5


5.2.1.1
Model naming convention ......................................................................................... 5
5.2.1.2
Survey feature codes ................................................................................................ 5
5.2.1.3
Design string naming convention.............................................................................. 6
5.2.2 Survey DTM model .........................................................................................................................6
5.2.3 Preparation for earthworks .............................................................................................................6
5.2.4 Design string attributes ...................................................................................................................6
5.2.5 Cross section ..................................................................................................................................7
5.2.6 Combination of design elements ....................................................................................................7
5.2.7 Bridge feature design strings ..........................................................................................................8
5.2.8 Design triangulation ........................................................................................................................8
5.2.8.1
Design surface .......................................................................................................... 8
5.2.8.2
Subgrade layer surfaces ........................................................................................... 8
5.2.8.3
Materials layer surfaces ............................................................................................ 8
5.3

Project electronic model delivery .............................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 Project handover.............................................................................................................................9


5.3.2 Design to construct .........................................................................................................................9
5.3.3 Control line index ..........................................................................................................................12
5.4

References.................................................................................................................................. 12

Appendix 5A: Project electronic model checklist.............................................................................13

Tables
Table 5.3.2(a) - Top level 12d Model project folder contents................................................................ 10
Table 5.3.2(b) - 12d - Model [named].project subfolder contents ......................................................... 11
Table 5.3.2(c) - 12d Model backups.4d subfolder contents ............................................................... 11
Table 5.3.2(d) - Culvert subfolder contents ........................................................................................... 11
Table 5.3.2(e) - Fingerprint subfolder.................................................................................................... 12
Table 5.3.2(f) - OSroad subfolder contents ........................................................................................... 12
Table 5 4 - Control Line Index ............................................................................................................... 12

Figures
Figure 5.3.2(a) - Top level of a 12d Model project folder and typical contents ..................................... 10

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Volume 1, Chapter 5, Project Electronic Models

5.1

Introduction

5.1.1

Purpose

The purpose of this section is to specify the requirements for electronic modelling of road
infrastructure projects for pre-construction and construction purposes. The project electronic model will
be used to:

verify the design, especially sight lines, design interfaces, including terrain/feature interfaces

to validate the design

provide comprehensive design information to road constructors

provide accurate quantities

allow both the designer and constructor to produce engineering design drawings as required

allow for incorporation of design variations during construction

provide 'as constructed' details and drawings

provide displays for public consultation purposes

provide data/details of the road asset, including use in GIS systems

enable the contractor to be able to extract design information in a form suitable for machine
guidance equipment.

It is intended that this modelling specification provides the means for the standardisation of project
electronic modelling for all Departmental road infrastructure projects.
5.1.2

Scope

This section establishes the basic principles of structuring and transferring road design data modelled
electronically. It does not cover survey data feature coding and modelling, except for the requirements
relating to the creation of the original surface and features to which design modelling is applied.
5.1.3

Application

The principles and guidelines in this chapter are applicable to all parties involved in preparing, using
and distributing electronic models on computer systems. Although these principles are primarily for
computer users, system developers and instrument manufacturers are expected to provide software
tools capable of implementing and supporting this modelling specification.
5.1.4

Definitions

The following definitions are used in the context of this document:


Attribute
An attribute is a user defined name/value pair with an associated data type (generally numeric or text)
attached to a Project, Model, Point, String or Tin. Within an object, the attribute names must be
unique.
Attributes on strings may be attached to either a vertex, segment or the string itself.
Attributes may also be structured by attribute groups that may consist of 0 or more attributes.

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Point
A point is a single location in space. Points can be two-dimensional (X, Y) or three-dimensional (X, Y,
Z), and may include an unlimited number of additional named attributes (dimensions and/or
descriptions/notations) depending on their purpose. Many different natural and man-made features are
modelled as points including trees, fire hydrants, poles, etc.
String
A string is a series of points linked sequentially to define a feature. Strings can be two-dimensional (X,
Y) or three-dimensional (X, Y, Z), and may include an unlimited number of additional named attributes
(dimensions and/or descriptions/notations) depending on their purpose.
Control line
A control line string is the basic horizontal and vertical location of a design. The string contains the
definition of the significant points from which the geometry at any point along the string may be
determined. For a road, the horizontal alignment is an assembly of straights, arcs and transitions (if
required), and the vertical alignment is assembled from grades and parabolic curves.
For a road design, the horizontal alignment is defined first, followed by the vertical alignment and the
cross section. Points in control line strings are stored in order of increasing chainage. These control
lines may represent the centreline or any other convenient feature e.g. lip of channel.
Setting out line
A setting out line string is used for constructing more complex designs such as designing the
reverse curves where provision is made for turning lanes. A setting out line may be two-dimensional or
three-dimensional, depending on the requirement.
Feature design strings
Feature design strings are strings that define the geometric features (shapes) of a road, and
collectively they define all design surfaces which comprise the road model. Once the control line
design is completed, feature design strings are created, and each control line may give rise to a series
of features related to it, essentially by horizontal and vertical offsets. Any number of control lines and
associated features may be used to fully model the geometric design surface and associated design
elements (eg. guardrail).
Cross section
A cross section is a vertical slice along a given line cutting through a series of strings, usually feature
design strings, showing the various elements that make up the road's shape and structure. The plane
in which the cross section is generated is generally perpendicular to a reference string, from which
chainages for the cross sections are assigned. Exceptions to this would include drainage cross
sections that are required to be skewed rather than perpendicular. At cross section locations,
intersections of the cross section plane with the series of strings are calculated, and joined to form the
cross section string. Cross sections are viewed in the direction of increasing chainage.
Interface
An interface is where slopes projected from one surface intersect another surface. For a point on a
string, an interface point is calculated at right angles to the string along a line of specified slope until
either a specified surface is intersected or a specified (horizontal) distance is travelled. Calculating the
interface points at specified intervals along the string, and then joining the interface points together

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forms an interface string. In all road designs, the surface defined by the feature design strings is
projected onto the existing terrain surface, and the interface strings define the extent of the design. In
more complex road designs, additional interfaces may need to be calculated between design element
surfaces.
Model
A model is a collection of relevant data, used to separate and store string or tin (triangular irregular
network) information into components within a project. It is defined by a unique name that reflects the
nature of the information it contains. Data is organised into models according to the physical features
represented, for example strings defining an existing terrain surface or a design surface. A design
model is a collection of three dimensional strings representing the true shape of a roadway project that
when triangulated will produce a complete and accurate surface representing the design.
Project model
A project model is a collection of models selected to comprise the road infrastructure project.
In a project model:

all strings are comprised of points with specified attributes

all strings are named using the standard convention (Reference 1)

all models are named using the standard convention (Reference 1)

triangulation models are required for all design surfaces, including subgrade and materials
layers.

5.2

Project model organisation

5.2.1

Naming conventions for modelling systems

Models are usually named to reflect the type of data being stored.
The department has adopted a standard naming convention for strings and models for use with all
corporately mandated modelling software packages, and variations will not be accepted.
It must be remembered that the data has a number of potential users, both now and in the future, and
it is important that the provision of data is uniform across the department.
5.2.1.1

Model naming convention

To take full advantage of current and proposed automated procedures within our modelling packages,
a standard model naming convention is required. Surveyors, designers and constructors then will have
immediate recognition of model contents no matter where the project originated.
This naming convention follows closely the names associated with the types of models and the
surfaces they contain. Table 2.1.6.3 - Model names, Chapter 2 General Standards (Reference 1)
shows the model names to be adopted together with a brief description of their contents and general
uses.
5.2.1.2

Survey feature codes

All survey feature coding and modelling must be in accordance with the department's current
standards as set out in the document "Main Roads Survey Standards" (Reference 2). No variations
will be allowed to the codes, symbols, line styles or designated models for each code.

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5.2.1.3

Design string naming convention

The department has adopted a standard convention for the naming of design strings. The use of a
labelling convention during design will allow for a more efficient use of current and future automated
features available within existing design software - such as the transfer of data.
Table 2.2.1 in Chapter 2 General Standards, (Reference 1), represents the departments convention.
The table gives a description of the string name and its associated line style.
5.2.2

Survey DTM model

The existing ground surface triangulation model, must be capable of being recreated directly from the
existing survey model supplied without further editing. A boundary string should be used to define the
extent of the survey and the data to be triangulated as well as being used as a reference to trim
unwanted triangles as required.
A boundary model should be included in the submitted Project Model data so that when a user retriangulates the existing survey model, any triangulation data originally excluded by the surveyor will
not be included in any subsequent re-triangulation.
5.2.3

Preparation for earthworks

The preparation of the ground surface for any stepping under embankments must be included. Models
for stepping should contain the strings used to define the stepping and associated stripping for the
length of the job and be suitable for triangulation. Boundary strings should be used to define the extent
of the stripping and stepping areas.
A second ground surface triangulation model should also be created. This triangulation model will be
generated from the original survey data with the stepping data substituted where necessary. This will
form a true representation of the prepared surface for the roadway design suitable for accurate volume
calculations.
5.2.4

Design string attributes

In order to provide design information to road constructors, it is necessary to ensure that the
appropriate string types are used when defining the design features of a road. Each string type stores
a number of attributes (x, y, z values and information) at each point. The designation of string type,
and therefore the assignment and storage of attribute data is largely managed automatically by the
modelling package.
Not all stored attributes for each string type are relevant for road constructors in terms of defining the
geometric design surface of a road. However, some are vital and must be included by the time that the
electronic model is finalised for construction. For use in road construction, all design strings can be
categorised into one of three types control line strings, feature design strings derived from control
lines and all other feature design strings.
The control line strings should include XYZ co-ordinates, chainage, bearing, horizontal radius, vertical
grade and vertical curvature at any point. Chainage intervals on Control Lines should be at a
maximum of 5 metres.
Feature design strings derived from the control line should be designed to a standard compatible with
electronically controlled construction equipment. This means that all horizontal curves should have a
chord-to-arc tolerance of a maximum of 10 mm and preferably be true geometric curves.
All other feature design strings must contain XYZ co-ordinate values at all points along the strings.

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5.2.5

Cross section

Cross sections are used for viewing and plotting profiles defining interface strings and calculating
volumes using the end area method. Apart from some locations where generation of a cross section is
vital, it is generally a matter of judgement to decide at what intervals sections should be taken.
Cross section strings should be grouped by reference to the control line to which they are related and
the surface through which they cut, and are stored in separate cross section models; they should not
be stored in design models.
Cross sections must be provided at the following locations:

horizontal control points (e.g. TS, SC, CT etc)

regular intervals nominated by the designer. For example,10 to 12.5 m in flat terrain, 5 m
elsewhere (a longer interval may be appropriate in straight forward situations in flat terrain with
few transitions from cut to fill)

changes in shape. For example where a change in template definition or string modifier occurs
note that changes in shape on one side of an alignment often occur independently of the
other side, however modelling packages generate a full cross section regardless of which side
is changing

special chainages nominated by the designer. For example joining to another feature or in
earthworks transition areas.

The interval for the insertion of additional chainage points required to be generated for control line and
feature design strings derived from the control line is dependant on the curve radius. Modelling
software should automatically insert additional points on Control Line arcs depending on the chord-toarc tolerance maximum distance setting. The required chord-to-arc maximum distance is 0.01 m. If
this distance is exceeded when analysing curves by chords, extra points are inserted into the curve so
that the chords all have chord-to-arc distances less than this value.
5.2.6

Combination of design elements

Complex road design projects often involve modelling of separate design elements, which must
ultimately be triangulated to form a single finished design surface. This is usually achieved by the use
of separate control lines. These elements are generally separated horizontally and vertically, as in the
case of an interchange involving bridges and ramps.
Where design elements merge at locations such as ramps and through carriageways, strings at the
joins must meet with no gaps, extensions or crossing strings.
Strings representing bridge designs are to be stored in separate bridge models. Do not continue road
design strings across bridge structures. End them at the abutment and continue either the existing
survey strings or lower roadway design strings under the bridge as if the structure was not present.
Control line strings should be kept separate and placed in a separate model. Strings defining bridge
spillthroughs must be duplicated for inclusion in both the bridge and design models, and these strings
must join to the strings defining the road design surface to provide the complete design surface
triangulation.
Tunnels should also be kept in a separate tunnel model. Do not continue road design strings through
the tunnel. End them at the tunnel face. Do not include control line strings. Because of the shape of

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tunnels, it is necessary to keep the lower tunnel roadway surface separate from the upper tunnel roof
and place into different models. Both models must be suitable for triangulation.
The tunnel face must contain strings that define the tunnel entrance and the interface with the road
design surface and the existing natural surface. The tunnel face strings are added to the design model
strings to provide the complete design surface triangulation.
(NOTE: Because of the nature of the triangulation process, the tunnel face must be slightly off
vertical).
5.2.7

Bridge feature design strings

Examples of strings required for inclusion in the bridge model are included as Figure 2.1.6.3(j) to
Figure 2.1.6.3(n) in Chapter 2 General Standards (Reference 1). The figures indicate the minimum
required strings to be included in the project electronic model to allow for setting out during the
construction phase.
5.2.8

Design triangulation

5.2.8.1

Design surface

The design triangulation model must be capable of being recreated directly from the design model/s
supplied without the need for further editing, except for the trimming of unnecessary triangles along
the edges of the data.
Boundary strings should be created to define the extents of the design data. These boundary strings
should be stored in separate models. They are to be used to trim unwanted triangles in design
triangulation models.
These boundary strings should be included in the submitted project electronic model so that when a
user re-triangulates the design model(s), any triangulation data not intended to be included in the
design surface can easily be excluded by the user.
5.2.8.2

Subgrade layer surfaces

Strings must be generated by the designer to define the subgrade layer surface. It is necessary to
correctly model the interface with the earthworks batter and ensure that strings that should join are
modelled with no gaps, extensions or crossing strings to allow correct triangulation of the subgrade
surface to create a subgrade triangulation model.
Similarly, each pavement layer should be modelled and triangulated to create pavement layer models
and associated pavement layer triangulation models.
Subgrade, pavement layer and associated triangulation models must be included in the project
electronic model.
5.2.8.3

Materials layer surfaces

All subsurface materials layers should be modelled, triangulated and included in the electronic project
model.
5.3

Project electronic model delivery

The current departmental standard for the provision of project electronic model data is the
12dModel (12d Model) format in the form of native 12d Model files and associated 12d Model
project files.

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The electronic model is a key component of the road infrastructure delivery process. The department
is working towards an ultimate outcome where electronic models of road infrastructure will be
developed and enhanced using 12d Model software from the earliest stages of survey through to
design, tendering, construction and as-constructed.
The use of an electronic model that is a complete representation of the proposed works, and which is
accessible by 12d Model in all phases of the road infrastructure delivery process is important for the
following reasons:

Different phases of the road design project may be performed by different officers or in
different office locations by departmental designers or external consultants.

Verification of designs can be performed by the departments issuing office using 12d Model
functionality and custom developed 12d Model tools and utilities.

Data re-use is achieved by enabling the modelling of future works based upon electronic
modelling of previous road designs.

The electronic model can be passed between phases without losses due to data translation.

Supports the idea that the electronic model should also encapsulate the design
approach/intent.

The integrity of the design is ensured by the ability to archive the complete electronic model as
a digital record.

The electronic model data must be suitable for direct transfer to constructors' computer systems and
be directly accessible by the department so that data can be viewed, checked or re-used as required.
Each component of the project electronic model should contain relevant information only, and any
extraneous or unnecessary data must be deleted before delivery to the department.
5.3.1

Project handover

The project electronic model is to be used in all phases of the road infrastructure delivery process and
should be part of any handover between phases.
Apart from any other deliverables specified in a brief, the department requires that electronic model
information in the form of 12d Model models and associated 12d Model project files and subfolders be
included in the project electronic model. In Microsoft Windows this includes the folder level above
the 12d Model [named].project folder which encompasses all the 12d Model project files and
associated folders. For typical contents refer to Figure 5.3.2(a) and associated Tables 5.3.2(a) to
5.3.2(f).
5.3.2

Design to construct

An electronic copy of the complete project model, including the survey and the design model data, is
to be supplied for construction. The department is committed to improving the design/construction
interface through the continuing process of consultation with construction industry representatives and
software and hardware developers. The department is continually evolving design and design
management processes, and will continue to monitor and adopt data exchange formats that suit its
needs.
These exchange formats must be capable of being used in innovative ways with existing and future
data management systems within the department and within the construction industry.

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Figure 5.3.2(a) - Top level of a 12d Model project folder and typical contents

Table 5.3.2(a) - Top level 12d Model project folder contents


File Type

Description

*ecw

ECW image used in photogrammetry

*slf

Screen Layout File

*.rcn

Chain file

*.pvf

Parameter file which has a direct relationship to a respective chain file.

*.rpt

Report file

*.mtf

Many Template File

*.12da

12d Ascii file

*.bf

Boxing file

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Table 5.3.2(b) - 12d - Model [named].project subfolder contents


File Type

Description

*.view

Named view in the 12d project

*.tin, *.tin.0 etc.

Tin model component files

*.model

Model files

*.template

Template Files

*.stin

Supertin files

*.function

Function files

*.4d

12d project configuration files

Preview.png

12d saved screen capture used by 12d on the start up panel.

Project.digitizer

12d project digitizer file

Project.drainage

12d project drainage file

Project.pipeline

12d project pipeline file

Project.sewer

12d project sewer file

Project.survey

12d project survey file

*.design.ppf

Applied design speed table.

*.def

Definition files called up by respective macros 12d Model.

*.trash

Trash models

Workspace.4dw

Workspace file

project

12d project file

Table 5.3.2(c) - 12d Model backups.4d subfolder contents


File Type

Description

*.bf.1, *.bf.2 and so on.

Superseded boxing files

*.mtf.1, *.mtf.2 and so on.

Superseded mtf files

Note the backups.4d subfolder and contents are not required as part of the final electronic model.

Table 5.3.2(d) - Culvert subfolder contents


File Type

Description

CulSys.CFG

Culvert configuration file

Culvert.args

Culvert arguments file

*.txt

Culvert text file

*.dat

Culvert data file

*.cpj

Culvert project file

*.cpj.bak

Culvert project backup file

MR_CULVERT.ini

Culvert initialisation file

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Table 5.3.2(e) - Fingerprint subfolder


File Type

Description

Fingerprint_check_log.csv

Fingerprint check log file in comma separated value format

*.12da

Fingerprinted 12d Ascii files

Table 5.3.2(f) - OSroad subfolder contents


File Type

Description

OSSys.cfg

OSroad configuration file

*.spe

OSroad speed analysis results file

*.osr

OSroad Alignment definition file

5.3.3

Control line index

An index of control lines in the Project Model is to be created and supplied with the project data. The
index is to include the control line string label and a brief description of the control line. This file is to
be in plain ASCII or .rtf Rich Text Format.
5.4

References

1. Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Volume 1 Chapter 2 General Standards
(February 2011). Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads.
2. Main Roads Surveying Standards V1.3. April 2012.

Table 5 4 - Control Line Index


PROJECT MODEL CONTROL LINE INDEX
Details of Project

Project Number

District

Local Authority

Road Name
Project Title

Control Line String Label

Description

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Appendix 5A: Project electronic model checklist

All strings are to be in accordance with the String Naming Convention. Where additional string
names and codes can be justified (and agreed to by the Project Officer), documentation must
be provided.

All model names are to be in accordance with the Model Naming Convention. Where
additional model names can be justified (and agreed to by the Project Officer), documentation
must be provided.

Remove all duplicate and identical points.

Remove all unnecessary strings.

There must be no crossing feature design strings when separate design components are
combined into a single model.

Check for string discontinuities, especially interface strings and critical shape control strings
such as road crown, hinge points etc.

Strings that should join or meet must not have gaps or extensions.

A single triangulation of the complete design surface (including bridge spillthroughs or tunnel
faces if present) is required for viewing and rendering. Check for null or zero height points.

Road feature design strings must not continue across bridge structures or through tunnels.
Bridge spillthrough strings (if present) must be duplicated in both the bridge and design
models.

Subgrade layer models should include strings that interface to the batter and allow
triangulation of the surface. Pavement layer models should include strings that interface to the
batter and allow triangulation of each surface.

Strings defining the stepping and remaining stripping must be included in the stepping model.

Contour the design triangulation at closely spaced (e.g. 0.2 m) intervals and thoroughly check
the results for discrepancies especially at merging roadways.

Check contours for correct drainage flows and length of flows.

Run sight distance and check all situations.

In a perspective view, run drive throughs along strings at the correct driver height and position
along each roadway in all directions. Check for alignment discrepancies, sight distance
problems and abnormalities in the triangulation especially at merging roadways.

All corrections should be done to the original input data and not by post manipulation of the
feature design strings. This can be checked by re-running the complete job and looking at the
results.

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Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual


Volume 1 - Chapter 6: Visualisation
February 2014

Copyright

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
State of Queensland (Department of Transport and Main Roads) 2014
Feedback: Please send your feedback regarding this document to: mr.techdocs@tmr.qld.gov.au

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Amendment Register
Issue /
Rev no.

Reference
section

First Issue

Steering Committee

Jan 2006

Acknowledgement

Steering Committee

July 2006

Update to corporate template

Owen Arndt

Feb 2014

Description of revision

Authorised by

Drafting and Design Presentation Standards Manual, Transport and Main Roads, February 2014

Date

Contents
6.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

6.2

Visualisation as a road design tool ........................................................................................... 1

6.2.1 Wireframe perspective views..........................................................................................................1


6.2.2 Simple, rendered triangulations ......................................................................................................2
6.2.3 Simple rendered drive-throughs .....................................................................................................3
6.2.4 Traffic simulation.............................................................................................................................4
6.3

Visualisation as a presentation tool .......................................................................................... 6

6.3.1 Plan with aerial photo background .................................................................................................6


6.3.2 Fully rendered perspective views ...................................................................................................8
6.3.3 Fully rendered drive throughs .........................................................................................................9

Figures
Figure 6.2.1 - Wireframe perspective ...................................................................................................... 2
Figure 6.2.2 - Simple, rendered triangulation .......................................................................................... 2
Figure 6.2.3(a) - Simple, rendered drive through .................................................................................... 3
Figure 6.2.3(b) - Sight distance check using visualisation ...................................................................... 3
Figure 6.2.3(c) - Simple, rendered visualisation of road and partial bridge structure ............................. 4
Figure 6.2.4(a) - Perspective view of roundabout analysis ..................................................................... 4
Figure 6.2.4(b) - Plan representation of roundabout analysis ................................................................. 5
Figure 6.2.4c) - Perspective view of interchange analysis ...................................................................... 5
Figure 6.2.4(d) - Intersection & pedestrian analysis................................................................................ 6
Figure 6.3.1(a) - Roadway and interface design overlaid on aerial photography ................................... 7
Figure 6.3.1(b) - Roadway layout overlaid on aerial photography .......................................................... 7
Figure 6.3.1(c) - Preliminary interchange layout overlaid on aerial photography.................................... 8
Figure 6.3.2 - Fully rendered perspective view with draped aerial photography..................................... 8
Figure 6.3.3(a) - Fully rendered drive through presentation.................................................................... 9
Figure 6.3.3(b) - Fully rendered drive through presentation.................................................................. 10

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Volume 1, Chapter 5 Visualisation

Acknowledgement
This chapter incorporates the results of a paper by Ricky Cox (Cox RL, 2005; Visualisation Why it
should now be a Basic Tool for Geometric Road Design, 3rd International Symposium on Highway
Geometric Design, Chicago, USA).
6.1

Introduction

This chapter provides information on how a range of visualisation tools and techniques may be used in
the planning, design and presentation of road projects. Visualisation techniques can be used on any
road design, not just restricted to the more major projects. Within the context of geometric road
design, visualisation can give a true representation of what the road will look like to the designer and
the end user. This enables both appearance and safety issues to be detected and addressed before
the road is built. It also enables the designer to check the electronic model for completeness and
accuracy, e.g. verify that the interfaces are joined and consistent.
Visualisation is also an effective presentation tool. Detailed presentations can be created for use in
planning and design workshops as well as in the community consultation forum. The visualisation tool
provides a photo-realistic representation of the design proposal which is easier to understand for lay
people than engineering drawings.
6.2

Visualisation as a road design tool

With the continual development of road design software applications it is possible to create simple
wire frame perspectives and to render drive-throughs easily and effectively. This ability provides the
designer with an invaluable tool for assessing the geometric design of the road.
At all times, visualisation should be used as early as possible in the planning and design process to
detect and fix problems. This tool can be used to assess a number of different issues including:

appearance of the road

sight distance

hidden dips

how the road fits the terrain

curve perception

perception of turns required at intersections

geometry that may mislead some drivers

maintaining views or conversely, avoiding distractions

appearance of the road from a vantage point off the road for example, to check concerns
that the road may intrude upon the landscape

viewing possible conflicts between underground services and the proposed road.

6.2.1

Wireframe perspective views

The wireframe perspective view can be produced quickly and easily in most 3D road design
applications. These views can be used for checking the appearance of alignments including optical
summits, avoiding the appearance of kinks and checking the combination of horizontal and vertical
curves. Wireframe perspectives can also be used to check how the road fits the terrain from vantage

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Volume 1, Chapter 5 Visualisation

points away from the road as well as on the road. As can be seen in Figure 6.2.1, wireframe
perspectives, even with hidden line suppression, are quite raw and can be difficult to interpret.
Figure 6.2.1 - Wireframe perspective

6.2.2

Simple, rendered triangulations

Simple rendering can be used to improve the interpretation and realism of the design model. The
ability to shade and illuminate a triangulation model is an automatic process. The resultant display
helps the designer to analyse the design and how it fits the existing terrain. See Figure 6.2.2.
Figure 6.2.2 - Simple, rendered triangulation

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6.2.3

Simple rendered drive-throughs

In addition to producing simply rendered triangulations which view the model from a fixed point,
designers also have the ability to analyse the design from a drivers point of view utilising drivethrough tools. This tool is useful in checking sight distance, how structures may effect visibility and the
appearance of the road. It also helps to highlight cases where the road geometry or features near the
road may deceive or distract drivers.
Drive throughs can also be created which follow strings other than the road centreline. Orbital fly-overs
above and around the project can be used to view particular aspects of the design, for example under
bridge structures or around interchanges.
Figure 6.2.3(a) - Simple, rendered drive through

Figure 6.2.3(b) - Sight distance check using visualisation

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Figure 6.2.3(c) - Simple, rendered visualisation of road and partial bridge structure

The examples shown in Figure 6.2.1 to Figure 6.2.3(c) can be created directly from the design model,
the existing surface model and their respective triangulations.
6.2.4

Traffic simulation

There are many software packages available that carry out simulation of traffic movement and
behaviour to assist in planning and design. This software can produce visual displays of the traffic
behaviour in most situations within the road network. Figure 6.2.4(a) to Figure 6.2.4(d) below provide
examples of visualisation available, including intersection, interchange and roundabout analysis,
behaviour at pedestrian crossings and signalised intersections and also overtaking behaviour.
Figure 6.2.4(a) - Perspective view of roundabout analysis

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Figure 6.2.4(b) - Plan representation of roundabout analysis

Figure 6.2.4c) - Perspective view of interchange analysis

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Figure 6.2.4(d) - Intersection & pedestrian analysis

6.3

Visualisation as a presentation tool

Visualisation can also be used for presenting designs in different forums. Perspective views and drivethroughs are particularly effective when presenting design concepts to lay people who dont have a
technical background. Generally lay people have difficulty understanding engineering drawings. It has
been found that visualisation gives a clearer picture of a design as it puts the viewer in the drivers
seat or in a position where they can view a proposed road from particular points of interest.
Plans with aerial photo backgrounds, fully rendered perspective views and drive-throughs are effective
when used in planning and design workshops. They can be used as focal points for large discussion
groups relating to various technical issues.
For presentation purposes visualisations should be as true-to-life as possible. This can be achieved by
draping the aerial photography on the natural surface triangulation, using real life textures when
rendering and including all design features and road furniture.
6.3.1

Plan with aerial photo background

This type of plan gives the viewer an idea of where the road will be positioned in relation to
surrounding buildings, features, etc. The inclusion of the aerial photo background allows a clear
understanding of the roads location.
It is very important that current photography is used so that all existing features are included. The
photographic image must also be accurately positioned in relation to the co-ordinate base used for the
design model so that the location of the proposed road is correct in relation to the existing features
shown on the photo.

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Care should be taken with colour selection when creating this type of plan. Line colours used for the
design strings should be chosen carefully so that they are clear and do not blend with the wide range
of colours normally found in aerial photography.
Figure 6.3.1(a) to Figure 6.3.1(c) show examples of how aerial photography can be incorporated into
the plan presentation.
Figure 6.3.1(a) - Roadway and interface design overlaid on aerial photography

Figure 6.3.1(b) - Roadway layout overlaid on aerial photography

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Figure 6.3.1(c) - Preliminary interchange layout overlaid on aerial photography

6.3.2

Fully rendered perspective views

Fully rendered perspective views can be used to provide the viewer with a complete representation of
the final constructed roadway. These views generally contain a composite triangulation combining
both the design and existing surface. The aerial photography is draped on the existing surface and the
design is fully rendered with true to life textures. All design features and road furniture are realistically
represented.
The fully rendered perspective views can be used in community consultation to view the roadway from
particular points of interest e.g. the view from an owners property or from a public lookout. The
perspective view can also be used in technical workshops to view particular aspects of the design in
detail.
Figure 6.3.2 is an example of a fully rendered perspective view of a proposed road viewed from a
distant location. It should be noted that the draped aerial photography may look distorted close to the
viewing position.
Figure 6.3.2 - Fully rendered perspective view with draped aerial photography

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6.3.3

Fully rendered drive throughs

Fully rendered drive throughs provide a realistic representation of the roadway and surrounding terrain
from the drivers point of view. This type of presentation provides the viewer with a realistic idea of
what the final constructed roadway will look like.
The examples shown in Figure 6.3.3(a) and Figure 6.3.3(b) below require post-processing of the
design model. Textured render patterns need to be applied, along with the creation of linemarking
polygons and road furniture features. Generally this type of work requires additional software modules
or dedicated visualisation software applications. Some of these dedicated applications also give the
ability to include moving vehicles on the road in the drive-through presentation.
Figure 6.3.3(a) - Fully rendered drive through presentation

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Figure 6.3.3(b) - Fully rendered drive through presentation

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