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CHAPTER1

CHAPTER1

INTRODUCTION
This project reveals the comfort conditions achieved by the device for the human body. In
summer (hot) and humid conditions feel uncomfortable because ofhotweatherandheavyhumidity.
So it is necessary to maintain thermal comfort conditions. Thermal comfort is determined by the
rooms temperature, humidity and air speed. Radiant heat (hot surfaces) or radiant heat loss (cold
surfaces) are also important factors for thermal comfort. Relative humidity(RH)isameasureofthe
moisture in the air, compared to the potential saturation level. Warmer air can hold more moisture.
When you approach 100% humidity, the air moisture condenses this is called the dew point. The
temperature in a building is based on theoutsidetemperatureandsunloadingpluswhateverheating
or cooling is added by the HVAC or other heating and cooling sources. Room occupants also add
heat to the roomsincethenormalbodytemperatureismuchhigherthantheroomtemperature.Need
of such a source which is abundantly available in nature, which does not imposeanybadeffectson
earth.Thereisonlyonethingwhichcancomeupwiththeseallproblemsissolarenergy.

The use of solar energy for cooling can be either to provide refrigeration for food
preservation or to provide comfort cooling. There is less experience with solar cooling than solar
heating. Several solar heated buildings have been designed, built, operated forextendedperiodsbut
only a few short time experiments have been reported on solar cooling. However, research work is
expectedtoclosethegapbetweenthetwowithinfewyears.
Solar air conditioning systems have used two basic approaches in an attempt to capture the suns
energy for cooling thermal and photovoltaic. The photovoltaic systems use photovoltaic panels to
convert solar radiation directly into DC electricity. Photovoltaic systems have two major
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advantageous attributes. First, they can use conventional electrically driven airconditioning
equipment, which is widely available and inexpensive. Second, they can use the utility grid for
backuppowerduringdarkorcloudyperiods.
Unfortunately other attributes: the high cost of manufacturing, the low conversion efficiencies, and
the need for a continual stream of photons toproducepower,createthreemajordisadvantages.First
electricity from solar cells is very expensive because ofthehighcostofthesolarpanels.Secondthe
space needed for poweringtheairconditioningunitsislarge.Andthirdthepanelsprovidenoenergy
storage, which creates a need for use of gridbased electricity at night and on cloudy days. In fact,
the peak output from the solar panels occurs around solar noon, while peak airconditioning loads
occurs several hours later, resulting in a significant mismatch between supply of needed power and
demand. This mismatch greatly reduces the value of the system in reducing peak power demand to
the utility. Recently deregulated markets are demonstrating that these demands are much more
expensivetomeetthanhadbeenpreviouslyapparent.
For offgrid locations, the only viable energy storage system to match the provision of power to
times when demand is high (later in afternoon and at night) is batteries. Batteries have a high first
cost, require periodic replacement, and normally use toxic and/or corrosive materials. These
problems have prevented the use of photovoltaic systems in other than a few highcost
demonstrationsystems.
Thermally driven systems are another approach they use heat from the sun to drive an air
conditioner. Typical approaches from the past used a hightemperature flatplate collector to supply
heat to an absorption system. Systems with concentrating collectors and steam turbines have also
beenproposed.Naturalgasorotherfuelisusedforbackupheat.
While thermal systems have the advantage of eliminating the need for expensive photovoltaic
panels, the existing systems have attributes that produce major disadvantages. As used in the past,
thermal systems are based on singleeffect absorption chillers or other cooling systems that are
designed to use natural gas, steam or other hightemperature heat source. They require a very high
collector temperature to drivethecoolingsystem.Thehighcollectortemperatureandrelativelypoor
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efficiency, greatly increases collector size and cost. In addition,thereisnoeconomicallyviableway


of storing solar energy with this approach. Theresultoftheseproblemsisthatthermalsystemshave
been very expensive and have relied primarily on natural gas or other fuel for their thermal energy.
Forthisreasontheyhaveseenverylittleuse.

1.1PresentProblem:
The producing of electricity is ultimately responsible for hot and humid conditions i.e.
global warming. As in below shown chart it isclearthatmajorquantityofelectricityisproducedby
coal(fossilfuel).
Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly uranium andthorium,whicharereleasedinto
the atmosphere, which contribute to smog and acid rain, emitcarbondioxide,whichmaycontribute
toclimatechange.Longerpowercutdurationsinvillagesandhighcostofcoolingproducts.

Figure1.1:Productionofelectricityfromdifferentsource

1.2ProposedSolution:
Need of such a source which is abundantly available in nature, which does not impose any
bad effects on earth. There is only one thing which can come up with these all problems is solar
energy.

ObjectivetheProject:
Tomakeawareofnonconventionalenergysourcestoreduceenvironmentalpollutions.
Toprovidesolutionforpowercutproblemsinvillages
Toreplaceexistingcostlierandhighenergyconsumption

CHAPTER2
5

CHAPTER2

LITERATUREREVIEW
KantandMullick(2003)h avestudiedonthermalcomfortinaroomwithexposedroofusing
evaporativecoolingsystem.Hourlyvaluesoftemperatureandhumidityarecomputedandcompared
withthevaluesthatareobtainedduringunexposedcondition.Thelevelsofthermalsensation,which
couldbeobtainedwithadirectevaporativecooler,arecomputed.

ElDessoukyetal(2000)havedevelopedForbetterhumancomfort,coolingoflivingor

work environment is vital in tropical climates. Researches carried out till date in evaporative air
cooling process focus mainly on reducing the dry bulb temperature of theincoming air. Theoretical
efficiency of 100% can be realized when dry bulb temperature of the room is equal to wet bulb
temperature of the outside ambient air coolingefficiencyisdefinedastheratiobetweendropindry

bulb temperature across the cooler and the difference between inlet DBT and inlet WBT. Many
researchershaveworkedonimprovingcoolingefficiencytothemaximumpossibleextent.

Gomez et al (2005) have developed a ceramic solar cooling system which acts as a semiindirect
cooler. The water cooled in a cooling tower is passed through the annulus passage of the ceramic
tube. The out side air is passed through the central region. Chilled water evaporates by seeping
throughpores.

Jain (2007) has developed and tested a twostage evaporative cooler. Such a cooler could provide
necessary comfort even though outside humidity is higher. The twostagecoolerisfoundtoprovide
20%bettercoolingwhencomparedtosinglestagecooler.

CHAPTER3

CHAPTER3

SOLARENERGY
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun harnessed using a range of
everevolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar
architectureandartificialphotosynthesis.Itisanimportantsourceofrenewableenergyandits
technologiesarebroadlycharacterizedaseitherpassivesolaroractivesolardependingonthe
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way they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar
techniques include the use of photovoltaicsystems,concentratedsolarpowerandsolarwater
heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the
Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and
designingspacesthatnaturallycirculateair.
The large magnitude of solar energy available makes it a highly appealing source of
electricity. The United Nations Development Programme in its 2000 World Energy
Assessment found that the annual potentialofsolarenergywas1,57549,837exajoules(EJ).
This is several times larger than the total world energy consumption, which was559.8EJin
2012.In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable,
inexhaustible and clean solarenergytechnologieswillhavehugelongertermbenefits.Itwill
increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and
mostly importindependent resource, enhancesustainability,reducepollution,lowerthecosts
of mitigating global warming, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These
advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment
should be considered learning investments they must be wisely spentandneedtobewidely
shared".
The Earth receives 174,000terawatts (TW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation)at
the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is
absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's
surface is mostly spread across the visible and nearinfrared ranges with a small part in the
nearultraviolet. Most people around the world live in areas with isolation levels of 150 to
300wattspersquaremeteror3.5to7.0kWh/m2perday.
Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans which cover about
71% of the globe and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans
rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude,
where the temperature is low, water vapor condensesintoclouds,whichrainontotheEarth's
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surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies
convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anticyclones.
Sunlight absorbed bytheoceansandlandmasseskeepsthesurfaceatanaveragetemperature
of 14C. By photosynthesis green plants convert solarenergyintochemicallystoredenergy,
whichproducesfood,woodandthebiomassfromwhichfossilfuelsarederived.
The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is
approximately 3,850,000exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was more energy inonehour
than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately3,000EJperyearin
biomass. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet issovastthatinone
year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtainedfromalloftheEarth'snonrenewable
resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined the potential solar energy
that could be used by humans differs from the amount of solar energy present near the
surface of the planet because factors such as geography, time variation, cloud cover,andthe
landavailabletohumanslimitstheamountofsolarenergythatwecanacquire.
Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator
have a greater amount of solar radiation. However, the use of photo voltaics that canfollow
the position of the sun can significantly increase the solar energy potential in areas that are
farther from the equator. Time variation affects the potential of solarenergybecauseduring
the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the Earth for solar panels to
absorb. This limits theamountofenergythatsolarpanelscanabsorbinoneday.Cloudcover
can affect the potential of solar panels becausecloudsblockincominglightfromthesunand
reduce the light available for solar cells.Inaddition,landavailabilityhasalargeeffectonthe
available solar energy because solar panels can only be set up on land that is unowned and
suitable forsolarpanels.Roofshavebeenfoundtobeasuitableplaceforsolarcells,asmany
people have discoveredthattheycancollectenergydirectlyfromtheirhomesthisway.Other
areas that are suitable for solar cells are lands that are unowned by businesses where solar
plantscanbeestablished..

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Active solar techniques use photo voltaic, concentrated solar power, solar
thermal collectors, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar
techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces
that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position ofabuildingtotheSun.Activesolar
technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies,
while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally
considereddemandsidetechnologies.

FIGURE:3.1howtogetsolarenergytobatteryandload

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they
capture, convert and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy to be harnessed at different levels
around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers
primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than
geothermalandtidal,derivetheirenergyfromtheSuninadirectorindirectway

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Figure:3.2solarenergyutilization

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CHAPTER4

CHAPTER4

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WORKINGOFTHEPROJECT
WorkingMethodology:
Thisprojectmainlyconsistsoftwosections:

4.1SolarEnergyConversion:
Solar energy conversionisdonebyusingbattery,inverterandchargecontroller.Assunlight
falls on solar panel, which converts into electrical energy by photoelectric effect. This electrical
energy stored in battery in the form of chemical energy. Charge controller is employed in between
solar panel and battery which prevents overcharging Figure 2: Solar energy conversion processand
may protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, andmayposea
safetyrisk.
The stored energy directly can use for DC loads or else need to be converted AC (alternate
current)bythehelpofinverter.Figure2:Solarenergyconversionprocess

4.2Coolairgenerationbycentrifugalfan:
The converted energy is used to run the centrifugal fan. This fan coveredwithcoolingpads,
through which water is passed at a specific rate. As the fan sucks the hot air through cooling pads,
heat transfer occur between air and water thus generated cool air enters into the room. Figure 3:
Processofcoolairgenerationbycentrifugalfan.

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Fig4.1Aircooler

4.3WorkingModeloftheProject:
Solar powered air cooler. This concept is driven by solar energy. Components involved in
this concept are solar panel, battery, charge controller, battery, inverter, blower, ceramic slabs and
cooling pads. Solar panel is employed to convert sun light into electrical energy by means of
photovoltaic effect. The generated electrical energy is supplied to the battery for storage purpose
through charge controller which prevents from power fluctuations.AsACblowerisusedforcooler,
so need to convertDCloadfromthebatterytoACloadbythehelpofinverter.InverterconvertsDC
load to AC. Load, now AC power can be supplied to the blower. This blower is surrounded by
cooling pads through which continuous water supply is provided. When the blower is switched on,
blowersucksatmosphericairintothecabinthroughthecoolingpads,meantimeheattransferoccur
Between water and air, so the cool air enters into the room thusprovidingrequiredthermalcomfort
conditions.

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Figno:4.2workingofthesolarpoweredaircooler

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CHAPTER5

CHAPTER5
COMPONENTSUSED

5.1Solarpanel

Solar chargers convertlightenergyintoDCcurrent.Theyaregenerallyportable,butcanalso


be fixed mount. Fixed mount solar chargers are also known as solar panels. Solar panels are often
connected to the electricalgrid,whereasportablesolarchargersasusedoffthegrid(i.e.cars,boats,
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or RVs).Although portable solar chargers obtain energy from the sun only, theystillcan(depending
onthetechnology)beusedinlowlight(i.e.cloudy)applications.

Portable solar charger are typically used for trickle charging, although some solar charger
(depending on the wattage), can completely recharge batteries.Solar panels (arrays of photovoltaic
cells) make use ofrenewableenergyfromthesun,andareacleanandenvironmentallysoundmeans
ofcollectingsolarenergy.

Figno:5.1Solarpanel

5.2CrystallineSiliconSolarPanels
The creation of solar panels typically involves cutting crystalline silicon into tiny disks less
than a centimeter thick. These thin, waferlike disks are thencarefullypolishedandtreatedtorepair
and gloss any damage from the slicing process. Afterpolishing,dopants(materialsaddedtoalteran
electrical charge in a semiconductor or photovoltaic solar cell) and metal conductors are spread

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across each disk. The conductors are aligned in a thin, gridlikematrixonthetopofthesolarpanel,


andarespreadinaflat,thinsheetonthesidefacingtheearth.

To protect the solar panels after processing, a thin layer of cover glass is then bonded to the top of
the photovoltaic cell. After the bonding of protectiveglass,thenearlyfinishedpanelisattachedtoa
substrate by expensive, thermally conductive cement. The thermally conductive property of the
cement keep the solar panel from becoming overheated any leftover energy that the solar panel is
unable to convert to electricity would otherwise overheat the unit and reduce the efficiency of the
solar cells. Despite these protective measures against the tendency of solar panels to overheat, it is
vital that when installing a solar panel, additional steps should be taken to ensure the solar panel is
keptcool.Elevatingthesolarpanelaboveground,tolettheairflowunderneath,willcoolthedevice.

5.3AmorphousSiliconSolarPanels

Amorphous silicon solar panels are a powerful that differ in output, structure and
manufacture than traditional photovoltaics which use crystalline silicon. Amorphous silicon solar
cells, or Asi cells, are developed in a continuous rolltoroll process by vapordepositing silicon
alloys in multiple layers, with each extremely thin layer specializing in the absorption of different
parts of the solar spectrum. The resultisrecordbreakingefficiencyandreducedmaterialscost(Asi
solarcellsaretypicallythinnerthantheircrystallinecounterparts).

5.4Howdoesthesolarpanelworks

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The solar cells on the calculators and satellitesarealsocalledphotovoltaic(PV)cells,which


as the name implies (photo meaning "light" and voltaic meaning "electricity"), convert sunlight
directly into electricity. A module is a group of cells connected electrically and packaged into a
frame(morecommonlyknownasasolarpanel),whichcanthenbegroupedintolargersolararrays.

Photovoltaic cells are made ofspecialmaterialscalledsemiconductorssuchassilicon,which


is currently used most commonly. Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is
absorbed within the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is
transferredtothesemiconductor.Theenergyknockselectronsloose,allowingthemtoflowfreely.

PV cells also all have one or more electric field thatactstoforceelectronsfreedbylightabsorption


to flow in a certaindirection.Thisflowofelectronsisacurrentandbyplacingmetalcontactsonthe
top and bottom of the PV cell, the current can be drawn off for external use such as to power a
calculator. This current, together with the cell's voltage (which is aresultofitsbuiltinelectricfield
orfields),definesthepower(orwattage)thatthesolarcellcanproduce.

5.5Battery:
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical
energy into electrical energy. The invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") was in 1800 by
Alessandro Volta. Nowadays, batteries have become a common power source for many household
and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates
US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth.There are two types of batteries: primary
batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded and secondary
batteries(rechargeablebatteries),whicharedesignedtoberechargedandusedmultipletimes.

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Figno:5.2Battery

Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches whereas larger
batteriesprovidestandbypowerfortelephoneexchangesorcomputerdatacenters.
The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by photovoltaic cells. This energy is stored in
batteries during day time for utilizing the same during night time. This project deals with a
controlledchargingmechanismwhichovercharge,deepdischargeandundervoltageofthebattery.

In this project a solar panel is used to chargeabattery.Indicationsarealsoprovideby


a Red LED off for fully charged battery while a set of red LEDs on to indicate under charged,
overloaded and deep discharge condition. Charge controller also uses MOSFET as power
semiconductor switch to ensure cut off the load in low battery or overloadcondition.Atransistoris
usedtobypassthesolarenergytoadummyload
Whilethebatterygetsfullycharged.Thisprotectsthebatteryfromgettingovercharged.
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The requirement and use of electrical energy is increasing rapidly with technology development and
population growth. By using renewable and nonrenewable sources, electrical energy is generated.
Multiple advantages of solar energy are the key factors behind the usage ofsolar charge
controllerfor various purposes in industrial applications. Solar charge controller is used for storing
the electrical power in batteries whichisgeneratedwiththehelpofsolarpanelsandfurtheritcanbe
fedintoloads.

A solar charge controller is basically a current or a voltage controller to charge the


battery and to protect the cells from overcharging. It directs the current andvoltagecomesfromthe
solar panels to charge the battery. Generally, 12V panels are put out in the approximate valueof16
to 20V, so in the overcharging condition the electric cells will be damaged if no regulation is
provided. For getting completely charged, electric storage devices require14 to 14.5V. The solar
charge controller circuits are available in all features, sizes and costs ranges from 4.5A to
6080A.Here in this article we are going to discuss about solar charge controller using comparators
andasadvancementtothatsolarchargecontrollercircuitwithmicrocontrollerisalsoexplained.

5.6COOLERFAN
Typical applications includeclimate controland personalthermal comfort(e.g., an
electric table or floor fan), vehicle and machinery cooling systems, ventilation, fume
extraction,winnowing(e.g., separating chaff ofcerealgrains), removing dust (e.g. in avacuum
cleaner), drying (usually in combination with heat) and to provide draft for afire. While fans are
often used tocoolpeople,theydonotactuallycoolair(ifanything,electricfanswarmitslightlydue
to the warming of their motors), but work byevaporative coolingofsweatand increased
heatconvectioninto the surrounding air due to the airflow from the fans. Thus, fans may become
ineffective at cooling the body if the surrounding air is near body temperature and contains high
humidity.

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Processors in most early x86based computers, up to some of the early486s, did not
need active ventilation.Powersuppliesneededforcedcooling,andpowersupplyfansalsocirculated
cooling air through the rest of the PC with theATXstandard. The byproduct of increased heat
generation is that thefan(s)needtomoveincreasingamountsairandthusneedtobemorepowerful.
Sincetheymustmovemoreairthroughthesameareaofspace,fanswillbecomemorenoisy.

Fans installed in a PC case can produce noise levels of up to 70dB. Since fan noise
increases with the fifth power of the fanrotation speed,reducing rotations per minute (RPM) by a
small amount potentially means a large reduction in fan noise. This must be done cautiously, as
excessive reduction in speed may cause components to overheat and be damaged. If done properly
fannoisecanbedrasticallyreduced.

The common cooling fans used incomputersusestandardizedconnectorswithtwotofourpins.The


first two pins are always used to deliver power to the fan motor, while the rest can be optional,
dependingonfandesignandtype:

Power nominally +12V, though it may be variable depending on fantypeanddesiredfanrotation


speed
Senseoutputfromfanoutputsasignalthatpulsestwiceforeachrotationofthefanasapulsetrain,
with the signal frequency proportional to the fan speed Control input apulsewidth
modulation(PWM) input signal, which gives the ability to adjust the rotation speed on the fly
without changing the input voltage delivered to the cooling fan.The color of the wires connectedto
these pins variesdependingonthenumberofconnectors,buttheroleofeachpinisstandardizedand
guaranteed to be the same on any system. Cooling fans equipped with either two or threepin
connectors are usually designed to accept a wide range of input voltages, which directly affects the
rotationspeedoftheblades.

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FIGURE:5.3coolerfan

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5.7Electricmotors

Electric motors are used to efficiently convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Magnetism is the basis of their principles of operation. They use permanent magnets,
electromagnets, and exploit the magnetic properties of materials in order to create these amazing
machines.

There are several types of electric motors available today. The following outline gives an
overview of several popular ones. There are two main classes of motors: AC and DC. AC motors
require analternatingcurrentorvoltagesource(likethepowercomingoutofthewalloutletsinyour
house) to make them work. DC motors require a direct current or voltage source (like the voltage
comingoutofbatteries)tomakethemwork.Universalmotorscanworkoneithertypeofpower.Not
only is the construction of the motors different, but the means used to control the speed and torque
createdbyeachofthesemotorsalsovaries,althoughtheprinciplesofpowerconversionarecommon
toboth.

Motors are used just about everywhere. In our house, there is a motor in the furnace for the
blower, for the intake air, in the sump well, dehumidifier, in the kitchen in the exhaust hood above
the stove, microwave fan, refrigerator compressor and cooling fan, can opener, garbage disposer,
dish washer pump,clocks,computerfans,ceilingfans,andmanymoreitems.Inindustry,motorsare
used to move, lift, rotate, accelerate, brake, lower and spin material in order to coat, paint, punch,
plate, make or form steel, film, paper, tissue, aluminum,plasticandotherrawmaterials.Theyrange
in power ratings from less than 1/100 hp to over 100,000 hp. The rotate as slowly as 0.001 rpm to

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over 100,000 rpm. They range in physical size from as small as the head of a pin to the size of a
locomotiveengine.

5.7.1ACMotors

An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. Itconsistsoftwo


basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a
rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given atorquebythe
rotatingfield.

There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the
synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub multiple of the supply
frequency. The magnetic field on the rotoriseithergeneratedbycurrentdeliveredthroughsliprings
or by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightlyslowerthan
thesupplyfrequency.Themagneticfieldontherotorofthismotoriscreatedbyaninducedcurrent.

5.7.2TypesofMotors

5.7.2.1SplitPhase
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The split phase motor is mostly used for "medium starting" applications. It hasstartandrun
windings, both are energized when the motor is started. When the motor reaches about 75% of its
ratedfullloadspeed,thestartingwindingisdisconnectedbyanautomaticswitch.
Uses: This motor is used where stops and starts are somewhat frequent. Common applications of
split phase motors include: fans, blowers, office machines and tools such as small saws or drill
presseswheretheloadisappliedafterthemotorhasobtaineditsoperatingspeed.

5.7.2.2CapacitorStart
This motor has a capacitor in series with a starting winding and provides more than double
the starting torque with one third less starting current than the split phase motor. Because of this
improved starting ability, the capacitor start motor is used for loads which are hard to start. It has
good efficiency and requires starting currents of approximately five times full load current. The
capacitor and starting windings are disconnected from the circuit by an automatic switch when the
motorreachesabout75%ofitsratedfullloadspeed.
Uses: Common uses include: compressors, pumps, machine tools, air conditioners, conveyors,
blowers,fansandotherhardtostartapplications.

5.7.2.3Phase,Voltage&Rotation
Whetherornotyoucanuseamotorwilllikelydependonthesefactors.

5.7.2.4SinglePhase
Ordinary household wiring is single phase, alternating current. Each cycle peaksanddipsas
shown. To run a three phase motor a phase converter must be used,usuallythisisnotpractical,itis
oftenlessexpensivetochangethemotoronamachinetoasinglephasestyle.

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Figno:5.4

5.7.2.5ThreePhase
This is used inindustrialshops,ratherthanpeaksandvalleysthecurrentsupplyismoreeven
becauseoftheothertwocycleseachoffsetby120degrees.

Fig5.5sinewave
5.7.2.6Voltage
Many motors are dual voltage i.e., by simply changing thewiringconfiguration,theycanbe
run on 110 volts or 220 volts. Motors usually run better on 220 volts, especially if there is anyline
lossbecauseofhavingtousealongwiretoreachthepowersupply.
Motors areavailableforbothACandDCcurrent,ourtypicalhomewiringwillbeAC.ThereareDC
convertersavailablewhichareusedinapplicationswherethespeedofthemotoriscontrolled.

5.7.3Workingofelectricmotors

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Fig5.5blockdiagram

The speed of the AC motor is determined primarily by the frequency of the AC supply and the
numberofpolesinthestatorwinding,accordingtotherelation:
Ns=120F/p
Where
Ns=Synchronousspeed,inrevolutionsperminute
F=ACpowerfrequencyp=Numberofpolesperphasewindin

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CHAPTER6

CHAPTER6

SOLARPOWERCHARGECONTROLLER
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6.1SolarPowerChargeControllerCircuitusingComparators
The solar charge controller project is designed to store electrical energy in batteries
which is obtained by converting the solar energy into electrical energy with the help of
photovoltaic cells during the daytime and to utilize this stored solar energy during night
time. For monitoring the voltage and load current of solar panels a set of opamps are used
ascomparatorsasshownintheblockdiagram.

Fig:6.1SolarPowerChargeControllers

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Different types of light emitting diodes are used to indicate the following conditions:
under voltage, overload and deep discharge conditions. To cut off the load in overload and
low battery conditions MOSFET is used as a power semiconductor switch. If the battery is
fully charged, then the solar energy is transferred to the dummy load with the help of a
transistor.Thisprojectcanbefurtherdevelopedbyusingmicrocontroller.
6.2PVPANEL
In a photovoltaic cell, light excites electrons to move from one layer to another
throughsemiconductivesilicon materials. This produces an electriccurrent.Solarcellscalled
photovoltaics made from thin slices of crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, or other
semiconductormaterialsconvertsolarradiationdirectlyintoelectricity.Cellswithconversion
efficiencies greater than 30 percent are now available. By connectinglargenumbersofthese
cells into modules, the cost of photovoltaic electricity has been reduced to 20 to 30 cents
perkilowatthour.Americans currently pay 6 to 7 cents perkilowatthourfor conventionally
generatedelectricity.
The simplest solar cells provide small amounts of power for watches and calculators. More
complex systems can provide electricity to houses and electric grids. Usually though, solar
cells provide low power to remote, unattended devices such as buoys, weather and
communicationsatellites,andequipmentaboardspacecraft.

6.3CHARGECONTROLLER

A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric
current isaddedtoordrawnfromelectricbatteries.Itpreventsoverchargingandmayprevent
againstovervoltage,whichcanreducebatteryperformanceorlifespan,andmayposeasafety
risk. It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform
controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protectbatterylife.Theterms
"chargecontroller"or"chargeregulator"mayrefertoeitherastandalonedevice,

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or to control circuitry integrated within a battery pack,batterypowereddevice, or battery


recharger.

A series charge controller sor series regulator disables further current flow into
batteries when they are full. A shunt charge controller or shunt regulator diverts excess
electricity to an auxiliary or "shunt" load, suchasanelectricwaterheater,whenbatteriesare
full.

6.4INVERTER
Power inverter, orinverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changesdirect
current(DC)toalternatingcurrent(AC).

Theinputvoltage,outputvoltageandfrequency,andoverallpowerhandlingdependonthedesignof
the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power the power is providedby
theDCsource.
A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects
(such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry.Static invertersdo not use moving parts in the
conversionprocess.

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Figno:6.2Inverter

6.5Inputandoutput
Inputvoltage
A typical power inverter device or circuit requires a relatively stableDC power
sourcecapable of supplying enough current for the intended power demands of the system. The
inputvoltagedependsonthedesignandpurposeoftheinverter.Examplesinclude:

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12 VDC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from arechargeable
12Vleadacidbattery.
24and48VDC,whicharecommonstandardsforhomeenergysystems.
200to400VDC,whenpowerisfromphotovoltaicsolarpanels.
300to450VDC,whenpowerisfromelectricvehiclebatterypacksinvehicletogridsystems.
Hundreds of thousands of volts, where the inverter ispartofahighvoltagedirectcurrentpower
transmissionsystem.

6.6Outputwaveform
An inverter can produce a square wave, modified sine wave, pulsed sine wave, pulse width
modulated wave (PWM) or sine wave depending on circuit design. The two dominant
commercializedwaveformtypesofinvertersasof2007aremodifiedsinewaveandsinewave.
There are two basic designs for producing household plugin voltage from a lowervoltage
DC source, the first of which uses a switchingboost converterto produce a highervoltage DC and
then converts to AC. The second method converts DC to AC at battery level and uses
alinefrequencytransformertocreatetheoutputvoltage.

Fig6.3Squarewave

6.6.1Squarewave
This is one of the simplest waveforms an inverter design can produce and is best suited to
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lowsensitivity applications such as lighting and heating. Square wave output can produce
"humming"whenconnectedtoaudioequipmentandisgenerallyunsuitableforsensitiveelectronics.

Fig6.4S
inewave

6.6.2Sinewave
A power inverter device which produces a multiple stepsinusoidalACwaveformisreferred
to as asine wave inverter. To more clearly distinguish the inverters with outputs of much less
distortion than the "modified sine wave" (three step) inverter designs, the manufacturers often use
the phrasepure sine wave inverter. Almost all consumer grade invertersthataresoldasa"puresine
wave inverter" do not produce a smooth sine wave output at all,just a less choppy output than the
square wave(onestep)andmodifiedsinewave(threestep)inverters.Inthissense,thephrases"Pure
sine wave" or "sine wave inverter" are misleading to the consumer.However, this is not critical for
most electronics as they deal with the outputquitewell.Wherepowerinverterdevicessubstitutefor
standard line power, a sinewaveoutputisdesirablebecausemanyelectricalproductsareengineered
to work best with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility power attempts to
provideapowersourcethatisagoodapproximationofasinewave.

Sine wave inverters with more than three steps in the wave output are more complex and have

significantly higher cost than a modified sine wave, withonlythreesteps,orsquarewave(onestep)


types of the same power handling.Switchmode power supply(SMPS) devices, such as personal
computers or DVD players, function on quality modified sine wave power. AC motors directly
operated on nonsinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may have different speedtorque
characteristics,ormayproducemoreaudiblenoisethanwhenrunningonsinusoidalpower.

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6.6.3Modifiedsinewave
A "modified sine wave" inverter has a nonsquare waveform that is a usefulrough
approximationof a sine wave for power translation purposes. Most inexpensive consumer power
invertersproduceamodifiedsinewaveratherthanapuresinewave.
The waveform incommerciallyavailablemodifiedsinewaveinvertersisasquarewavewith
a pause before the polarity reversal, which only needs to cycle back and forth through a
threepositionswitchthatoutputsforward,off,andreverseoutputatthepredeterminedfrequency.

Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages as per the patterns given in
the switching Table 2. The peak voltage toRMSvoltage ratio does not maintain the same
relationship as for a sine wave. The DC busvoltagemaybeactivelyregulated,orthe"on"and"off"
times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage to
compensateforDCbusvoltagevariations.
The ratio of on to off time can be adjusted to vary the RMS voltage while maintaining a
constant frequency with a technique calledPulse Width Modulation(PWM). The generated gate
pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired
output. Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation
frequency. When operating induction motors, voltage harmonics are usually not of concern
however, harmonic distortion inthecurrentwaveformintroducesadditionalheatingandcanproduce
pulsating torques. Numerous items of electric equipment will operate quite well on modified sine
wave power inverter devices, especially loads that are resistive in nature such as traditional
incandescentlightbulbs.
However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a

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modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This alsoaffectstheefficiency
of the system as a whole, since the manufacturer's nominal conversion efficiency does not account
for harmonics. Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiencythan
modifiedsinewaveinverters.
Most AC motors will run on MSW inverters with an efficiency reduction of about 20%
owing to the harmonic content. However, they may be quite noisy. A series LC filter tuned to the
fundamental frequency may help. A common modified sine wave inverter topology found in
consumerpowerinvertersisasfollows:
An onboard microcontroller rapidly switches on and off power MOSFETs athighfrequency
like ~50kHz. The MOSFETs directly pull from a low voltage DC source (such as a battery). This
signal then goes through stepup transformers (generally many smaller transformers are placed in
parallel to reduce the overall size of the inverter) to produce a higher voltage signal. The output of
the stepup transformers then gets filtered by capacitors to produce a high voltage DC supply.
Finally, this DC supplyispulsedwithadditionalpowerMOSFETsbythemicrocontrollertoproduce
thefinalmodifiedsinewavesignal.

6.6.4Otherwaveforms
By definition there is no restriction on the type of AC waveform an inverter might produce
thatwouldfinduseinaspecificorspecialapplication.

Outputfrequency
The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as standard power
line frequency, 50 or 60hertz. If the output of the device or circuit is to be further conditioned (for
examplesteppedup)thenthefrequencymaybemuchhigherforgoodtransformerefficiency.

Outputvoltage

38

The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the gridline
voltage, typically 120 or 240 VAC, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is
driving.Thisallowstheinvertertopowernumerousdevicesdesignedforstandardlinepower.
Someinvertersalsoallowselectableorcontinuouslyvariableoutputvoltages.

Outputpower
Apowerinverterwilloftenhaveanoverallpowerratingexpressedinwattsorkilowatts.This
describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the
powerthatwillbeneededfromtheDCsource.

Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range
from 150 to 3000 watts. Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power
delivery in some cases the frequency and or waveform properties are used by the followoncircuit
ordevice.
Batteries
Theruntimeof an inverter is dependent on the batterypowerandtheamountofpowerbeing
drawnfromtheinverteratagiventime.Astheamountofequipmentusingtheinverterincreases,the
runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be
added to the inverter When attempting to add more batteries to an inverter, there are two basic
optionsforinstallation:SeriesConfigurationandParallelConfiguration.

Seriesconfiguration
If the goal is to increase the overall voltage of the inverter, one candaisy chainbatteries in
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aSeries Configuration. In a Series Configuration, if a single batterydies,theotherbatterieswillnot


beabletopowertheload.

Parallelconfiguration
Increase capacity and prolong the runtime of the inverter, batteries can be connectedin
parallel. This increases the overallAmperehour (Ah) rating of the battery set. If a single battery is
discharged though, the other batterieswillthendischargethroughit.Thiscanleadtorapiddischarge
of the entire pack, or even an overcurrent and possible fire. To avoid this,largeparalleledbatteries
may be connected via diodes or intelligent monitoring with automatic switching to isolate an
undervoltagebatteryfromtheothers.

Applications
DCpowersourceusage
Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the12VDCsourceprovidedinanautomobile.Theunit
shown provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power two sixty watt light
bulbs. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such asbatteriesorfuel cellsto AC
electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage in particular it can operateACequipment
designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. Uninterruptible
power supplies anuninterruptible power supply(UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC
power when mains power is not available. When mains power is restored, arectifiersupplies DC
powertorechargethebatteries.

Electricmotorspeedcontrol
Inverter circuits designed to produce a variable output voltage range are often used within
motor speed controllers. The DC power for the inverter section can be derived from a normal AC
40

wall outlet or some other source. Control and feedback circuitry is used toadjustthefinaloutputof
the inverter section which will ultimately determine the speed of the motor operating under its
mechanicalload.

Motor speedcontrolneedsarenumerousandincludethingslike:industrialmotordrivenequipment,
electric vehicles, rail transport systems, and power tools. (See related:variablefrequency drive)
Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages as per the patterns given in
the switching Table 1.The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the
developedpatternandthustheoutputisobtained.

Powergrid
Gridtied invertersare designed to feed into the electric power distribution system. They
transfersynchronouslywiththelineandhaveaslittleharmoniccontentaspossible.Theyalsoneeda
means of detecting the presence of utility power for safety reasons, so as not to continue to
dangerouslyfeedpowertothegridduringapoweroutage.

41

Fig6.5InternalviewofSolarInverter

Internal view of a solar inverter. Note the many large capacitors (blue cylinders), used to store
energybrieflyandimprovetheoutputwaveform.

6.7Solarinverter:
Asolar inverterisabalanceofsystem(BOS)componentofaphotovoltaicsystemandcanbe
usedforboth,gridconnectedandoffgridsystems.Solarinvertershavespecialfunctionsadaptedfor
use

withphotovoltaicarrays,

includingmaximum

power

point

trackingandantiislandingprotection.Solar microinvertersdiffer from conventional converters, as


an individualmicroconverterisattachedtoeachsolarpanel.Thiscanimprovetheoverallefficiency
of the system. The output from several micro inverters is then combined and often fed to
theelectricalgrid.

6.8Inductionheating
42

Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to higher frequency for use ininduction
heating.Todothis,ACpowerisfirstrectifiedtoprovideDCpower.
The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency ACpower.Duetothereduction
in the number of DC sources employed, the structure becomes more reliable and theoutputvoltage
has higher resolution due to an increase in the number of steps so that the reference sinusoidal
voltagecanbebetterachieved.
This configuration has recently become very popular in AC power supply and adjustable
speed drive applications. This new inverter can avoid extra clamping diodes or voltage balancing
capacitors.

ResultsandDiscussion

The output of the project is Comfort thermal conditions achieved in the livingroom.Thatis
roomtemperatureupto25oCandrelativehumidityof60%.

43

CHAPTER7

44

CHAPTER7

CALCULATIONS
HenceselectedFanSpecification:230v,50Hz,35W
Sotorun40Wfanonfor1hourwilltake
40*1=40Whfromthebattery(BatterycapacityismeasuredinAmphours)
10Ah,12vbatterythewatthoursisgivenby
P=V*I
V=12vandI=40Ah
P=40*12=480Wh
So,the40Wcentrifugalfanrunsfor
480/40=12h
Thismeansthebatterycouldsupply40Wfanfor12hours

Tocalculatetheenergyitcansupplytothebattery,multiplywattsbythehoursexposedto

45

sunlight,thenmultiplytheresultby0.85(Thisfactorallowsfornaturalsystemlosses)
Forthesolar10Wpanelin6hourssunshine,10*6*0.85=57Wh
For1hour,10*1*0.85=8.5Wh
Sothesolarpanelof10Wandbatteryof40Ahareselected(Officepurpose)

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CHAPTER8

CHAPTER8

ADVANTAGESANDLIMITATION

ADVANTAGES
The demand for cooler is likely to increase becauseworldwidetemperatureincreases.While
usingsoaringdemandinenergy,countoncostsinordertocontinuallyadvance.
Any a lot more feasible, longterm solution lies in harnessing solar energy to cool our own
atmosphere through any solar air cooler solar panel array. Whenever you think about the
idea, the days when you need aircooling most are generally those days when the solar
reachesitsbest.

47

The solar air cooler can work precisely. Solar air cooler makes use of the solar panel that
soaks up and traps heat from the sun within the form of thermal power simply by warming
normalwater.
This power can be delivered tothesolaraircooleralongwithheatsupthesolutioncausingit
tosteam.Sinceitcoolsitcreatesacoolingeffectthat'stakenintoanadditionalwaterloop
Solar air conditioning provides a great package involving benefits. Installation expensescan
bereducedthroughtaxcredits,deductionsandalsorefunds..
In humid regions, desiccant dehumidification can reduce electricity demandconsiderablyby
providing a drier, more comfortable, and clean indoor environment with alowerenergybill.
Desiccant systems allow more fresh air into buildings, thus improving indoor air quality
withoutusingmoreenergy.
Desiccant systems also displace chlorofluorocarbonbased cooling equipment, the emissions
fromwhichcontributetothedepletionoftheEarth'sozonelayer.
Desiccant dehumidification technology provides a method of drying air before it enters a
conditioned space. When combined with conventional vapour compression systems,
desiccant dehumidification systems areacosteffectivemeansofsupplyingcool,dry,filtered
air.

LIMITATIONS

Incloudyconditionssolarcollectorcannotworkproperlyassunraysarenotuniform.

Slowworkingprocessaslessmovingparts.

Processtotallydependentonsupplyofsunsradiation.

Lessefficientduetointermittentsupplyofsunsradiation.
48

CONCLUSION

Comparing the cost of this product with the existing products in the market is solar product
appealsbetterandaffordablebycommonpeople.

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This solar product perfectly suits for villages,schoolsandofficesandthusanalternatetothe


power cut problems. It comprises of many attractive features such as usage of solar energy, cooler
andcoolingcabinatlowercost.Itisecofriendlyandnatural,electricitysavers.
Durability of the product is more thus minimizing the cost. No electricity is used so this
productsavestheenergyandsavesenvironmentfromgettingpolluted.

FUTURESSCOPE

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Where Power Energy not available in that areas Solar Energy is adopted to meet the needs.
Solar Energy is alternative to conventional Energy due to moreadvantageslikeecofriendly,reduce
thegreenhouseeffectsnopollutantandlowcost.
It is cost effective as the whole cost of theprojectbecomesverylessandcheapascompared
toothertraditionalelectricairconditioneranditislessbulkytoo.
However, more further scope to air cooler by using solar energy in remoted areas we
recommendtosocietytousesolarenergy

51

REFERENCES

1. Farhan a. khmamas, 2012, Improving the environmental cooling for aircoolers by


using the indirectcooling method ARPN journal of engineering and applied
sciences,vol.5,No.2,pageNo.6673.
2. A S Alosaimy, 2013 Application of Evaporative Air Coolers Coupled With Solar
Water Heater for Dehumidification of Indoor Air International Journal of
Mechanical&MechatronicsEngineering,Vol:13No:01pageno.6068.
3. Basic Photovoltaic Principles and Methods SERI/SP 2901448 Solar Information
Module6213PublishedFebruary1982page.No.915.
4. AroraandDomkundwar,AtextbookThecourseonpowerplantengineering.
5. B.SrinivasReddy,KHemachandraReddy,Thermalengineeringdatahandbook.

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